Marsh, Herbert W.; Smith, Ian D.
The multidimensionality of self-concept and the use of factor analysis in the development of self-concept instruments are supported in multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Sears and Coopersmith instruments. Convergent validity and discriminate validity of subscales in factor analysis and multitrait-multimethod analysis of longitudinal data are…
Angel, Elizabeth; Craven, Rhonda; Denson, Nida
Professional self-concept is a critical driver of job satisfaction. In Australia, as international nursing enrolments rise, nursing is increasingly characterised by a professional body of international nurses who may differ from domestic Australian nurses in their nursing self-concept. At present, little is known about the extent to which domestic and international students nurses' self-concepts may differ. The present study aimed to elucidate and contrast domestic and international nursing students' self-concepts from one large Australian university. A total of 253 domestic (n=218) and international (n=35) undergraduate nursing students from a large public university in Sydney, Australia completed the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument (NSCI). Multiple-Indicator-Multiple-Indicator-Cause (MIMIC) modelling was used to assess the effects of student group (domestic and international) on the latent self-concept factors of the NSCI. Domestic and international students' professional self-concepts were similarly high. MIMIC modelling demonstrated that domestic students had a higher patient care self-concept in comparison to international students. Results imply that it may be useful for Australian universities to foster strategies that enhance specific domains of self-concepts (e.g., care) which may be underdeveloped for at least some cultural groups within the international nursing student population compared with domestic nursing students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Afgani, M. W.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.
This study aimed to develop self-concept instrument for undergraduate students of mathematics education in Palembang, Indonesia. Type of this study was development research of non-test instrument in questionnaire form. A Validity test of the instrument was performed with construct validity test by using Pearson product moment and factor analysis, while reliability test used Cronbach’s alpha. The instrument was tested by 65 undergraduate students of mathematics education in one of the universities at Palembang, Indonesia. The instrument consisted of 43 items with 7 aspects of self-concept, that were the individual concern, social identity, individual personality, view of the future, the influence of others who become role models, the influence of the environment inside or outside the classroom, and view of the mathematics. The result of validity test showed there was one invalid item because the value of Pearson’s r was 0.107 less than the critical value (0.244; α = 0.05). The item was included in social identity aspect. After the invalid item was removed, Construct validity test with factor analysis generated only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient was 0.846 and reliability coefficient was 0.91. From that result, we concluded that the self-concept instrument for undergraduate students of mathematics education in Palembang, Indonesia was valid and reliable with 42 items.
Angel, Elizabeth; Craven, Rhonda; Denson, Nida
Professional self-concept is a critical driver of job satisfaction. In Australia, as international nursing enrolments rise, nursing is increasingly characterised by a professional body of international nurses who may differ from domestic Australian nurses in their nursing self-concept. At present, no psychometrically sound instrument for assessing nursing self-concept for Australian domestic and international nursing students is available. The purpose of this study was to: (1) develop an instrument (the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument (NSCI)) to measure the professional self-concept of domestic and international nursing students in Australia, and (2) test the psychometric properties of this newly developed instrument. A literature review was conducted to generate the initial dimension and item pools to measure nurses' professional self-concept (NSCI). Two stakeholders examined the content and face validity of dimensions and items. Analysis was performed on data collected from 253 undergraduate nursing students in a large public university in Sydney, Australia, and consisted of domestic (n=218) and international (n=35) nursing students. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's Alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the construct validity of the NSCI. The resulting NSCI consisted of 14 items across four self-concept domains: care, leadership, staff relations, and knowledge. The CFA supported the hypothesised factor structure of the self-concept model. All reliabilities were acceptable for both domestic and international students (ranging from r=.78 to .93). The NSCI was shown to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing Australian domestic and international student nurses' professional self-concept. This instrument may also enable those responsible for recruitment of students into nursing courses to assess students' professional self-concept and implement appropriate strategies to foster the growth of lifelong career development
Wylie, Ruth C.
This volume of the revised edition describes and evaluates measurement methods, research designs, and procedures which have been or might appropriately be used in self-concept research. Working from the perspective that self-concept or phenomenal personality theories can be scientifically investigated, methodological flaws and questionable…
Arens, A. Katrin; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
This study is a substantive-methodological synergy in which exploratory structural equation modeling is applied to investigate the factor structure of multidimensional self-concept instruments. On the basis of a sample of German students (N = 1958) who completed the Self-Description Questionnaire I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the…
Gussy, M; Kilpatrick, N
To pilot the use of a multidimensional/hierarchical measurement instrument called the self-description questionnaire II to determine whether specific areas of self-concept in a group of adolescents with cleft lip and palate would be affected by their condition when compared with a normative sample. The self-concept of 23 adolescents with a cleft of the lip and palate was compared to an Australian normative sample. Adolescents attending the dental department of a paediatric hospital in Australia. The main outcome measure was a self-report questionnaire (102 items) with 10 domain-specific scales and a global measure of general self-concept. When compared to the normative data the study group showed significant differences in 4 of the 11 domain-specific scales: Parent Relations (P self-concepts. These differences were in a positive direction. Global self-concept as measured by the General Self scale was not significantly different from the normative sample. These results suggest that adolescents with clefts of the lip and palate have normative if not better self-concept than their peers. The study also suggests that having a cleft of the lip and palate has specific rather than broad associations with psychosocial adjustment. This justifies the use of instruments designed to assess specific areas of self-concept rather than more global measures.
Chang, Yi-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling
Nurturing a professional nursing self-concept is crucial in nursing education. To determine whether it has been achieved, a reliable and valid measurement tool is necessary. This study therefore aimed to translate the Nurses Self-Concept Instrument (NSCI), and then ascertain the content and construct validity, and test-retest and internal consistency reliability in the Chinese version of the NSCI (NSCI-C). A methodological design was conducted with 1239 nursing students of a university recruited as the sample frame and 540 randomly selected. The results showed the content validity index of 0.81 overall, alpha of 0.92 overall, and correlation coefficient of 0.87. The mean score of the NSCI-C was significantly higher in freshman than in senior (p<.01). The hypothesized four-factor model did not fit the data well. After restructuring, two factors were explored, with 69.04% explained variance. The findings suggest that the NSCI-C is reliable and valid in nursing students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Esplen, M J; Stuckless, N; Gallinger, S; Aronson, M; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Stokes, J; Way, C; Green, J; Butler, K; Petersen, H V; Wong, J
A positive genetic test result may impact on a person's self-concept and affect quality of life. The purpose of the study was to develop a self-concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome (LS). Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self-concept candidate scale items from interviews with eight LS carriers and five genetic counselors, which were added to a previously developed self-concept scale for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, Phase II had 115 LS carriers complete the candidate scale and a battery of validating measures. A 20-item scale was developed with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = 0.55, p Rosenberg self-esteem scale (r(108) = -0.59, p scale's performance was stable across participant characteristics. This new scale for measuring self-concept has potential to be used as a clinical tool and as a measure for future studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Beasley, Emily Kristin; Garn, Alex C.
This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh's theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the…
Z. Ishak; S. Jamaluddin; F.P Chew
This paper examines the students’ self-concept among 16- and 17- year- old adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that positive self-concept played an important role in student adjustment and academic performance during schooling. This study attempts to investigate the factors influencing students’ perceptions toward their own self-concept. A total of 1168 students participated in the survey. This study utilized the CoPs (UM) instrument to measure self-concept...
Esplen, Mary Jane; Stuckless, Noreen; Wong, Jiahui; Gallinger, Steve; Aronson, Melyssa; Rothenmund, Heidi; Semotiuk, Kara; Stokes, Jackie; Way, Chris; Green, Jane; Butler, Kate; Petersen, Helle Vendel
Background A positive genetic test result may impact on a person’s self-concept and affect quality of life. Purpose The purpose of the study was to develop a self concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer- Lynch Syndrome (LS). Methods Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self-concept candidate scale items from interviews with eight LS carriers and five genetic counselors which were added to a previously developed self-concept scale for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Phase II had 115 LS carriers complete the candidate scale and a battery of validating measures. Results A 20 item scale was developed with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach’s α = .93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = .55, pRosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r(108) = −.59, pscale’s performance was stable across participant characteristics. Conclusions This new scale for measuring self-concept has potential to be used as a clinical tool and as a measure for future studies. PMID:21883167
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…
DIFERENCIAS EN EL AUTOCONCEPTO POR SEXO EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: CONSTRUCCIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN INSTRUMENTO / DIFFERENCES IN SELF-CONCEPT BY GENDER IN THE ADOLESCENCE: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT
Priscila Guido García*, Alejandro Mújica Sarmiento** y Rodolfo Gutiérrez Martínez***
Full Text Available RESUMENLa presente investigación tuvo como objetivos construir una escala para medir y evaluar el autoconcepto de los(asadolescentes, así como determinar diferencias en la estructura de este constructo en relación al sexo de los(as participantes.La muestra estuvo conformada por 450 estudiantes de tres escuelas de nivel medio superior de la Ciudad de México (MEDAD=16.65 años. Se elaboraron reactivos tipo Likert para cuatro dimensiones del autoconcepto (social, físico, deportivo yacadémico. Los resultados evidenciaron que la Escala Tetradimensional de Autoconcepto para Adolescentes (ETAA es uninstrumento de medición con propiedades psicométricas aceptables. Se presentaron diferencias respecto al sexo de los(asparticipantes únicamente en la dimensión deportiva, así como en la ponderación de los factores en la estructura delautoconcepto. Derivado de los resultados, se propone el diseño de programas de intervención creados para la mejora yreforzamiento del autoconcepto, atendiendo las necesidades particulares de los(as adolescentes.ABSTRACTThe objective of this study were construct a scale to measure and evaluate the self-concept of adolescents and todetermine differences in the structure of this construct in relation to sex of participants. The sample consisted in 450students from three high schools in Mexico City (Mean= 16.65 years. Likert items were developed for four dimensions ofself-concept (social, physical, athletic and academic. The results showed Four-dimensional Self-concept Scale forAdolescents (ETAA, by its Spanish acronym is a measuring instrument with acceptable psychometric properties. Therewere differences regarding gender the participants only in sports dimension and the weighting of the factors in the structureof the self-concept. Derived from the results we propose the design of intervention programs created for the improvementand strengthening of self-concept, addressing the special needs of adolescents.
Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Jansen, Malte; Schiefer, Irene M.; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Möller, Jens
Dimensional comparison theory (DCT; Möller & Marsh, 2013) assumes that students compare their academic achievement intraindividually across domains to form domain-specific self-concepts. Upward dimensional comparisons are believed to lead to lower self-concepts in the worse-off domain, while downward dimensional comparisons should lead to…
Redek, Tjaša; Sušjan, Andrej; Kostevc, Črt
The article analyses the position of the unemployed in the labour market, primarily relationship between self-concept and self-esteem of workers and their motivation to seek work. The current crisis dramatically worsened labour market situation, making employment almost impossible for many, primarily the vulnerable groups (older, women). Survey data used in cluster analysis reveal that the unemployment is related to self-concept, but besides unemployment also other ...
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.
Scheirer, Mary Ann; Kraut, Robert E.
Literature linking self-concept and achievement, and evaluation research on educational programs to improve self-concept are analyzed in terms of several self-concept theories. Evidence for a causal connection between self-concept and achievement is negative. Researchers have failed to explore other theoretical approaches to educational change.…
Massey, Catherine J.
Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
Marsh, Herbert W.
Marsh and Parker (1984) described the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) whereby equally able students have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability schools than in low-ability schools. The present investigation, a reanalysis of the Youth in Transition data, supported the generality of the earlier findings and demonstrated new theoretical…
Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran
This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…
Ehm, Jan-Henning; Lindberg, Sven; Hasselhorn, Marcus
The internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model (Marsh, "Am Educ Res J" 23:129-149, 1986) conceptualizes students' self-concepts as being formed by dimensional as well as social comparison processes. In the present study, the I/E model was tested and extended in a sample of elementary school children. Core academic skills of…
The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additiona...
Martin, John D.; Coley, Leslie A.
Scores derived from the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (SEI), Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS), Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT), and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control (LOC) Scale were analyzed. Significant correlations were obtained between scores on these instruments. Race and SIT scores and age and LOC scores were also…
The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between teachers' self concepts and their classroom interaction patterns. The sample comprised 70 Junior Secondary School Teachers in the three Educational Zones in Cross River State. The two instruments used for the study were (i) The Adjective Self Description ...
Sharpes, D K; Wang, X
Studies of self-concept have suffered from a lack of both a solid theoretical base and a clear definition of the term. It is not clear whether self-concept is a construct from the cognitive sciences, an active part of personality or of the ego and unconscious, or a physiological process as indicated from neurological research. Nor is it clear whether the psychological construct of self is related to other concepts, such as personal identity, self-esteem, and the ego, as sometimes these refer to the whole person or a structure or element within a person. What is evident is that the majority of researchers continue to assume that self-concept, however defined in theory, is primarily governed by environmental determinants despite abundant evidence from the neurosciences of the strong influence of its genetic heritability. This study assumed a genetic hypothesis, that self-concept is developmental and that adolescent perception of personal, relational, and academic self-identity occurs uniformly across cultures and environmental circumstances. Data were collected using a validated survey instrument, translated into Chinese, from majority and minority adolescents in the People's Republic of China. High similarity was found between the majority and minority adolescents, suggesting developmental propensities in the formation of self-concept.
Widya Kartika Sari
Full Text Available Teenager consider themselves based on the perception others and one of the element which affecting the maturation in self concept is how the assessment and social environment revenue toward it self .This study purpose to describe the self concept of teens and the implications in guidance and counseling .The research type descriptive quantitative methods. The Research was done to teenagers of simple orphanage in bengkulu with a population about 103 teenagers .The total of the research about 82 survey youth to the sample used purposive sampling techniqul instrument was used the closed of scale likert model with validity 0.873 , reliability ( 0,931 self concept .The findings of this research shows that: ( 1 self concept as of teens tend to be low category. (2 implications finding for service counseling guidance the basic of arranging the guidance counseling program service which can formed and improved the self concept of teens positively.
Sandra Vuk Pisk; Mate Mihanovic; Ante Silic; Anamarija Bogovic; Vesna Vidovic
Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30) 18-year-old girls in their la...
Full Text Available The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additionally, it has an essential role in individual advance.
Reviews the history of self-concept research. Suggests that self-concept research was long neglected due to major hostile scientific paradigms: psychology's behaviorist paradigm, sociology's social factist and social behaviorist paradigms, and the Freudian paradigm in psychoanalysis. Contains 46 references. (SV)
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus
In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Johnston, Leanne M
Self-concept is an individual's perception of him/herself. Research into the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been sparse due to the lack of a population-specific self-concept instrument. Using the new myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment, this study investigated the self-concept of children with CP in relation to age, gender, motor, communication and cognitive function. Children with CP aged 8-12 years (n = 50; 29 males; mean 10 years 2 months; GMFCS-E&R I = 36, II = 8, III = 5, IV = 1) completed myTREEHOUSE and a standardised intelligence measure. Most children reported positive self-concept from all three myTREEHOUSE Performance Perspectives and over half (60%) fell within the Low range for the Personal Concern Score. Self-concept was not associated with age, gender, motor function, or communication function. However, for cognitive function, associations were observed for Social Skills (Below Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 1.07) and Learning Skills (Above Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 0.95) domains when rated from a Personal Performance Perspective. As the first study of the self-concept of children with CP using a CP-specific assessment, this study offers important insights into what children with CP think about themselves. Generally, the self-concept of children with CP was sound. Future research on environmental facilitators and barriers to robust self-concept development is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factorial structure of the newly-created Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Social - AUSO (from here on the Social Self-concept Questionnaire, or AUSO, which consists of two scales measuring social responsibility and social competence. The theoretical proposal which posits that social self-concept is the result of the combination of two basic self-perceptions: competence in social relations and response to the demands of social functioning, is based on a review of human social development theories and previous attempts to measure social self-concept. Participants were 818 students aged between 17 and 52. The results obtained though confirmatory factor analyses support the hypothesis of a structure made up of two correlated factors. In addition to providing a new measurement instrument with appropriate psychometric characteristics and valid criteria that justify its use in both applied practice and research, this study also enhances our understanding of the internal nature of the social domain of self-concept.
Sandra Vuk Pisk
Full Text Available Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30 18-year-old girls in their last year of high school. A further 40 girls of the same age with a BMI of 18 - 25 formed a control group. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents (OSIQ was used to evaluate their self-concept. Descriptive statistical methods used in analysing the data included calculation of the median and standard deviation of variables, and t-tests were used to compare group differences, with p
The main purpose of the present dissertation was to dismember and reconstruct some aspects of the complex relationship between literacy development and self-concept. Two main principles were included in the general design of the longitudinal investigation. The first principle involved an increasing level of specificity in three steps where the starting point was an overall picture of 700 pupils' reading acquisition and self-concept. The second step was a more detailed analysis with the focus ...
As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.) [de
M. Basiri Moghadam; SH. Khosravan; L. Sadeghmoghadam; N. Ebrahimi Senoo
Aims: One of the most important factors of individual health in the adolescents is the self-concept. As a nursing model, the Roy adaptation model mainly investigates the factor. The aim of the study was to investigate the self-concept and its related factors in the adolescent girls in Gonabad Township, based on the Roy adaptation model. Instrument & Methods: In the descriptive cross-sectional study, 270 adolescent girls were studied in Gonabad Township, Iran, in 2015. The subjects were s...
Jones, F R; Swain, M T
Contrary to the theory of the homeostatic model of self-concept, i.e., the expectancy that engaging in anti-social or pro-social behavior results typically in shifts in the self-concept (Graf, 1968; Deitz, 1970 shifts did not occur. Subjects, 12- 14-year-old boys enrolled in junior high school, delinquent prone (DP) and non-delinquent prone bright (NDPB), reacted to manipulation by engaging in reparative behavior as indicated via an aggression module in a fashion generally expected but the expected shift from chronic self-images did not occur. Both DP and NDPB viewed themselves similarly on self concept. The authors postulated that if shifts would occur for the delinquent prone it would be after they left school with its accompanying identification with a sub-culture outside the school setting.
Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy
This study investigated the self-concept of students with vision impairment who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Self-Concept was explored across six dimensions, namely Physical, Moral, Personal, Family, Social and Academic Self-Concepts and the Total Self-Concept. The "Tennessee Self-Concept…
David Molero López-Barajas
Full Text Available The aims of this article are to evaluate the physical self-concept in adolescence and to get to know the outcomes in the perceptions of the different dimensions in the physical self-concept. Furthermore, we aim to check the existence of noticeable differences in the outcomes regarding gender variables and regarding the level of physical activity of those polled. The sample consists of 81 individuals divided in two groups: secondary school teenager students and swimmers in adolescence. We use the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire (PSQ as a tool for getting information; there are six scales: physical skills, physical conditions, physical charming, strength, and general physical self-concept. We use the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire (PSQ as an instrument of collection of information which consists of 6 different scales: physical skills, physical condition, physical attractiveness, strength and general self-concept. We will show the results in two different analysis of the variant. In the first one we have found remarkable differences as far as the statistic point of view is concerned in gender perceptions in the scales of physical skills, physical condition, strength and general physical self-concept in favour of men (p<0,05. In the second analysis we have checked the existence of noticeable differences between the two groups of young people within the scales of physical skills and strength in favour of those who practice physical activity regularly (p<0,05.
Cao, Xiao Yi; Liu, Xiao Hong; Tian, Lang; Guo, Yan Qin
To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire. Nurses' self-concept is important to alleviate the current shortage of nurses. Nurses' self-concept questionnaire is an effective instrument to measure nurses' self-perception of professional competencies. However, the psychometric properties of the Chinese version have not been tested. A two-stage research design was used in this study. At Stage 1347 registered nurses were recruited to establish the psychometric properties of the Chinese version. At Stage 2, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the extracted factor structure from Stage 1 with 1017 respondents as a sample. The internal consistency of the Chinese version was 0.95 and the test-retest reliability was 0.83. The exploratory factor analysis extracted six dimensions. The findings at Stage 2 showed an acceptable model fit and discriminant validity. The Chinese version was a significant predictor of Maslach Burnout Inventory (β = -0.58; P = 0.00). This study verified the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire. The Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire will facilitate the evaluation of professional self-concept among nurses and help to develop the individualized self-concept strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gigy, Lynn L.
Explores the self-concepts of single and married women. Single women had more psychiatric symptoms, valued personal growth and achievement, and were higher on assertion and poise. Married women were more likely to identify with kinship roles and household activities. (Author)
Jan 31, 2014 ... liberation for homosexuality at its new height in. India, researchers are now trying to view homosexuals on empirically generated results rather than old stereotyped perceptions. In addition, Self concept and Personality are part of a homosexual's identity in the same way as it is for heterosexuals. Yet, the ...
Ryan, Victor L.; And Others
Changes in self-concept as a function of behavioral treatment for test anxiety are investigated. Test-anxious subjects (N=72) were randomly assigned to systematic desensitization, relaxation-training only, or no-treatment control conditions. Results indicate that the desensitization and relaxation treatments were both effective in reducing test…
Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S J
Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. To simultaneously examine the influences of domain-specific cognitive ability and grades on domain self-concept in an extended I/E model, including the indirect effect of domain-specific cognitive ability on domain self-concept via grades. Tenth grade respondents (628 male, 452 female) to a national adolescent survey conducted in Taiwan. Respondents completed surveys designed to measure maths and verbal aptitudes. Data on Maths and Chinese class grades and self-concepts were also collected. Statistically significant and positive path coefficients were found between cognitive ability and self-concept in the same domain (direct effect) and between these two constructs via grades (indirect effect). The cross-domain effects of either ability or grades on ASC were negatively significant. Taiwanese 10th graders tend to evaluate their ASCs based on a mix of ability and achievement, with achievement as a mediator exceeding ability as a predictor. In addition, the cross-domain effects suggest that Taiwanese students are likely to view Maths and verbal abilities and achievements as distinctly different. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Juan Palomares Cuadros
Full Text Available This study examined globally adolescents’ physical self-concept as a function of its components: physical appearance, physical ability, strength, balance, flexibility, and endurance, and as a function of their sex, in a population aged 12-15 from Jaén, Spain. The sample consisted of 296 participants with an average age of 13.03 years. As a measuring tool, an adaptation of the Marsh and Sutherland Physical Self-concept Scale was used. The results revealed that boys rated above girls in most of the items that showed positive self-concept aspects. Conversely, girls scored higher than boys in the majority of negative self-concept items. Our evidence showed significant gender differences related to teenagers’ physical self-concepts; where girls obtained more negative assessments regarding physical self-concepts than boys did, and the latter group was more interested in engaging in physical exercise than the former group. English translation by Jeannette Soto Segura
D.Litt. et Phil. This study explored the impact of psoriasis on the self-concept (a multifaceted, hierarchical construct of self with both cognitive and emotional components) (Hattie & Marsh, 1996), of men and women who live with this cutaneous disease. Psoriasis is a common (frequently occurring), chronic inflammatory dermatological disease that can severely affect the sufferer's quality of life. While the underlying cause is unknown, the immediate cause of psoriasis is the rate of growth...
Marsh, Herbert W.
Given that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect, the negative effect of school-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of the most robust findings in educational psychology (Marsh, Seaton et al., 2007), this research extends the theoretical model, based on social comparison theory, to study relative year in school effects (e.g., being 1…
Full Text Available This research is aimed describ the learning motivation and self-concept of students who truant. This study used a descriptive quantitative method. The research conducted by the students of SMAN 5 Padangsidimpuan in the period of 2015/2016 with the total of the population was 420 students. Amount of research sample was 36 students and had been chosen by using purposive sampling technique. An instrument employed in this study was a Likert-scaled questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using percentage technique and the relationship between the two variables was analyzed by using nonparametric statistic, that is Spearman’s Coefficient of Rank Correlation. Results of this research are just like the following: 1 participants’ level of achievement on self-concept of students who truant is about 69,8%, 2 participants’ level of achievement on learning motivation of students who truant is about 69,2%, and 3 correlation coefficient of self-concept and learning motivation of students who truant is about 0,581. Therefore, it can be concluded that students who truancy have very low self-concept and learning motivation, and there is a significant relationship between self-concept and learning motivation. The implication in guidance counseling services is to create a service program which can increase self-concept and be learning motivation of students who truant
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M
This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Zapf, Dieter
In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with
This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…
Preckel, Franzis; Rach, Hannah; Scherrer, Vsevolod
The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual self-concept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relations with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report…
Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.
Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine
The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.
Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine
The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337
This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…
The Work Motivation Inventory, Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, and Adjective Self Description Instrument were administered to 128 University of Houston student teachers. Results indicated that educational attitudes and self-concept, operating jointly, significantly contributed to the variance in Maslow's scales of basic, safety, and…
Morgan, Peter Wallace
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.
Christi Noriko Sonoo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze social phobia in teenagers aged 14 to 20 years and its possiblerelationship with regular practice of physical activity and their self-concept. This study enrolled 191 students from privateand public schools and the measurement instruments used were a test of social phobia, a test of self-concept and a physicalactivity questionnaire. The results indicate that students from private schools are shyer than students from public schools. Inrelation to self-concept, there were significant differences in security factor for boys and moral factor for girls. This indicatesthat boys are more stable, brave and secure, while girls are more influenced by moral and ethical rules. These resultsdemonstrate that no relationship was detected between social phobia and physical activity, but it was possible to observea relationship between social phobia and some of the self-concept factors, and a relationship between physical activityand some of the self-concept factors. It is therefore concluded that the negative influence of high levels of social phobia onthe receptivity and security factors of men and women suggests a need for further studies in the area, which could help inthe prevention and treatment of social phobia, which could worsen over the years and compromise these young people’sability to socialize.
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee
The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the National Youth Policy Institute to measure peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the difference of relations for peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment variable between adolescents with chronic illness and those without chronic illness. The model fit of a multiple-group structural equation modeling was good. The difference of the path from negative parenting style to self-concept between the two groups was significant, and a significant between-group difference in the overall path was found. This indicated that self-concept in adolescents with chronic illness was more negatively affected by negative parenting style than in adolescents without chronic illness. Healthcare providers can promote the process of school adjustment in several ways, such as discussing this issue directly with adolescent patients, along with their parents and peers, examining how the organization and content of the treatment can be modified according to the adolescents' school life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.
Lucy Pujasari Supratman
Full Text Available Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The results showed thatadolescents have difficult experiencesto be in divorcefamily. The adolescent experience of being displaced communicated verbally and nonverbally. The verbal communication is the language of motivation adolescents enlightened and openness. While the non verbal, they follow parents advices, full of comfort, and positive appearance. Theybecome adolescents whohavevirtueinreligiousity, independence, futuristic and maturity self-concept.
Bechtoldt, Myriam N; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Zapf, Dieter
In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with contending or yielding. The positive relationship with cooperative behavior was mediated by less rumination (Study 2) and moderated by conflict intensity (Study 3). Specifically, it applied to relatively mild conflicts (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 extended these findings to the group level: Dyad members with higher self-concept clarity engaged in problem solving, whereas dyad members with lower self-concept clarity did not. We conclude that higher self-concept clarity associates with proactive problem solving in social conflict.
Sumartini, Tina Sri
Dalam pembelajaran matematika, siswa masih kurang memiliki self concept yang positif. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengembangkan self concept siswa adalah model concept attainment. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkembangan self concept siswa setelah mendapatkan model pembelajaran concept attainment. Penelitian ini berbentuk one shot case study. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa di salah satu SMK di Kabupaten Garut. Pengambilan sampel d...
Pogosyan, Marianna; Marianna, Pogosyan
Self-concept has a significant impact on the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional systems of individuals. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the influence of self-concept on advertising effectiveness and consumer behavior. The present paper examines the role of ideal self-concept in advertising in the global beauty industry. Research suggests that in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements, the task of the advertisers is to bridge the rewarding and universal appe...
Gannotti, Mary E; Minter, Christin L; Chambers, Henry G; Smith, Peter A; Tylkowski, Chester
To describe the self-concept of adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional design included the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, version 2 (TSCS:2), Functional Independence Measure (FIM™), Beck Depression Index II (BDI®-II), Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF), Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) levels and demographic questions. One hundred and two people with CP (52 females, mean age=26) participated. Thirty-eight participants had unreliable answers as indicated by validity scales and were excluded from the analysis. Ten participants had high self-concept; 41 had average self-concept and 13 had low total self-concept. Self-concept had a fair and inverse association with the BDI-II (Pearson's r= -0.3, pSelf-concept was not associated with GMFCS level or FIM score. Family and Personal sub-domain scores were lowest sub-domain scores for people with low self-concept (pself-concept; and self-concept was not associated with severity of CP, but with lack of depression and life satisfaction. Results suggest the need for family centred care into adulthood. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Wu, Wei-Wen; Chang, Joanne T; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Anger is considered a common method used by patients to relieve emotional frustrations. However, this emotional response is not a common research focus for adolescents with cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-concept mediated the relationship between anger and resilience for adolescent patients currently being treated for cancer. A cross-sectional study of 40 adolescents with cancer was conducted. The instruments included the Chinese Beck Self-Concept Inventory, the Chinese Beck Anger Inventory, and the Chinese Resilience Scale. Mediation analysis was also conducted. The results indicate that (1) variations in anger significantly account for 6.86% of observed variations in self-concept, (2) variations in self-concept significantly account for 52.83% of observed variations in resilience, (3) variations in anger significantly account for 10.96% of observed variations in resilience, and (4) when paths in conditions 1 and 2 were controlled, variations in anger through self-concept significantly account for 54.04% of observed variations in resilience, and variations in anger did not significantly account for observed variations in resilience. Gender and age might affect anger control. Despite worse physical functioning and an impacted appearance, participants had normative-to-positive self-concept levels, suggesting that their self-concept might not be affected by cancer. Self-concept might play a mediating role between anger and resilience, thus helping to bridge this knowledge gap. The current gap in knowledge regarding the mediating relationship necessitates the implementation of a large-scale study designed to verify the mediating role of self-concept between anger and resilience.
Clemente Franco Justo
Full Text Available In this work we attempt to prove through experimentation that a relationship exists between affective factors and creative ability. We therefore believe that the expression of the creative capacity will have a positive bearing on the manifestation of self-concept. To this end, we designed a psychoeducational program based on children’s stories, aimed at increasing creative ability in a sample of early childhood education students, while simultaneously obtaining improved expression of their self-concept. To do this, we used a quasi-experimental design of nonequivalent control groups with double pretest. As evaluation instruments we used the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, and Villa and Azumendi’s PCSC test (Perception of Child Self Concept. The results of the study showed significant increases in the experimental group, both in their levels of verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility and originality, and in their self-concept, as compared with the control groups.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Adolescence is a critical developmental period for self-concept (role identity). Cross-sectional studies link self-concept's behavioral conduct domain (whether teens perceive themselves as delinquent) with adolescent substance use. If self-concept actually drives substance use, then it may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we used longitudinal data from 1 school year to examine whether behavioral self-concept predicts teen drinking behaviors or vice versa. A total of 291 students from a large, predominantly Latino public high school completed a confidential computerized survey in the fall and spring of their 9th grade year. Survey measures included the frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking and at-school alcohol use in the previous 30 days; and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents behavioral conduct subscale. Multiple regressions were performed to test whether fall self-concept predicted the frequency and type of spring drinking behavior, and whether the frequency and type of fall drinking predicted spring self-concept. Fall behavioral self-concept predicted both the frequency and type of spring drinking. Students with low versus high fall self-concept had a predicted probability of 31% versus 20% for any drinking, 20% versus 8% for binge drinking and 14% versus 4% for at-school drinking in the spring. However, neither the frequency nor the type of fall drinking significantly predicted spring self-concept. Low behavioral self-concept may precede or perhaps even drive adolescent drinking. If these results are confirmed, then prevention efforts might be enhanced by targeting high-risk teens for interventions that help develop a healthy behavioral self-concept. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. Laverne Dickerson
Four dimensions of self-concept were measured at the beginning and the end of the Youth Conservation Corps's 1971 pilot program. The overall evaluation of the program had found no changes in self-concept, but factor analysis identified some significant differences. The campers' perceptions of their adequacy decreased, while their perceptions of their personal...
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.
Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of research…
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; Van der Werf, Greetje
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a
Shapiro, Deborah R.; Martin, Jeffrey J.
The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N =…
This study examined the relationship between self-concept and academic performance of Nigerian students. The study made use of 1000 participants (500 males and 500 females) whose ages ranged from 15-18 with a mean of 16.7 and a standard deviation of 1.12. The study used an indigenous self concept scale ...
Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.
Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…
Helm, Estelle Bailey
Good self-esteem and self-concept have a bearing on a child's performance in school. The article describes ways to recognize poor self-image in a child and suggests strategies for building self-concept. Activities listed include positive marking of papers, bibliotherapy, improvisational drama, and values clarification. (DS)
Kantek, Filiz; Şimşek, Belkıs
To investigate the self-concept in nurse managers in Turkey and the effects of certain variables on professional self-concept. Professional self-concept plays a significant role in improving certain professional behaviours. Nursing managers have the potential to influence other members of the profession with their attitudes and behaviours. The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted with 159 nurse managers in nine different hospitals. The study data were collected with a Personal Information Form and Professional Self-concept Nursing Inventory, and the data analysis was accomplished with descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector analyses. The professional self-concept score of nurse managers was 3·33 (SD = 0·308). Professional competence subdimension had the highest scores, while professional satisfaction subdimension had the lowest. The types of hospital were found to be influential on professional self-concept. The types of hospital were reported to influence the professional self-concept of nurses. Nursing managers are visionaries who can potentially influence nursing practices and decisions. Nursing leaders must monitor and administer strategies to improve their professional self-concept. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…
Chen, Yi-Hsin; Thompson, Marilyn S.
One of the valued objectives of education is the enhancement of a positive self-concept, which itself is a mediating variable of other desired outcomes. To facilitate the assessment of this goal, reliable and valid scores on self-concept scales are required for the proper interpretation of related substantive issues. The main purpose of this study…
Tarquin, Kristen; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
This study investigated the relationships among previous experiences of student alienation and the various aspects of self concept. A total of 351 undergraduate students were administered the Student Alienation and Trauma Survey-Revised (SATS-R) and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS:2). Students were asked to report on their…
The idea that individual behavior is the result of society's influence on individual self-concept beliefs reflects more than a century of theory and research. Therefore, this study focuses on self-concept as a construct of primordial human characteristics such as emotion, aspiration, love, conflict, anger, jealousy, contradiction, guilt, and…
Manning, Maureen A.
In this article, the author discusses self-perceptions and the difference between self-esteem and self concept. Promoting high self-concept in students is important because it relates to academic and life success, but before investing significant time, money, and effort on packaged programs, it is important to understand why such endeavors have…
Langheinrich, Jessica; Schönfelder, Mona; Bogner, Franz X.
A positive self-concept supposedly affects a student's well-being as well as his or her perception of individual competence at school. As computer-based learning is becoming increasingly important in school, a positive computer-related self-concept (CSC) might help to enhance cognitive achievement. Consequently, we focused on establishing a short,…
Schwartz, S.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Hale, W.W.; Frijns, T.; Oosterwegel, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
We examined the daily dynamics among self-concept clarity and identity processes, and their effects on distress, among a sample of 580 Dutch adolescents. Participants completed measures of identity, self-concept clarity, anxiety and depression at annual intervals; and daily single-item measures of
Yusop, Yusni Mohamad; Sumari, Melati; Mohamed, Fatanah; Said, Shahriza; Azeez, Mohd Ibrahim K.; Jamil, Mohd Ridhuan Mohd
This research studies needs analyses conducted to examine the need for a self-concept module. Two types of analyses had been conducted; content analysis and experts' consensus. Content analysis was conducted to explore the issues of self-concept from the theory and literature perspective. Later, needs analysis had also been carried out to observe…
Creative self-concept has become a notable construct of interest in creativity literature in the last decade. The predictors, correlates, determinants, and consequences of self-rated creativity, creative self-efficacy, creative personal identity, and creative metacognition--as well as other self-concept constructs--have been studied intensively,…
Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls' self-concept. The aim of this research was to ...
Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Aan Subhan Pamungkas
Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengkaji hubungan antara self concept dan kecemasan matematika dengan hasil belajar mahasiswa tingkat awal. Penelitian ini didasari oleh sebagian besar mahasiswa awal program studi pendidikan matematika masih merasa cemas ketika berhadapan dengan persoalan matematika dalam mata kuliah kalkulus I, selain itu dilihat dari performa mahasiswa ketika menyelesaikan persoalan matematika timbulnya rasa tidak pecaya diri atas kemampuan yang dimilikinya. Sehingga ketika akan menyelesaikan persoalan mahasiswa selalu bergantung kepada temannya, dengan tujuan memperoleh keyakinan atas jawabannya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode korelasional, metode ini digunakan untuk melihat seberapa kuat dan seberapa besar pengaruh self concept dan kecemasan matematika dengan hasil belajar mahasiswa. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan matematika tahun akademik 2013/2014, sampel penelitian diambil dengan teknik purposive sampling sebanyak 88 mahasiswa yang mengontrak mata kuliah Kalkulus I. Instrument yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah skala self concept matematis dan skala kecemasan matematika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang positif antara self concept dan kecemasan terhadap matematika dengan hasil belajar mahasiswa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jpm.9.1.2191.01 - 10
J. N. Igbo
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.
Renzo F. Carranza
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between academic self-concept and academic motivation in young talents (Scholarship 18 at a Private University in Tarapoto city, Peru. The sample was obtained through a probabislitic sampling and there were 92 young talents, being 47,8% male and 52,2% female between 17 and 22 years old. I used a descriptive, correlational and non-experimental design. The sample was evaluated using the AF5 Self-concept Scale (García and Musitu academic section that consists of 6 items, and the Academic Motivation Scale that consists of 28 items. The psychometric properties of the instruments indicated that they are valid and reliable. Data were processed in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. The results show that there is a direct and highly significant relationship between academic self-concept and academic motivation in young talents (r = .301**, p<.004, which indicates the higher the academic self-concept, the greater the academic motivation.
Jeong-Ah Ahn, PhD, RN; Sunhee Lee, PhD, RN
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. Methods: A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the N...
Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.
General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by focusing on the affective domain, in this case students' self-concept, or self-evaluation of ability as it pertains to a specific field of study. First, a profile of students' self-concept in the general chemistry setting is created. Next, the relationship between self-concept and success in the course is investigated, including examining the role of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure (SAT scores). This study is unique in that evidence is found for the impact of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure. Finally, the effect of a semester-long, inquiry-oriented learning environment on students' self-concept is described. Suggested interventions to improve student self-concept are also discussed.
Silvestri, Paola R; Chiarotti, Flavia; Baglioni, Valentina; Neri, Valeria; Cardona, Francesco; Cavanna, Andrea E
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by multiple tics and often associated with behavioural problems. Although there is evidence of significantly reduced self-esteem in children and adolescents with GTS, little is known about perceived self-concept and its clinical determinants at the transition age between adolescence and adulthood. We therefore set out to investigate self-concept in a clinical sample of young patients with GTS at this crucial age for personal development. In addition to standard demographic and clinical data, we collected self-ratings using a standardised battery of psychometric instruments, as well as the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale, a comprehensive questionnaire developed to assess self-concept in subjects aged 9- to 19 years, tapping into the social, competence, affect, academic, family, and physical domains. We found that patients diagnosed with at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder ("GTS-plus" phenotype) reported significantly lower self-concept than patients with "pure GTS", whereas tic-related variables had no impact on self-concept. Anxiety symptoms were the main determinants of self-concept, especially trait anxiety with regard to social and affective domains. Affective symptoms could also have a negative impact on the physical, affective, competence, and social domains of self-concept. Routine screening for anxiety and affective symptoms should be recommended in all patients with GTS seen at transition clinics from paediatric to adult care, in order to implement effective treatment interventions whenever possible. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joy D. Jocson
Full Text Available This survey-correlational study aimed to investigate the self-concept, values orientation, and teaching performance among hospitality educators of the West Visayas State University System. The study was conducted in January 2013 and utilized 42 randomly selected hospitality educators as participants. The simple random sampling method was used in the selection of the participants. Three (3 standardized and published datagathering instruments were adapted to obtain the data for the study. To ascertain the degree of self-concept, Girdano and Everly’s (1979 Self-perception Test instrument was used. In determining the pre-dominant values orientation, Rokeach’s (1973 Value Survey Form used by Rabago (1988 was utilized. To ascertain the level of teaching performance, the WVSU F-PES was employed. Frequency counts, rank, percentage analyses, mean scores, and standard deviations were employed as descriptive statistics; while t-test for independent samples, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation (Pearson’s r were employed as inferential statistics. The criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the null hypotheses was set at .05 alpha level. The results of the study revealed that, generally, the hospitality educators had outstanding teaching performance and strong self-concept. Family security, salvation, and happiness were their most important terminal values while social recognition, a world of beauty and pleasure were their least important values. Loving, responsible, and honest were their most important instrumental values and imaginative, ambitious, and clean were their least important values. In terms of teaching performance, no significant differences existed when hospitality educators were classified according sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, status of employment and number of years in teaching. Significant differences existed in the degree of self-concept among hospitality educators grouped
self concept of their students for better academic achievement. Introduction. In organized ... According to Mason (2005), delinquency, is defined as the behaviour consequent to the failure ..... Journal of Sociology and Social. Welfare, 22(2), 93 - ...
The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept, academic ... the four specific parenting styles, the authoritative style has the medium correlation 'r' ... school level parent education programs should be incorporated and parents ...
Li, Eria Ping-Ying; Tam, Alan Sing-Fai; Man, David Wai-Kwong
This study explores the self-concepts of Hong Kong Chinese with intellectual disabilities. Face-to-face and individual interviews were conducted in Cantonese, using the Chinese version of the Adult Source of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI) together with three open-ended questions to explore the participants' self-conceptions in different life domains. An opportunity sample of 135 young adults with intellectual disabilities was interviewed. The findings showed that the family self, the social self and achievement in school and work were the self-concept attributes most important to the participants. The participants of this study had a higher total self-concept than that of a comparison group of people without disabilities when the participants used the in-group social comparison to maintain positive self-perception. The importance of partnership with family, self-concept enhancement strategies and quality employment service are discussed in order to facilitate people with intellectual disabilities to develop more positive self-concepts and thus achieve better community integration.
Shields, Robert F.
Abstract Purpose To determine the self-concepts of chiropractic students as science students and if any personal variable affect their self-concepts. Participants Students in their first trimester and eighth trimester at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic during the 1993 academic year (n=158). Methods Peterson-Yaakobi Q-Sort, National Assessment of Educational Progress, two-tailed T-test, one way analysis of variance and Spearman-rho correlation. Results The majority of students have positive self- concepts as science students and although there was a difference between the 2 trimesters, it was not significant. As a group they generally had less exposure to science compared to undergraduates from a selected science program. Variables of socio-economic status, undergraduate major, and highest completed level of education did not statistically affect their self-concept. Conclusion Chiropractic students had the self-concept that enables them to subscribe to the philosophical foundations of science and better engage in basic sciences and, later, science-based clinical research. Knowledge of this self- concept can be used in the development of a more rigorous basic science curricula and clinical research programs at chiropractic colleges with the ultimate goal of providing a more firm scientifically based foundation for the profession. PMID:19674649
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto
To analyze the relationship between self-concept, aerobic capacity and weight status in schoolchildren. Relational descriptive design in which was assessed the weight status and aerobic capacity of 256 schoolchildren among 8-11 years. Aerobic capacity (low vs high) and the body mass index (normal-weight vs overweight-obesity) were categorized using standard criteria. The self-concept was assessed through the Piers Harris self-concept scale for children. Schoolchildren with normal-weight and high fitness level showed better levels of conductual self-concept (P=.030), physical (Pself-concept (P=.002). The schoolchildren with normal-weight show higher levels of conductual self-concpt (P=.016), intellectual (P=.050), physical (Pself-concept (P=.001). The schoolchildren with a higher fitness level showed better conductual self-concept (P=.024), physical (P=.004), lack of anxiety (P=.011), social (P=.024), and global (P=.003). The results of the study strengthen the importance to transmit to the educative community the knowledge of the relationship between the variables analyzed aiming to improve the schoolchildren self-concept. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and psychopathological symptoms in individuals with and without intellectual disability; and (b) to explore whether there were gender differences in these same variables in both groups. The sample is made up of 170 participants aged 19 to 40, 128 without disability and 42 with intellectual disability. The methodology is descriptive. To measure the variables, three assessment instruments were applied: the "Listado de adjetivos para la evaluaci6n del autoconcepto en adolescentes y adultos" (LAEA; Garaigordobil, in press), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965), and the Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1983). The ANOVA showed that participants with intellectual disability scored significantly lower in self-concept and self-esteem, and higher in all the psychopathological symptoms except for somatization. The ANOVA did not reveal significant gender differences in any variables in either of the two groups.
Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Lopez-Pina, Jose Antonio; Hernandez, Daniel; Sainz, Marta; Fernandez, Mari-Carmen
This article analyses the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and academic performance, controlling for the effects of IQ, personality, and self-concept dimensions. A sample of 290 preadolescents (11-12 years old) took part in the study. The instruments used were (a) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescents Short Form…
Relationships between career maturity and self-concept, parenting style and individualism-collectivism across Australian and Thai cultural contexts were investigated. Berry's ("1969") etic-emic model for adapting instruments for cross-cultural research was applied. "Derived etic" status was achieved for the career planning…
Yang, Shu Ching; Huang, Chiao Ling
This study aimed to validate a systematic instrument to measure online players' motivations for playing online games (MPOG) and examine how the interplay of differential motivations impacts young gamers' self-concept and life adaptation. Confirmatory factor analysis determined that a hierarchical model with a two-factor structure of…
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Al Nuaimi, Samira
This study examined the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE; Marsh, 1987) on mathematics self-concept of 7404 adolescents (female = 3767 [51%], male = 3637 [49%]; M age = 15.85 years, SD = 0.28) from 456 schools in the United Arab Emirates, one of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The results of multilevel regression analyses indicated good support for the BFLPE's theoretical predictions: the effect of individual student mathematics achievement on individual student mathematics self-concept was positive and statistically significant, whereas the effect of school-average mathematics achievement on individual student mathematics self-concept was negative and statistically significant. Moreover, the interaction between school-average mathematics achievement and individual student mathematics achievement was small and non-significant. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emerson, Natacha D; Morrell, Holly E R; Neece, Cameron; Tapanes, Daniel; Distelberg, Brian
Although self-concept has been identified as salient to the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents dealing with a chronic illness (CI), little research has focused on its predictors it. Given that depression and parent-child attachment have been linked to self-concept in the population at large, the goal of this study was to evaluate these relationships longitudinally in a sample of adolescents with CI. Using participant data from the Mastering Each New Direction (MEND) program, a 3-month psychosocial, family based intensive outpatient program for adolescents with CI, we employed multilevel modeling to test longitudinal changes in self-concept, as predicted by depressive symptoms and parent-child attachment, in a sample of 50 youths (M age = 14.56, SD age = 1.82) participating in MEND. Both "time spent in the program" and decreases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in self-concept over time. Higher baseline levels of avoidant attachment to both mother and father were also associated with greater initial levels of self-concept. Targeting depressive symptoms and supporting adaptive changes in attachment may be key to promoting a healthy self-concept in pediatric CI populations. The association between avoidant attachment and higher baseline self-concept scores may reflect differences in participants' autonomy, self-confidence, or depression. Limitations of the study include variability in the amount of time spent in the program, attrition in final time point measures, and the inability to fully examine and model all potential covariates due to a small sample size (e.g. power). © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista
As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.
Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage
This research comprises three inter-related synergistic studies. Study 1 aims to develop a psychometrically sound tool to measure secondary students' science self-concepts, motivation, and aspirations in biology, chemistry, earth and environmental methodology to explicate students' and teachers' views, practices, and personal experiences, to identify the barriers to undertaking science for secondary students and to provide rich insights into the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with their aspirations and achievement. Study 3 will detect additional issues that may not necessarily be identifiable from the quantitative findings of Study 2. The psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument demonstrated that students' science self-concepts were domain specific, while science motivation and science aspirations were not. Students' self-concepts in general science, chemistry, and physics were stronger for males than females. Students' self-concepts in general science and biology became stronger for students in higher years of secondary schooling. Students' science motivation did not vary across gender and year levels. Though students' science aspirations did not vary across gender, they became stronger with age. In general, students' science self-concepts and science motivation were positively related to science aspirations and science achievement. Specifically, students' year level, biology self-concept, and physics self concept predicted their science and career aspirations. Biology self-concept predicted teacher ratings of students' achievement, and students' general science self-concepts predicted their achievement according to students' ratings. Students' year level and intrinsic motivation in science were predictors of their science aspirations, and intrinsic motivation was a greater significant predictor of students' achievement, according to student ratings. Based upon students' and teachers' perceptions, the
This analysis of self-concept includes an examination of definitions, historical perspectives, theoretical basis, and closely related terms. Antecedents, consequences, defining attributes, and a definition were formulated based on the analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to provide support for the use of the label "self-concept" as a broad category that encompasses the self-esteem, identity, and body-image nursing diagnoses within Taxonomy I. This classification could allow the use of a broad diagnostic label to better describe conditions that necessitate nursing care. It may also further explain the relationships between and among those diagnoses that describe human responses to disturbance of any component of the self-concept.
Cicero, David C.; Martin, Elizabeth A; Becker, Theresa M.; Kerns, John G.
Disturbances in the perception of self are thought to be central to the development of psychosis. Self-concept clarity (SCC) is the extent to which one’s beliefs about oneself are internally consistent, stable, and clear. Participants with schizophrenia (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 32) completed the Me Not-Me Decision Task (MNMDT), in which they decided whether 60 adjectives (30 pairs of antonyms), did or did not describe themselves. SCC is conceptualized as the number of consistent responses. Participants also completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS). Compared to healthy controls, participants with schizophrenia scored lower on the MNMDT and SCCS, and scores were negatively correlated with positive and negative symptoms. In a simultaneous regression, SCCS scores were uniquely associated with positive symptoms, while MNMDT scores were uniquely associated with negative symptoms. This suggests that people with schizophrenia have decreased self-concept claritythat is related to positive and negative symptoms. PMID:26669980
Scatolini, Flora Lopes; Zanni, Karina Piccin; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara
The diagnosis of epilepsy can lead to changes in the patient's perception due to factors such as learning and behavioral problems, lack of academic motivation, and low self-esteem. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the knowledge of self-concept in children with epilepsy and those with typical development and verify whether gender and age influence this perception. Eighty children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 14years, participated in this study. The children were divided into two groups: the epilepsy group, which consisted of 40 children diagnosed with epilepsy, and the control group, which consisted of 40 children with typical development and comparable to group 1 according to sex and age. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, translated and adapted for the Brazilian population, was used as the evaluation instrument. In total, there were 23 boys and 17 girls in each group, with a mean age of 10.7years. There were significant differences in the overall score (p=0.000) and the subareas "behavior" (p=0.006), "intellectual and academic status" (p=0.001), and "popularity" (p=0.004). The group of children with epilepsy had a lower average score in self-concept. Children with epilepsy were observed to perceive themselves as clumsy, without many friends, with low academic performance and problems at school, and to experiencing feelings of unhappiness. These findings suggest that, in addition to the treatment of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy, it is extremely important to provide treatment focused on improving the self-concept of school-aged children with this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitting, M D; Salisbury, S; Davies, N H; Mayclin, D K
Differences in perceived self-concept and sexual response before and after spinal cord injury were examined. Twenty-four women between the ages of 20 and 40 completed a questionnaire and participated in a brief taped interview. Most of the women viewed themselves as very or somewhat attractive and had been involved in a sexual relationship since injury. The majority viewed sexual relationships as very enjoyable, although many commented that changes in bowel and bladder function had inhibited sexual expression. The need for more effective sexual counseling was highlighted. A trend was noted for an interrelationship between sexuality and self-concept in adapting to acquired disability.
Raschke, Helen J.; Raschke, Vernon J.
Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and self-reports for family structure and family conflict, no significant differences in self-concept scores of children from intact, single-parent, reconstituted, or other types of families were found. Self-concept scores were significantly lower for children reporting…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Murayama, Kou; Arens, A. Katrin; Parker, Philip D.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa
Our newly proposed integrated academic self-concept model integrates 3 major theories of academic self-concept formation and developmental perspectives into a unified conceptual and methodological framework. Relations among math self-concept (MSC), school grades, test scores, and school-level contextual effects over 6 years, from the end of…
Bechtoldt, M.N.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.
In 4 studies we examined the relationship between selfconcept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher selfconcept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with
An investigation into the effects of dance/movement programs on self-concept in older retired adults indicated that participants had higher, more positive self-esteem than nonparticipants and also had a heightened awareness of joint and muscle usage and body habits. (CB)
Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins
This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…
Nystul, Michael S.
Subjects (N=106) from families of two or three children were analyzed in terms of various sibling sex configurations and administered the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Results were discussed in terms of a "special place in the family." (Author/CM)
Hausman, Jerome J.
References are often made in art education literature about how art can enhance individuals' self-concepts. This document discusses the work of authors, Manuel Barkan, George Herbert Mead, and Sigmund Freud, who support this concept. Barkan's theory concerning how an individual's personality develops and changes by interacting socially is…
Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.
Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…
Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai
One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)
Demorest, Steven M.; Kelley, Jamey; Pfordresher, Peter Q.
Research on adults who identify as "tone deaf" suggest that their poor musical self-concept is shaped by a view of themselves as nonsingers even when their perceptual skills and singing ability are not significantly worse than the general population. Many of these adults self-selected out of further participation as children but…
Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E
This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Schafer, Robert B.; And Others
Uses self-verification and self-discrepancy theories to test a model of subjective and objective self-disconfirmation, self-efficacy, depression, and marital happiness. Expands issues of self-validation by evaluating self-efficacy in the relationship between self-disconfirmation and depression, and the effect of self-concept disconfirmation of…
Long, Vonda O.
While current research is beginning to suggest that it is masculinity that correlates with mental health, results are inconclusive and studies have primarily focused on limited measures of mental health. This study incorporated multiple measures of self-concept in an analysis of the relationship between sex-role orientation and mental health of…
Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo
Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…
Hicks, Joshua A.; Schlegel, Rebecca J.; Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.
Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can lead to momentary changes in the self-concept (e.g., Steele & Josephs, 1990). In two studies (n = 150), we examined whether the implicit activation of alcohol expectancies (i.e., sociability-related expectancies) would also lead to changes in self-perception. To test this idea, participants first completed a measure of sociability-related alcohol expectancies. In a subsequent laboratory session, participants were exposed to either alcohol-related primes (i.e., pictures or words associated with alcohol) or neutral primes. After the priming task, participants completed an ostensibly unrelated self-concept survey that contained words related to sociability (e.g., “outgoing”) and non-sociability related words (e.g., “clever”). For both studies, results revealed that sociability-related alcohol expectancies were positively associated with sociability-related self-concept ratings for participants exposed to alcohol primes, but not for participants exposed to the neutral primes. Implications for the role implicit self-concept activation may have on drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:19769437
This study investigated the joint and relative contributions of self-concepts, maternal attachment and religiosity to the prediction of adolescents' sexual debut. A descriptive survey design through correlational approach was employed. Four hundred and ninety six adolescents from selected secondary schools in Ogbomoso ...
Logan, Deirdre E; Gray, Laura S; Iversen, Christina N; Kim, Susan
This study investigated school self-efficacy and sense of school membership (collectively "school self-concept") as potential influences on impaired school function among adolescents with chronic pain, including comparison of adolescents with primary pain to those with disease-based pain and pain-free peers. In all, 264 adolescents (12-17 years old) with primary pain conditions, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or no pain completed measures of functional disability, school functioning, pain characteristics, and school self-concept, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for School Situations (SEQ-SS), and Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM). Both the SEQ-SS and PSSM demonstrated reliability and some validity, with the SEQ-SS more strongly supported. As a group, adolescents with primary pain conditions reported poorer school self-concept. School self-efficacy, but not school belongingness, predicted school functioning later in the school year. School self-concept, especially as assessed with the SEQ-SS, is relevant and important to assess when addressing school functioning in youth with chronic pain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.
Peer support interventions have mostly neglected the domain specificity of intervention effects. In two studies, the present investigation examined the domain specificity of peer support interventions targeting specific domains of self-concept. In Study 1, participants ("n" = 50) who had received an academically oriented peer support…
The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...
Quiroga, A; Larroy, C; González-Castro, P
To investigate women's subjective experiences in the climacteric transition, especially the impact of self-concept, quality of life and depression on the severity of climacteric symptoms. Non-experimental, cross-sectional study, purpose sampling. To analyze the results, we proposed a three-way interaction, in which the direct effect of depression on the severity of climacteric symptoms would be buffered by perceived sexual quality of life, and mediated by self-concept. As hypothesized, depression significantly predicted self-concept, which in turn mediated the severity of climacteric symptoms. In a second stage of the model, sexual quality of life moderated the direct effect of depression on climacteric symptoms, such that women with a better sexual quality of life would perceive less severity of climacteric symptoms than those with a less favorable sexual quality of life. Physical quality of life did not significantly buffer the direct effect of depression on climacteric symptoms, nor did vasomotor or psychosocial quality of life. Our study confirmed the impact of subjective factors such as satisfaction, self-concept, and quality of life on climacteric symptoms; specifically, we observed the moderating effect of the sexual quality of life on the previously established correlation between depression and aggravation of climacteric symptoms.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of self concept on physics students' academic achievement in secondary schools. The study was conducted in Uyo LGA of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. A sample size of five hundred (500) senior secondary two physics students took part in the investigation.
DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.
This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361
Garcia Romero, Juan F; Moreno Gutierrez, Vanesa; Villalba Malaver, Juan Carlos
A description is made, a diagnosis and some exits, to their preservation for each one of the 10 marshes that they still exist in Bogota. The marshes defines them the convention of Ramsar: As extensions of swamps, swamps or peat-bogs covered with water, be these of natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, stagnated regime or currents, sweet, salubrious or salted, included those of extensions of marine water whose depth in tide lowers don't exceed six meters. The marshes occupy the space that there are between the humid means and the dry means, and that they possess characteristic of both, for what they cannot be classified categorically as aquatic neither terrestrial. The characteristic of a marsh is the presence of water during sufficiently lingering periods as to alter the soils, their microorganisms and the flora and fauna communities
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.
Full Text Available Academic self-concept (ASC is comprised of individual perceptions of one's own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a the structure of ASC, (b ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations between domain-specific ASCs with increasing grade level, (c the impact of (internal dimensional comparisons of one's own ability in different school subjects for profile formation of ASC, and (d the role played by differences in school grades between subjects for these dimensional comparisons. The nested Marsh/Shavelson model, with general ASC at the apex and math, writing, and reading ASC as specific factors nested under general ASC fitted the data at all grade levels. A first-order factor model with math, writing, reading, and general ASCs as correlated factors provided a good fit, too. ASC profile formation became apparent during the first two to three years of school. Dimensional comparisons across subjects contributed to ASC profile formation. School grades enhanced these comparisons, especially when achievement profiles were uneven. In part, findings depended on the assumed structural model of ASCs. Implications for further research are discussed with special regard to factors influencing and moderating dimensional comparisons.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.
To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.
Full Text Available Basically every individual has a concept about himself. The concept which has been ingrained in each individual, would influence the behavior of that individuals in various aspects of their life including in facing the problems. Only a little of the students are able to solve the problem well. Sometimes to keep themselves right in a problem, they “form” defense mechanism. This research was conducted to reveal the correlation between self concept and defense mechanism of guidance and counseling students of IAIN Bukittinggi. The population was the entire of guidance and counseling students that concist of 452 students, and 102 samples. The data was collected by using questionnaire that was processed using product moment technique in SPSS 21.0 version. The result shown that there is a significant correlation between self-concept and defense mechanism in facing the problem with the r calculated was 0.433. The strength of the correlation between self-concept and defense mechanism of BK students of IAIN Bukittinggi are at moderate or sufficient.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical capacities and the physical attractiveness of Seville adolescent athletes and whether these perceptions vary by gender and sport career development. 90 adolescents from 12 to 18 years (50 girls and 40 boys completed a Spanish adaptation of the Physical Self Description Questionnaire (Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche y Tremaye, 1994; Tomás, 1998 and a scale to collect physical attractiveness perceived (Alfermann, Saborowski y Würth, 1997. The results show that males have a more positive physical self-concept than females. There were no relationships of the variables with the level of sports performance. The follow-up survey, one year later, noted an increase in some subdomains of self-concept in terms of positive developments in the sport career. In this study the physical changes associated with maturation in adolescence seem to have fewer influences on the perception of the body as it has been reported in other studies
Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764
Tabri, Nassim; Will Shead, N; Wohl, Michael J A
In the current research, we examined whether the known link between relative deprivation and disordered gambling (via delay discounting; i.e., preferences for immediate smaller rewards relative to delayed larger rewards) is moderated by the extent to which gamblers have a financially focused self-concept. Specifically, we hypothesized that delay discounting would be a strong predictor of disordered gambling among those who base their self-worth on their financial success. To test this moderated-mediation model, a community sample of gamblers (N = 239) completed measures that assessed relative deprivation, delay discounting, financially focused self-concept, and disordered gambling severity. As predicted, people who felt more relative deprivation reported more severe symptoms of disordered gambling and this association was mediated by delay discounting. Importantly, this mediated relationship was moderated by the extent to which participants' self-concept was focused on financial success. Among participants whose self-concept was high in financial focus, greater delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a strong predictor of disordered gambling. Among people whose self-concept was low in financial focus, delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a weak predictor of disordered gambling. Thus, the magnitude of the indirect effect of relative deprivation on disordered gambling severity was larger among people with a more financially focused self-concept-an effect mediated by delay discounting. These findings suggest that targeting gamblers' financial focus in prevention and treatment interventions may be instrumental in curtailing the development and maintenance of disordered gambling.
Knigge, Michel; Hannover, Bettina
In Germany, according to their prior achievement students are tracked into different types of secondary school that provide profoundly different options for their future educational careers. In this paper we suggest that as a result, school tracks clearly differ in their social status or reputation. This should translate into different collective school-type identities for their students, irrespective of the students' personal academic self-concepts. We examine the extent to which collective school-type identity systematically varies as a function of the school track students are enrolled in, and the extent to which students' collective school-type identity makes a unique contribution beyond academic self-concept and school track in predicting scholastic motivation. In two cross-sectional studies a measure of collective school-type identity is established and applied to explain motivational differences between two school tracks in Berlin. In Study 1 (N = 39 students) the content of the collective school-type identity is explored by means of an open format questionnaire. Based on these findings a structured instrument (semantic differential) to measure collective school-type identity is developed. In Study 2 (N = 1278 students) the assumed structure with four subscales (Stereotype Achievement, Stereotype Motivation, Stereotype Social, and Compensation) is proved with confirmatory factor analysis. This measure is used to compare the collective school-type identity across school tracks and predict motivational outcomes. Results show large differences in collective school-type identity between students of different school tracks. Furthermore, these differences can explain motivational differences between school tracks. Collective school-type identity has incremental predictive power for scholastic motivation, over and above the effects of academic self-concept and school track.
Discussion: Cognitive-behavioral group counseling sessions can improve the self-concept of visually impaired adolescents. Moreover, positive self-concept will increase their social interaction and mental health.
student study habit and self-concept combined together and singularly predicted science ... Study skills are fundamental to academic success. A student who ... Motivation to engage or not in a task is significantly determined by self- concept or ...
Drummond, Robert J.; McIntire, Walter G.
This article examines the factor structure of two measures of self-concept routinely used with elementary school children: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Self-Concept and Motivation Inventory. (Author)
Turasli, Nalan Kuru
Problem Statement: "Self-concept" is a primary issue of emotional and social development. Though the most important stage in the formation of self-concept is childhood, measuring the development of the self in the preschool period is quite difficult, for the tools used to measure children's self-concept either require the child's knowing…
Survey data collected from 2,000 senior secondary two (SSII) students in Cross River state Nigeria were analyzed to determine the influence of emotional abuse on the self-concept of the students. One aspect of child abuse (emotional abuse) and five dimensions of self-concept (social selfconcept, physical self-concept, ...
Viljaranta, Jaana; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Silinskas, Gintautas; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The majority of previous research on academic skills, self-concept of ability and interest has deployed the variable-oriented approach and focused on self-concept, or ability, or interest only. This study examined the patterns and dynamics of pattern change in Finnish children's word reading skill, self-concept of ability and interest from…
Purkey, William W.
This overview of the self-concept theory describes how people organize and interpret their personal existence. It discusses the beginnings and recent history of the self-concept theory, and presents three major qualities of self-concept: that it is learned, organized, and dynamic. It asserts that individuals have relatively boundless potential for…
Describes issues of self-concept and self-esteem that arise when people find themselves living in a cross-cultural environment. Discusses Western definition of self-concept and other self-concept models. Discusses self-esteem and integration and adjustment as it relates to bicultural persons. (ABL)
Pietsch, James; Walker, Richard; Chapman, Elaine
Examines the relationship among self-concept, self-efficacy, and performance in mathematics among 416 high school students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of two self-concept components--a competency component and an affective component. Self-efficacy items and the competency items of self-concept also loaded on a single…
The purpose of this paper is to call attention to certain important aspects of self-concept which have been largely neglected in behavioral science research literature. Self-concept is defined as the totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings with reference to himself as an object. Three broad areas of self-concept are discussed. The first…
Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Roebers, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Most physical education intervention studies on the positive effect of sports on self-concept development have attempted to "increase" schoolchildren's self-concept without taking the "veridicality" of the self-concept into account. The present study investigated whether a 10-week intervention in physical education would lead…
Rubie-Davies, C. M.; Lee, K.
Many studies examine student self-concept during compulsory schooling but few have explored the self-concept of students in higher educational settings. The current study examined self-concept by faculty and gender among higher education students in New Zealand. Participants were 929 undergraduate students from a large New Zealand university. The…
Wicks, Corky Fitzgerald
Identifying students who may require additional assistance and coaching based on their self-concept score will also allow community colleges to provide additional support services for those students. If there is a difference in self-concept among students in a Mississippi community college, leaders might be able to use self-concept as a way of…
Suriá Martínez, Raquel
Introduction: The present study aims to identify different profiles in self-concept and resilience. In addition, statistically significant differences in self-concept domains among the profiles previously identified are analyzed. Method: The AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire ("Cuestionario de Autoconcepto AF5") and the Resilience Scale were…
Toledano, Shanee; Werch, Brittany L.; Wiens, Brenda A.
Individuals who aggress against others have been described both as having overall low self-concept and as having high, inflated self-concept. The conceptualization of self-concept as domain specific provides an alternate means to resolving this controversy. In this study, 223 middle school students completed self-report measures assessing…
Beaudrie, Sara M.
Researchers have studied academic self-concept and its relationship to academic achievement extensively, but not in the Spanish heritage language context. Using measures of reading, writing, and spelling performance, I investigate the relation between self-concept and performance and whether self-concept can predict performance scores. I obtained…
Van de Schoot, Rens; Wong, Thessa M.L.
This study explored the levels of self-concept of delinquent young adults (n = 873). This question is of theoretical and practical importance, as therapeutic programs addressing the self-concept must be based on clear evidence. The present study demonstrated that self-concept is related to
Spaten, Ole Michael
on childrens's development may be conquered by broader perspectives in theory and, methodology. He proposed a scientific perspective as the ecology of human development and, the Person-Process-Context-Time model (ibid). Our results includes that childrens's and adolescent's active internalization (Valsiner...... & Van der Veer, 1988). amd dialogical, cultural self-autorship are important themes for an understanding of processes of self-concept development among Danish children and adolescents from diverse cultual backgrounds. Limitations for this research as well as further directions for new studies...
Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke
We investigated the extent to which personal semantic memory supports the self-concept in individuals with medial temporal lobe amnesia and healthy adults. Participants completed eight 'I Am' self-statements. For each of the four highest ranked self-statements, participants completed an open-ended narrative task, during which they provided supporting information indicating why the I Am statement was considered self-descriptive. Participants then completed an episodic probe task, during which they attempted to retrieve six episodic memories for each of these self-statements. Supporting information was scored as episodic, personal semantic or general semantic. In the narrative task, personal semantic memory predominated as self-supporting information in both groups. The amnesic participants generated fewer personal semantic memories than controls to support their self-statements, a deficit that was more pronounced for trait relative to role self-statements. In the episodic probe task, the controls primarily generated unique event memories, but the amnesic participants did not. These findings demonstrate that personal semantic memory, in particular autobiographical fact knowledge, plays a critical role in supporting the self-concept, regardless of the accessibility of episodic memories, and they highlight potential differences in the way traits and roles are supported by personal memory. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Talley, Amelia E; Stevens, Jordan E
The current article describes the adaptation of a measure of sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity (SSA) from an existing measure of general self-concept clarity. Latent "trait" scores of SSA reflect the extent to which a person's beliefs about their own sexual orientation are perceived as inconsistent, unreliable, or incongruent. Sexual minority and heterosexual women ( n = 348), ages 18 to 30, completed a cross-sectional survey. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis guided the selection of items to form a 10-item, self-report measure of SSA. In the current report, we also examine (a) reliability of the 10-item scale score, (b) measurement invariance based on respondents' sexual identity status and age group, and (c) correlations with preexisting surveys that purport to measure similar constructs and theoretical correlates. Evidence for internal reliability, measurement invariance (based on respondent sex), and convergent validity was also investigated in an independent, validation sample. The lowest SSA scores were reported by women who self-ascribed an exclusively heterosexual or exclusively lesbian/gay sexual identity, whereas those who reported a bisexual, mostly lesbian/gay, or mostly heterosexual identity, reported relatively higher SSA scores.
We investigated the extent to which personal semantic memory supports the self-concept in individuals with medial temporal lobe amnesia and healthy adults. Participants completed eight ‘I Am’ self-statements. For each of the four highest ranked self-statements, participants completed an open-ended narrative task, during which they provided supporting information indicating why the I Am statement was considered self-descriptive. Participants then completed an episodic probe task, during which they attempted to retrieve six episodic memories for each of these self-statements. Supporting information was scored as episodic, personal semantic or general semantic. In the narrative task, personal semantic memory predominated as self-supporting information in both groups. The amnesic participants generated fewer personal semantic memories than controls to support their self-statements, a deficit that was more pronounced for trait relative to role self-statements. In the episodic probe task, the controls primarily generated unique event memories, but the amnesic participants did not. These findings demonstrate that personal semantic memory, in particular autobiographical fact knowledge, plays a critical role in supporting the self-concept, regardless of the accessibility of episodic memories, and they highlight potential differences in the way traits and roles are supported by personal memory. PMID:25964501
The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from .20 to .27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and from .19 to .25 between prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. Globality/specificity of self-concept was the only significant moderating factor in the relation between (a) prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and (b) prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. As high self-concept is related to high academic performance and vice-versa, intervention programs that combine self-enhancement and skill development should be integrated. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.
This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs
Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe
Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people's sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other domains. Lack of difference in self-esteem of disabled
Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe
Background: Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people’s sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other
The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chacón Cuberos, Ramón; Zurita Ortega, Félix; Castro Sánchez, Manuel; Espejo Garcés, Tamara; Martínez Martínez, Asunción; Ruiz-Rico Ruiz, Gerardo
This study aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of consumption of alcohol, tobacco consumption, and problematic use of video games based on self-concept and its dimensions in a sample of university students. The research was conducted with a sample of 490 students from the province of Granada (Spain), aged between 20 and 29 years (M = 22.80 ± 3.63), with a homogeneous distribution by gender. The instruments used were the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (García & Musitu, 1999), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De la Fuente, & Grant, 1993), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) and the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video Games (Chamarro et al., 2014). A model of structural equations was estimated, which was adjusted properly, χ2(8) = 19.843, p = .011; CFI = .963, NFI = .943, IFI = .965, RMSEA = .055. As main results, a positive relationship between social and physical self-concept and consumption of alcohol was obtained, as well as a negative relationship between social self-concept and problematic use of videogames. Academic dimension was negatively related to alcohol and video game use. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was positively related to tobacco consumption and use of video games. It is concluded that levels of self-concept may represent a risk factor in substance abuse and digital leisure, and their study and consideration are appropriate.
Full Text Available Brands can be helpful in strengthening a person’s identity. Hence, consumers use brands as instruments for reflecting their personal image and individual goals. The self-concept as a vital component of emotional aspects, boosts attitudinal loyalty towards a brand. The luxury fashion market of India offers great opportunities to marketers. India's luxury market is projected to reach $14.72 billion by 2015 from an estimated $8.21 billion in 2014.The present study aims to examine the empirical relationship of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty in the context of female consumer-luxury fashion brand relationships. A single cross sectional survey of 240 female customers of five global brands, including Zara, Armani, Guess, Versace and Calvin Klein, from the State of Punjab (India was conducted. Regression and Z-Test were used to analyze the data. The self-concept positively enhances female consumers’ attitudinal brand loyalty. The perceived influence of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty is high in luxury fashion purchase. Therefore, the process of shaping a marketing strategy should include different dimensions of self-concept, namely, enhancement, contribution, admiration and extension. Furthermore, a marketing strategy needs to strengthen brand superiority, brand performance and brand synchronization to win attitudinal loyalty in luxury fashion industry.
Hesse, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Wittorf, Andreas; Herrlich, Jutta; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Klingberg, Stefan
Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms, and self-concepts were assessed at two time points 12 months apart. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model) or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model). Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts 12 months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of 1 year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. Method: We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms and self-concepts were assessed at two time points twelve months apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model. Results: Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts twelve months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. Conclusion: The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of one year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor
Full Text Available Background: Self-concept clarity describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of self-concept clarity change (especially stable increase and V shape observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable self-concept clarity increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while self-concept clarity change characterized by a V shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M=5.8 was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, Symptoms’ Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The Self-Concept Clarity Scale was also administered every two weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable self-concept clarity increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and V shape of self-concept clarity change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of self-concept clarity is a sign of a good treatment prognosis.
Full Text Available The article deals with the significance of the librarian’s self-concept in the communication process. First, it underlines the meaning of reference interviews, and second, it focuses on other micro and macro aspects of communication. The analysis shows that the librarian’s self-concept is hierarchically organised, structured, and therefore it consists of different areas. Each area equally contributes to the development and preservation of the appropriate librarian’s self-concept; although some areas have more direct influence than others. To attain a high self-concept, it is of fundamental importance, that the librarian develops all self-concept areas, from individual ones to social ones. It was found that a structured and positive specialist’s self-concept is highly significant for the contribution of effective reference interviews, and finally, the article offers some directions for a successful development of the communication process.
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.
Garza, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e. teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e. parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and non-academic validating agents and their math and science self-concept at the K-12 level. Through the review of the literature the researcher addresses identifiable factors and strategies that inform the field of education in the areas of validation theory, family characteristics, and access to STEM fields for Latina students. The researcher used an established instrument designed, administered, and validated through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For purposes of this study, a categorical subset of participants who self-identified as being a Latina student was used. As a result, the total subset number in this study was N=1,882. To determine if academic and non-academic validating agents had an observable statistically significant relationship with Latina students' math and science self-concept, a series of one-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare differences in students' math and science self-concept based on academic and non-academic validating agents for the weighted sample of Latinas for the HLS:09 survey. A path analysis was also employed to assess the factors involved in Latina students' math and science self-concepts. The findings are consistent with previous research involving the influence that academic and non-academic validating agents have on the math and science self-concept of Latina students. The results indicated that students who had teachers that believed in the students, regardless of family background, social economic status or home environment influences had higher math and science self concepts than those who did not. Similarly, it was found that students who had counselors that set high
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.
Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven
The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.
Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...
DRCMRS UCHENNA EGODI
self-concept in terms of social-self, physical-self, moral-self, family-self and financial self-concept respectively. .... necessary for a child's psychological growth and ... produces withdrawal syndrome, disorder such as fearfulness, anxiety, low .... MSW = 3.93. Physical self-concept low. 11.45. 3.83. 5.69. Moderate. 29.12*. 7.62.
Van Dijk, Marloes P A; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim
Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study examined linkages between self-concept clarity, adolescents' open communication with parents, and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Dutch youths (N = 323; 51.1 % girls; mean age Time 1 = 13.3 years) reported on these constructs over four consecutive annual measurements. Concurrent positive links between open communication and self-concept clarity were found at Time 1. Over time, higher levels of open communication with parents predicted higher self-concept clarity only in middle adolescence (mean age between 14 and 15 years). We also found concurrent associations between self-concept clarity and both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longitudinally, lower self-concept clarity predicted relatively higher levels of depressive symptoms across all waves, and also higher anxiety levels from Time 1 to Time 2. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety also predicted lower levels of self-concept clarity during the first three waves. Self-concept clarity did not mediate the longitudinal associations between open communication and internalizing symptoms. This study is one of the first to investigate self-concept clarity across adolescence. It highlights the possible importance of both anxiety symptoms and communication with parents in understanding the development of a clear self-concept, and demonstrates an association between lower self-concept clarity and higher levels of later depressive and anxiety symptoms.
A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.
Full Text Available Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course.
Lane, J; Muller, D
This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.
Zhang, Baoshan; Lin, Yao; Gao, Qianyun; Zawisza, Magdalena; Kang, Qian; Chen, Xuhai
Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST) on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs) for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course. PMID:28747885
Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia
The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.
Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena
This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.
Full Text Available We were interested in the correlation of aggressiveness with independent self-concept, codependent self-concept and level of self-esteem. Some previous research gave contradictory results about correlations between aggressiveness, self-concept and self-esteem. Researchers report of negative correlation, but also of positive and no correlation. One hundred and fifty-eight participants, aged from 19 to 51, with average age of 21 participated in the research. Fifty participants were males and 108 were females. Self-concept was measured with the Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory – ASSEI (Elovson & Fleming, 1989, level of self-esteem with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale – RSES (Rosenberg, 1965 and aggressiveness with The Aggression Questionnaire – AQ (Buss & Perry, 1992. The results showed that aggressiveness is negatively correlated with co-dependent self-concept, but is not correlated with independent self-concept, even if we control for the level of self-esteem. The level of self-esteem is negatively correlated with anger, hostility, and overall aggression, but not with physical and verbal aggression, even if we control for the self-concept. We can conclude that only certain areas of self-concept are relevant in the research of the relationship between self-concept and aggressiveness, and that the level of self-esteem is to be taken into account only in some forms of aggressiveness, like anger and hostility, but not in physical and verbal aggression.
Sartika, Ita; Jamiah, Yulis; Bistari
The research aims to describe the problem-solving ability on the materials about trigonometry of students' self concept in SMA Kemala Bhayangkari 1 Kubu Raya eleven grade. The method is used descriptive method with case study of research. The sample of research was 9 students. The sample determination is done by taking 3 students who have high self concept, 3 students who have average self concept, and 3 students who have low self concept. The results of data analysis showed tha the problem-s...
Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.
Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231
Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J
Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs
Meggs, Jennifer; Ditzfeld, Christopher; Golby, Jim
The present study examines the relationship between individual differences in evaluative self-organisation and mental toughness in sport, proposing that motivation and emotional resiliency (facets of mental toughness) stem from differences in core self. A cross-sectional assessment of 105 athletes competing at a range of performance levels took part in an online study including measures of self-reported mental toughness (Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire; Sheard, M., Golby, J., & van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress towards construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 186-193. doi:10.1027/1015-5722.214.171.124) and self-organisation (self-descriptive attribute task; Showers, C. J. (2002). Integration and compartmentalisation: A model of self-structure and self-change. In D. Cervone & W. Mischel (Eds.), Advances in personality science (pp. 271-291). New York, NY: Guilford Press). As predicted, global mental toughness was associated with self-concept positivity, which was particularly high in individuals with positive-integrative self-organisation (individuals who distribute positive and negative self-attributes evenly across multiple selves). Specifically, positive integration was associated with constancy (commitment to goal achievement despite obstacles and the potential for failure), which extends presumably from positive integratives' emotional stability and drive to resolve negative self-beliefs.
Warren, Charlotte; Hasenstab, Suzanne
A study examined demographic, impairment-related, and parental variables that best predicted self-concept among 49 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired 5- to 11-year-olds. A strong relationship was observed between self-concept and parental indulgence, parental rejection, parental protection, parental discipline, and extent of language…
Terrell, Francis; And Others
Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…
Lopez-Justicia, Maria Dolores; Cordoba, Inmaculada Nieto
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease of the retina that causes the severe impairment of visual functioning similar to low vision, leading, in many cases, to blindness. Because the construct of self-concept plays a key role in personality, this study was designed to measure self-concept in a group of young adults with RP. The…
Wheeler, Larry; Reilly, Thomas F.
The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement was examined with 30 educable mentally retarded adolescent residents of a state institution. Results failed to demonstrate a positive relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in the areas of mathematics and reading. (DB)
Backes, John S.
Development of positive self-concept is critical at the middle level, a time when students are gaining basic skills and knowledge, establishing patterns of interacting with people and ideas, and setting personal life goals. A survey of students at a North Dakota middle school found that girls' self-concept was much lower than boys'.…
Lizasoain, Olga; Polaino, Aquilino
Describes a program implemented in Navarra, Spain, to prepare children for hospitalization and to provide psychopedagogical follow-up to develop positive self-concepts. Describes the effects of the program on 40 hospitalized children between the ages of 8 and 12, reporting a more positive self-concept among the children who received the…
King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.
The aims of this study were to examine changes in students' English and math self-concepts and to investigate the effects of gender and school ability level on these changes. Self-concept in English and math were measured thrice across three years among a sample of 2618 secondary school students from Hong Kong. Gender and school ability level were…
Children's motivations to engage in everyday activities draw on their experiences in thinking of oneself and the activities. In theory, these personal and social realities provide the complex foundations of self-concepts. The aim of this project was to define the foundations of children's self-concepts about everyday activities; to focus…
Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Nor, Ahmad Rosli Mohd; Amat, Salleh; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul
This study was undertaken to explore the critical factors influencing the self-concept of community college graduates in the development of their careers. Individuals with a positive self-concept are often associated with a good career choices and a well-panned career development path. Hence community college students should be girded with a…
Albert, Daniel J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a composition competition influenced four K-12 students' self-concepts as musicians. Research questions explored motivations for these four students to enter into a composition competition, influences of the competition on students' self-concepts as musicians (if at all), and effects…
Self-efficacy theory and research contribute to self-concept theory primarily by supporting the enhancement model of belief change. This article describes current problems with self-concept theory, describes self-efficacy research, and suggests that self-efficacy theory and methodology present findings that strengthen the association between…
Full Text Available Background Scholars believe that if nursing students appreciate the value of their services, their sense of professionalism will increase and performance will improve. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between nursing students’ professional self-concept and clinical performance. Objectives This study examines the relationship between nurse self-concept and clinical performance among nursing students. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study employed the census method. The sample comprised 86 senior and junior nursing students at Jahrom university of medical sciences. Nurse self-concept and clinical performance were measured by using the nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ, and the 6-dimension scale of nurse performance (6-DSNP, respectively. Results The mean and standard deviation of nurse self-concept and clinical performance scores were 5.46 ± 1.11 and 2.94 ± 1.45, respectively. Nurse self-concept was related to clinical performance (r = 0.24, P = 0.02. Total NSCQ scores were significantly related to four of the 6-DSNP dimensions: planning and evaluation, interpersonal relations and communication, critical care, and leadership. Conclusions Attempts should be made to enhance students’ nurse self-concept during their education. Counseling, improving public respect for nurses, and implementing measures to enhance students’ professional self-concept are essential for improving their performance.
Rodríguez, Antonio V.; Estévez, Manuel; Palomares, Juan
Adolescence is a period of human development in which problems with the perception of body image, self-esteem and self-concept proliferate, while the child is studying for Secondary Education. This study analyses the curricular treatment given to body image, self-esteem and self-concept in different legislative elements in the region of Valencia…
... the aged (B=.47, p<.05). The result also showed that self-concept and locality did not significantly predict willingness to help the aged. The implication and limitations were discussed and suggestions were made for further study. Keywords: Bystander-intervention, social –responsibility, self-concept, Gender, Adolescents, ...
Martin, Jeffrey J; Whalen, Laurel
Few researchers have examined multi-dimensional physical self-concept among athletes with disabilities despite extensive evidence indicating the value of such an approach. To describe multidimensional self-concept and to predict both physical activity (PA) and self-esteem using various dimensions of physical self-concept (e.g., endurance, strength). The study was a one-time cross-sectional design involving self-report questionnaires. Participants (n = 50) were adolescents and adult athletes with physical disabilities (M age = 26.5, SD = 10.1) who completed the short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S). Athletes reported neutral to positive perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (M's ranging from 3.3 to 5.9 of 6). Using multiple regression analyses, we were able account for 29 and 47 percent of the variance in global self-concept and PA, respectively. Global physical self-concept and strength self-concept were important in predicting global self-concept and PA, respectively. These findings support the promotion of weight training programs specifically and PA programs more generally for people with disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanks, Camille E; McGuire, Joseph F; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K
This study investigated the clinical correlates and mediators of self-concept in youth with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). Ninety-seven youth aged 6-17 (M = 11.1 ± 2.89; 79.4 % male) with CTD were administered the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Second Edition, and self-report and clinician-administered measures assessing behavioral and psychological difficulties and comorbid conditions. Youth with CTD had a slightly below average level of self-concept, with 20 % (n = 19) exhibiting low self-concept. Youth with CTD-only had greater self-concept relative to youth with CTD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (p = 0.04) or CTD, OCD, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (p = 0.009). Medium-to-large-sized associations were observed between youth's self-concept and clinical characteristics (e.g., severity of ADHD, OCD and depressive symptoms). Youth's self-concept partially mediated the relationship between tic severity and depressive symptom severity, and the interaction between tic impairment and youth's reliance on avoidant coping strategies moderated youth's self-concept. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future interventions are discussed.
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.
Study explores how institutional context affects the development of self-concept in a sample of 273 African American college students. Findings suggest that students attending church affiliated historically Black colleges develop significantly higher self-ratings in three domains of self-concept-psychosocial wellness, academic, and achievement…
This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…
Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Penner, Louis A.
Investigated effect of a person's physical attractiveness on a therapist's initial judgment of that person's self-concept. Videotapes and audiotapes were made of interviews with attractive and unattractive males and females. Physically attractive persons of both sexes were rated as having better self-concepts than unattractive persons. (Author)
Capurso, Michele; Borsci, Simone
This study investigates the impact of a sail training education programme on the self-concept of a group of 147 adolescents. The Competence and Social domains of Bracken's self-concept scale were assessed by a quasi-experimental design in three phases: before commencement of the activities, on the last day of the voyage, and three months after…
Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.
The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…
Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.
Surveyed 123 college students to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of parents' parenting styles. Student self-concept varied directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as function of parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were rated more highly if they were perceived as warm…
Ommundsen, Yngvar; Haugen, Richard; Lund, Thorleif
The purpose of the present study is to explore how academic self-concept and implicit theories of ability are related to four self-regulation strategies--motivation/diligence, concentration, information processing, and self-handicapping. The hypothesis is that academic self-concept and an incremental theory of ability are (1) positively related to…
Kistler, Michelle; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Power, Thomas; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hill, Laura Griner
Using social cognitive theory and structural regression modeling, we examined pathways between early adolescents' music media consumption, involvement with music media, and 3 domains of self-concept (physical appearance, romantic appeal, and global self-worth; N=124). A mediational model was supported for 2 domains of self-concept. Music media…
James, Richard; And Others
From ancient times, physical exercise has been linked to good mental health and positive self-concepts. To investigate the effects of weight training on self-concept, 62 college males participated in a one semester (40 hours) weight training, physical education course. Subjects were pre- and post-tested on subscales of the Tennessee Self Concept…
Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace
This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.
McMillan, James H.
This research analyzes the results of a program to enhance the self concepts of junior high students. Subjects were 80 students identified as having low self concepts. They participated in an eight-week program to develop skills in personal and social awareness. Pretest posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory indicated that…
Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Only a few studies have examined the direction of associations between academic achievement, interest, and self-concept of ability simultaneously by using longitudinal data over several school years. To examine the cross-lagged relationships between students' interest, self-concept of ability, and performance in mathematics and reading,…
Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens
We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…
Yeung, Alexander S.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder
One's self-concept and value perceptions can significantly influence one's behaviours and beliefs. Australian teachers from urban and rural areas of the state of New South Wales were asked to respond to survey items on two predictors (teacher self-concept, valuing of learning) and three outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis established the five…
Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, W.H.J.
Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study
The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic…
Kaufman, Ryan; Rinehardt, Eric; Hine, Hank; Wilkinson, Berney; Tush, Peter; Mead, Bethany; Fernandez, Francisco
Research suggests that art programs have positive therapeutic effects on children, including improved self-concept. This pretest/posttest intervention study examined changes in self-concept in children (N = 176) who participated in an art program at the Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. Results indicated significant, positive increases in…
The other area is the non-cognitive domain, which includes variables such as socio-economic status, students' attitude, personality determinants, peer group influence, self-concept, anxiety, etc. As a result of this, this study investigated the effects of attitude and self-concept on achievement in senior secondary school ...
Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M
When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.
Lindberg, Sven; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Ehm, Jan-Henning; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lonnemann, Jan
In the course of elementary school, children start to develop an academic self-concept reflecting their motivation, thoughts, and feelings about a specific domain. For the domain of mathematics, gender differences can emerge which are characterized by a less pronounced math self-concept for girls. However, studies are rather sparse regarding the…
Sproesser, Ute; Engel, Joachim; Kuntze, Sebastian
Supporting motivational variables such as self-concept or interest is an important goal of schooling as they relate to learning and achievement. In this study, we investigated whether specific interest and self-concept related to the domains of statistics and mathematics can be fostered through a four-lesson intervention focusing on statistics.…
Vacaru, V.S.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Schuengel, C.
Background: Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of
Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang
English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…
The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…
van Dijk, Marloes; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, Wim
Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study
Anderson, Lorin W.
The Rasch Model was applied to the results of an academic self-concept test administered to junior high school students, and some items were eliminated. The resulting scale possessed several properties permitting its use in the measurement of school-induced change in self-concept. The questionnaire is appended. (Author/MV)
Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.
This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)
Yalçn, Siddika Songül; Durmuşoğlu-Sendoğdu, Mine; Gümrük, Fatma; Unal, Selma; Karg, Eda; Tuğrul, Belma
This study was planned to explore the self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes of the children with beta-thalassemia major, and the factors that affect them. The study was undertaken between January and June 2004 at the Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Unit, Ankara and 43 voluntary children with beta-thalassemia major on regular blood transfusion and iron chelation treatment between the ages of 5.0 and 18.0 years were included into the study. Age, sex, birth order, school performance, hemoglobin value, serum ferritin levels, associated illness, splenectomy status, presence of thalassemic sibling or relatives, death of thalassemic relatives, place of residence, maternal and paternal education were recorded. Parental Attitude Research Instrument, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist were applied. Higher educated mothers have lower overprotection (P=0.009), parental discordance (P=0.044), and discipline scores (P=0.002) than lower educated mothers. In cases with death of thalassemic relatives, democratic/equality attitude scores were decreased (P=0.034). With stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, splenectomy, good school achievement, absence of death of thalassemic relatives, and serum ferritin levels were found to increase Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale; however, total behavior problem score was found to decrease with increasing age, splenectomy and decreasing overprotection subscale of Parental Attitude Research Instrument scores. The self-esteem and behavior problems of children with thalassemia depended not only on the variables related exclusively to the child (age, school achievement) and the illness-associated conditions (splenectomy, serum ferritin levels) but also on the parental attitude (overprotection).
Full Text Available Self – concept and motivation are two important terms in educational world. Self concept is a one of dominant factor influences the students motivation in learning Englsih as foreign or second language. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe: the correlation between self concept and students’ motivation at English students of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. The research used correlational design. The population was the sixth semester of English Departement of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. The sample of this research was selected by using random sampling. The collection of the data was done by using questionnaire. The result of the research shows that there is a significant correlation between self concept and students motivation in learning English at English Departement of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. It can be concluded that the correlation between self concept and students’ motivation is significant. The significant was smaller than 0.05 . it indicates that if self concept of students increases, therefore students motivation also increases.
Stein, K F
Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Na, Jinkyung; Chan, Micaela Y; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Park, Denise C
A consistent/stable sense of the self is more valued in middle-class contexts than working-class contexts; hence, we predicted that middle-class individuals would have higher self-concept clarity than working-class individuals. It is further expected that self-concept clarity would be more important to one's well-being among middle-class individuals than among working-class individuals. Supporting these predictions, self-concept clarity was positively associated with higher social class. Moreover, although self-concept clarity was associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health, the association significantly attenuated among working-class individuals. In addition, self-concept clarity was not associated with physical health and its association with physical health did not interact with social class.
MASON, ASHLEY E.; LAW, RITA W.; BRYAN, AMANDA E. B.; PORTLEY, ROBERT M.; SBARRA, DAVID A.
Romantic breakups arouse fundamental questions about the self: Who am I without my partner? This study examined self-concept reorganization and psychological well-being over an 8-week period in the months following a breakup. Multilevel analyses revealed that poorer self-concept recovery preceded poorer well-being and was associated with love for an ex-partner, suggesting that failure to redefine the self contributes to post-breakup distress. Psychophysiological data revealed that greater activity in the corrugator supercilia facial muscle while thinking about an ex-partner predicted poorer self-concept recovery and strengthened the negative association between love for an ex-partner and self-concept recovery. Thus, the interaction between self-report and psychophysiological data provided information about the importance of self-concept recovery to post-breakup adjustment not tapped by either method alone. PMID:26167126
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Laura Castaldo,1 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Michele Roccella,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Self-esteem is related to the broadly understood concept of self-schemas and is a crucial mechanism for a correct psychological development in children and adolescents. The impact of the many psychological difficulties linked to the migraine without aura (MoA and recurrent headache attacks, such as anger and separation anxiety, on self-esteem has not yet been well investigated. The aims of the present study were to assess self-esteem levels in an objective way and to verify their possible relationship and correlation with the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, in a population of children and adolescents affected by MoA.Methods: The study population was comprised of 185 children (88 males [M], 97 females [F] aged between 6 and 12 years (mean 9.04 ± 2.41 years referred consecutively for MoA to the Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples and of 203 healthy controls (95 M, 108 F with mean age 9.16 ± 2.37 years, recruited from schools in Campania. The monthly headache frequency and the mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children, and MoA intensity was assessed on a VAS (visual analog scale. To further evaluate their level of self-concept, all
Zhen-Duan, Jenny; Jacquez, Farrah; Sáez-Santiago, Emily
The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. Relations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept differed by gender. First, cultural stress was associated with self-concept for boys, such that higher cultural stress predicted lower self-concept. Second, among girls, cultural stress moderated the relation between ethnic identity and self-concept. Specifically, for girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of their ethnic identity was associated with higher ratings of self-concept. Although cultural stress has been widely understood as a phenomena associated with immigrants, our study indicated that cultural stress is important in understanding self-concept of youth living in Puerto Rico. For boys, cultural stress, but not ethnic identity, is particularly important to their self-concept. Among girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of ethnic identity was associated with higher self-concept. Results suggested that the cultural stress associated with the colonial context of Puerto Rico is salient in ethnic identity and self-concept development, even though Puerto Rican youth are the ethnic majority in the island. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J
Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brabcova, Dana; Krsek, Pavel; Kohout, Jiri; Jost, Jiri; Zarubova, Jana
Academic achievement in children with epilepsy is a highly studied topic with many important implications. However, only little attention has been devoted to academic self-concept of such children and the relation of academic self-concept to their quality of life. We aimed to examine academic self-concept in children with epilepsy, to assess its relationship to academic achievement and to determine possible correlations between academic self-concept and quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the student's perception of ability scale (SPAS) questionnaire to determine their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 questionnaire to determine their health-related quality of life. We found that academic self-concept in children with epilepsy was on average significantly lower than in their peers without seizures, especially with regard to general school-related abilities, reading, and spelling. On the other hand, the variance in the data obtained from the group of children with epilepsy was significantly higher than in the whole population and the proportion of individuals with very high academic self-concept seems comparable among children with and without epilepsy. Moreover, it was found that correlations between academic self-concept and academic achievement are significantly lower in children with epilepsy than in the whole population. The presented results suggest that considerable attention should be paid to the role of academic self-concept in education of children with epilepsy and to the factors influencing this self-concept in this group.
Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R
Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.
Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Lubberts, R.K.; Van de Plassche, O.
Measurements of nitrogen, organic carbon and delta(13)C are presented for Spartina-dominated marsh sediments from a mineral marsh in SW Netherlands and from a peaty marsh in Massachusetts, U.S.A. delta(13)C Of organic carbon in the peaty marsh sediments is similar to that of Spartina material,
Foster-Martinez, Madeline R.; Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Variano, Evan A.
Wave attenuation is a central process in the mechanics of a healthy salt marsh. Understanding how wave attenuation varies with vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions informs models of other marsh processes that are a function of wave energy (e.g. sediment transport) and allows for the incorporation of marshes into coastal protection plans. Here, we examine the evolution of wave height across a tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay. Instruments were deployed along a cross-shore transect, starting on the mudflat and crossing through zones dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia pacifica. This dataset is the first to quantify wave attenuation for these vegetation species, which are abundant in the intertidal zone of California estuaries. Measurements were collected in the summer and winter to assess seasonal variation in wave attenuation. Calculated drag coefficients of S. foliosa and S. pacifica were similar, indicating equal amounts of vegetation would lead to similar energy dissipation; however, S. pacifica has much greater biomass close to the bed (<20 cm) and retains biomass throughout the year, and therefore, it causes more total attenuation. S. foliosa dies back in the winter, and waves often grow across this section of the marsh. For both vegetation types, attenuation was greatest for low water depths, when the vegetation was emergent. For both seasons, attenuation rates across S. pacifica were the highest and were greater than published attenuation rates across similar (Spartina alterniflora) salt marshes for the comparable depths. These results can inform designs for marsh restorations and management plans in San Francisco Bay and other estuaries containing these species.
Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario
This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.
soncept and academic performance of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis. A sample of 351 students was drawn from the population of secondary school students in Sokoto smetropolis. Three instruments were used in obtaining the data ...
Lee, Sang-Ahm; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kwon, Soonhak; Eom, Soyong
We aimed to determine whether adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) have a compromised self-concept, whether a lower self-concept is related to mental health, and whether there are sex differences in self-concept in AWE. A total of 179 AWE and 259 control adolescents without epilepsy participated in this cross-sectional, multicenter study. Self-concept was measured using the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). A group-by-sex interaction was evaluated using an analysis of covariance controlling for age. Adolescents with epilepsy had a lower level of self-concept, especially in domains of behavioral conduct (partial eta(2): 0.257) and social acceptance (partial eta(2): 0.116), than controls (pself-concept did not differ by sex in the group with epilepsy. A group-by-sex interaction effect was found on social acceptance (p=0.042). Unlike the control group, age was not correlated with self-concept in AWE. Physical appearance was negatively correlated with HADS-anxiety scores (r=-0.291, pself-concept, especially in the domains of behavioral conduct and social acceptance, than controls. Sex differences in self-concept were identified in the control group but not in the group with epilepsy. Physical appearance was negatively correlated with anxiety in girls with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The need to predict consumer behavior outcomes is considered to be a very important issue for marketers. Today, one of the most popular psychological constructs in social sciences and marketing is the self-concept, as the total sum of ideas, thoughts and feelings through which individual can describe themselves in regards to other individuals in socially determined environment. The importance of self-concept in predicting consumer behavior and choice of brands has been recognized by many researchers. People tend to maintain and reinforce their self-concept by consumption of brands that have an image and personality in accordance to their own self-concept. Many studies have confirmed that high level of congruency between brand image/personality and consumer self-concept have positive influence on brand attitudes, preferences, evaluation of brands, buying intentions, satisfaction and brand loyalty. In this study, we have researched how has self-concept, as a psychological construct, gained in importance in the field of marketing research and practice. The concept is analyzed simultaneously as a psychological and marketing construct. By presenting literature review, we have also analysed the consequences of congruence between brand image/brand personality and consumer self-concept on consumer behavior and choice of brands. We have also pointed out the significance and references connected with the use of this concept for practical purposes in the realm of brand management. .
Błażek, Magdalena; Besta, Tomasz
The present study concerns the relationship between self-concept clarity, religiosity, and well-being, as well as the mediating influence of religiosity on the relationship between self-concept clarity and sense of meaning in life and self-esteem. Self-concept clarity was found to be a significant predictor of sense of meaning in life and self-esteem; intrinsic religious orientation was found to be a predictor of sense of meaning in life, while the quest religious orientation was a predictor for self-esteem. The cross-products of self-concept clarity and intrinsic religious orientation were found to be related to the sense of purpose in life, which would point to religiosity being a mediator of the relationship between self-concept clarity and sense of purpose in life. The cross-products of self-concept clarity and quest religious orientation were found to be a predictor of self-esteem, which indicates a mediating effect of this religious orientation in the relationship of self-concept clarity and self-esteem.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Different factors affect children’s behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child’s anxiety and be-havior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child’s anxiety and child’s behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxi-ety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation be-tween the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = −0.545, P < 0.001, and a moderate correlation between the self-concept and child’s behavior scores (r = 0.491, P < 0.001. A strong inverse relation was also found between the anxiety and behavior scores (r = −0.91, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Children with higher self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treat-ment.
Reddy, Avneel; Ownsworth, Tamara; King, Joshua; Shields, Cassandra
This study aimed to investigate the influence of the "good-old-days" bias, neuropsychological functioning and cued recall of life events on self-concept change. Forty seven adults with TBI (70% male, 1-5 years post-injury) and 47 matched controls rated their past and present self-concept on the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISD) III. TBI participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. The matched control group of 47 were from a sample of 78 uninjured participants who were randomised to complete either the Social Readjustment Rating Scale-Revised (cued recall) or HISD (non-cued recall) first. Consistent with the good-old-days bias, participants with TBI rated their pre-injury self-concept as more positive than their present self-concept and the present self-concept of controls (p concept ratings were related to lower estimated premorbid IQ and poorer verbal fluency and delayed memory (p concept change (p concept as significantly more negative than the non-cued group (p concept change by affecting retrospective ratings of past self-concept. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of contextual cues on self-concept change after TBI.
Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad
Background and aims . Different factors affect children's behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child's anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child's anxiety and child's behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P self-concept and child's behavior scores (r = 0.491, P self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment.
Full Text Available The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and females from different levels of study and faculties. In this study the influence of academic self-concept on academic achievement was assessed, tested whether the hypothesised model fitted the data, analysed the invariance of the path coefficients among the moderating variables, and also, highlighted whether academic confidence and academic effort measured academic selfconcept. The results from the model revealed that academic self-concept influenced academic achievement and the hypothesised model fitted the data. The results also supported the model as the causal structure was not sensitive to gender, levels of study, and faculties of students; hence, applicable to all the groups taken as moderating variables. It was also noted that academic confidence and academic effort are a measure of academic self-concept. According to the results the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 was deemed adequate in collecting information about academic self-concept among university students.
Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad
Background and aims. Different factors affect children’s behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child’s anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child’s anxiety and child’s behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P self-concept and child’s behavior scores (r = 0.491, P self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment. PMID:26697152
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro
Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Van der Beek, Jojanneke P J; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Leseman, Paul P M
Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. The aims were (1) to investigate the mediating role of mathematical self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and the achievement emotions of enjoyment and anxiety in a comprehensive model, and (2) to test possible differences in this mediating role between low-, average-, and high-achieving students. Participants were ninth-grade students (n = 1,014) from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands. Through an online survey including mathematical problems, students were asked to indicate their levels of mathematics enjoyment, anxiety, and self-concept. Structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating role of self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. Multigroup analyses were performed to compare these relations across the three achievement groups. Results confirmed full mediation of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions by mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, we found higher self-concepts, more enjoyment and less math anxiety in high-achieving students compared to their average and low-achieving peers. No differences across these achievement groups were found in the relations in the mediational model. Mathematical self-concept plays a pivotal role in students' appraisal of mathematics. Mathematics achievement is only one factor explaining students' self-concept. Likely also classroom instruction and teachers' feedback strategies help to shape students' self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Vacaru, V S; Sterkenburg, P S; Schuengel, C
Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of the effects of disturbed attachment on self-concept in institutionalized children. Thus, the current study examined associations between disturbed attachment behaviours in institutionalized children and self-concept, testing limited exploration as an explanatory factor. Thirty-three institutionalized children, aged 4-12, participated in a multimethod and multi-informant assessment of disturbed attachment behaviours (i.e., Disturbances of Attachment Interview and Behavioral Signs of Disturbed Attachment in Young Children), self-concept (i.e., Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children), and exploratory behaviours (i.e., Student Exploratory Behaviours Observation Scale). Analyses were conducted using bootstrapping techniques. Global self-concept converged with teacher-rated children's self-concept, except for physical competence domain. Disturbed attachment behaviours were identified in 62.5% of the children, and this was associated with lower levels of exploration and lower scores on self-concept, compared with children without disturbed attachment behaviours. Furthermore, exploratory behaviours mediated the effects of disturbed attachment behaviours on self-concept. Institution-reared children with disturbed attachment behaviours were likely to have a negative perception of self and one's own competences. Limited exploratory behaviours explained this linkage. Targeting disordered attachment in children reared in institutions and their caregivers should become a high priority as a means for preventing socioemotional development issues. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Castillo C, Carmen; Santander M, Dolores; Solís F, Fresia
Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P>.05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.
Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We sampled experimental research areas in the Barataria Basin of Louisiana during March and May, 1995, to examine the effects of structural marsh management on...
Full Text Available Guidance and psychological consultancy services in Turkish education system is basically oriented students to realize their skills and prove themselves, to benefit from the process of education in top level according to their talents and qualifications, to use and improve their potential in most convenient way. Leading students to the jobs according to their characteristics, interests and talents defines the fate of countries and communities. Individuals discover their interests and talents and they are guided to professions according to those interests and talents with the Scale of Academic Self-Concept (SASC that is the one of implements used in vocational guidance at schools. Application of these assessment and evaluation instruments in schools brings about paper waste, increases stationer expenses and takes guidance counselors’ time too much during the evaluation phase. (SODSGS that is enhanced in this practice, the system of online decision and support for guidance service, resolves most of these problems mentioned before. SODSGS is added with SASC that is used for vocational guidance in schools and evaluation criteria. In an attempt to test the system whether it is working properly, they are compared and contrasted with the results that guidance counselor acquired before, by loading survey data implemented in 2010-2011 education period. It is observed that results of SODSGS and guidance counselors’ are coherent with each other. Using SASC through SODSGS will be beneficial in terms of expenditure, time and credibility at schools
Błażek, Magdalena; Besta, Tomasz
The present study concerns the relationship between self-concept clarity, religiosity, and well-being, as well as the mediating influence of religiosity on the relationship between self-concept clarity and sense of meaning in life and self-esteem. Self-concept clarity was found to be a significant predictor of sense of meaning in life and self-esteem; intrinsic religious orientation was found to be a predictor of sense of meaning in life, while the quest religious orientation was a predictor ...
Mboya, M M
Gender differences in the relationship between teachers' behaviors and adolescents' self-concepts were investigated in 276 (156 boys and 120 girls) Standard Ten students from two coeducational high schools in Langa, Cape Town, South Africa. The Perceived Teacher Behavior Inventory was used to measure adolescents' self-concepts. Analysis indicated significant differences in perceived teachers' behavior and adolescents' self-description scale scores between boys and girls. Further, students' self-concept dimensions most strongly associated with teachers' behaviors were relations with family, general school, and health.
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus
Academic self-concept is consistently proven to be multidimensional rather than unidimensional as it is domain specific in nature. However, each specific self-concept domain may be further separated into competence and affect components. This study examines the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e., its domain specificity and…
Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.
The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…
Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin
Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeidner, Moshe; Shani-Zinovich, Inbal
This study compares facets of self-concept in gifted and non-identified Israeli adolescent students. The self-concept mean score profile of gifted vs. non-selected Israeli students was significantly different, with gifted students reporting higher mean levels of academic self-concept, but lower mean levels of social, personal, and physical…
Two studies examined the discriminant and incremental validity of self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Study 1, which meta-analysed 64 studies comprising 74 independent samples (N = 24,773), found a strong mean correlation of 0.43 between self-concept and academic self-efficacy. The domains of self-concept and self-efficacy, and the domain…
Lenamar Fiorese Vieira
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa buscou investigar a valorização do autoconceito em equipes de voleibol de alto rendimento. Foram sujeitos 31 atletas de voleibol, das categorias adulto masculina, juvenil masculina e juvenil feminina. Utilizou-se como instrumento de medida a Escala Fatorial de Autoconceito. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados os testes kruskall-Wallis e MANOVA. Os dados demonstraram que as equipes comportaram-se de forma semelhante quanto aos fatores do autoconceito, ocorrendo diferença estatisticamente significativa para o fator segurança entre as equipes juvenis feminina e masculina. O fator ético-moral apresentou altos níveis de valorização em relação aos outros fatores, sendo estatisticamente superior nas equipes feminina e masculina juvenis. Na equipe masculina adulta este fator foi superior aos fatores "somático", "receptividade" e "atitude social". O sentimento de pertencer a um grupo socialmente valorizado parece ser o principal motivo de os atletas se perceberem como sujeitos morais. Conclui-se que existem diferenças de gênero quanto ao autoconceito ("segurança", de modo que o esporte favorece o sentimento de "moralidade" e vivências de autoconsideração, propiciando a congruência do self-experiência.This research aimed to investigate the valuation of self concept in volleyball teams. As participants, 31 volleyball high performance athletes adults and youths from both gender categories were investigated. As measure instrument the Factorial Scale of Self Concept was used. For the data analysis were used: the Kruskall Wallis test and MANOVA. All teams behaved similarly according to self concept factors, evidencing statistically significant difference only for safety factor between the youth male and female teams. The ethical-moral factor presented high levels of valuation in relation to other factors, being statistically higher in the female and male youth teams. In the adult male team, this factor was higher than
Full Text Available The article highlights the relationship between dispositions to school education and self-concept. What is meant by the expression "dispositions of school education" are phenomena like attitudes to school, achievement motivation, believes about personal control over learning, external constrains to learning etc. The definition of self-concept and its brief contemporary understanding is mentioned. The aim of the study is to find out the expression of certain areas of self-concept and dispositions to school education. A group of Slovenian and a group of British high school students participated in the study. The results of ANOVA and discriminant analysis showed significant differences as related to nationality. For example, British participants exceeded Slovenians in many areas of self-concept. They also expressed some significant differences in their dispositions to school. The results are interpreted in the light of personality and national differences.
Spilt, Jantine L; van Lier, Pol A C; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children’s social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported internalizing problems were assessed longitudinally in the fall and spring of Grades 2 and 3. Teacher reports of support to the child were assessed in Grade 2. Results showed that peer rejection impeded children’s social self-concept, which in turn affected the development of internalizing problems. Partial support was found for individual (but not classroom-level) teacher support to buffer the adverse effects of peer problems on children’s self-concept, thereby mitigating its indirect effects on internalizing problems.
Sotelo, M J
The aims of the study were to examine differences between boys and girls in global self-esteem and in specific domains of self-concept. Several measures of global self-esteem and multidimensional self-concept were administered to 61 boys and 64 girls. Analysis showed that boys reported higher scores than girls on global self-esteem, measured on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and the Feelings of Inadequacy Scale by Janis-Field, but this result was not reproduced when self-esteem was measured on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. No differences have been found in domain-specific self-concepts, except for the ethical-moral self-concept, on which girls reported higher scores than boys.
Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas
The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…
Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Bisconti, Toni L; Rausch, Joseph R
The present study examines the association between the self-concept and adaptation to conjugal loss; the primary aim was to explore whether those individuals high in self-esteem, environmental mastery, and optimism have more adaptive resources with which to ameliorate the detrimental sequelae of bereavement. Analyses were conducted on data collected from 58 widows every four months over a two-year period. One goal of the research was to explore the adequacy of the theoretically chosen operational definition of the self-concept; another goal was to analyze how changes in the level of self-concept components correlated with changes in levels of depression, health, and grief resolution as individuals adjusted to their losses. Analyses revealed that trajectories of depression and grief resolution were more highly related than health to changes in self-concept.
Cimpian, Andrei; Hammond, Matthew D; Mazza, Giulia; Corry, Grace
There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts-specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4-7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hamid Kazemi Zahrani
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate the predictive power of anxiety, depression, stress and self-concept dimensions (Mental ability, job efficiency, physical attractiveness, social skills, and deficiencies and merits as predictors of nicotine dependency among university students in Isfahan. Methods: In this correlational study, 110 male nicotine-dependent students at Isfahan University were selected by convenience sampling. All samples were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, self-concept test and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and stepwise regression. Results: The result showed that anxiety had the highest strength to predict nicotine dependence. In addition, the self-concept and its dimensions predicted only 12% of the variance in nicotine dependence, which was not significant. Conclusion: Emotional processing variables involved in mental health play an important role in presenting a model to predict students’ dependence on nicotine more than identity variables such as different dimensions of self-concept.
Libby, Lisa K; Eibach, Richard P
People who change often report that their old selves seem like "different people." Correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies showed that participants tended to use a 3rd-person observer perspective when visualizing memories of actions that conflicted with their current self-concept. A similar pattern emerged when participants imagined performing actions that varied in self-concept compatibility (Study 4). The authors conclude that on-line judgments of an action's self-concept compatibility affect the perspective used for image construction. Study 5 shows applied implications. Use of the 3rd-person perspective when recalling past episodes of overindulgent eating was related to optimism about behaving differently at an upcoming Thanksgiving dinner. The authors discuss the effect of self-concept compatibility on cognitive and emotional reactions to past actions and consider the role of causal attributions in defining the self across time.
Goñi Palacios, Eider; Esnaola Echaniz, Igor; Rodríguez Fernández, Arantzazu; Camino Ortiz de Barrón, Igor
The main aim of this study was to explore the relationships between personal self-concept and satisfaction with life, with the latter as the key indicator for personal adjustment. The study tests a structural model which encompasses four dimensions of self-concept: self-fulfillment, autonomy, honesty and emotions. The 801 participants in the study, all of whom were aged between 15 and 65 (M = 34.03, SD = 17.29), completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Personal Self-Concept (APE) Questionnaire. Although the four dimensions of personal self-concept differ in their weight, the results show that, taken together, they explain 46% of the differences observed in satisfaction with life. This implies a weight that is as significant as that observed for general self-esteem in previous research studies. This issue should be dealt with early on, during secondary education, in order to help prevent psychological distress or maladjustment.
McInerney, Dennis M.; Korpershoek, Hanke; Wang, Hui; Morin, Alexandre J.S.
Little is known about the determinants of teachers' psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. In this paper, teachers' occupational attributes (i.e. professional and personal characteristics) were investigated as determinants. Henceforth, the
Brookins, C C
Developmental task resolution and self-concept of adolescents were examined for a sample of 110 African-American youth. The Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory was used to measure Erikson's stages of psychological development and the Bronstein-Cruz Child/Adolescent Self-concept and Adjustment Scale was used to measure multiple components of the self-concept. Scores for Self-concept and Resolution of Identity stages were highly correlated although scores on Resolution of Identity, commonly seen as the primary psychosocial task of adolescence, were not related to scores on either Emotional Well-being or Family Relations. The results are discussed in terms of improving understanding of relationships between processes in development, identity, and other salient psychosocial variables.
Winne, Phillip H.; And Others
Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)
Percy, Lance E.; And Others
Thirty fifth- and sixth graders were administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory before and after participating in a seven-week distance running program. A marked increase in self-concept was noted. (SJL)
Bour, Daria S.; And Others
Compared social and demographic statistics and self-concept in 50 delinquent females (25 prostitutes and 25 nonprostitutes). Results indicated early sexual intercourse and a positive physical self-image were related to prostitution. (JAC)
The need to predict consumer behavior outcomes is considered to be a very important issue for marketers. Today, one of the most popular psychological constructs in social sciences and marketing is the self-concept, as the total sum of ideas, thoughts and feelings through which individual can describe themselves in regards to other individuals in socially determined environment. The importance of self-concept in predicting consumer behavior and choice of brands has been recognized by many rese...
In the present Master thesis, we research the relation between the reading literacy and its components and the reading self-concept in grade 6 elementary school students. Sixth grade students were chosen because they are partially taught by class teachers and because we assume that they are already familiar with the reading comprehension technique and have a more-or-less stable reading self-concept. In the theoretical part, we present the importance of functional literacy and of other types o...
Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar
People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-concept using Eysenck self-esteem and Rogers' self-concept questionnaires. The correlation between above two variables was measured using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software by Pearson correlation test. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 30.9 ± 8 years. The mean (±SD) of general self-concept score was 11 ± 5.83. The mean (±SD) of self-esteem score was 16.62 ± 2.85. Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and general self-concept (r = 0.19, P = 0.025). The mean of sexual self-concept scores in five subscales (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear, and sexual depression) were correspondingly 11 ± 4.41, 19.53 ± 4.53, 12.96 ± 4.19, 13.48 ± 1.76, and 5.38 ± 2.36. Self-esteem and self-concept had significant positive correlation with sexual anxiety (r = 0.49; P Self-esteem and self-concept had significant correlation with sexual anxiety and sexual fear; and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy and sexual-esteem.
Cicero, David C; Cohn, Jonathan R
Social-cognitive models of psychosis suggest that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity are related to the development and maintenance of psychoticlike experiences (PLEs). People with high aberrant salience but low self-concept clarity tend to have the highest levels of PLEs. Ethnic identity may also be related to PLEs. The current research aimed to (a) replicate the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in their association with PLEs in an ethnically diverse sample, (b) examine whether ethnic identity and aberrant salience interact in their association with PLEs, and (c) determine if self-concept clarity and ethnic identity independently interact with aberrant salience in their association with PLEs. An ethnically diverse group of undergraduates (n = 663) completed self-report measures of aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, ethnic identity, and PLEs. There was an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity such that people with high levels of aberrant salience and low levels of self-concept clarity had the highest levels of PLEs. Similarly, there was an interaction between aberrant salience and ethnic identity such that people with high aberrant salience but low ethnic identity had the highest PLEs. These interactions independently contributed to explaining variance in PLEs. This interaction was present for the Exploration but not Commitment subscales of ethnic identity. These results suggest that, in addition to low self-concept clarity, low ethnic identity may be a risk factor for the development of psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...
Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O’Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these traje...
Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-González, Agustín Ernesto; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Torregrosa, María S.; Ruiz Esteban, Cecilia
This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behavior and self-concept dimensions in a sample of 2022 Spanish students (51.1% males) of Compulsory Secondary Education. The prosocial behavior was measured with the Prosocial Behavior scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) and the self-concept was measured with the Self-Description Questionnaire-II (SDQ-II). Logistic regression analyses revealed that prosocial behavior is a positive and significant statistically predict...
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...
Lynch, Mervin D.; Chaves, John
Items from Peirs-Harris and Coopersmith self-concept tests were evaluated against independent measures on three self-constructs, idealized, empathic, and worth. Construct measurements were obtained with the semantic differential and D statistic. Ratings were obtained from 381 children, grades 4-6. For each test, item ratings and construct measures…
Sheremet, Vitalii A.; Mora, Jordan W.
Several salt pannes and pools in the Sage Lot tidal marsh of Waquoit Bay system, MA were instrumented with newly developed Arm-and-Float water level gauges (utilizing accelerometer tilt logger) permitting to record water level fluctuations with accuracy of 1 mm and submillimeter resolution. The methodology of the instrument calibration, deployment, and elevation control are described. The instrument performance was evaluated. Several month long deployments allowed us to analyze the marsh flooding and draining processes, study differences among the salt pannes. The open channel flow flooding-draining mechanism and slower seepage were distinguished. From the drain curve the seepage rate can be quantified. The seepage rate remains approximately constant for all flooding draining episodes, but varies from panne to panne depending on bottom type and location. Seasonal differences due to the growth of vegetation are also recorded. The analysis of rain events allows us to estimate the catch area of subbasins in the marsh. The implication for marsh ecology and marsh accretion are discussed. The gradual sea level rise coupled with monthly tidal datum variability and storm surges result in migration and development of a salt marsh. The newly developed low cost instrumentation allows us to record and analyze these changes and may provide guidance for the ecological management.
Maiz, Edurne; Balluerka, Nekane
Food problems in children and adolescents often have a detrimental effect on the emotional and psychological wellbeing of their parents. However, the impact of such problems on the psychological wellbeing of children and adolescents themselves has been less widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children and adolescents with food neophobia differed in trait anxiety and dimensions of self-concept from their neophilic and their average peers. A community sample of 831 participants (368 males and 463 females) between the ages of 8 and 16 were classified into six groups based on scores obtained on the Spanish Child Food Neophobia Scale (i.e., neophobic, average, and neophilic) and their age (i.e., children vs. adolescents). Compared with their neophilic peers, children with food neophobia showed higher levels of trait anxiety and a poorer social, physical, and academic self-concept. Among adolescents similar results were observed for trait anxiety and physical self-concept, but instead of social and academic self-concept it was family self-concept which distinguished between neophobic and neophilic participants. These results suggest that food neophobia is associated with trait anxiety and with some dimensions of self-concept. This highlights the need to ascertain the threshold between 'normal' and 'problematic' eating behaviors, since the fact that a behavior is to some extent usual does not imply that it is harmless. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein
Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.
Phillips, Ceib; Beal, Kimberly N. Edwards
Objective To examine, in adolescents with mild to moderate malocclusion, the relationship between self-concept and demographic characteristics, a clinical assessment of malocclusion, self-perception of malocclusion, and self-perception of facial attractiveness. Methods and Materials Fifty-nine consecutive patients ages 9 to 15 years scheduled for initial records in a graduate orthodontic clinic consented to participate. Each subject independently completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), the Facial Image Scale, and the Index of Treatment Need–Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores were obtained from the patients’ diagnostic dental casts. Forward multiple-regression analysis with a backward overlook was used to analyze the effect of the demographic, clinical, and self-perception measures on each of the six self-concept (MSCS) domains. Results Self-perception of the dentofacial region was the only statistically significant predictor (P < .05) for the Global, Competence, Affect, Academic, and Physical domains of self-concept, while age, parental marital status, and the adolescent's self-perception of the dentofacial region were statistically significant predictors (P < .05) of Social Self-Concept. Conclusion The self-perceived level of the attractiveness or “positive” feelings toward the dentofacial region is more strongly related to self-concept than the severity of the malocclusion as indicated by the PAR score or by the adolescent's perception of their malocclusion. PMID:19123700
Fullwood, Chris; James, Billie May; Chen-Wilson, Chao-Hwa Josephine
The Internet may be conceptualized as a social laboratory, providing freedom to experiment with different presentations of self. Adolescence is an important time in the development of self-concept; however, little is known about how clarity of self-concept relates to online behavior. The principal aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that self-concept clarity would be associated with adolescents' inclination to experiment with online self-presentation. One hundred forty-eight participants aged 13-18 completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, the Facebook Intensity Scale, and the Presentation of Online Self Scale (POSS). Adolescents possessing a less stable sense of self reported experimenting with online self-presentation more regularly, presenting an idealized version of self and a preference for presenting themselves online. Adolescents with a more stable self-concept reported presenting an online self which was more consistent with their offline self-presentation. Younger adolescents were more likely to present an inconsistent self, whereas older adolescents presented themselves more consistently across different communication contexts. Finally, adolescents who spent more time on Facebook and had fewer Facebook friends were more likely to present multiple versions of self while online. The implications of these findings will be discussed in terms of the development of self-concept during adolescence and the potential for the online world to facilitate flexible identity construction and self-presentation.
Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Weißgerber, Susan; Roepke, Stefan; Schütz, Astrid
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an unstable and incongruent self-concept. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies investigating self-concept in BPD. In order to bridge this research gap, the purpose of this study was to apply an in-depth analysis of structural aspects of the self-concept in BPD. We examined the degree of compartmentalization, i.e., a tendency to organize knowledge about the self into discrete, extremely valenced (i.e., either positive or negative) categories (Showers, 1992). We hypothesized and found that BPD patients had the most compartmentalized self-concept structure and a higher proportion of negative self-attributes relative to both a non-clinical and a depressed control group. Moreover, BPD patients rated negative self-aspects as more important than positive ones relative to non-clinical controls. We cannot determine whether causal relationships exist between psychological symptoms and self-concept structure. Moreover, further comparisons to patients with other psychiatric disorders are necessary in order to further confirm the clinical specificity of our results. Our findings indicate that a negative compartmentalized self-concept is a specific feature of BPD. Implications for future research, psychological assessment, and psychotherapeutic treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, Gavin John; Reid, Graeme; Preston, Phil; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Sellwood, William
Childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis may be associated. Drawing on the dissociation and social psychological literature, the current study examined the mediating role of structural aspects of self in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis. Twenty-nine individuals with psychosis were compared with 31 healthy volunteers regarding childhood trauma, dissociation and self-concept clarity (SCC). High rates of maltreatment were found in the psychosis sample. Additionally, clinical participants reported more dissociation and less self-concept clarity. Mediational analyses were carried out on pooled data from across both clinical and non-clinical samples. These suggested that the influence of physical neglect in increasing the likelihood of experiencing psychosis was explicable through the effects of increased dissociation. Self-concept clarity mediated the relationship between psychosis and total childhood trauma, emotional abuse, physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect. Furthermore, dissociation and self-concept clarity were strongly correlated providing evidence that they may form a unitary underlying concept of 'self-concept integration'. The study provides further evidence of the link between childhood trauma and psychosis. Self-concept integration may be adversely affected by negative childhood experiences, which increases psychosis risk. Methodological limitations, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, X; Ling, L; Su, H; Cheng, J; Jin, L; Sun, Y-H
The aim of our study was to systematically review studies which had compared self-concept in left-behind children with the general population of children in China. Relevant studies about self-concept of left-behind children in China published from 2004 to 2014 were sought by searching online databases including Chinese Biological Medicine Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, Vip Database, PubMed Database, Google Scholar and Web of Science. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Poled effect size and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effects model. Cochrane's Q was used to test for heterogeneity and I(2) index was used to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Nineteen studies involving 7758 left-behind children met the inclusion criteria and 15 studies were included in a meta-analysis. The results indicated that left-behind group had a lower score of self-concept and more psychological problems than the control group. The factors associated with self-concept in left-behind children were gender, age, grade and the relationships with parents, guardians and teachers. Left-behind children had lower self-concept and more mental health problems compared with the general population of children. The development of self-concept may be an important channel for promoting mental health of left-behind children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario
The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marsh terracing is used to restore coastal wetlands by converting shallow nonvegetated bottom to intertidal marsh. Terraces are constructed from excavated bottom...
Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...
The purpose of this study was to examine how I Am A Dreamer Musician Program (IDMP) affected academic self-concept and self-esteem of middle school students in low-income communities. During the seven weeks of the weekly music workshops, students participated in different musical activities including playing percussion instruments, singing,…
Full Text Available We assess whether or not restored marshes in the San Francisco Estuary are expected to be sustainable in light of future landscape scale geomorphic processes given typical restored marsh conditions. Our assessment is based on a review of the literature, appraisal of monitoring data for restored marshes, and application of vertical accretion modeling of organic and inorganic sedimentation. Vertical accretion modeling suggests that salt marshes in San Pablo Bay will be sustainable for moderate relative sea level rise (3 to 5 mm yr-1 and average sediment supply (c. 100 mg L-1. Accelerated relative sea level rise (above 6 mm yr-1 and/or reduced sediment supply (50 mg L-1 will cause lowering of the marsh surface relative to the tide range and may cause shifts from high to low marsh vegetation by the year 2100. Widespread conversion of marsh to mudflat-"ecological drowning"-is not expected within this time frame. Marshes restored at lower elevations necessary to aid the natural development of channel systems (c. 0.5 m below mean higher high water are predicted to accrete to high marsh elevations by the year 2100 for moderate relative sea level rise and sediment supply conditions. Existing rates of sediment accretion in restored fresh water tidal marshes of the Delta of greater than 9 mm yr-1 and slightly lower drowning elevations suggest that these marshes will be resilient against relatively high rates of sea level rise. Because of higher rates of organic production, fresh water marshes are expected to be less sensitive to reduced sediment availability than salt marshes. The ultimate long-term threat to the sustainability of tidal marshes is the interruption of coastal rollover-the process by which landward marsh expansion in response to sea level rise compensates for shoreline erosion. Bay front development now prevents most landward marsh expansion, while shoreline erosion is expected to accelerate as sea level rises.
Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting
People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.
Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Basim, H Nejat; Cetin, Fatih
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and locus of control in interpersonal conflict resolution approaches and to determine the predictors of conflict resolution approach choices. The study included 345 students aged between 18 and 28 years that were studying at universities in Ankara. Data were collected using the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Approaches Scale to measure conflict resolution approaches, the Social Comparison Scale to measure self-concept, and the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to measure locus of control. It was observed that confrontation approach to interpersonal conflict was predicted by self-concept (beta = 0.396, P resolution approaches. In addition to these findings, it was observed that females used self-disclosure (beta = -0.163, P resolution processes. Self-concept and locus of control were related to the behaviors adopted in the interpersonal conflict resolution process. Individuals with a positive self-concept and an internal locus of control adopted solutions to interpersonal conflict resolution that were more effective and constructive.
Colwell, Cynthia M; Davis, Kathy; Schroeder, Linda K
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of composition (art or music) on the self-concept of hospitalized children. The music composition was created using the program Making More Music. The art composition was a drawing using standard medium. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used to measure self-concept. When examining subjects as one group, a significant difference from pre- to posttest for the Total score indicated an improved self-concept. Further analyses on each of the 6 categories indicated no significant differences. The art composition group had a significant difference from pre- to posttest for the Total score and for Popularity (POP). Although not significant, scores increased from pre- to posttest for Behavioral Adjustment (BEH), Physical Appearance (PHY), Freedom from Anxiety (FRE), and Happiness and Satisfaction (HAP). The music composition group had no significant difference from pre- to posttest for the Total score but a significant difference from pre- to posttest on Intellectual and School Status (INT) and Physical Appearance (PRY). Although not significant, scores increased from pre- to posttest for TOT, BEH, and HAP. There was a significant difference between the groups on 2 categories that indicated an improved self-concept for the music group under Intellectual and School Status and for the art group under Popularity.
Wong, Alexander E; Vallacher, Robin R
We hypothesized that self-knowledge and goal perseverance are mutually reinforcing because of the roles of self-knowledge in directing goal pursuit, and of goal pursuit in structuring the self-concept. To test this hypothesis, we used a daily diary design with 97 college-aged participants for 40 days to assess whether daily self-concept clarity and grit predict one another's next-day levels. Data were analyzed using multilevel cross-lagged panel modeling. Results indicated that daily self-concept clarity and grit had positive and symmetric associations with each other across time, while controlling for their respective previous values. Similar crossed results were also found when testing the model using individual daily self-concept clarity and grit items. The results are the first to indicate the existence of reinforcing feedback loops between self-concept clarity and grit, such that fluctuations in the clarity of self-knowledge are associated with fluctuations in goal resolve, and vice versa. Discussion centers on the implications of these results for the functional link between mind and action and on the study's heuristic value for subsequent research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Mathematics is a core subject in every school curriculum and it is strongly correlated with maths self-concept, which is defined as the subjective feelings and beliefs about one's competence in maths. In general, boys tend to report higher maths self-concept than girls, but the difference between boys and girls' maths scholastic performance is low or even inexistent. Some authors maintain that academic self-concept can play an important role as a motivational variable, promoting self-confidence and investment in the learning process. This study examined the causal relations between maths self-concept and maths scholastic performance in four cohorts of boys and girls within a three-wave longitudinal study. The first two cohorts were composed of 187 girls and 139 boys attending grades 7 and 8 at Time 1 and the third and fourth cohorts were composed of 167 girls and 123 boys attending grades 9 and 10 at Time 1. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the fit of several models of causal relations. The results revealed that for the first two cohorts the best models were reciprocal and skill-development for both boys and girls. However, for the older students, a reciprocal model gave a best fit for the boys, but for the girls there was only one significant effect from maths self-concept to maths scholastic performance. Results are discussed on the basis of gender-related differential learning expectancies.
Phillips, Ceib; Beal, Kimberly N Edwards
To examine, in adolescents with mild to moderate malocclusion, the relationship between self-concept and demographic characteristics, a clinical assessment of malocclusion, self-perception of malocclusion, and self-perception of facial attractiveness. Fifty-nine consecutive patients ages 9 to 15 years scheduled for initial records in a graduate orthodontic clinic consented to participate. Each subject independently completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), the Facial Image Scale, and the Index of Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores were obtained from the patients' diagnostic dental casts. Forward multiple-regression analysis with a backward overlook was used to analyze the effect of the demographic, clinical, and self-perception measures on each of the six self-concept (MSCS) domains. Self-perception of the dentofacial region was the only statistically significant predictor (P self-perception of the dentofacial region were statistically significant predictors (P < .05) of Social Self-Concept. The self-perceived level of the attractiveness or "positive" feelings toward the dentofacial region is more strongly related to self-concept than the severity of the malocclusion as indicated by the PAR score or by the adolescent's perception of their malocclusion.
Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. English electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as two Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database and Iranmedex were searched for English and Persian-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. Of 281 retrieved articles, 37 articles were finally included for writing this review article. Factors affecting sexual self-concept were categorized to biological, psychological and social factors. In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. In the psychological category, the impact of body image, sexual abuse in childhood and mental health history are present. Lastly, in the social category, the roles of parents, peers and the media are discussed. As the development of sexual self-concept is influenced by multiple events in individuals' lives, to promotion of sexual self-concept, an integrated implementation of health policies is recommended.
Choi, Chris; Ferro, Mark A
This study compared levels of self-concept among youth who were currently receiving inpatient versus outpatient mental health services. Forty-seven youth were recruited from the Child & Youth Mental Health Program at McMaster Children's Hospital. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Perception Profile for Children and Adolescents. The mean age was 14.5 years and most participants were female (70.2%). ANOVAs comparing self-concept with population norms showed large significant effects (d = 0.77 to 1.93) indicating compromised self-concept among youth receiving mental health services. Regression analyses controlling for patient age, sex, family income, and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, generalized social phobia, and generalized anxiety showed that the inpatient setting was a significant predictor of lower global self-worth (β=-.26; p=.035). Compared to outpatients, inpatients generally reported lower self-concept, but differences were significant only for global self-worth. Future research replicating this finding and assessing its clinical significance is encouraged.
Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo
The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.
Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G
Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.
Gao, Meng; Li, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Wei
To examine the mediating effect of self-concept between interparental conflict and mental health in children and adolescents. A total of 689 students (10-18 years) were surveyed using the convenient sampling method, and their mental health, self-concept, and interparental conflict were examined by the general status questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Self-Description Questionnaire, and Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and simultaneous analysis of several groups were used to construct the mediator model and analyze the data, respectively. The Bootstrap method was used to assess the significance of the mediating effects. Interparental conflict was positively correlated with mental health of children and adolescents (Pself-concept (PSelf-concept was negatively correlated with mental health (PSelf-concept had a partial (60%) mediating effect between interparental conflict and mental health. Academic stage, but not gender, had a regulatory role on interparental conflict, mental health, and self-concept. Self-concept plays an important role between interparental conflict and mental health. It is necessary to improve self-concept level in children and adolescents exposed to interparental conflict.
Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar
This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Johnston, Leanne M
To evaluate the preliminary validity and reliability of the myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 8 to 12 years. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment includes 26 items divided into eight domains, assessed across three Performance Perspectives (Personal, Social, and Perceived) and an additional Importance Rating. Face and content validity was assessed by semi-structured interviews with seven expert professionals regarding the assessment construct, content, and clinical utility. Reliability was assessed with 50 children aged 8 to 12 years with CP (29 males, 21 females; mean age 10y 2mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I=35, II=8, III=5, IV=1; mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition [WISC-IV]=104), whose data was used to calculate internal consistency of the scale, and a subset of 35 children (20 males, 15 females; mean age 10y 5mo; GMFCS level I=26, II=4, III=4, IV=1; mean WISC-IV=103) who participated in test-retest reliability within 14 to 28 days. Face and content validity was supported by positive expert feedback, with only minor adjustments suggested to clarify the wording of some items. After these amendments, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.84-0.91) and moderate to good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.64-0.75) was found for each component. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment is a valid and reliable assessment of self-concept for children with CP aged 8 to 12 years. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental es verificar si los datos empíricos confirman la estructura del Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Personal (APE constituido por cuatro escalas: Autorrealización, Autonomía, Honradez y Ajuste emocional. La inclusión de estas escalas se justifica a través de la revisión conceptual del desarrollo personal, así como de la revisión de instrumentos que evalúan en parte el dominio del autoconcepto. Responden al cuestionario un total de 1135 personas de entre 15 y 65 años, siendo utilizadas las respuestas de 559, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, para un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Entre los tres modelos evaluados (el unidimensional, el de cuatro factores interrelacionados, y el de cuatro factores y uno de segundo orden, el tetradimensional mostró el mejor ajuste a los datos, aunque el modelo factorial de segundo orden tampoco muestra mal ajuste. Se discuten, por último, las implicaciones prácticas de la identificación de dimensiones concretas del autoconcepto y se plantean nuevos interrogantes de investigación a partir de los resultados obtenidos.
Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista
Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.
Full Text Available This article aims to examine the efforts that need to be done in facing the readiness of the working world for vocational education by developing self-concept and self efficacy. The increasingly intense work competition in the current era makes vocational education graduates should prepare themselves to be better prepared in facing the world of work. This is done by developing self-concept that can be formed through the planting of strong religious values, self-confidence, self-acceptance. The more we have a positive self-concept then success will be as expected. Self-efficacy is a physiological and emotional condition, expected to increase the ability to work and adapt to the work environment more easily, because self efficacy shows the implementation of processes that have been done during the previous learning process.
Medina, Melissa S
Effective interpersonal communication skills are needed for pharmacists to deliver patient-centered care. To achieve this outcome with pharmacists, communication skills are emphasized in pharmacy school in required coursework, such as a clinical communication course. One important concept to include in communication coursework is content on perceptions because perceptions influence communication interactions. Specific emphasis should include a focus on self-perceptions and self-concept, because related empirical literature demonstrates that accurate academic self-concepts predict academic success. These results were extrapolated to a pharmacy clinical communications course where a lecture and laboratory series was designed to emphasize self-concept and facilitate communication skills improvement. The instructional design of this series promoted the advancement of students' communication skills by using communication inventories, self-reflection activities, peer and class discussion, and lecture content. Class discussions, self-reflections, and baseline, and follow-up counseling activities throughout the semester provided evidence of improvements.
Full Text Available This paper examines the conceptual foundations of self-concept, self-esteem and the self as they relate to disabled students in the context of physical education. Disable school children experience severe discriminations in society and within the school system, especially if the school is the mainstream type. With increasing emphasis on inclusiveness in school to different groups of excluded children, the need to thoroughly examine the psychological frame of mind of these children is now more important than ever before. Consequently, this paper sought to uncover the fundamental tenets of self-concept of disabled learners and highlight the key characteristics of disabled children. The paper concludes by with an analysis of the major impacts that disabled learners self-concept has on participation in physical education activities.
Effective interpersonal communication skills are needed for pharmacists to deliver patient-centered care. To achieve this outcome with pharmacists, communication skills are emphasized in pharmacy school in required coursework, such as a clinical communication course. One important concept to include in communication coursework is content on perceptions because perceptions influence communication interactions. Specific emphasis should include a focus on self-perceptions and self-concept, because related empirical literature demonstrates that accurate academic self-concepts predict academic success. These results were extrapolated to a pharmacy clinical communications course where a lecture and laboratory series was designed to emphasize self-concept and facilitate communication skills improvement. The instructional design of this series promoted the advancement of students’ communication skills by using communication inventories, self-reflection activities, peer and class discussion, and lecture content. Class discussions, self-reflections, and baseline, and follow-up counseling activities throughout the semester provided evidence of improvements. PMID:17149428
Bao, Xueming; Jin, Kaimin
Previous research has documented the beneficial effect of Tai Chi, but most of the studies focused on elders and patients with specific health conditions. The aim of the study was to test whether Tai Chi can help to improve self-concept in adolescents with a longitudinal study. The sample comprised 160 students from a Chinese middle school; half of students formed the experimental group and the rest formed the control group. A 1-year Tai Chi intervention was delivered in 60-minute sessions, five times a week. Both groups were instructed to complete the measure of self-concept at the beginning and end of the intervention. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of good behaviour, intellectual and school status, popularity and anxiety in the experimental group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Tai Chi intervention could improve self-concept in adolescents. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Fermino Fernandes Sisto
Full Text Available O autoconceito vem sendo considerado na literatura como um constructo multidimensional e um dos aspectos afetivo-emocionais relacionados às dificuldades de aprendizagem. Considerando a importância desse constructo, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se haveria diferenças significativas entre níveis de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e o autoconceito geral, escolar, social, familiar e pessoal de crianças do ensino fundamental. Utilizou-se uma escala para avaliar a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita e outra para avaliação do autoconceito. A amostra foi composta por 277 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 9 e 10 anos, da 3ª série do ensino fundamental. Os resultados evidenciaram que a dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita está significativamente relacionada com o autoconceito geral e com o escolar, verificando-se que conforme aumenta o nível de dificuldade de aprendizagem na escrita diminui o autoconceito.The self-concept as the individual's perception of himself has been considered in the literature as a multidimensional construct and as one of the most influential emotional aspect in learning disabilities. So, the aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences between the levels of learning disabilities related to writing and general, school, social, family and personal self-concepts. Two scales were used, the first assessing the level of learning disabilities of writing and the other assessing self-concept. The sample was composed by 277 9-10 years old students, of both genders, from the third grade of elementary school. The results showed that the learning disabilities of writing are significantly related with general self-concept and with school self-concept, suggesting that the increase of learning disabilities levels means decrease of general and school self-concepts.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate how brand personality and customers’ ‘self’ affects brand engagement. This has become necessary because the focus of most research into brands has often neglected how brand personality and customers’ ‘self’ can be harnessed to achieve brand engagement. This study used Aaker’s brand personality, Keller’s brand engagement, and Sprott et. al. self-concept measurement scales. The research methodology includes the following steps: adaptation of the measurement scales to suit the research context, assessment of reliability and validity of dimensions, and test of goodness-of-fit of model. In all 252 valid responses out of 302 questionnaires distributed were used for the study. The research found that brand personality and customers’ ‘self-concept’ have positive effect on brand engagement. Sincerity has negative relationship with brand engagement and self-concept whiles hedonism has negative relationship with self-concept only. Competence, sophistication and excitement dimensions have significant effects on customers’ self-concept and brand engagement. Sincerity and hedonism also have negative effects on self-concept and brand engagement. Competence, sophistication and excitement can be used as differentiate strategy by Private Universities to deal with the growing competition in Ghana. The findings suggest that Private Universities can differentiate themselves by developing brand personality that is competent and exciting, whereby they can successfully engaged their customers. The authors’ investigations also suggest that self-concept can be measured by splitting Sprott et al measurement scale into two (self-congruence and value-congruence. In the same way, brand engagement can be measured by splitting Keller’s measurement scale into two (identification and ambassador dimensions for theoretical insight. In addition, hedonism has been identified as a useful measure of brand
Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J
The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training
Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Craven, Rhonda G; Marsh, Herbert W
The critical shortage of nurses experienced throughout the western world has prompted researchers to examine one major component of this complex problem - the impact of nurses' professional identity and job satisfaction on retention. A descriptive correlational design with a longitudinal element was used to examine a causal model of nurses' self-concept, job satisfaction, and retention plans in 2002. A random sample of 2000 registered nurses was selected from the state registering authority listing. A postal survey assessing multiple dimensions of nurses' self-concept (measured by the nurse self-concept questionnaire), job satisfaction (measured by the index of work satisfaction) was undertaken at Time 1 (n=528) and 8 months later at Time 2 (n=332) (including retention plans (measured by the Nurse Retention Index). Using confirmatory factor analysis, correlation matrices and path analysis, measurement and structural models were examined on matching pairs of data from T1 and T2 (total sample N=332). Nurses' self-concept was found to have a stronger association with nurses' retention plans (B=.45) than job satisfaction (B=.28). Aspects of pay and task were not significantly related to retention plans, however, professional status (r=.51), and to a lesser extent, organizational policies (r=.27) were significant factors. Nurses' general self-concept was strongly related (r=.57) to retention plans. Strategies or interventions requiring implementation and evaluation include: counseling to improve nurse general self-concept, education programs and competencies in health communication between health professionals, reporting of nurse-initiated programs with substantial patient benefit, nurse-friendly organizational policies, common health team learning opportunities, and autonomous practice models.
Deković, M; Meeus, W
In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.
Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.
Full Text Available Self-concept is defined as a sum of perception, thoughts, feelings, evaluation and prediction about oneself as an experienced object, as a participant in the interaction with physical and social environment. As such, this topic is often encountered in working with children, young people and adults with intellectual disabilities (PWID. However, self-concept of PWID has been investigated mainly through psychometric paradigm, using different types of questionnaires for assessment. This did not provide either enough possibilities for active participation of people with ID in the research process, or the possibilities to reach adequate initial information about self-concept of PWID, which may serve as a baseline for development of support programs for self-determination of PWID. Therefore, this study aimed to examine self-concept of PWID in various domains of interest for PWID: global self-image, personality traits, competencies, difficulties in everyday life, awareness of one's own (intellectual disabilities. The research was conducted through a series of five focus groups, with active participation of PWID, through combined workshop activities and discussions in small groups. Focus groups were conducted once a week and 16 participants were divided into two groups, of different ages (22 to 53 years, sex, type and degree of difficulties. All participants spent most of their lives in institutions. Since 2004, they have been living at supported housing for people with disabilities. Based on the analysis of the participants' testimony, there were three global issues with regard to general self-concept: competences and interests, physical appearance, and social roles. With regard to personality traits, attributes such as 'good', 'obedient', 'valuable' occur most frequently. With regard to their competencies and difficulties, those which are most important for full daily life in supported housing have been cited most often. While they recognize their
Ferrari, Joseph R; Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco
Two samples of university students completed self-report measures of chronic procrastination and either self-concept variables (Sample 1, n = 233) or self-presentational styles (Sample 2, n = 210). Results indicated that procrastination was significantly related to a self-concept of oneself as dominated by issues related to task performance, and to self-presentation strategies that reflected a person as continually justifying and excusing task delays and being "needy" of others' approval. It seems that men and women procrastinate in order to improve their social standing by making their accomplishments seem greater than they really are.
Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich; Eike Emrich
The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years) to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale) and sporting activity, measured motor performance (Germa...
Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Background Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of ‘self’ and refers to the individual’s self-perception as a sexual creature. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. Methods English electronic...
McCauley, James B.; Zajic, Matthew C.; Oswald, Tasha M.; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey E.; McIntyre, Nancy C.; Harris, Michelle A.; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter C.; Solomon, Marjorie
A typically developing student's perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance,…
Funk, Jeanne B.; Buchman, Debra D.
Documents current adolescent electronic game-playing habits, exploring associations among preference for violent games, frequency and location of play, and self-concept. Identifies marked gender differences in game-playing habits and in scores on a self-perception profile. Finds that for girls, more time playing video or computer games is…
Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adolescents' online identity experiments on their social competence and self-concept unity. An online survey was conducted among 1,158 Dutch adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age. Using structural equation modeling, the authors
Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.
Surveyed 426 children from intact, divorced, and reconstituted families, who responded to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children to evaluate their families and themselves. Results showed a significant association between children's self-concepts and both their family structure and family concepts. (JAC)
Liao, Rui; Zheng, Qian; Shi, Bing; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling; Dong, Rui; Shi, Jin; Yang, Chao
To obtain the self-concept psychological feature of cleft lip and palate (CLP) adolescents further and accurately, and offer reasons for timely and pointed psychological intervention. Based on the procedure and criteria of development of psychological questionnaire, a psychological questionnaire for CLP adolescents was designed. 93 CLP and 88 healthy adolescents were studied by using it and their half-quantified score raging 0-9 were analyzed statistically. (1) There was no statistical difference between CLP and normal adolescents, scored 5.91 and 5.66 respectively, which demonstrated that the self-concept of CLP adolescents was at a normal level without obvious passive tendency. (2) There was no significant difference between genders, but boys were more extroversion while girls did better on being unyielding and releasing strain. (3) CLP adolescents had a higher ability of psychological regulation and could face failure more bravely. CLP patients were in a tendency of protective behavior inhibition, companied less, and maximized delight mood unconsciously to decrease harm from enviroment. (4) CLP adolescents had a good parentage. (5) A majority of patients had low expectation of life-quality. (6) Much of CLP patients considered that speech was more important than appearance. Self-concept of CLP adolescents have normal self-concept and do better in psychological regulation and dependence than normal ones.
Nonparametric t-test was employed to test significant di fferences between boys and girls among the three groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post -hoc test were calculated to examine the effect of obesity on the children's physical self-concept. The results showed that overweight and obese children were tal ...
Spilt, J.L.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Leflot, G.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social
This study compared study habit, self-concept and science achievement of students in public and private junior secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were randomly selected from Egba and Ijebu divisions of the state. A sample of three hundred and sixty (360) students participated in the ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.
Luchies, Laura B; Finkel, Eli J; McNulty, James K; Kumashiro, Madoka
We build on principles from interdependence theory and evolutionary psychology to propose that forgiving bolsters one's self-respect and self-concept clarity if the perpetrator has acted in a manner that signals that the victim will be safe and valued in a continued relationship with the perpetrator but that forgiving diminishes one's self-respect and self-concept clarity if the perpetrator has not. Study 1 employed a longitudinal design to demonstrate that the association of marital forgiveness with trajectories of self-respect over the first 5 years of marriage depends on the spouse's dispositional tendency to indicate that the partner will be safe and valued (i.e., agreeableness). Studies 2 and 3 employed experimental procedures to demonstrate that the effects of forgiveness on self-respect and self-concept clarity depend on the perpetrator's event-specific indication that the victim will be safe and valued (i.e., amends). Study 4 employed a longitudinal design to demonstrate that the association of forgiveness with subsequent self-respect and self-concept clarity similarly depends on the extent to which the perpetrator has made amends. These studies reveal that, under some circumstances, forgiveness negatively impacts the self. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Wilson, Patti; Rhymer, Katrina; Landis, Julie; Skinner, Christopher
A project was undertaken to investigate the effects of tootling on social skills, self-concept, interpersonal relations, and classroom environment. The tootling intervention reinforces students for engaging in acts of kindness. Two fifth-grade classes participated in the study over a seven-week period. The Social Skills Rating System, the…
Noguti, Valeria; Bokeyar, Alexandra L
It is well accepted that materialism may result in a number of negative consequences, hence the importance of improving its understanding. In this paper, we propose that materialism negatively relates to self-concept uncertainty. Uncertainty about oneself is aversive and those feeling uncertain may use the possession of material objects as a way to reduce the uncertainty. Inasmuch as material objects can serve as concrete signs of self-worth, self-concept uncertainty can therefore relate to more materialism. Over two studies, one in Australia and the other in the US, with a total of 390 participants, our research demonstrates that lower clarity about one's self-concept associates with higher levels of materialism. While this result holds for both genders, this relationship is considerably stronger for women compared to men. We also find that lower self-concept clarity relates to higher compulsive buying. We further demonstrate that materialism relates to higher positive moods during shopping, and also relates to higher negative moods after shopping, more notably negative moods towards what was purchased. This effect is significant even when controlling for general affective states. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
Conclusions: The self-concept of the school-age child needs to be supported. It has been submitted that the themes can be supportive for the prospective nursing models concerning child′s self-exposure. It has been suggested that the themes produced by "Nursing Intervention: Play Model" can be used while planning, implementation, and assessment of the nursing care.
Katzko, Michael W.; Steverink, Nardi; Dittmann-Kohli, Freya; Herrera, Ramona Rubio
Examines the self-concept of the elderly from a cross-cultural perspective utilizing a sample of Spanish and Dutch elderly. Analysis focuses on responses to sentences which probed respondents' motivations and future plans and goals. Differences can be interpreted as reflecting an individualistic (Dutch) versus collectivistic (Spanish) distinction…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.
Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane
Much more attention has been given to the health implications of overweight and obesity than to the psychosocial implications. In order to combat obesity effectively, it is important to understand the implications of overweight on self-concept, self-esteem, and physical activity levels. Youth obesity has been associated with negative psychosocial…
Thomason, Jessica D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel
Social capital was examined as a mediator of the association between youth development program participation and gains in self-concept in a sample of 86 primarily African American female adolescents in the Cool Girls, program, and 89 comparisons. Two dimensions of social capital (the diversity of girls' social networks and the number of life…
This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…
The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…
ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Aim To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Background Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Aim To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Background Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Bisconti, Toni L
The self-concept is often considered to be a personal resource that individuals may use to cope with life stressors, but little is known about how this entity might itself change in response to profound stress. The present study examines structural change in self-concept following conjugal loss in later life. Analyses were conducted on data collected from 57 widows every 4 months over the first 2 years post-loss. The first objective was to explore the adequacy of an operational definition of the self-concept as a latent construct lying at the confluence of self-esteem, perceived environmental mastery, and optimism. Because confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported this theoretically based conceptualization, the second objective of the study was to model stability and change in the structure of the self-concept over the 2-year study period. Results suggested that there is both stability and change in the self-system during the adjustment to major life stress.
Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study examined whether teacher-child interactions characterized by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support at the beginning of second grade predicted children's global, academic, social, and behavioural self-concept at the end of second grade. The study was conducted in 30 second grade classrooms with 570 children and their…
Yoshida, Karen K.
This article discusses how experiences during rehabilitation may influence self-concept among individuals who have sustained a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Experiences are illustrated by personal accounts of 35 individuals (28 men and 7 women) with SCI. Data suggest that aspects of the rehabilitation process may need to be restructured.…
Emery, Lydia F; Gardner, Wendi L; Finkel, Eli J; Carswell, Kathleen L
People often pursue self-change, and having a romantic partner who supports these changes increases relationship satisfaction. However, most existing research focuses only on the experience of the person who is changing. What predicts whether people support their partner's change? People with low self-concept clarity resist self-change, so we hypothesized that they would be unsupportive of their partner's changes. People with low self-concept clarity did not support their partner's change (Study 1a), because they thought they would have to change, too (Study 1b). Low self-concept clarity predicted failing to support a partner's change, but not vice versa (Studies 2 and 3), and only for larger changes (Study 3). Not supporting a partner's change predicted decreases in relationship quality for both members of the couple (Studies 2 and 3). This research underscores the role of partners in self-change, suggesting that failing to support a partner's change may stem from self-concept confusion.
Oh, Susan Y.; And Others
Relationships between parental overprotection and fifth-graders' self-concept and level of social and school functioning were examined by means of systematic observations of parent-child interactions in the home, parent and child self-reports, teacher and peer ratings, grades, and achievement scores. Subjects were 43 middle-to-upper-middle income…
Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.
The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…
Full Text Available Previous researchers have described the relation between physical self-concept and body mass in adolescents, but those relationships have not been clearly specified by gender. The purpose of this study is to explore physical self-concepts of normal-weight and over-weight Serbian adolescents with respect to gender. The sample consisted of 417 primary school students (229 boys and 188 girls with the average age 13.6 (SD=0.73 years who were divided into normal-weight and overweight groups according to body mass index. To assess the multidimensional physical self-concept, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ was administered. Results showed that overweight adolescents had significantly lower scores than normal-weight on all PSDQ scales except Health and Strength. Differences were greater among girls than boys. Discriminant analysis showed that the scales Body Fat, Endurance and Sports Competence best differentiated normal-weight boys from other students. Also, discriminant analysis showed that, besides the scale Body Fat, scales Flexibility, Self-Esteem, and Coordination best differentiated normal-weight girls from other students. Results indicate that for better understanding of the relationship between adolescent’s physical self-concept and body mass one must take gender into account. Results are potentially valuable for preventing overweight through physical education.
Yang, Sung Hee; Choi, Jeong Mee; Lee, Ji Soo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method to improve the job satisfaction of sonograpers by analyzing the factors affecting professional self-concept and job satisfaction. For data collection, total 141 sonographers working in Busan took part in the structured questionnaire survey. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS. For verification of the professional self-concept and job satisfaction, independent t-test and one way ANOVA were executed. When the statistical significance was verified, Sheffe was used for post hoc test. As a result, professional self-concept and job satisfaction were higher when got married, and also when a proper salary was paid according to work experience and professional qualification was acquired. In addition, the factors that have the greatest effect on the job satisfaction were analyzed as professional self concept. In conclusion, in order to improve the job satisfaction of sonographers, it is necessary not only to establish a professional qualification system for the job skill development but also to provide an appropriate compensation system according to work experience
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…
Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette
The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States took…
Wang, Ze; Su, Ihui
This study examined the longitudinal factor structure of general self-concept and locus of control among high school students over a 4-year period, with data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Measurement invariance was tested over time and across gender and ethnic groups; second-order piecewise latent growth models were…
Revicki, Dennis A.
The relationship among socio-economic status, sibling variables, social-psychological home environment, parent involvement in intervention programs, and child self-concept and achievement were empirically investigated to determine the importance and kind of parent participation most closely related to childrens' cognitive and affective…
Sengsavang, Sonia; Krettenauer, Tobias
This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of children's moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed…
Lohbeck, Annette; Grube, Dietmar; Moschner, Barbara
A great deal of research shows that the way in which children attribute causes to their successes and failures in school has implications for the development of their academic self-concept (ASC). The most common attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. The present study asked 68 elementary school children aged seven to eight…
Gent, T. van; Goedhart, A.W.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Westenberg, P.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.
Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeff F.
The central purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of how community service involvement affects the development of undergraduate self-concept. The findings from this study suggest that the quality of service involvement is more important than the amount of service performed by students. (Contains 23 references and 2 tables.)…
Gish, R. Brian
This doctoral dissertation compares the self-concept of people with visual impairments with that of normally sighted individuals in 14 studies from various geographical regions in the United States. Discussion of methodological issues examines first, definitions regarding the self (self-image, self-perception, self-evaluation, self-esteem,…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Dowson, Martin; Pietsch, James; Walker, Richard
Multicollinearity is a well-known general problem, but it also seriously threatens valid interpretations in structural equation models. Illustrating this problem, J. Pietsch, R. Walker, and E. Chapman (2003) found paths leading to achievement were apparently much larger for self-efficacy (.55) than self-concept (-.05), suggesting--erroneously, as…
The purpose of this longitudinal, multi-institution study was to examine through multilevel analyses the influence of: (1) interracial interactions on student-faculty interactions; and (2) interracial interactions and student-faculty interactions on intellectual self-concept. Social participation and involvement theory, as they are constructed…
Stein, Rita F.
Compared self-concept of obese (N=28) and nonobese (N=58) female students in a junior nursing class. Found that obese students and students who considered themselves to be obese had lower self-esteem than did nonobese students. Revealed no relationships with regard to age of onset of obesity, and no significant relationships between social class…
Silvestre, Nuria; Ramspott, Anna; Pareto, Irenka D.
The starting point for this study is the importance of linguistic competence in deaf students as part of their process of socialization and the formation of their self-concept. With the 56 deaf students who participated in the research, we consider the following sociodemographic variables: age, sex and degree of hearing loss, and the educational…
Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…
Canfield, Jack; Wells, Harold C.
This handbook for teachers and parents presents 100 practical and easily applicable ways to enhance the self-concept of children in the classroom or at home. The techniques are drawn from many of the newer approaches to self-development such as gestalt therapy, psychosynthesis, guided fantasy, sensory awareness, transactional analysis, expressive…
Van der Beek, Jojanneke P J; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Leseman, Paul P M
BACKGROUND: Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions.
Halpin, Glennelle; And Others
In a study of teacher trainees' personality characteristics related to pupil control, humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, expedient, positive, imaginative, venturesome, relaxed and had high self-concepts. Authoritarian educators were more affected by feelings, conscientious, sober, practical, shy, reserved, tense and…
Huck, Sally; Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark
Background: Positive self-concept is an important educational outcome for individuals with disability. Method: Perceived competence and acceptance of 17 children with intellectual disability, included in mainstream classes, were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA) and…
Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani
Conclusion Aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR have a positive and significant effect on self-concept. Based on these findings, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity is recommended as a useful method for improving this personality trait among older adults.
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…
Parker, Woodroe M.; And Others
Presents an eight-session seminar designed to increase participants' study skills and to redefine participants' self-concepts from those characterized by feelings of inadequacy and frustration to concepts of selves as competent and capable. Learning strategies, two-way communication, learning styles, note making, test taking, vocational planning,…
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…
Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…
Chang, Hyo Jung
This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…
Abed, Mohaned Ghazi
Inculcating positive thinking can act as a valuable tool in enhancing the overall self-concept of children with learning disabilities. The value of positive psychology is recognized as the basis for recent research conducted in the field of strength development. Positive psychology is centered on the view that individual lives can be improved by…
Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.
Research shows that parenting style may strongly influence children's and adolescents' development. The present study reexamined this association, using a sample of 123 midwestern college students enrolled in a human development class. Participants' self-concepts varied directly with the perceived level of warmth displayed by both their fathers…
Bellmore, A.D.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
In order to better understand self-concept development, the association between adolescents' social self-perceptions and their peers' perceptions of them was examined in a three-year longitudinal study of 491 middle school students. Each spring for three years, adolescents' peer-perceived
Wang, Jianjun; Oliver, Steve; Garcia, Augustine
Positive self-concept and good understanding of science are important indicators of scientific literacy endorsed by professional organizations. The existing research literature suggests that these two indicators are reciprocally related and mutually reinforcing. Generalization of the reciprocal model demands empirical studies in different…
Augusto Landa, José María; López-Zafra, Esther; Aguilar-Luzón, Maria del Carmen; de Ugarte, Maria Fe Salguero
This study examines the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence, in nursing students' self-concept, controlling personality dimensions. Self-image is a cognitive component of the self that contains images of who we are, what we want to be and what we express and wish to express to others. Likewise, there is also an emotional and assessable component known as self-esteem. For a profession that requires not only technical expertise but also psychologically oriented care, knowledge about the self in nursing would be crucial to further development and growth of the profession. However, the role of emotions in the formation of nursing professionals has been scarcely studied. One hundred and thirty five undergraduates from nursing studies voluntarily participated in our study. They completed a questionnaire that comprises several scales. Our results show positive correlations between the Clarity and Emotional Repair components of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and all scales of the self-concept scale. Furthermore, we found positive relationships between the Extraversion and Accountability components of personality with almost all the scales of the self-concept and negative relationships with personality and neuroticism components of the self-concept.
Beek, J.P.J. van der; Ven, S.H.G. van der; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Leseman, P.P.M.
Background: Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions.
Hamachek, Don E.
Suggests criteria developed within context of Erikson's first five psychosocial stages that may help in evaluating self-concept and ego development. To assess strengths and weaknesses in self's growth as it progresses through the stages, five behavioral expressions tables are presented, each illustrating possible behaviors and implicit attitudes…
Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.
Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…
Suggests behavioral criteria that can be used for assessing the status of self-concept and ego development in Erikson's last three psychosocial stages. Presents three tables of different behavioral expressions, each providing examples of possible behaviors and implicit attitudes related to positive and negative ego resolutions associated with last…
Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Mee [School of Liberal Arts, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Soo [Dept. of Radiology, University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to develop a method to improve the job satisfaction of sonograpers by analyzing the factors affecting professional self-concept and job satisfaction. For data collection, total 141 sonographers working in Busan took part in the structured questionnaire survey. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS. For verification of the professional self-concept and job satisfaction, independent t-test and one way ANOVA were executed. When the statistical significance was verified, Sheffe was used for post hoc test. As a result, professional self-concept and job satisfaction were higher when got married, and also when a proper salary was paid according to work experience and professional qualification was acquired. In addition, the factors that have the greatest effect on the job satisfaction were analyzed as professional self concept. In conclusion, in order to improve the job satisfaction of sonographers, it is necessary not only to establish a professional qualification system for the job skill development but also to provide an appropriate compensation system according to work experience.
Ali, Mohammed Y.
This paper examines the conceptual foundations of self-concept, self-esteem and the self as they relate to disabled students in the context of physical education. Disable school children experience severe discriminations in society and within the school system, especially if the school is the mainstream type. With increasing emphasis on…
Leménager, Tagrid; Gwodz, Alexander; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Kämmerer, Nina; Sell, Madlen; Mann, Karl
Previous studies on Internet addiction point towards a particular constellation of personality traits and deficits in social competence of players addicted to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), which are hypothesized to result from impairments in self-concept. The aim of this study was to examine differences in self-concept and degree of avatar identification in World of Warcraft addicted, non-addicted and naive (nonexperienced) participants. Participants (n = 45) completed interviews and self-report questionnaires on social, emotional and physical aspects of self-concept. Attributes of participants' 'actual self', 'ideal self' and their avatar were assessed using the Giessen test. The extent of avatar identification was examined by assessing differences between 'ideal self' and avatar evaluations. In contrast to nonaddicted and naive participants, addicted players showed a more negative body appraisal and lower self-esteem as well as lower permeability, social response, general mood and social potency on the Giessen test subscales. They further showed significantly lower discrepancies between 'ideal self' and avatar ratings on nearly all Giessen test subscales. The results point towards impairments in self-concept and a higher degree in avatar identification in addicted MMORPG players compared to the remaining participants. These results could have important implications for the treatment of addicted MMORPG players. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…
Yvonne ten Hoeve; Prof. Dr. Petrie F. Roodbol; Gerard Jansen
Aim. To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses’ self-concept and professional identity. Background. Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
Sang Ho eLee
Full Text Available People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one’s own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; ‘switching’, ‘mutual rush’, ‘mutual avoidance’, and ‘unfair’ patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with ‘switching’ and ‘mutual avoidance’ patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the ‘unfair’ and ‘mutual rush’ patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.
Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung-Phil; Cho, Yang Seok
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; “switching,” “mutual rush,” “mutual avoidance,” and “unfair” patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with “switching” and “mutual avoidance” patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the “unfair” and “mutual rush” patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status. PMID:26441707
Kohr, Richard L.
This study examined five subscales of the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment self-concept scale, composed largely of items from the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) and sex differences in internal consistency, stability, across time changes in means, and relationship with achievement. In general,…
Bernhoft, Franklin O.
A study incorporated Donald Felker's 5 Keys to Self-Concept Enhancement in 20 minutes of timed writing weekly or bi-weekly for three months using the Coopersmith Adult Form as pre-post measure. Felker's 5 Keys are: (1) adults, praise yourselves; (2) help children evaluate realistically; (3) teach children to set realistic goals; (4) teach children…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Tan, Eleanor Lourdes C.; Tan, Ernestine Faye S.; Tan, Justin Ryan L.; Tan, Mervyn C.; Tanciano, Daris Mae M.; Lee Say, Matthew L. Tang
The interplay among self-concept, disposition, and resilience mirrors how the condition affects the emotional status of poststroke Filipino elderly with residual paralysis. Despite healthcare professionals' understanding of these clients' physical conditions, little is known regarding these clients' emotional health status related to stroke.…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Rickels, Heather; Assouline, Susan G.; Richards, Allison
Intellectually gifted students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face unique academic and social challenges, yet little research has been conducted with this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-esteem and self-concept of intellectually gifted children with and without a coexisting diagnosis of ADHD.…
Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…
Sert, Hilal Parlak; Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of 7.12±2.18 regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and 29.0±2.47 regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of 8.61±3.76 (p=0.000) and 28.1±3.49 (p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (pself-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.
Zubeldia, Miren; Goñi, Eider; Díaz, Maravillas; Goñi, Alfredo
The aim of this study is to analyze the psychometric properties of the Musical Self-Concept Questionnaire (CAMU), an abbreviated and culturally adapted Spanish language version of the Music Self-Perception Inventory (MUSPI) developed by Vispoel. Participants comprised 1,126 students from professional and advanced conservatories located in…
Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Amado-Alonso, Diana; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; León-del-Barco, Benito
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature. PMID:28596750
Mekonnen, Mulat; Hannu, Savolainen; Elina, Lehtomäki; Matti, Kuorelahti
The present study investigated the self-concept of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students in different educational settings compared with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 Grade 4 students selected from 7 towns in Ethiopia. They were selected from a special school for the deaf, a special class for the…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
Yang, Lan; Arens, A. Katrin; Watkins, David A.
In order to extend previous research on the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e. its domain-specific structure and separation into competence and affect components), the present study tests its generalisability among vocational students from mainland China. A Chinese version of self-description questionnaire I was…
Van der Beek, Jojanneke P. J.; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.
Background: Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. Aims: The aims were (1) to investigate the…
Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad
The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…
Calero, Flor R.; Dalley, Christopher; Fernandez, Nicole; Davenport-Dalley, Tania Marie; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Tatum, Stephanie L.
This study examined how Hispanic students' academic self-concept influences the independent variables of family academic expectations, peer relationships, schoolwork, and student-teacher relationships. A survey was administered to 222 ninth-grade students in Long Island, New York, 99 of whom self-identified as Hispanic. A structural equation model…
Kasperski, Ronen; Shany, Michal; Katzir, Tami
Social identity theory states that a person's self-concept is created from comparison with others (Walsh & Gordon, 2008). In the case of reading, oral reading is a salient feature young children have to compare themselves on to their classroom peer group. The current study was set to explore the ability of oral reading tasks such as rapid…
Košir, Katja; Horvat, Marina; Aram, Urška; Jurinec, Nina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different…
Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra
The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.
Natalia Yu. Marchuk
Full Text Available Currently the Ministry of Finance is working on the issue of gradual increase of the retirement age, while various specialists are actively discussing the pros and cons of this potential change. The issue of determining the characteristics of the labour force participation of elder people and their participation in society is complex and multifaceted. A retired person’s capability for activity, willingness to get enrolled in society vary considerably depending on health, psychological well-being, self-attitude. The paper examines one’s self-concept as a generalized set of ideas about their own physical, psychological, social features As a central component of identity and self-regulation of the retired citizens. The results of the study presented in the paper reveal the retirement age as a period of human ontogenesis, during which their self-concept is undergoing a number of changes. Based on the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the following periods of the individual development at the retirement age is proposed: early retirement, mid retirement, late retirement. Each of the periods is described taking into account age peculiarities of self-awareness and the self-concept. The paper shows the crisis nature of the self-concept development in people of the retirement age. It also highlights normative age-graded crises: the retirement crisis, the crisis of self-sufficiency, the crisis of integrity. The paper also highlights gender-specific features of the self-concept in retired citizens. The study was conducted using a sample of 120 unemployed pensioners from the cities Yekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk Oblast (Sverdlovsk region, Russia. To study the features of the self-concept of the retired citizens the following methods were used: «Who am I?» (M. Kun for studying the content of the self-concept, the self-relation test (V. V. Stolin, S. R. Pantileev for analysinge self-attitude of the retired citizens, the technique of personal
Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that
Bogart, Kathleen R
Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ
The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...
Fritchie Marsh, near Slidell, Louisiana, is being considered as a disposal site for sewage effluent. A two-dimensional, finite element, surface water modeling systems was used to solve the shallow water equations for flow. Factors affecting flow patterns are channel locations, inlets, outlets, islands, marsh vegetation, marsh geometry, stage of the West Pearl River, flooding over the lower Pearl River basin, gravity tides, wind-induced currents, and sewage discharge to the marsh. Four steady-state simulations were performed for two hydrologic events at two rates of sewage discharge. The events, near tide with no wind or rain and neap tide with a tide differential across the marsh, were selected as worst-case events for sewage effluent dispersion and were assumed as steady state events. Because inflows and outflows to the marsh are tidally affected, steady state simulations cannot fully define the hydraulic characteristics of the marsh for all hydrologic events. Model results and field data indicate that, during near tide with little or no rain, large parts of the marsh are stagnant; and sewage effluent, at existing and projected flows, has minimal effect on marsh flows. (USGS)
"Teenagers” Self Concept in Terms Of Gender, Cultural Background and Status at The Orphanage of Padang City "Teenagers” Self Concept in Terms of Gender, Cultural Background and Status at The Orphanage of Padang City
Full Text Available Self-concept of someone is heavily influenced by various factors, which include gender, cultural background and status. Related to guidance and counseling services in improving teenagers’ self-concept who live in an orphanage, is necessary to obtain a clear description about self- concept with a variety of factors that can affect it. This research uses a quantitative approach to type descriptive comparative. The research methods applied in the study was ex post facto with a sampling of data retrieval, research design using factorial design 2 x 4 x 2. Teenager’s self-concept of men and women are in middle category, average value of boys’ score are higher than girls, it means that boys have more positive view of themselves than girls. 2 Teenager’s self-concept in orphanages based on the cultural background of the Minangkabau, Mentawai, Java, and Batak are in middle category, there were no differences in teenager’ self-concept based on the cultural background of the Minangkabau, Mentawai, Java, and Batak who lives in an orphanage. 3 Teenager’s self-concept with orphan status and surrogate parents are in middle category, average value scores of teenager orphan status is higher than teenagers with the status of surrogate parents, it means that teenagers with orphan status have positive view of himself rather than teenagers with surrogate parent status. 4 Teenager’s self-concept in terms of gender, cultural background, and status are in middle category, and there are interactions between gender variable, cultural background and status in explaining teenager’s self-concept. The implications of these results for the counselor are for a material consideration in the preparation of counseling service programs in improving teenager’s self-concept in an orphanage.
Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana
Considering the essential role that socio-motivational relationships at school play with respect to achievement motivation, this study examined the differences between students with a low school self-concept and students with a high school self-concept in a large sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N= 1088; M[subscript Age]= 13.7) in secondary…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Chung, Paul J.; Wong, Mitchell D.
Background: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral…
Ahmed, Wondimu; Bruinsma, Marjon
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance by integrating constructs from self-concept and self-determination theories and to explore cultural group differences in the model. To this end, self-report measures of global self-esteem, academic self-concept, academic motivation and academic performance were…
Ullman, Chana; Tatar, Moshe
Examined self-concept, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among 119 immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and 135 Israeli classmates. Immigrant adolescents reported less satisfaction with their lives and less congruence between their self-concept and the ways in which they were perceived by others. (SLD)
Hawes, David J.; Helyer, Rebekah; Herlianto, Eugene C.; Willing, Jonah
This study tested if children and adolescents with high levels of borderline personality features (BPF) exhibit the same shame-prone self-concept previously found to characterize adults with borderline personality disorder (Rusch et al., 2007). Self-concept was indexed using the Implicit Association Test, in a community sample of…
Rinn, Anne N.; Miner, Kathi; Taylor, Aaron B.
The purpose of the current study was to examine four family context variables (socioeconomic status, mother's level of education, father's level of education, and perceived family social support) as predictors of math self-concept among undergraduate STEM majors to better understand the gender differential in math self-concept. Participants…
The present study aimed at understanding the nature and potential dynamism of five pre-service EFL teachers' self-concepts in the domain of English as a foreign language (EFL). To this end, the effects of pre-service teachers' experiences gained alongside the practicum on their EFL self-concept development were also discussed. Data were generated…
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi
The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.
This article examines the influence of career self-management and vocational self-concept crystallization on job decision effectiveness and how vocational self-concept crystallization mediates the relationship between career self-management and job decision effectiveness. Six hundred and eleven Chinese employees participated in the research. Using…
Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios
This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne
Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…
Schubert, T.K.; Koole, S.L.
In line with recent theories of embodied cognition, the authors propose that the self-concept may be embodied in sensory-motor representations. To test this notion, two studies investigated the effects of bodily feedback from a gesture associated with power (making a fist) on the self-concept. As
Amesberger, G; Müller, E; Würth, S
Physical self-concept in the elderly is assumed to be structured in terms of different domains and to contribute substantially to life satisfaction. However, little is known about the role of the physical self-concept in older persons that are engaged in physical activity while suffering from typical age-related impairments or chronic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the structure of physical self-concept in a group of older persons with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its development throughout a 12-week skiing intervention, and its importance to life satisfaction. Factor analyses of the present data reveal that the physical self-concept consists of four dimensions addressing strength, flexibility/coordination, endurance, and sportiness. One higher order factor extracted by hierarchical factor analyses reflects a global physical self-concept. The 12-week skiing intervention had no substantial impact in terms of an improvement of self-concept. Life satisfaction is best predicted by positive changes in the subjective ratings between pre- and post-test (i.e., global physical self-concept, flexibility and coordination, and perceived sportiness) and not by objective physical performance (isokinetic strength, endurance, or coordination). Results support the assumption that physical self-concept of older people with TKA is only marginally sensitive to a 12-week skiing intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kamoru, Usman; Ramon, Olosunde Gbolagade
This study examined the relationship between self-concept, attitude of the students towards mathematics, and math achievement. Also, this study investigated the influence of study habits on achievement; study habits on attitude of students to mathematics. The influence of gender and self-concept and study habit group on achievement and attitude…
Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Denny, Bianca; Davis, Kate; Francis, Andrew; Jackson, Mervyn
Self-concept is one important yet understudied construct, often associated with healthy children's well-being, and particularly crucial for those raised in rural disadvantaged communities. Also, commonly acknowledged is that adults, including parents and teachers, play an important role in fostering self-concept. The overall aim of the current…
Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA. Composto por duas escalas (masculina e feminina, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito das mulheres. A amostra foi composta por estudantes universitárias do sexo feminino. Análises fatoriais foram realizadas para ambas as escalas (Principal Axis Factoring, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, assim como foram avaliados os índices de consistência interna dos fatores (Alfa de Cronbach para que o instrumento fosse apropriadamente validado. Os resultados demonstraram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais. Devidamente validado, o IFEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo feminino.The purpose of this article was to elaborate and validate the Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA. Composed by two scales (masculine and feminine scales, this instrument evaluates female self-concept's gender schemas. The sample was composed by female university students. Factorial analysis for both scales (Principal Axis Factoring with oblique and orthogonal rotations was performed, as well as the internal factors consistency analysis (Cronbach's Alpha, in order to validate the instrument. The results showed that IFEGA´s scales are composed by multifactorial structures. It can be stated that both scales may be used in the evaluation of the female self-concept's gender schemas.
Background: Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of SCC change (especially stable increase and “V” shape) observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable SCC increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while SCC change characterized by a “V” shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M = 5.8) was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Symptoms' Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The SCCS was also administered every 2 weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable SCC increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and “V” shape of SCC change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of SCC is a sign of a good treatment prognosis. PMID:26579001
Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen
This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.
Wu, Dongmei; Jiang, Xiaolian; Ho, Kit-Wan; Duan, Lijuan; Zhang, Weiqing
Experiencing a major natural disaster is a stressful event that challenges survival and sense of self. Adolescents are undergoing rapid developmental change in self-concept, and their sense of self is particularly susceptible to such stressful events. Although many studies have investigated adolescent self-concept, few have examined self-concept in relation to experiencing a natural disaster. Following the Great Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, in 2008, this study aimed to (a) describe disaster experiences; (b) describe social support, coping, and self-support; and (c) identify disaster experiences, social support, and coping factors associated with self-concept of adolescent survivors 3 months after the earthquake. This was a large-scale cross-sectional study. A total of 1,976 adolescents living where the earthquake caused the most severe damage took part. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale; Coping Styles Scale; and Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales were used to assess self-concept, coping strategy, and locus of control, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, earthquake experiences, and social support were also obtained by self-report. Three months after the disaster, adolescent self-concept was generally positive. Locus of control centered on powerful others was the strongest predictor of total self-concept. The negative coping strategy, "abreacting," was a positive predictor of negative self-concept (self-criticism). Close attention to adolescents who use negative coping strategies and who tend to lack a sense of control is needed after major disaster events. Studies that examine long-term relationships between earthquake and other major disaster experiences and self-concept of adolescent survivors are needed.
Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas
Research on children's physical self-concept (PSC) is increasingly recognised as an important field of psychology. However, there is a lack of instruments suitable for younger children at elementary school age. In the present study, a short German 21-item Physical Self-Concept-Questionnaire for children (PSCQ-C) was tested measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC (strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination, physical appearance, global sport competence). A number of 770 elementary school children aged 8-12 years completed the PSCQ-C. Results showed good psychometric properties and high reliabilities of the seven scales. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the presumed 7-factor model fitted the data best compared to a global 1- and 2-factor model. Also, full measurement invariance was strongly established. Correlations among the seven scales were mainly moderate. Gender differences were suggestive of developmental trends that are consistent with prior studies. These results provide support that the PSCQ-C is a confidential instrument with sound psychometric properties measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC.
González-Martí, Irene; Fernández Bustos, Juan Gregorio; Hernández-Martínez, Andrea; Contreras Jordán, Onofre Ricardo
Individuals affected by Muscle Dysmorphia (MD; body image disorder based on the sub estimation of muscle size), practice weightlifting in order to alleviate their muscular dissatisfaction. Although physical activity is associated with increased physical self-perception, we assume that this was not reproduced in full in people with MD. The study sample consisted of 734 weightlifters and bodybuilders, 562 men and 172 women, who completed the Escala de Satisfacción Muscular, the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire, and from whom measures of body fat and Fat -Free Mass Index (FFMI) were obtained. The results showed that people suffering from MD symptoms, overall, have poorer physical self-concept perceptions (F = 18.46 - 34.77, p < .01).
Full Text Available Abstract. This study aims to determine the effect of self-concepts on mathematics learning achievement of students of class X at State Senior High School 14 Medan. The population in this study is all students of class X State Senior High School 14 Medan which amounted to 304 students. Technique of sampling using technique of Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling counted 40 student for research sample. Data collection using questionnaire method and documentation method. Data analysis technique used is regression analysis, correlation analysis and t test with significance level of 5%. Testing data in this study using the help of SPSS 15 for Windows program for each test result. The results showed that there is a significant influence between self-concept and mathematics learning achievement obtained from the t count (3,572> t table (1.68, with a probability significance of 0.01 <0.05. The magnitude of the determination coefficient of 25.1%
Katzko, M W; Steverink, N; Dittmann-Kohli, F; Herrera, R R
This study examines the self-concept of the elderly in a cross-cultural perspective. An open-ended sentence completion methodology was employed. A sample of elderly Spanish and elderly Dutch were compared to gain an idea of the cross-cultural generality of the content of the self-concept. Analysis focuses on responses to sentences which probed the respondents' motivations and future plans and goals. Differences could be interpreted as reflecting an individualistic (Dutch) vs. collectivistic (Spanish) distinction between the two cultures. Furthermore, the findings had implications for how to interpret dimensions of meaningful aging. For example, a dimension such as "purpose in life" was more generalizable across the two samples than a dimension such as "autonomy."
Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Wheeler, S Christian
Drawing on distinctiveness and social identity theories, the present studies tested whether minority opinion holders would have a more clearly defined sense of self than majority opinion holders. In Study 1, participants who were induced to believe that they held a minority opinion on a controversial issue had higher subsequent self-concept clarity scores than did those who were induced to believe that they held a majority opinion, controlling for self-esteem. Furthermore, the relationship between minority opinion status and self-concept clarity was strongest among participants whose opinions were highly expressive of their values (Studies 2 and 3), as well as among participants who identified strongly with the group in which they were a minority (Study 3). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available In hypertensive patients, a negative self-concept (body-image, self- ideal, self-esteem, self-role and self-identity will trigger a depression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-concept with the degree of depression in hypertensive patients at the Masalle Community Health Center, Masalle Sub District, Enrekang District. The subjects of this cross sectional study were 71 hypertensive patients selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through questionnaire, then analyzed descriptively in the form of frequency and percentage, then continued with Chi square test, and ended with multiple linear regression test. The results of data analysis show that body-image and self-esteem is associated with the degree of depression in hypertensive patients.
Full Text Available This study aims to clarify the impact of sport specialty in physical self concept and gender, and also the difference in the dimension of the physical self concept. A sample of research is made up of 169 sportsmen in different disciplines from Chlef ’s sport league with an average age of 18.3± 2.45 (soccer , volleyball, athleticism. The Physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ was used to measure the concept of physical self-according to multidimensional perspectives. The research results have demonstrated that the kind of sport discipline practiced by high level players has an impact on their understanding of their physical selves, and the second results might assert the general approximation which we are about to speak about. Gender issue influences self-esteem in relation to individuals, yet in the field of sport, we realize that males and females are equal at the level of all other dimensions of the questioner.
de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard P
Eighty patients and thirty controls were interviewed using one interview that promoted personal disclosure and another about everyday topics. Speech was scored using the Thought, Language and Communication scale (TLC). All participants completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) and the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ). Patients scored lower than comparisons on the SCCS. Low scores were associated the disorganized dimension of TD. Patients also scored significantly higher on condensed and other people in inner speech, but not on dialogical or evaluative inner speech. The poverty of speech dimension of TD was associated with less dialogical inner speech, other people in inner speech, and less evaluative inner speech. Hallucinations were significantly associated with more other people in inner speech and evaluative inner speech. Clarity of self-concept and qualities of inner speech are differentially associated with dimensions of TD. The findings also support inner speech models of hallucinations.
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536
de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard P.
Abstract Eighty patients and thirty controls were interviewed using one interview that promoted personal disclosure and another about everyday topics. Speech was scored using the Thought, Language and Communication scale (TLC). All participants completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) and the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ). Patients scored lower than comparisons on the SCCS. Low scores were associated the disorganized dimension of TD. Patients also scored significantly higher on condensed and other people in inner speech, but not on dialogical or evaluative inner speech. The poverty of speech dimension of TD was associated with less dialogical inner speech, other people in inner speech, and less evaluative inner speech. Hallucinations were significantly associated with more other people in inner speech and evaluative inner speech. Clarity of self-concept and qualities of inner speech are differentially associated with dimensions of TD. The findings also support inner speech models of hallucinations. PMID:27898489
Lear, Mary K; Pepper, Carolyn M
Recent research has linked identity instability with engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; Claes, Luyckx, & Bijttebier, 2014; Claes et al., 2015). This study examined the relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC), an index of identity stability, and NSSI in a sample of 147 college students, using a cross-sectional survey design. The relationship between SCC and emotion dysregulation in NSSI severity was also examined. SCC was significantly negatively associated with NSSI engagement, as well as NSSI frequency and versatility, above negative affect or age. SCC fully accounted for the variance originally explained by emotion dysregulation in NSSI versatility. NSSI frequency was not significantly predicted by emotion regulation, but self-concept clarity reached marginal significance. These findings provide preliminary support for identity instability as a contributing factor to a relationship between emotion dysregulation and NSSI severity. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed.
The objective of this study is to investigate how brand personality and customers’ ‘self’ affects brand engagement. This has become necessary because the focus of most research into brands has often neglected how brand personality and customers’ ‘self’ can be harnessed to achieve brand engagement. This study used Aaker’s brand personality, Keller’s brand engagement, and Sprott et. al. self-concept measurement scales. The research methodology includes the following steps: adaptation of the mea...
The encouragement of the development of a realistic self-concept of the children in their classes is an important challenge for school teachers. Children who know about their strengths and weaknesses can work on the competences, which need to be improved, more effectively. This contribution presents a study which focuses on the special time of first-grade when primary school children get to know their new learning environment. In that context a survey takes place in Germany and accompanies ch...
Rüsch, Nicolas; Lieb, Klaus; Göttler, Ines; Hermann, Christiane; Schramm, Elisabeth; Richter, Harald; Jacob, Gitta A; Corrigan, Patrick W; Bohus, Martin
Shame is considered to be a central emotion in borderline personality disorder and to be related to self-injurious behavior, chronic suicidality, and anger-hostility. However, its level and impact on people with borderline personality disorder are largely unknown. The authors examined levels of self-reported shame, guilt, anxiety, and implicit shame-related self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder and assessed the association of shame with self-esteem, quality of life, and anger-hostility. Sixty women with borderline personality disorder completed self-report measures of shame- and guilt-proneness, state shame, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, quality of life, and clinical symptoms. Comparison groups consisted of 30 women with social phobia and 60 healthy women. Implicit shame-related self-concept (relative to anxiety) was assessed by the Implicit Association Test. Women with borderline personality disorder reported higher levels of shame- and guilt-proneness, state shame, and anxiety than women with social phobia and healthy comparison subjects. The implicit self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder was more shame-prone (relative to anxiety-prone) than in women in the comparison groups. After depression was controlled for, shame-proneness was negatively correlated with self-esteem and quality of life and positively correlated with anger-hostility. Shame, an emotion that is prominent in women with borderline personality disorder, is associated with the implicit self-concept as well as with poorer quality of life and self-esteem and greater anger-hostility. Psychotherapeutic approaches to borderline personality disorder need to address explicit and implicit aspects of shame.
Poulsen, Anne A; Desha, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Griffiths, Lisa; Heaslop, Annabel; Khan, Asad; Leong, Gary M
Differences in fundamental movement skills and self-perceptions of physical ability and physical appearance of overweight and non-overweight children were investigated. Overweight (n = 89, mean age = 8.75 ± 1.4 years, BMI z-score = 2.22, SD = 0.46, 46% male) and non-overweight (n = 27, mean age = 8.25 ± 1.5 years, BMI z-score = 0.03, SD = 0.73, 62.1% male) participants enrolled in the KOALA (Kinder Overweight Activity Lifestyle Actions) project were included. The overall objective of the KOALA project was to determine in a randomized controlled trial the effect of a Triple P (Positive Parenting Program), and a family 'Eat Well Be Active' Scouts Camp program on BMI in overweight children. Baseline between-group differences on measures of fundamental movement skills and self-concept perceptions were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. Relationships between BMI and these variables were investigated with multiple linear regression. Overweight children had lower scores on Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance-2 subtests (Bilateral Coordination, Upper Limb Coordination, Strength, Balance, and Running Speed and Agility), and Physical abilities self-concept than non-overweight children. Children who were overweight had significant fundamental movement skill difficulties, as well as having poorer Physical abilities self-concept perceptions compared to non-overweight children. The association between increasing BMI and poor performance of gross motor tasks has potential implications for physical activity participation. Future research is needed to determine if fundamental movement skill difficulties and low physical ability self-concept are predisposing factors for children who are overweight or associated outcomes.
Çöplü, Mehtap; Tekinsoy Kartın, Pınar
This study was carried out in order to determine professional self-concept and professional values in the students, who were studying in the final year of the nursing department in schools providing undergraduate education in the Inner Anatolia Region. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 619 senior students of nursing departments in the Inner Anatolia Region. Data were collected using a Student Information Form, Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses, and The Nurses' Professional Values Scale. Descriptive statistics, the Shapiro-Wilk test, the t-test, analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni tests were used for data analysis. Ethical Considerations: A written consent was obtained from Ethics Board of Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine and from nursing schools participating in the study. Prior to data collection, students were informed about the purpose of the study and gave written and verbal consents. Participation in the study was on voluntary basis. In the study, students' total and sub-dimension scores from the Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses and total scores from the Nurses' Professional Values Scale were moderately high. It was detected that women received higher scores than men from the sub-dimension of professional attributes; the students who had positive perception of the nursing image and voluntarily selected their department received high scores from professional satisfaction, professional competence, and professional attributes sub-dimensions of the Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses ( p concept and professional values, it is thought that students' awareness should be increased on these topics.
Boros, Szilvia; Halmy, Laszlo
Study aim: To assess the physical self-concept, trait depression and readiness for physical activity in relation to the degree of obesity. Material and methods: Obese (Grade I and II; n = 59) and morbidly obese (Grade III; n = 42) patients aged 30-66 years, as well as 83 non-obese college students aged 30 [plus or minus] 7.3 years were studied.…
Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar
Background: People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-conce...
Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Caprioglio, Alberto; Attanasio, Stefania; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco
Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet). Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males) mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Pearson's analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding) and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score) of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492-8.225) and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence interval 3.545-10.678) as risk factors for development of global self-concept score abnormalities. Our findings confirm the relationship between psychosocial well-being, self-esteem, and dental malocclusion among adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract The influence of self-concept into the selfesteem in the orphanage adolescent Akhiruz Zaman is the aim of this research. The participant is from 80 adolescents (in age 13-21 who stay in orphanage X. the subject is taken randomly using two questionnaire, they are: self-concept questionnaire and selfesteem questionnaire. The result is there is the influence of self-concept into the self-esteem of adolescent. The contribution of it is 18.5% with significant P = 0,000 which is very significant. It has the rest in 81, 5% caused by other factors. It concludes that the matter of adolescent selfesteem that stays in orphanage, one of the factors is caused by the concepts of themselves.. Abstrak Pengaruh konsep diri kterhadap kepercayaan diri di panti asuhan remaja Akhiruz Zaman adalah tujuan dari penelitian ini. Peserta meliputi 80 remaja (usia 13-21 tahun yang tinggal di panti asuhan X. Subjek penelitian dipilih secara acak menggunakan dua kuisioner, yaitu kuisioner konsep diri dan kuisioner kepercayaan diri. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh konsep diri dengan kepercayaan diri pada remaja. Kontribusi sebesar 18,5% dengan signifikansi p = 0,000 yakni sangat signifikan 81,5% sisanya, disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor lain. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa masalah kepercayaan diri remaja yang tinggal di panti asuhan, salah satunya disebabkan oleh konsep diri mereka. How to Cite : Multahada, E. Mabelle, M. (2015. The Influence of Self-Concept into the Self Esteem in the Orphanage Adolescent Akhiruz Zaman Bekasi, West Java. TARBIYA: Journal Of Education In Muslim Society, 2(2, 117-122. doi:10.15408/tjems.v2i2.2804. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/tjems.v2i2.2804
Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…
Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne
Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.
Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara
Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Méndez-Alonso, David
The main objective was to analyze relationships and predictive patterns between 3x2 classroom goal structures (CGS), and motivational regulations, dimensions of self-concept, and affectivity in the context of secondary education. A sample of 1,347 secondary school students (56.6% young men, 43.4% young women) from 10 different provinces of Spain agreed to participate (M age = 13.43, SD = 1.05). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated the self-approach CGS was the most adaptive within the spectrum of self-determination, followed by the task-approach CGS. The other-approach CGS had an ambivalent influence on motivation. Task-approach and self-approach CGS predicted academic self-concept (p approach CGS (negatively) predicted family self-concept (p approach and other-approach CGS's (p approach-oriented CGS's (p approach (positively) and self-approach (negatively) CGS (p < .001; p < .05, respectively; R 2 = .028). These results expand the 3x2 achievement goal framework to include environmental factors, and reiterate that teachers should focus on raising levels of self- and task-based goals for students in their classes.
Horita, Ryo; Sugie, Masashi
As interest in meaning making following stressful life experiences continues to grow, it is important to clarify the features and functions of the meaning- making process. We examined the influence of meaning making following stressful life experiences on change of self-concept. In two studies, university students selected their most stressful life experience and completed the Assimilation and Accommodation of Meaning Making Scale. In Study 1, 235 university students also completed questionnaires regarding post-traumatic growth and positive change of the sense of identity following their stressful life experience. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that accommodation promoted a positive change of self-concept. In Study 2, 199 university students completed questionnaires regarding change of self-concept and emotion as a positive or negative change following stressful life experiences. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that accommodation promoted a positive change, similar to the results of Study 1. In addition, accommodation also promoted negative change. However, assimilation did not promote positive change but did restrain negative change.
Full Text Available Abstract: Self concept and self esteem are two psychological aspects that need to be attention in learning at school because a high of self concept and self esteem can influence students success in their learning. The objective of this research is to know about the differences about self concept and self esteem among elementary students with full day school and half day school system. The method used in this observation is comparison by comparing self concept and self esteem of elementary students with full day and half day system. The population of this research is 3 fullday Islamic elementary schools and 6 halfday Islamic elementary schools. The sample of this research is SD Islam Al-Madina as fullday school and SD Muhammadiyah Purworejo as halfday school. The data is gotten by the scale, observation, interviews and documentation. The result shows that there are no significant differences between self concept (t=0,096 with df :47 and self esteem (t=0,396 with df :47 among student who study in full day school and half day (regular school system so it means that school system doesn’t influence the quality of self concept and self esteem. Keywords: self concept, self esteem, full day school, half day school.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Chung, Paul J; Wong, Mitchell D
Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral self-concepts. We analyzed cross-sectional surveys of 929 9th-12th grade low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles assessing self-concept, social networks, and 30-day use of alcohol, marijuana and other drugs. We performed generalized estimating equations, accounting for clustering at the school level and controlling for family and peer influences and contextual factors. We also tested whether self-concept-mediated associations between relationships with teachers or coaches and 30-day substance use. More perceived teacher support was associated with lower odds of marijuana and other drug use and better academic and behavioral self-concepts. Behavioral self-concept mediated the associations between teacher support and substance use. By facilitating relationships with adults and improving teachers' capacity to build supportive environments, schools may positively shape how adolescents see themselves, which might help reduce adolescent substance use. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.
Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S
India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.
Del Prado, Alicia M; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Miramontes, Lilia G; Whitty, Monica; Curtis, Guy J; de Jesús Vargas-Flores, José; Ibáñez-Reyes, Joselina; Ortiz, Fernando A; Reyes, Jose Alberto S
Three theoretical perspectives on cultural universals and differences in the content of self-concepts were tested in individualistic (United States, n = 178; Australia, n = 112) and collectivistic (Mexico, n = 157; Philippines, n = 138) cultures, using three methods of self-concept assessment. Support was found for both trait perspectives and the individual-self-primacy hypothesis. In contrast, support for cultural psychology hypotheses was limited because traits and other personal attributes were not more salient, or social attributes less salient, in individualistic cultures than collectivistic cultures. The salience of some aspects of self-concept depended on the method of assessment, calling into question conclusions based on monomethod studies.
Self-concept, self efficacy, and self-regulation are three important factors that predict the success of L2 learners to a large extent. Therefore, the present study was designed to measure the academic self-concept, self efficacy, self-regulation level of higher education students in relation to academic achievement and self-evaluation and secondarily to investigate the correlation between academic self-concept, selfefficacy, and self-regulation. In the present study, academic self-concept wa...
Arens, A. Katrin; Jansen, Malte
Academic self-concept has been conceptualized as a multidimensional and hierarchical construct. Previous research has mostly focused on its multidimensionality, distinguishing between verbal and mathematical self-concept domains, and only a few studies have examined the factorial structure within specific self-concept domains. The present study…
Mucherah, Winnie; Finch, W. Holmes; Keaikitse, Setlhomo
Understanding adolescent self-concept is of great concern for educators, mental health professionals, and parents, as research consistently demonstrates that low self-concept is related to a number of problem behaviors and poor outcomes. Thus, accurate measurements of self-concept are key, and the validity of such measurements, including the…
Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Seaton, Marjorie; Van Zanden, Brooke
Background: The Internal-External frame of reference (IE) model suggests that as self-concept in one domain goes up (e.g., English) self-concept in other domains (e.g., mathematics) should go down (ipsative self-concept hypothesis). Aims: To our knowledge this assumption has not been tested. Testing this effect also provides a context for…