This study examined the relationship between self-concept and academic performance of Nigerian students. The study made use of 1000 participants (500 males and 500 females) whose ages ranged from 15-18 with a mean of 16.7 and a standard deviation of 1.12. The study used an indigenous self concept scale ...
This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…
Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Only a few studies have examined the direction of associations between academic achievement, interest, and self-concept of ability simultaneously by using longitudinal data over several school years. To examine the cross-lagged relationships between students' interest, self-concept of ability, and performance in mathematics and reading,…
soncept and academic performance of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis. A sample of 351 students was drawn from the population of secondary school students in Sokoto smetropolis. Three instruments were used in obtaining the data ...
Ahmed, Wondimu; Bruinsma, Marjon
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance by integrating constructs from self-concept and self-determination theories and to explore cultural group differences in the model. To this end, self-report measures of global self-esteem, academic self-concept, academic motivation and academic performance were…
Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.
Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…
Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Gallego, José
The aim of the present research is to verify the impact of a mindfulness programme on the levels academic performance, self-concept and anxiety, of a group of students in Year 1 at secondary school. The statistical analyses carried out on the variables studied showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group with regard to the control group in all the variables analysed. In the experimental group we can observe a significant increase of academic performance as well as an improvement in all the self-concept dimensions, and a significant decrease in anxiety states and traits. The importance and usefulness of mindfulness techniques in the educative system is discussed.
Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Lopez-Pina, Jose Antonio; Hernandez, Daniel; Sainz, Marta; Fernandez, Mari-Carmen
This article analyses the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and academic performance, controlling for the effects of IQ, personality, and self-concept dimensions. A sample of 290 preadolescents (11-12 years old) took part in the study. The instruments used were (a) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescents Short Form…
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…
Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.
The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…
Goni, Umar; Bello, S.
This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…
The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from .20 to .27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and from .19 to .25 between prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. Globality/specificity of self-concept was the only significant moderating factor in the relation between (a) prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and (b) prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. As high self-concept is related to high academic performance and vice-versa, intervention programs that combine self-enhancement and skill development should be integrated. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept, academic ... the four specific parenting styles, the authoritative style has the medium correlation 'r' ... school level parent education programs should be incorporated and parents ...
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…
self concept of their students for better academic achievement. Introduction. In organized ... According to Mason (2005), delinquency, is defined as the behaviour consequent to the failure ..... Journal of Sociology and Social. Welfare, 22(2), 93 - ...
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of self concept on physics students' academic achievement in secondary schools. The study was conducted in Uyo LGA of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. A sample size of five hundred (500) senior secondary two physics students took part in the investigation.
Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Murayama, Kou; Arens, A. Katrin; Parker, Philip D.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa
Our newly proposed integrated academic self-concept model integrates 3 major theories of academic self-concept formation and developmental perspectives into a unified conceptual and methodological framework. Relations among math self-concept (MSC), school grades, test scores, and school-level contextual effects over 6 years, from the end of…
McCauley, James B.; Zajic, Matthew C.; Oswald, Tasha M.; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey E.; McIntyre, Nancy C.; Harris, Michelle A.; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter C.; Solomon, Marjorie
A typically developing student's perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance,…
The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…
Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette
The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States took…
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.
Full Text Available The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and females from different levels of study and faculties. In this study the influence of academic self-concept on academic achievement was assessed, tested whether the hypothesised model fitted the data, analysed the invariance of the path coefficients among the moderating variables, and also, highlighted whether academic confidence and academic effort measured academic selfconcept. The results from the model revealed that academic self-concept influenced academic achievement and the hypothesised model fitted the data. The results also supported the model as the causal structure was not sensitive to gender, levels of study, and faculties of students; hence, applicable to all the groups taken as moderating variables. It was also noted that academic confidence and academic effort are a measure of academic self-concept. According to the results the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 was deemed adequate in collecting information about academic self-concept among university students.
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
Nielsen, Sara E.; Yezierski, Ellen J.
Academic tracking, placing students in different classes based on past performance, is a common feature of the American secondary school system. A longitudinal study of secondary students' chemistry self-concept scores was conducted, and one feature of the study was the presence of academic tracking. Though academic tracking is one way to group…
Brabcova, Dana; Krsek, Pavel; Kohout, Jiri; Jost, Jiri; Zarubova, Jana
Academic achievement in children with epilepsy is a highly studied topic with many important implications. However, only little attention has been devoted to academic self-concept of such children and the relation of academic self-concept to their quality of life. We aimed to examine academic self-concept in children with epilepsy, to assess its relationship to academic achievement and to determine possible correlations between academic self-concept and quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the student's perception of ability scale (SPAS) questionnaire to determine their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 questionnaire to determine their health-related quality of life. We found that academic self-concept in children with epilepsy was on average significantly lower than in their peers without seizures, especially with regard to general school-related abilities, reading, and spelling. On the other hand, the variance in the data obtained from the group of children with epilepsy was significantly higher than in the whole population and the proportion of individuals with very high academic self-concept seems comparable among children with and without epilepsy. Moreover, it was found that correlations between academic self-concept and academic achievement are significantly lower in children with epilepsy than in the whole population. The presented results suggest that considerable attention should be paid to the role of academic self-concept in education of children with epilepsy and to the factors influencing this self-concept in this group.
Wheeler, Larry; Reilly, Thomas F.
The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement was examined with 30 educable mentally retarded adolescent residents of a state institution. Results failed to demonstrate a positive relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in the areas of mathematics and reading. (DB)
Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.
The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…
Ommundsen, Yngvar; Haugen, Richard; Lund, Thorleif
The purpose of the present study is to explore how academic self-concept and implicit theories of ability are related to four self-regulation strategies--motivation/diligence, concentration, information processing, and self-handicapping. The hypothesis is that academic self-concept and an incremental theory of ability are (1) positively related to…
Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens
We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…
Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran
This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536
Lone, Parveez Ahmad; Lone, Tariq Ahmad
Self-concept is the whole set of attitudes, opinions, and cognitions that a person has of himself while the academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education - the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. The objective of the paper is to study the relation between the…
Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen
Many studies have reported that twice-exceptional (2e) students were vulnerable in psychological traits and exhibited low-academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Such vulnerability may cause their academic failures. This study applied interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative approach to investigate the perceptions of…
The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic…
Anderson, Lorin W.
The Rasch Model was applied to the results of an academic self-concept test administered to junior high school students, and some items were eliminated. The resulting scale possessed several properties permitting its use in the measurement of school-induced change in self-concept. The questionnaire is appended. (Author/MV)
Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios
This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…
Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin
Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela
BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus
Academic self-concept is consistently proven to be multidimensional rather than unidimensional as it is domain specific in nature. However, each specific self-concept domain may be further separated into competence and affect components. This study examines the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e., its domain specificity and…
Two studies examined the discriminant and incremental validity of self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Study 1, which meta-analysed 64 studies comprising 74 independent samples (N = 24,773), found a strong mean correlation of 0.43 between self-concept and academic self-efficacy. The domains of self-concept and self-efficacy, and the domain…
Mboya, M M
This study examined (a) sex and age variations for scores on Self-concept of Academic Ability and academic achievement among 244 African adolescents attending a coeducational high school and (b) correlations between scores on Self-concept of Academic Ability and academic achievement by sex and age. No significant sex differences were found, but there were significant age differences on the Self-concept scores and measures of English, science, and history but not in mathematics. A significant positive correlation was found between Self-concept scores and academic achievement for boys and girls and in all age groups, but the magnitude of the correlations with achievement in mathematics was stronger among boys than among girls.
Full Text Available Mathematics is a core subject in every school curriculum and it is strongly correlated with maths self-concept, which is defined as the subjective feelings and beliefs about one's competence in maths. In general, boys tend to report higher maths self-concept than girls, but the difference between boys and girls' maths scholastic performance is low or even inexistent. Some authors maintain that academic self-concept can play an important role as a motivational variable, promoting self-confidence and investment in the learning process. This study examined the causal relations between maths self-concept and maths scholastic performance in four cohorts of boys and girls within a three-wave longitudinal study. The first two cohorts were composed of 187 girls and 139 boys attending grades 7 and 8 at Time 1 and the third and fourth cohorts were composed of 167 girls and 123 boys attending grades 9 and 10 at Time 1. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the fit of several models of causal relations. The results revealed that for the first two cohorts the best models were reciprocal and skill-development for both boys and girls. However, for the older students, a reciprocal model gave a best fit for the boys, but for the girls there was only one significant effect from maths self-concept to maths scholastic performance. Results are discussed on the basis of gender-related differential learning expectancies.
Daniela Viganó Zanoti-Jeronymo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that being the child of an alcoholic is a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Due to the suffering caused by living with alcoholic parents, other vulnerabilities appear in such children. Among these are low self-esteem, poor academic performance and behavioral problems. This work aims to comparatively evaluate children of alcoholic parents and children of nonalcoholic parents. METHODS: The study design was quasi-experimental, involving two comparison groups. Two groups of 20 children were selected. The groups consisted of 10- to 12-year-old male and female children. One group comprised children of alcoholic parents, whereas the other comprised children of nonalcoholic parents. The self-concepts of these children were evaluated using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale as well as the Academic Performance Test. Their mothers participated in the study by answering questions related to the behavior of their children on the Rutter A2 scale of Child Behavior. RESULTS: The results showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more negative self-concepts and presented lower academic performance in reading and arithmetic than did children of nonalcoholic parents. Based on the responses given by the mothers, the children of alcoholic parents presented more behavioral problems than did those of nonalcoholic parents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm those of other studies and call attention to the need to be aware of the potential vulnerabilities of children of alcoholic parents and, especially, to try to minimize such vulnerabilities, thereby altering the course of psychological suffering that can mark their lives.OBJETIVO: A literatura vem mostrando que ser filho de alcoolista é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de alcoolismo na idade adulta. Além do sofrimento ocasionado pela convivência com pais alcoolistas, essa condição implica em outras
Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.
Self-concept, self efficacy, and self-regulation are three important factors that predict the success of L2 learners to a large extent. Therefore, the present study was designed to measure the academic self-concept, self efficacy, self-regulation level of higher education students in relation to academic achievement and self-evaluation and secondarily to investigate the correlation between academic self-concept, selfefficacy, and self-regulation. In the present study, academic self-concept wa...
Renzo F. Carranza
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between academic self-concept and academic motivation in young talents (Scholarship 18 at a Private University in Tarapoto city, Peru. The sample was obtained through a probabislitic sampling and there were 92 young talents, being 47,8% male and 52,2% female between 17 and 22 years old. I used a descriptive, correlational and non-experimental design. The sample was evaluated using the AF5 Self-concept Scale (García and Musitu academic section that consists of 6 items, and the Academic Motivation Scale that consists of 28 items. The psychometric properties of the instruments indicated that they are valid and reliable. Data were processed in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. The results show that there is a direct and highly significant relationship between academic self-concept and academic motivation in young talents (r = .301**, p<.004, which indicates the higher the academic self-concept, the greater the academic motivation.
Calero, Flor R.; Dalley, Christopher; Fernandez, Nicole; Davenport-Dalley, Tania Marie; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Tatum, Stephanie L.
This study examined how Hispanic students' academic self-concept influences the independent variables of family academic expectations, peer relationships, schoolwork, and student-teacher relationships. A survey was administered to 222 ninth-grade students in Long Island, New York, 99 of whom self-identified as Hispanic. A structural equation model…
Morgan, Peter Wallace
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.
McCauley, James B; Zajic, Matthew C; Oswald, Tasha M; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey E; McIntyre, Nancy C; Harris, Michelle A; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter C; Solomon, Marjorie
A typically developing student's perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance, 44 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD and 36 age-matched individuals with typical development (TYP) rated their perceived math and reading abilities and were administered standardized achievement measures. Results showed self-concept was predictive of performance in math and reading in the TYP group. For youth with ASD, there was agreement between self-concept and performance only in math. These findings suggest that educators should be cautious when interpreting the self-assessments of reading ability in students with ASD.
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
Marsh, Herbert W.
Marsh and Parker (1984) described the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) whereby equally able students have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability schools than in low-ability schools. The present investigation, a reanalysis of the Youth in Transition data, supported the generality of the earlier findings and demonstrated new theoretical…
The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…
Lohbeck, Annette; Grube, Dietmar; Moschner, Barbara
A great deal of research shows that the way in which children attribute causes to their successes and failures in school has implications for the development of their academic self-concept (ASC). The most common attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. The present study asked 68 elementary school children aged seven to eight…
Yang, Lan; Arens, A. Katrin; Watkins, David A.
In order to extend previous research on the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e. its domain-specific structure and separation into competence and affect components), the present study tests its generalisability among vocational students from mainland China. A Chinese version of self-description questionnaire I was…
Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad
The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…
Bacon, La Shawn Catrice
The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…
Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin
This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students' cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample…
J. N. Igbo
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.
Pietsch, James; Walker, Richard; Chapman, Elaine
Examines the relationship among self-concept, self-efficacy, and performance in mathematics among 416 high school students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of two self-concept components--a competency component and an affective component. Self-efficacy items and the competency items of self-concept also loaded on a single…
Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S J
Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. To simultaneously examine the influences of domain-specific cognitive ability and grades on domain self-concept in an extended I/E model, including the indirect effect of domain-specific cognitive ability on domain self-concept via grades. Tenth grade respondents (628 male, 452 female) to a national adolescent survey conducted in Taiwan. Respondents completed surveys designed to measure maths and verbal aptitudes. Data on Maths and Chinese class grades and self-concepts were also collected. Statistically significant and positive path coefficients were found between cognitive ability and self-concept in the same domain (direct effect) and between these two constructs via grades (indirect effect). The cross-domain effects of either ability or grades on ASC were negatively significant. Taiwanese 10th graders tend to evaluate their ASCs based on a mix of ability and achievement, with achievement as a mediator exceeding ability as a predictor. In addition, the cross-domain effects suggest that Taiwanese students are likely to view Maths and verbal abilities and achievements as distinctly different. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Sert, Hilal Parlak; Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-concept levels and perceived academic achievements of sixth, seventh and eighth grade primary school students upon their perceptions about smoking. The data were collected with the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Pier-Herris Self-Concept scale and Children's Decision Balance Scale. The study sample consisted of 374 students receiving education in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three primary schools, which were selected among primary schools of Izmir Provincial Directorate for National Education representing three socio-economic groups with a simple random sampling method. The data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Percentages and the t test were used in the evaluation of the data. While students with a positive self-concept had score averages of 7.12±2.18 regarding the lower dimension of smoking pros and 29.0±2.47 regarding the lower dimension of smoking cons, their counterparts with a negative self-concept had score averages of 8.61±3.76 (p=0.000) and 28.1±3.49 (p=0.004), respectively. According to self-perception, there was statistical difference between perceptions of students regarding smoking (pself-perception had a low perception of smoking pros and a high perception of smoking cons. Perception of academic achievement did not affect the pros and cons perceptions of children regarding smoking.
Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne
Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.
Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.
Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…
Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda
This study seeks to understand boys' lower academic success by analysing the relationship between sex, gender role self-concept, help seeking attitudes, and school performance in a sample of 182 German 11th grade students (83 girls, 99 boys), age 16. Grades at two points in time, intelligence test data, help-seeking attitudes, gender role…
Rodriguez, Carlos M.
This study provides evidence of the impact of two critical self-regulation components--academic self-concept and outcome expectations--on the selection of learning strategies conducive to academic achievement in undergraduate business education. Self-concept theory is the framework for the analysis of students' motivations and learning behaviors.…
Full Text Available Background Scholars believe that if nursing students appreciate the value of their services, their sense of professionalism will increase and performance will improve. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between nursing students’ professional self-concept and clinical performance. Objectives This study examines the relationship between nurse self-concept and clinical performance among nursing students. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study employed the census method. The sample comprised 86 senior and junior nursing students at Jahrom university of medical sciences. Nurse self-concept and clinical performance were measured by using the nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ, and the 6-dimension scale of nurse performance (6-DSNP, respectively. Results The mean and standard deviation of nurse self-concept and clinical performance scores were 5.46 ± 1.11 and 2.94 ± 1.45, respectively. Nurse self-concept was related to clinical performance (r = 0.24, P = 0.02. Total NSCQ scores were significantly related to four of the 6-DSNP dimensions: planning and evaluation, interpersonal relations and communication, critical care, and leadership. Conclusions Attempts should be made to enhance students’ nurse self-concept during their education. Counseling, improving public respect for nurses, and implementing measures to enhance students’ professional self-concept are essential for improving their performance.
Knigge, Michel; Hannover, Bettina
In Germany, according to their prior achievement students are tracked into different types of secondary school that provide profoundly different options for their future educational careers. In this paper we suggest that as a result, school tracks clearly differ in their social status or reputation. This should translate into different collective school-type identities for their students, irrespective of the students' personal academic self-concepts. We examine the extent to which collective school-type identity systematically varies as a function of the school track students are enrolled in, and the extent to which students' collective school-type identity makes a unique contribution beyond academic self-concept and school track in predicting scholastic motivation. In two cross-sectional studies a measure of collective school-type identity is established and applied to explain motivational differences between two school tracks in Berlin. In Study 1 (N = 39 students) the content of the collective school-type identity is explored by means of an open format questionnaire. Based on these findings a structured instrument (semantic differential) to measure collective school-type identity is developed. In Study 2 (N = 1278 students) the assumed structure with four subscales (Stereotype Achievement, Stereotype Motivation, Stereotype Social, and Compensation) is proved with confirmatory factor analysis. This measure is used to compare the collective school-type identity across school tracks and predict motivational outcomes. Results show large differences in collective school-type identity between students of different school tracks. Furthermore, these differences can explain motivational differences between school tracks. Collective school-type identity has incremental predictive power for scholastic motivation, over and above the effects of academic self-concept and school track.
Sticca, Fabio; Goetz, Thomas; Nett, Ulrike E.; Hubbard, Kyle; Haag, Ludwig
This study examined the short- and long-term effects of self-enhancement (i.e., overreporting of academic grades) on academic self-concept and academic achievement. A total of 916, 719, and 647 students participated in the first, second, and third waves of assessment, respectively (mean age at T1 = 15.6 years). At each assessment, students…
Cooper, Katelyn M; Krieg, Anna; Brownell, Sara E
Academic self-concept is one's perception of his or her ability in an academic domain and is formed by comparing oneself to other students. As college biology classrooms transition from lecturing to active learning, students interact more with each other and are likely comparing themselves more to other students in the class. Student characteristics can impact students' academic self-concept; however, this has been unexplored in the context of undergraduate biology. In this study, we explored whether student characteristics can affect academic self-concept in the context of an active learning college physiology course. Using a survey, students self-reported how smart they perceived themselves to be in the context of physiology relative to the whole class and relative to their groupmate, the student with whom they worked most closely in class. Using linear regression, we found that men and native English speakers had significantly higher academic self-concept relative to the whole class compared with women and nonnative English speakers. Using logistic regression, we found that men had significantly higher academic self-concept relative to their groupmate compared with women. Using constant comparison methods, we identified nine factors that students reported influenced how they determined whether they were more or less smart than their groupmate. Finally, we found that students were more likely to report participating more than their groupmate if they had a higher academic self-concept. These findings suggest that student characteristics can influence students' academic self-concept, which in turn may influence their participation in small-group discussion and their academic achievement in active learning classes.
Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.
The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…
Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel
Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers
Zheng, Chunmei; Gaumer Erickson, Amy; Kingston, Neal M; Noonan, Patricia M
Research suggests that self-determination skills are positively correlated with factors that have been shown to improve academic achievement, but the direct relationship among self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement is not fully understood. This study offers an empirical explanation of how self-determination and self-concept affect academic achievement for adolescents with learning disabilities after taking into consideration the covariates of gender, income, and urbanicity. In a nationally representative sample (N = 560), the proposed model closely fit the data, with all proposed path coefficients being statistically significant. The results indicated that there were significant correlations among the three latent variables (i.e., self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement), with self-determination being a potential predictor of academic achievement for students with learning disabilities. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.
Cooper, Katelyn M.; Krieg, Anna; Brownell, Sara E.
Academic self-concept is one's perception of his or her ability in an academic domain and is formed by comparing oneself to other students. As college biology classrooms transition from lecturing to active learning, students interact more with each other and are likely comparing themselves more to other students in the class. Student…
Williams, Wendi S.; Chung, Y. Barry
The authors explored the relationship between academic self-concept and noncognitive variables (i.e., Africentric cultural orientation, academic class level, gender, and involvement in culturally relevant school and community activities) among Black/African college students. Results indicated that Africentric cultural orientation and academic…
Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Dogbey, James; Yuan, Guangji
The rapid growth of online education at the K-12 level in recent years presents the need to explore issues that influence the academic experiences of students choosing this method of learning. In this study, we examined factors that promote/hinder the learning experiences and academic self-concept of minority students attending an online high…
Zheng, Chunmei; Gaumer Erickson, Amy; Kingston, Neal M.; Noonan, Patricia M.
Research suggests that self-determination skills are positively correlated with factors that have been shown to improve academic achievement, but the direct relationship among self-determination, self-concept, and academic achievement is not fully understood. This study offers an empirical explanation of how self-determination and self-concept…
The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain
The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.
Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain
The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162
Ockey, Gary J.; Abercrombie, Sara
For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents' self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some…
Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.
Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel
As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.
Full Text Available Academic self-concept (ASC is comprised of individual perceptions of one's own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a the structure of ASC, (b ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations between domain-specific ASCs with increasing grade level, (c the impact of (internal dimensional comparisons of one's own ability in different school subjects for profile formation of ASC, and (d the role played by differences in school grades between subjects for these dimensional comparisons. The nested Marsh/Shavelson model, with general ASC at the apex and math, writing, and reading ASC as specific factors nested under general ASC fitted the data at all grade levels. A first-order factor model with math, writing, reading, and general ASCs as correlated factors provided a good fit, too. ASC profile formation became apparent during the first two to three years of school. Dimensional comparisons across subjects contributed to ASC profile formation. School grades enhanced these comparisons, especially when achievement profiles were uneven. In part, findings depended on the assumed structural model of ASCs. Implications for further research are discussed with special regard to factors influencing and moderating dimensional comparisons.
Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to examine the relation between academic success and constructs: optimism, self-efficiency, and self-concept. We also wanted to examine how this relation reflects in previous and future marks of fourth-grade highschool students. We predicted that students with higher academic success in specific fields will also have higher specific self-concept, which reflects characteristic competence. We also predicted that more optimistic, more self-efficient students and students with higher self-concept will set up higher future goals, because they see desired goals as attainable and are persistent in reaching their goals. One-hundred students filled in the Self-Description Questionnire III (SDQIII, the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE, and stated marks of their previous grade, present marks (Slovenian language, mathematics, and foreign language and anticipated marks at graduation. The results confirmed our expectations: Students with higher marks on different subjects in previous grade also had higher specific self-concept, and more optimistic and self-efficient students with higher self-concept set up higher future goals.
Strang, Louise; And Others
Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)
Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.
International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…
Literature on racially prejudiced stereotypes suggests that students' academic self-concepts (ASC) can be damaged when a stereotype demeans the intelligence of their racial or ethnic group. There is little research on how students overcome this burden, but there is some evidence that the racial composition of friendship groups play a role. One…
Grygiel, Pawel; Modzelewski, Michal; Pisarek, Jolanta
This study reports relationships between general academic self-concept and achievement in grade 3 and grade 5. Gender-specific effects were investigated using a longitudinal, two-cycle, 3-year autoregressive cross-lagged panel design in a large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils (N = 4,226). Analysis revealed (a) reciprocal…
Enhancing the self-beliefs of college students--in particular, academic self-concept--has been suggested as one way to enhance college student success. However, the literature on the influence of college often does not clearly identify nor effectively assess the type of self-belief being investigated, and little remains known as to how and when…
James, Tenisha Celita
This study focused on the cultural congruity and academic self-concept of African American students in a community college setting who participated in a Black Culture Center. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between cultural congruity and academic self-concept through the following two research…
Full Text Available Guidance and psychological consultancy services in Turkish education system is basically oriented students to realize their skills and prove themselves, to benefit from the process of education in top level according to their talents and qualifications, to use and improve their potential in most convenient way. Leading students to the jobs according to their characteristics, interests and talents defines the fate of countries and communities. Individuals discover their interests and talents and they are guided to professions according to those interests and talents with the Scale of Academic Self-Concept (SASC that is the one of implements used in vocational guidance at schools. Application of these assessment and evaluation instruments in schools brings about paper waste, increases stationer expenses and takes guidance counselors’ time too much during the evaluation phase. (SODSGS that is enhanced in this practice, the system of online decision and support for guidance service, resolves most of these problems mentioned before. SODSGS is added with SASC that is used for vocational guidance in schools and evaluation criteria. In an attempt to test the system whether it is working properly, they are compared and contrasted with the results that guidance counselor acquired before, by loading survey data implemented in 2010-2011 education period. It is observed that results of SODSGS and guidance counselors’ are coherent with each other. Using SASC through SODSGS will be beneficial in terms of expenditure, time and credibility at schools
Espinosa, Lorelle L.
If we are to respond to the call for equity in the representation of minority men and women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, we must be concerned with those college experiences that impact students' sense of self. This study addresses the 4-year development of academic self-concept for African American and Latina(o) students graduating with STEM degrees, with an emphasis placed on gender differences. Ordinary Least Squares regression was utilized to explore predictors of academic self-concept for male and female students. Findings emphasize the paramount role of the college environment as compared to background and precollege characteristics. Significant predictors exclusive to women include having positive academic self-expectations and valuing group work in a classroom setting. Significant predictors for men include being given the opportunity to work on a professor's research project and finding satisfaction with science and math coursework.
Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…
Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich; Eike Emrich
The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years) to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale) and sporting activity, measured motor performance (Germa...
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942
Z. Ishak; S. Jamaluddin; F.P Chew
This paper examines the students’ self-concept among 16- and 17- year- old adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that positive self-concept played an important role in student adjustment and academic performance during schooling. This study attempts to investigate the factors influencing students’ perceptions toward their own self-concept. A total of 1168 students participated in the survey. This study utilized the CoPs (UM) instrument to measure self-concept...
Beaudrie, Sara M.
Researchers have studied academic self-concept and its relationship to academic achievement extensively, but not in the Spanish heritage language context. Using measures of reading, writing, and spelling performance, I investigate the relation between self-concept and performance and whether self-concept can predict performance scores. I obtained…
Preckel, Franzis; Schmidt, Isabelle; Stumpf, Eva; Motschenbacher, Monika; Vogl, Katharina; Schneider, Wolfgang
According to the reciprocal-effects model (REM), prior academic self-concept (ASC) has a positive effect on subsequent achievement beyond what can be explained in terms of prior achievement and vice versa. The present study investigated the REM for students studying in special classes for the gifted compared to students studying in regular…
Sangawi, Hoshiar; Adams, John; Reissland, Nadja
Although the importance of parenting styles directly influencing child development is well established, fewer studied have examined whether parenting styles also affect children's behavioural problems indirectly, mediated through children's academic self-concept (ASC). We examined direct and shared effects of parenting styles on behavioural problems of 199 Kurdish primary school children with a mean age of 11 years 7 months (range 11 years 5 months to 12 years 3 months). Questionnaires measured parenting styles (child version of Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), assessed children's ASC (Myself-As-Learner Scale) and identified children's behavioural problems with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). PROCESS analysis was used to perform the mediation analysis. The results revealed that positive and negative parenting composites are indirectly related to children's internalising behaviour problems. In addition, ASC partially mediated the relationship between the negative parenting composite and prosocial behaviour. However, the mediation analysis did not show the expected indirect effect of parenting styles on externalising problems as being mediated via ASC. Hence, we argue that the ASC serves as a significant mediator in the relationship between parenting styles with prosocial behaviour and internalising problems. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Joy D. Jocson
Full Text Available This survey-correlational study aimed to investigate the self-concept, values orientation, and teaching performance among hospitality educators of the West Visayas State University System. The study was conducted in January 2013 and utilized 42 randomly selected hospitality educators as participants. The simple random sampling method was used in the selection of the participants. Three (3 standardized and published datagathering instruments were adapted to obtain the data for the study. To ascertain the degree of self-concept, Girdano and Everly’s (1979 Self-perception Test instrument was used. In determining the pre-dominant values orientation, Rokeach’s (1973 Value Survey Form used by Rabago (1988 was utilized. To ascertain the level of teaching performance, the WVSU F-PES was employed. Frequency counts, rank, percentage analyses, mean scores, and standard deviations were employed as descriptive statistics; while t-test for independent samples, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation (Pearson’s r were employed as inferential statistics. The criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the null hypotheses was set at .05 alpha level. The results of the study revealed that, generally, the hospitality educators had outstanding teaching performance and strong self-concept. Family security, salvation, and happiness were their most important terminal values while social recognition, a world of beauty and pleasure were their least important values. Loving, responsible, and honest were their most important instrumental values and imaginative, ambitious, and clean were their least important values. In terms of teaching performance, no significant differences existed when hospitality educators were classified according sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, status of employment and number of years in teaching. Significant differences existed in the degree of self-concept among hospitality educators grouped
Muhammad Tariq Bhatti
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship among academic competence, Grade Point Averages (GPAs and factors responsible for students’ academic competence. A four factored questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of 100 graduate and post-graduate students to find out the factors responsible for academic competence. In addition, The Academic Competence Evaluation Scale (ACES-College applied for calculating the academic competence. Significant and positive correlations are found between factors affecting academic competence, GPAs and academic competence. Students’ scores on the ACES and their GPAs provided significant evidence to support the idea that the factors such as parental support, clearer self-concept, positive teacher-student relationship and strong motivational orientations are correlated with their GPAs at low magnitude and; academic competence with high ratings. It is concluded that students with stronger presence of these factors have better academic competence than their peers at graduate and post-graduate level. An integrated framework that is related to students’ academic competence and that promotes other related factors is suggested.
Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.
Garza, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e., teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e., parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and…
María de la Luz González
Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un estudio cuyo objetivo fue estimar la asociación entre autoconcepto y talento académico con los resultados académicos en lenguaje y matemática de alumnos de contextos socioeconómicos vulnerables. Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa con un diseño correlacional y una muestra intencionada. Se recolectaron los datos a través de pruebas alineadas al currículum (Sistema de Evaluación del Progreso en el Aprendizaje SEPA, un test de inteligencia práctica, creativa y analítica y un cuestionario de autoconcepto académico, aplicados a 1411 alumnos, y un cuestionario aplicado a 1411 apoderados. Los resultados, obtenidos por medio de t de Student y modelos de regresión múltiple, apoyan la asociación entre expectativas académicas, autoconcepto y talento académico y sugieren que estos 3 elementos conforman un círculo virtuoso que permite a los alumnos obtener buenos resultados académicos.This article presents the results of a study that estimates the association between self-esteem and academic talent, using the academic results for language and math of students in vulnerable socioeconomic conditions. A correlational design with quantitative methodology and an intentional sample were used. Data were collected through tests that follow the curriculum (Assessment System of Progress in Learning SEPA, a practical, creative and analytic intelligence test, a questionnaire on academic self-concept applied to 1411 students, and a questionnaire applied to 1411 parents and/or legal guardians. The results, obtained via the use of Student's t and multiple regression models, support the association between academic expectations, self-concept, and academic talent and suggest that these 3 elements form a virtuous cycle that fosters good academic performance.
Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin
Persistent academic achievement gaps exist between university students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The current research proposes that the extent to which a university is perceived as actively supporting versus passively neglecting students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds can influence low-SES students' academic motivation and self-concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-SES students exposed to cues suggestive of an institution's warmth toward socioeconomic diversity demonstrated greater academic efficacy, expectations, and implicit associations with high academic achievement compared with those exposed to cues indicating institutional chilliness. Exploring the phenomenology underlying these effects, Experiment 3 demonstrated that warmth cues led low-SES students to perceive their socioeconomic background as a better match with the rest of the student body and to perceive the university as more socioeconomically diverse than did chilliness cues. Contributions to our understanding of low-SES students' psychological experiences in academic settings and practical implications for academic institutions are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Garza, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e. teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e. parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and non-academic validating agents and their math and science self-concept at the K-12 level. Through the review of the literature the researcher addresses identifiable factors and strategies that inform the field of education in the areas of validation theory, family characteristics, and access to STEM fields for Latina students. The researcher used an established instrument designed, administered, and validated through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For purposes of this study, a categorical subset of participants who self-identified as being a Latina student was used. As a result, the total subset number in this study was N=1,882. To determine if academic and non-academic validating agents had an observable statistically significant relationship with Latina students' math and science self-concept, a series of one-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare differences in students' math and science self-concept based on academic and non-academic validating agents for the weighted sample of Latinas for the HLS:09 survey. A path analysis was also employed to assess the factors involved in Latina students' math and science self-concepts. The findings are consistent with previous research involving the influence that academic and non-academic validating agents have on the math and science self-concept of Latina students. The results indicated that students who had teachers that believed in the students, regardless of family background, social economic status or home environment influences had higher math and science self concepts than those who did not. Similarly, it was found that students who had counselors that set high
Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James
Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families. A secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0-3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3-5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. Early socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school. Although the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Chen, Meichu
This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high). © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Marsh, Herbert W.
Attending academically selective schools is intended to have positive effects, but a growing body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative for academic self-concept. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), based on social comparison theory, posits that equally able students will have lower academic…
Badgett, John L., Jr.
The relationship between the self-concepts and certain academic, vocational, biographical, and personality variables of freshmen students was examined to provide the basis for a more scientific approach to academic-vocational counseling. The subjects completed the Self-Rating Scale, the Fascism Scale, and the Military Ideology Scale, and a student…
Thomas, Cathy R.; Gadbois, Shannon A.
Background: Self-handicapping is linked to students' personal motivations, classroom goal structure, academic outcomes, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. Academic self-handicapping has yet to be studied with respect to students' consistency in self-description and their description of themselves as learners. Aims: This study…
Preckel, Franzis; Schmidt, Isabelle; Stumpf, Eva; Motschenbacher, Monika; Vogl, Katharina; Scherrer, Vsevolod; Schneider, Wolfgang
Effects of full-time ability grouping on students' academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students' average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for contrast effects of class-average achievement or assimilation effects of class type on students' ASC. ASC remained stable over time. Students in gifted classes showed higher achievement gains than students in regular classes. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.
Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine
The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.
Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine
The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337
Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James
Background: uncertainty remains concerning how children’s reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: to contrast the impacts of early socioeconomic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children’s reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7-10 years.Sample: n=3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families.Methods: a secondary analysis of the nati...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD, academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, the Academic Self-efficacy Scale, the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-concept Scale and the Demographics Information Form. The study was conducted among a total of 119 students in the fifth,sixth, seventh and eighth grades in İzmir Province, including 59 students diagnosed with SLD and 60 TD students. Considering the results of the study, in comparison to TD students, students diagnosed with SLD were significantly inadequate in terms of the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies, levels of academic self-efficacy, and the intelligence/school subdimensions of the concept of self.
Rickards, A L; Kelly, E A; Doyle, L W; Callanan, C
The aim of this study was to compare cognition, academic progress, behavior, and self-concept children of very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight 2,499 g). At 14 years of age, 130 (84.4%) of 154 VLBW and 42 (70.0%) of 60 NBW children were assessed. Ten VLBW children and one NBW child who had cerebral palsy were excluded. VLBW children scored at a significantly lower level on all three composite scales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition. VLBW children were also significantly disadvantaged on more specific cognitive processes, including tests of visual processing and visual memory and on subtests reflecting learning and problem solving. Only in arithmetic was a difference between the groups discerned on tests of achievement. Significantly more VLBW children were rated by teachers as socially rejected and by their parents as having learning problems at school. VLBW children had significantly reduced self-esteem. VLBW children had more cognitive, academic, and behavioral problems and lower self-esteem at 14 years of age than NBW control subjects.
Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A. Katrin; Murayama, Kou
Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern…
Marsh, Herbert W.
Given that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect, the negative effect of school-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of the most robust findings in educational psychology (Marsh, Seaton et al., 2007), this research extends the theoretical model, based on social comparison theory, to study relative year in school effects (e.g., being 1…
Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen
Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…
Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James
Background: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Kong, Chit-Kwong; Hau, Kit-Tai
Longitudinal multilevel path models (7,997 students, 44 high schools, 4 years) evaluated the effects of school-average achievement and perceived school status on academic self-concept in Hong Kong, a collectivist culture with a highly achievement-segregated high school system. Consistent with a priori predictions based on the big-fish-little-pond…
Hamideh Jafari Koshkouei; Ahmad Shahvarani; Mohammad Hassan Behzadi; Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh
The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of mathematics self-concept (MSC), motivation to learn mathematics (SMOT) and self-regulation learning (SRL) on students' mathematics academic achievement. This study is of a descriptive survey type. 300 female students at the first grade of high school (the second period) in City Qods, were selected by multiple step cluster sampling method and completed MSC, SMOT and SRL questionnaires. Mathematics academic achievement was measur...
Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.
Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…
In Turkey due to changes in the age starting school implemented during the 2012-2013 academic year, children ages from 60 months to 84 months were subject to the same educational program in the same class. By the 2015-2016 academic year these children were at the end of 4th class. This research aimed to investigate the Turkish and mathematic…
Justicia-Galiano, M José; Martín-Puga, M Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago
Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept. A total of 167 children aged 8-12 years participated in this study. Children completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children. A series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Results suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Whillier, Stephney; Au, Kent; Feng, Louie; Su, Helen
The shift toward evidence-based health care has reoriented tertiary clinical education in a way that necessitates and incorporates research. This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. Students in first and final year were assessed in 4 domains: creativity, motivation, self-regulation, and general intellectual ability. Univariable differences were assessed using Welch 2-sample t tests, and multivariable analysis was carried out with multiple linear regression models. The response rate was 71% (n = 165). First- and fifth-year students scored highly on all 4 domains (80% to 96%). Compared to first-year students, fifth-year students rated themselves significantly lower in 3 of the domains: general intellectual abilities (t = -2.01; p = 0.047), motivation (t = -4.82; p < 0.001), and creativity (t = -3.00; p = 0.003). Research suitability is high in chiropractic students. Both cohorts scored high in all domains despite the disparity between first and fifth years. First-year students outperformed fifth-year students in 3 domains, indicating a potential decline in the inclination to do research over time. However, unaccounted factors, such as the Dunning-Kruger effect, life changes, and "burnout," may have contributed to these differences. Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings.
Tu, Min-Hsuan; Bono, Joyce E; Shum, Cass; LaMontagne, Liva
Building on identity theories and social learning theory, we test the notion that new leaders will model the abusive behaviors of their superiors only under certain conditions. Specifically, we hypothesize that new leaders will model abusive supervisory behaviors when (a) abusive superiors are perceived to be competent, based on the performance of their teams and (b) new leaders' ideal leadership self-concepts are high on tyranny or low on sensitivity. Results of an experiment in which we manipulated abusive supervisory behaviors using a professional actor, and created a role change where 93 individuals moved from team member to team leader role, generally support our hypotheses. We found the strongest association between abuse exposure and new leader abuse under conditions where the abusive superior's team performed well and the new team leaders' self-concepts showed low concern for others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Marsh, H W; Kong, C K; Hau, K T
Longitudinal multilevel path models (7,997 students, 44 high schools, 4 years) evaluated effects of school-average achievement and perceived school status on academic self-concept in Hong Kong, which has a collectivist culture with a highly achievement-segregated high school system. Consistent with a priori predictions based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), higher school-average achievements led to lower academic self-concepts (contrast effect), whereas higher perceived school status had a counterbalancing positive effect on self-concept (reflected-glory, assimilation effect). The negative BFLPE is the net effect of counterbalancing influences, stronger negative contrast effects, and weaker positive assimilation effects so that controlling perceived school status led to purer--and even more negative--contrast effects. Attending a school where school-average achievement is high simultaneously resulted in a more demanding basis of comparison for one's own accomplishments (the stronger negative contrast effect) and a source of pride (the weaker positive assimilation effect).
Kombe, Dennis; Che, S. Megan; Carter, Traci L.; Bridges, William
In this article, we present findings from a study that investigated the relationship between all-girls classes, all-boys classes, and coeducational classes on student mathematics self-concept and student perception of classroom environment. Further, we compared responses of girls in all-girls classes to girls in coeducational classes and responses…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Adolescence is a critical developmental period for self-concept (role identity). Cross-sectional studies link self-concept's behavioral conduct domain (whether teens perceive themselves as delinquent) with adolescent substance use. If self-concept actually drives substance use, then it may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we used longitudinal data from 1 school year to examine whether behavioral self-concept predicts teen drinking behaviors or vice versa. A total of 291 students from a large, predominantly Latino public high school completed a confidential computerized survey in the fall and spring of their 9th grade year. Survey measures included the frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking and at-school alcohol use in the previous 30 days; and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents behavioral conduct subscale. Multiple regressions were performed to test whether fall self-concept predicted the frequency and type of spring drinking behavior, and whether the frequency and type of fall drinking predicted spring self-concept. Fall behavioral self-concept predicted both the frequency and type of spring drinking. Students with low versus high fall self-concept had a predicted probability of 31% versus 20% for any drinking, 20% versus 8% for binge drinking and 14% versus 4% for at-school drinking in the spring. However, neither the frequency nor the type of fall drinking significantly predicted spring self-concept. Low behavioral self-concept may precede or perhaps even drive adolescent drinking. If these results are confirmed, then prevention efforts might be enhanced by targeting high-risk teens for interventions that help develop a healthy behavioral self-concept. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.
This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students’ trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students’ scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students’ academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment) and what they really feel (state assessment). Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed. PMID:24647760
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus
In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…
Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy
This study investigated the self-concept of students with vision impairment who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Self-Concept was explored across six dimensions, namely Physical, Moral, Personal, Family, Social and Academic Self-Concepts and the Total Self-Concept. The "Tennessee Self-Concept…
Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista
As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.
The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810
Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.
Girli, Alev; Öztürk, Halil
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD), academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD) peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the…
The purpose of this study was to examine how I Am A Dreamer Musician Program (IDMP) affected academic self-concept and self-esteem of middle school students in low-income communities. During the seven weeks of the weekly music workshops, students participated in different musical activities including playing percussion instruments, singing,…
Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…
Guo, Jiesi; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kelava, Augustin; Gaspard, Hanna; Brandt, Holger; Cambria, Jenna; Flunger, B.; Dicke, Anna Lena; Häfner, Isabelle; Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Trautwein, Ulrich
Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept
Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others
Self-concept measures and state certificate program achievement grades were used to determine the effects on 7th through 11th graders in Sydney (Australia) of converting two single-sex high schools to coeducational institutions. Pre- to post-transition data were collected from 1982 to 1985. Coeducational organizations benefit self-concept, while…
Preckel, Franzis; Rach, Hannah; Scherrer, Vsevolod
The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual self-concept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relations with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report…
Full Text Available Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept and task values on educational outcomes using the latent moderated structural equation approach. Participants were 1,868 German ninth-grade students. The data analyses relied on a higher-order structure of value beliefs, which is suited to parsing the differential patterns of predictive relations for different value beliefs. The findings revealed that (a self-concept was more predictive of achievement, whereas value beliefs were more predictive of self-rated effort; (b self-concept and value beliefs emerged as equally important predictors of teacher-reported engagement; (c among the four value beliefs, achievement was more associated with low cost, whereas effort was more associated with attainment value; and (d latent interactions between self-concept and value beliefs predicted the three outcomes synergistically.
Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista
Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.
Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai
The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model explains a seemingly paradoxical pattern of relations between math and verbal self-concepts and corresponding measures of achievement, extends social comparison theory, and has important educational implications. In a cross-cultural study of nationally representative samples of 15-year-olds from…
Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred
Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding students'…
Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo explorar las relaciones empíricas entre diversas formas de autoconcepto (académico, social, emocional y familiar y el desempeño académico en lengua y matemáticas de adolescentes que asisten al tercer ciclo de la Educación General Básica, prestando especial atención al sexo, el año y el tipo de institución. Así, se han estudiado 850 alumnos de 7o y 9o años de escuelas públicas y privadas de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina. Fueron utilizados el Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Forma A (AFA y pruebas para la Evaluación de la Calidad de la Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Los resultados indicaron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre diversas formas de autoconcepto y el desempeño académico, tanto en lengua cuanto en matemáticas. Sin embargo, los análisis de estas relaciones en función del sexo, el año y el tipo de escuela mostraron que el autoconcepto se asoció al desempeño académico solamente entre los alumnos de las escuelas públicas. Además de eso, para los varones el autoconcepto se asoció al rendimiento en lengua y matemáticas en 7o y 9o años, mientras que en las mujeres se encontraron relaciones significativas tan solamente con lengua en 7o año.The aim of this work was to study self-concept (academic, social, emotional and familiar and academic achievement in language and math exploring sex, grade, and institutional type relations. 850 public and private basic general education students (7th and 9th grades from Mar del Plata (Argentine were assessed with the Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Forma A (AFA and tested in language and math with the Education Quality Assessment of Buenos Aires Government. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations among different forms of self-concept and academic achievement in language and math. Nevertheless, when considering sex, grade and institution type, the self-concept was associated to academic achievement only in
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Chung, Paul J; Wong, Mitchell D
Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral self-concepts. We analyzed cross-sectional surveys of 929 9th-12th grade low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles assessing self-concept, social networks, and 30-day use of alcohol, marijuana and other drugs. We performed generalized estimating equations, accounting for clustering at the school level and controlling for family and peer influences and contextual factors. We also tested whether self-concept-mediated associations between relationships with teachers or coaches and 30-day substance use. More perceived teacher support was associated with lower odds of marijuana and other drug use and better academic and behavioral self-concepts. Behavioral self-concept mediated the associations between teacher support and substance use. By facilitating relationships with adults and improving teachers' capacity to build supportive environments, schools may positively shape how adolescents see themselves, which might help reduce adolescent substance use. © 2016, American School Health Association.
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.
Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera
Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.
Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of research…
Manning, Maureen A.
In this article, the author discusses self-perceptions and the difference between self-esteem and self concept. Promoting high self-concept in students is important because it relates to academic and life success, but before investing significant time, money, and effort on packaged programs, it is important to understand why such endeavors have…
This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies
student study habit and self-concept combined together and singularly predicted science ... Study skills are fundamental to academic success. A student who ... Motivation to engage or not in a task is significantly determined by self- concept or ...
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764
Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.
Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…
The significant increase of entrepreneurship education (EE) is a trend in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote general and specific entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This paper evaluates whether EE influences academic performance, measured by Grade Point Average. The main indicator used for EE is the…
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...
Gunter, Helen M.
Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…
Viljaranta, Jaana; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Silinskas, Gintautas; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The majority of previous research on academic skills, self-concept of ability and interest has deployed the variable-oriented approach and focused on self-concept, or ability, or interest only. This study examined the patterns and dynamics of pattern change in Finnish children's word reading skill, self-concept of ability and interest from…
Justicia-Galiano, M. José; Martín-Puga, M. Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago
Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible…
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was found that athletic performance improves physical self-esteem and self-esteem of students. Therefore, health system policy makers can promote the necessary facilities for expanding the culture of sports activities and also create an environment with sufficient facilities in the university.
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency –measured as the amount of time undergraduate students spend playing games in their free time – and their academic performance as measured by their examination marks. U...
Blanco, Pedro J.
This study examined the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) with academically at-risk 1st graders. In this quasi-experimental design, twenty-one 1st grade students were assigned to the experimental group and 20 students were assigned to the no treatment control group. The children in the experimental group received two 30 minute…
Redek, Tjaša; Sušjan, Andrej; Kostevc, Črt
The article analyses the position of the unemployed in the labour market, primarily relationship between self-concept and self-esteem of workers and their motivation to seek work. The current crisis dramatically worsened labour market situation, making employment almost impossible for many, primarily the vulnerable groups (older, women). Survey data used in cluster analysis reveal that the unemployment is related to self-concept, but besides unemployment also other ...
Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars
Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...
Helm, Estelle Bailey
Good self-esteem and self-concept have a bearing on a child's performance in school. The article describes ways to recognize poor self-image in a child and suggests strategies for building self-concept. Activities listed include positive marking of papers, bibliotherapy, improvisational drama, and values clarification. (DS)
Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas
Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…
Scheirer, Mary Ann; Kraut, Robert E.
Literature linking self-concept and achievement, and evaluation research on educational programs to improve self-concept are analyzed in terms of several self-concept theories. Evidence for a causal connection between self-concept and achievement is negative. Researchers have failed to explore other theoretical approaches to educational change.…
Massey, Catherine J.
Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…
Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas
Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...... and/or small sample sizes, there is currently no quantification of the interplay of these factors. Here, we study the academic performance among a cohort of 538 undergraduate students forming a single, densely connected social network. Our work is based on data collected using smartphones, which...... the students used as their primary phones for two years. The availability of multi-channel data from a single population allows us to directly compare the explanatory power of individual and social characteristics. We find that the most informative indicators of performance are based on social ties...
Although academic advising in Kenyan universities exists, no research has been done to find out how it impacts on students' educational and career goals. This research aimed at establishing the effect of academic advising on academic performance and the influence of year of study and gender on students' tendency to ...
Shields, Robert F.
Abstract Purpose To determine the self-concepts of chiropractic students as science students and if any personal variable affect their self-concepts. Participants Students in their first trimester and eighth trimester at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic during the 1993 academic year (n=158). Methods Peterson-Yaakobi Q-Sort, National Assessment of Educational Progress, two-tailed T-test, one way analysis of variance and Spearman-rho correlation. Results The majority of students have positive self- concepts as science students and although there was a difference between the 2 trimesters, it was not significant. As a group they generally had less exposure to science compared to undergraduates from a selected science program. Variables of socio-economic status, undergraduate major, and highest completed level of education did not statistically affect their self-concept. Conclusion Chiropractic students had the self-concept that enables them to subscribe to the philosophical foundations of science and better engage in basic sciences and, later, science-based clinical research. Knowledge of this self- concept can be used in the development of a more rigorous basic science curricula and clinical research programs at chiropractic colleges with the ultimate goal of providing a more firm scientifically based foundation for the profession. PMID:19674649
Zeidner, Moshe; Shani-Zinovich, Inbal
This study compares facets of self-concept in gifted and non-identified Israeli adolescent students. The self-concept mean score profile of gifted vs. non-selected Israeli students was significantly different, with gifted students reporting higher mean levels of academic self-concept, but lower mean levels of social, personal, and physical…
Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek
Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…
Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.
Peer support interventions have mostly neglected the domain specificity of intervention effects. In two studies, the present investigation examined the domain specificity of peer support interventions targeting specific domains of self-concept. In Study 1, participants ("n" = 50) who had received an academically oriented peer support…
Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos
Female and minority students have historically been underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, and engineering at colleges and universities. Although a plethora of research has focused on students enrolled in 4-year colleges or universities, limited research addresses the factors that influence gender differences in community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering. Using a target population of 1,599 aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, this study investigates the determinants of self-concept by examining a hypothetical structural model. The findings suggest that background characteristics, high school academic performance, and attitude toward science have unique contributions to the development of self-concept among female community college students. The results add to the literature by providing new theoretical constructs and the variables that predict students' self-concept.
The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additiona...
Scatolini, Flora Lopes; Zanni, Karina Piccin; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara
The diagnosis of epilepsy can lead to changes in the patient's perception due to factors such as learning and behavioral problems, lack of academic motivation, and low self-esteem. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the knowledge of self-concept in children with epilepsy and those with typical development and verify whether gender and age influence this perception. Eighty children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 14years, participated in this study. The children were divided into two groups: the epilepsy group, which consisted of 40 children diagnosed with epilepsy, and the control group, which consisted of 40 children with typical development and comparable to group 1 according to sex and age. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, translated and adapted for the Brazilian population, was used as the evaluation instrument. In total, there were 23 boys and 17 girls in each group, with a mean age of 10.7years. There were significant differences in the overall score (p=0.000) and the subareas "behavior" (p=0.006), "intellectual and academic status" (p=0.001), and "popularity" (p=0.004). The group of children with epilepsy had a lower average score in self-concept. Children with epilepsy were observed to perceive themselves as clumsy, without many friends, with low academic performance and problems at school, and to experiencing feelings of unhappiness. These findings suggest that, in addition to the treatment of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy, it is extremely important to provide treatment focused on improving the self-concept of school-aged children with this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Majid Najafi Kalyani
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Studying periods in university is very important for students. Because of the problems, this period is usually accompanied with mental status changes of students. The aim of this study was the assessment of psychological variables (stress, anxiety and depression and self-concept of students. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 89-88 were selected through census sampling method. The DASS-21 was used to assess stress, anxiety and depression of students and in order to evaluate the status of their self-concept; the Carl Rogers questionnaire was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics (t test, ANOVA, Chi square and Pearson correlation. Results: The results of this study showed that 76% of students had stress, 56.4% anxiety and 53.1% depression, and 69/3% had weak or negative self-concepts. There was a statistically significant correlation between high stress, anxiety and depression with negative self-concept (P<0.001.Conclusion: High stress, anxiety and depression and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of students were found. It is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of students and have appropriate interventions.
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.
Study explores how institutional context affects the development of self-concept in a sample of 273 African American college students. Findings suggest that students attending church affiliated historically Black colleges develop significantly higher self-ratings in three domains of self-concept-psychosocial wellness, academic, and achievement…
Lindberg, Sven; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Ehm, Jan-Henning; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lonnemann, Jan
In the course of elementary school, children start to develop an academic self-concept reflecting their motivation, thoughts, and feelings about a specific domain. For the domain of mathematics, gender differences can emerge which are characterized by a less pronounced math self-concept for girls. However, studies are rather sparse regarding the…
Sharpes, D K; Wang, X
Studies of self-concept have suffered from a lack of both a solid theoretical base and a clear definition of the term. It is not clear whether self-concept is a construct from the cognitive sciences, an active part of personality or of the ego and unconscious, or a physiological process as indicated from neurological research. Nor is it clear whether the psychological construct of self is related to other concepts, such as personal identity, self-esteem, and the ego, as sometimes these refer to the whole person or a structure or element within a person. What is evident is that the majority of researchers continue to assume that self-concept, however defined in theory, is primarily governed by environmental determinants despite abundant evidence from the neurosciences of the strong influence of its genetic heritability. This study assumed a genetic hypothesis, that self-concept is developmental and that adolescent perception of personal, relational, and academic self-identity occurs uniformly across cultures and environmental circumstances. Data were collected using a validated survey instrument, translated into Chinese, from majority and minority adolescents in the People's Republic of China. High similarity was found between the majority and minority adolescents, suggesting developmental propensities in the formation of self-concept.
Academic procrastination is a prevalent phenomenon with a range of negative outcomes. Many studies focused on causes and correlates of academic procrastination; however, the study of interventions for academic procrastination is scarce. The present study is an initial effort to study the relationship between academic procrastination, online course participation, and achievement, as a basis for developing an intervention for academic procrastination. Findings indicated that studying procrastination was negatively associated with final exam grade as well as with the three online course participation measures. Final exam grade was positively associated with two of the online course participation measures, and they positively correlated with each other. In addition, results indicated that studying procrastination, in combination with online course participation measures, explained about 50% of variance in final exam's grade. Frequency of activities in course Web site had the strongest positive effect on final exam's grade. These findings strengthen the notion that studying procrastination is an impediment to students' academic performance and outcomes and clarifies the need to develop and study academic interventions for academic procrastination as a means to decrease its prevalence in academic settings.
Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study investigated to what extent primary school teachers' perceptions of their students' ability and effort predict developmental changes in children's self-concepts of ability in math and reading after controlling for students' academic performance and general intelligence. Three cohorts (N?=?849) of elementary school children and their…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J
Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Chung, Paul J.; Wong, Mitchell D.
Background: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral…
Sandra Vuk Pisk; Mate Mihanovic; Ante Silic; Anamarija Bogovic; Vesna Vidovic
Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30) 18-year-old girls in their la...
Full Text Available The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additionally, it has an essential role in individual advance.
Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...
Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne
The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…
Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…
Ganguly, Sohinee; Kulkarni, Mrinmoyi; Gupta, Meenakshi
There are two dominant strains in the literature on academic performance, the attribution studies and the self-efficacy studies. The present study attempted to incorporate these two strains while examining the academic performance of engineering undergraduate students in India. Time management and perceived stress were included in the model to…
The study investigated the influence of motivation on the academic performance of undergraduate distance learners of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. The study was guided by two hypotheses; the relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance of Level 300 undergraduate students of College of ...
Samson, Gordon E.; And Others
A synthesis of results from 35 studies of the association between academic and occupational performance in various fields indicated that academic indicators such as grades and test scores account for only 2.4 percent of the variance in occupational performance criteria such as income, job satisfaction, and effectiveness ratings. (Author/BW)
Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M
When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.
AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Performance in Vocational Education in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State. GO Ojo ... title Home- School Factors and Students' Academic Performance in Vocational Education ...
Reviews the history of self-concept research. Suggests that self-concept research was long neglected due to major hostile scientific paradigms: psychology's behaviorist paradigm, sociology's social factist and social behaviorist paradigms, and the Freudian paradigm in psychoanalysis. Contains 46 references. (SV)
De Gale, S.; Boisselle, L. N.
POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a collaborative learning technique that employs guided inquiry within a cyclic system of exploration, concept invention, and application. This action research explores students' academic performance on a unit of organic chemistry work taught using POGIL, in addition to the effect of POGIL on…
Arens, A. Katrin; Jansen, Malte
Academic self-concept has been conceptualized as a multidimensional and hierarchical construct. Previous research has mostly focused on its multidimensionality, distinguishing between verbal and mathematical self-concept domains, and only a few studies have examined the factorial structure within specific self-concept domains. The present study…
Learning Environment And Pupils Academic Performance: Implications For Counselling. ... facilities as well as learning materials to make teaching and learning easy. In addition, teachers should provide conducive classroom environment to ...
Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Ilorin, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This study adopted descriptive survey method. Six faculties ...
Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace
This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.
Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie
The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Lane, J; Muller, D
This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.
Sandra Vuk Pisk
Full Text Available Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30 18-year-old girls in their last year of high school. A further 40 girls of the same age with a BMI of 18 - 25 formed a control group. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents (OSIQ was used to evaluate their self-concept. Descriptive statistical methods used in analysing the data included calculation of the median and standard deviation of variables, and t-tests were used to compare group differences, with p
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Johnston, Leanne M
Self-concept is an individual's perception of him/herself. Research into the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been sparse due to the lack of a population-specific self-concept instrument. Using the new myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment, this study investigated the self-concept of children with CP in relation to age, gender, motor, communication and cognitive function. Children with CP aged 8-12 years (n = 50; 29 males; mean 10 years 2 months; GMFCS-E&R I = 36, II = 8, III = 5, IV = 1) completed myTREEHOUSE and a standardised intelligence measure. Most children reported positive self-concept from all three myTREEHOUSE Performance Perspectives and over half (60%) fell within the Low range for the Personal Concern Score. Self-concept was not associated with age, gender, motor function, or communication function. However, for cognitive function, associations were observed for Social Skills (Below Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 1.07) and Learning Skills (Above Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 0.95) domains when rated from a Personal Performance Perspective. As the first study of the self-concept of children with CP using a CP-specific assessment, this study offers important insights into what children with CP think about themselves. Generally, the self-concept of children with CP was sound. Future research on environmental facilitators and barriers to robust self-concept development is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Colombia, students from an ethnic group have a lower academic achievement with respect totheir non-ethnic peers in standardized test scores on math and language. This gap is persistentat a state level, especially in high ethnic density states. Using information from the state academictest (SABER 11, this study corroborates the existence of an academic gap between ethnicand non-ethnic students and, additionally, decomposes it in factors related to observable characteristics,such as family and school; and non-observable factors. The methodology proposed byBlinder and Oaxaca applied to quantile regression is used in order to determine the existence oftest score gaps throughout the distribution of academic performance. Results indicate that forstates where there is a statistically significant gap, a sizeable portion of it is attributed to nonobservablefactors. Nonetheless, at distinct levels of academic performance, the gap size and theextent to which it can be attributed non-observable factors vary according to the state
The main purpose of the present dissertation was to dismember and reconstruct some aspects of the complex relationship between literacy development and self-concept. Two main principles were included in the general design of the longitudinal investigation. The first principle involved an increasing level of specificity in three steps where the starting point was an overall picture of 700 pupils' reading acquisition and self-concept. The second step was a more detailed analysis with the focus ...
González Ramírez, María Reyes; Gascó Gascó, José Luis; Llopis Taverner, Juan
The objective sought with the present paper consists in analyzing the literature about Facebook in order to know the conclusions of the different works with regard to its influence on those results. The examination of 37 papers devoted to this thematic area allows us to know which journals publish more about the impacts that Facebook has on academic performance, which data collection methods are more often used, which topics emerge in parallel to the use of Facebook in the academic context, a...
Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Jansen, Malte; Schiefer, Irene M.; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Möller, Jens
Dimensional comparison theory (DCT; Möller & Marsh, 2013) assumes that students compare their academic achievement intraindividually across domains to form domain-specific self-concepts. Upward dimensional comparisons are believed to lead to lower self-concepts in the worse-off domain, while downward dimensional comparisons should lead to…
Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.
The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
The ability to design and implement performance management systems that motivate employees to high performance has become pivotal for many public leaders. Many public organizations use command systems which are based on the threat of sanctions, but our knowledge on the effects of such systems...... is very limited, because studies have focused on rewards instead. This article investigates how publication command systems (and especially the perception of them) affect individual researchers’ productivity. The typical publication command system consists of rules concerning the minimum number of journal...... articles required from each researcher and procedures for monitoring and sanctioning. Principal Agent Theory expects command systems to induce agents to work harder and perform better, whereas motivation crowding theory claims that the agents’ perception of the command system is the important factor...
Mileidy Salcedo Barragán
Full Text Available This study intends to find the relationship between academic performance in High School and College, focusing on Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It is a descriptive correlational study, and the variables were academic performance in High School, performance indicators and educational history. The correlations between variables were established with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results suggest that there is a positive relationship between academic performance in High School and Educational History, and a very weak relationship between performance in Science and Mathematics in High School and performance in College.
Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy
One hundred and fifty-five students (average age, 10 years 7 months) were initially tested on reading, arithmetic, and academic self-perception. One year later they were tested again. Initial academic scores accounted for a large proportion of the variance in later academic scores. The children's self-perceptions of academic competence accounted…
Austin Blackburn Wiles MD
Full Text Available Academic pathologists perform clinical duties, as well as valuable nonclinical activities. Nonclinical activities may consist of research, teaching, and administrative management among many other important tasks. While clinical duties have many clear metrics to measure productivity, like the relative value units of Medicare reimbursement, nonclinical performance is often difficult to measure. Despite the difficulty of evaluating nonclinical activities, nonclinical productivity is used to determine promotion, funding, and inform professional evaluations of performance. In order to better evaluate the important nonclinical performance of academic pathologists, we present an evaluation system for leadership use. This system uses a Microsoft Excel workbook to provide academic pathologist respondents and reviewing leadership a transparent, easy-to-complete system that is both flexible and scalable. This system provides real-time feedback to academic pathologist respondents and a clear executive summary that allows for focused guidance of the respondent. This system may be adapted to fit practices of varying size, measure performance differently based on years of experience, and can work with many different institutional values.
Pestana, Leonor; Duarte, João; Coutinho, Emília; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Amaral, Odete
Abstract: Sleep has numerous important functions in the body, such as consolidation of memory, concentration and learning. Changes in sleep cycles in adolescents lead to sleep deprivation with consequences to academic performance. Our research question was What are the sleep habits that influence school performance (study environment, study planning, study method, reading skills, motivation to study, overall school performance) in adolescents? We aimed to identify sleep habits predictors of t...
Maiz, Edurne; Balluerka, Nekane
Food problems in children and adolescents often have a detrimental effect on the emotional and psychological wellbeing of their parents. However, the impact of such problems on the psychological wellbeing of children and adolescents themselves has been less widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children and adolescents with food neophobia differed in trait anxiety and dimensions of self-concept from their neophilic and their average peers. A community sample of 831 participants (368 males and 463 females) between the ages of 8 and 16 were classified into six groups based on scores obtained on the Spanish Child Food Neophobia Scale (i.e., neophobic, average, and neophilic) and their age (i.e., children vs. adolescents). Compared with their neophilic peers, children with food neophobia showed higher levels of trait anxiety and a poorer social, physical, and academic self-concept. Among adolescents similar results were observed for trait anxiety and physical self-concept, but instead of social and academic self-concept it was family self-concept which distinguished between neophobic and neophilic participants. These results suggest that food neophobia is associated with trait anxiety and with some dimensions of self-concept. This highlights the need to ascertain the threshold between 'normal' and 'problematic' eating behaviors, since the fact that a behavior is to some extent usual does not imply that it is harmless. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, F R; Swain, M T
Contrary to the theory of the homeostatic model of self-concept, i.e., the expectancy that engaging in anti-social or pro-social behavior results typically in shifts in the self-concept (Graf, 1968; Deitz, 1970 shifts did not occur. Subjects, 12- 14-year-old boys enrolled in junior high school, delinquent prone (DP) and non-delinquent prone bright (NDPB), reacted to manipulation by engaging in reparative behavior as indicated via an aggression module in a fashion generally expected but the expected shift from chronic self-images did not occur. Both DP and NDPB viewed themselves similarly on self concept. The authors postulated that if shifts would occur for the delinquent prone it would be after they left school with its accompanying identification with a sub-culture outside the school setting.
This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 10 secondary schools in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 principals ...
Finding accurate predictors of tertiary academic performance, specifically for disadvantaged students, is essential because of budget constraints and the need of the labour market to address employment equity. Increased retention, throughput and decreased dropout rates are vital. When making admission decisions, the
This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...
This was a correlational design study that explored the relationship between pupils' psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, hearing status, attitude towards teachers and school; and between these and academic performance. A total of 194 pupils, 110 hearing normally and 84 hearing impaired were compared in ...
Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.
We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic
Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…
Nasrullah, Shazia; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah
The current study will be conducted in relationship of entrepreneurship education and academic performance. The study will be conducted on the post graduate students in the Universities of Bahawalpur. In the current study those universities will be included that were offering and also not offering entrepreneurship as a subject of teaching. The…
Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested.
González Gándara, David
There is a concern in Galicia (Spain) about possible negative effects on academic performance caused by the introduction of CLIL (content and language integrated learning) in schools. It has been said that when three languages coexist in the same context as vehicles of education, it is too much for the students, especially in primary education. In…
Purpose: While numerous studies about academic performance that focused on only one factor, studies aiming to measure academicians' perceptions across many factors have not been observed in the literature. The current study aims to fill this gap and become a resource for upcoming studies. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable…
Martin Sanz, Noemy; Rodrigo, Inés G.; Izquierdo García, Cristina; Ajenjo Pastrana, Patricia
Academic performance has always been associated to the evaluation tests results, which are those corresponding to student's IQ, and leaving aside other personal characteristics. Among such characteristics, the importance of emotional intelligence is worth highlighting (management, facilitation, understanding and perception), dimensions associated…
... in order to reduce the parasite reservoir in man, and also breaking the man-fly contact either by use of repellents or through proper covering of the body during outdoor activities. Key Words: Onchocerciasis, manifestation, academic performance, weighted average, visual impairment. Bio-Research Vol.1(2) 2003: 77-85 ...
Clausen, Nicola G; Pedersen, Dorthe A; Pedersen, Jacob K
OBJECTIVE: Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group to ......: Oral cleft type rather than number and timing of anesthesia and operations associate to poorer academic performance. Although a potential neurotoxic effect due to anesthetic agents is not reflected in the data, it cannot be completely excluded.......OBJECTIVE: Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group...
David L. La Red Martinez
Full Text Available The relatively low% of students promoted and regularized in Operating Systems Course of the LSI (Bachelor’s Degree in Information Systems of FaCENA (Faculty of Sciences and Natural Surveying - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Naturales y Agrimensura of UNNE (academic success, prompted this work, whose objective is to determine the variables that affect the academic performance, whereas the final status of the student according to the Res. 185/03 CD (scheme for evaluation and promotion: promoted, regular or free1. The variables considered are: status of the student, educational level of parents, secondary education, socio-economic level, and others. Data warehouse (Data Warehouses: DW and data mining (Data Mining: DM techniques were used to search pro.les of students and determine success or failure academic potential situations. Classifications through techniques of clustering according to different criteria have become. Some criteria were the following: mining of classification according to academic program, according to final status of the student, according to importance given to the study, mining of demographic clustering and Kohonen clustering according to final status of the student. Were conducted statistics of partition, detail of partitions, details of clusters, detail of fields and frequency of fields, overall quality of each process and quality detailed (precision, classification, reliability, arrays of confusion, diagrams of gain / elevation, trees, distribution of nodes, of importance of fields, correspondence tables of fields and statistics of cluster. Once certain profiles of students with low academic performance, it may address actions aimed at avoiding potential academic failures. This work aims to provide a brief description of aspects related to the data warehouse built and some processes of data mining developed on the same.
Abd-Elmotaleb, Moustafa; Saha, Sudhir K.
This study examines the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the link between perceived academic climate and academic performance among university students. The participants in the study consist of 272 undergraduate students at the University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt. A scale to measure perceived academic climate, was developed. To…
Gigy, Lynn L.
Explores the self-concepts of single and married women. Single women had more psychiatric symptoms, valued personal growth and achievement, and were higher on assertion and poise. Married women were more likely to identify with kinship roles and household activities. (Author)
Jan 31, 2014 ... liberation for homosexuality at its new height in. India, researchers are now trying to view homosexuals on empirically generated results rather than old stereotyped perceptions. In addition, Self concept and Personality are part of a homosexual's identity in the same way as it is for heterosexuals. Yet, the ...
Ryan, Victor L.; And Others
Changes in self-concept as a function of behavioral treatment for test anxiety are investigated. Test-anxious subjects (N=72) were randomly assigned to systematic desensitization, relaxation-training only, or no-treatment control conditions. Results indicate that the desensitization and relaxation treatments were both effective in reducing test…
Pearce, Karma; Golley, Rebecca; Lewis, Lucy; Cassidy, Leah; Olds, Timothy; Maher, Carol
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between dietary patterns and children's academic performance. This cross-sectional study involved 315 children aged 9-11 years from 26 schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured in 4 domains (reading, writing, numeracy, and language-subdomains: spelling, grammarm and punctuation) using the National Assessment Program in Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). A self-reported child questionnaire collected dietary intake data. "Core" (healthy) and "noncore" (unhealthy) dietary patterns were derived using principal components analysis. The noncore pattern was associated with lower NAPLAN scores across all academic domains (mean: -12.6, 95% CI: -18.7 to -6.4, r 2 = .073, p Academic performance was deleteriously associated with a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet, yet not associated with a nutritious diet. © 2018, American School Health Association.
The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.
Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan
Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.
Medina, Melissa S
Effective interpersonal communication skills are needed for pharmacists to deliver patient-centered care. To achieve this outcome with pharmacists, communication skills are emphasized in pharmacy school in required coursework, such as a clinical communication course. One important concept to include in communication coursework is content on perceptions because perceptions influence communication interactions. Specific emphasis should include a focus on self-perceptions and self-concept, because related empirical literature demonstrates that accurate academic self-concepts predict academic success. These results were extrapolated to a pharmacy clinical communications course where a lecture and laboratory series was designed to emphasize self-concept and facilitate communication skills improvement. The instructional design of this series promoted the advancement of students' communication skills by using communication inventories, self-reflection activities, peer and class discussion, and lecture content. Class discussions, self-reflections, and baseline, and follow-up counseling activities throughout the semester provided evidence of improvements.
Effective interpersonal communication skills are needed for pharmacists to deliver patient-centered care. To achieve this outcome with pharmacists, communication skills are emphasized in pharmacy school in required coursework, such as a clinical communication course. One important concept to include in communication coursework is content on perceptions because perceptions influence communication interactions. Specific emphasis should include a focus on self-perceptions and self-concept, because related empirical literature demonstrates that accurate academic self-concepts predict academic success. These results were extrapolated to a pharmacy clinical communications course where a lecture and laboratory series was designed to emphasize self-concept and facilitate communication skills improvement. The instructional design of this series promoted the advancement of students’ communication skills by using communication inventories, self-reflection activities, peer and class discussion, and lecture content. Class discussions, self-reflections, and baseline, and follow-up counseling activities throughout the semester provided evidence of improvements. PMID:17149428
Bipp, T.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; van Mierlo, H.; Kunde, W.
We investigated the impact of subconscious goals on academic performance in two field experiments. We show that unobtrusive priming of goals with regard to achievement motivation by means of a photograph improves performance in different educational contexts. High-school students who were exposed to
Bipp, Tanja; Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Kunde, Wilfried
We investigated the impact of subconscious goals on academic performance in two field experiments. We show that unobtrusive priming of goals with regard to achievement motivation by means of a photograph improves performance in different educational contexts. High-school students who were exposed to an achievement-related photograph achieved…
Phillips, Ceib; Beal, Kimberly N. Edwards
Objective To examine, in adolescents with mild to moderate malocclusion, the relationship between self-concept and demographic characteristics, a clinical assessment of malocclusion, self-perception of malocclusion, and self-perception of facial attractiveness. Methods and Materials Fifty-nine consecutive patients ages 9 to 15 years scheduled for initial records in a graduate orthodontic clinic consented to participate. Each subject independently completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), the Facial Image Scale, and the Index of Treatment Need–Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores were obtained from the patients’ diagnostic dental casts. Forward multiple-regression analysis with a backward overlook was used to analyze the effect of the demographic, clinical, and self-perception measures on each of the six self-concept (MSCS) domains. Results Self-perception of the dentofacial region was the only statistically significant predictor (P < .05) for the Global, Competence, Affect, Academic, and Physical domains of self-concept, while age, parental marital status, and the adolescent's self-perception of the dentofacial region were statistically significant predictors (P < .05) of Social Self-Concept. Conclusion The self-perceived level of the attractiveness or “positive” feelings toward the dentofacial region is more strongly related to self-concept than the severity of the malocclusion as indicated by the PAR score or by the adolescent's perception of their malocclusion. PMID:19123700
Hashim, R.; Ayyub, A.; Hameed, S.; Qamar, K.; Raza, G.
Objective: This study aims to determine the educational impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on various academic activities of undergraduate female medical students. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan from June 2013 to November 2013 Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad. Data were collected from 224 undergraduate female medical students of all professional years. PMS was diagnosed according to WHO's ICD-10 criteria. Impact of premenstrual syndrome on academic activities of female medical students was assessed using a 22-itemed, structured questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and twenty four female undergraduate medical students gave their written consent to participate in this study. PMS was present among 207 (92.4%) female students. Major PMS symptoms experienced by the female students were backache (87.5%), fatigue (80.2%), depressed mood (78.2%), anxiety (76.8%), hypersomnia (71%) and poor emotional control (64.3%). The frequency of various PMS symptoms interfered with their academic activities (76.3%), with large group discussion sessions (79.2%), with small group discussion sessions (72.9%), written assessment (66.6%) and oral assessment (70.0%). Conclusion: The study findings affirm the fact that premenstrual syndrome profoundly affects the academic activities of young female medical students. In the light of these pertinent findings we recommend that health education and counselling services are essential to be provided at medical college campuses for female undergraduates. This will not only help them alleviate the negative effects of PMS but also develop an understanding about their problems, enhancing their academic output and performance in early medical carrier. (author)
Eliasson, Arne; Eliasson, Anders; King, Joseph; Gould, Ben; Eliasson, Arn
Poor school performance by adolescent students has been attributed in part to insufficient sleep. It is recognized that a number of factors lead to diminished total sleep time and chief among these are early school start times and sleep phase delay in adolescence. Political initiatives are gaining momentum across the United States to require later school start times with the intent of increasing total sleep time and consequently improving school performance. Later school start times come with significant costs and impact other activities of families and communities. The decision to implement later school start times cannot be made lightly and deserves support of well-performed research on the impact of these changes. A study evaluating the association of academic performance and total sleep time was performed in middle school and high school students in a suburban Maryland school system. Preliminary results of this study show no correlation of total sleep time with academic performance. Before mandating costly changes in school schedules, it would be useful to perform further research to determine the effects of increasing sleep time on the behaviors of adolescent students.
Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa
This paper investigates the relationship of academic stress with aggression, depression and academic performance of college students. Using a random sampling technique, 60 students consist of boys and girls were selected as students having academic stress. The scale for assessing academic stress (Sinha, Sharma and Mahendra, 2001); the Buss-Perry…
Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M
To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan
It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students' educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students ( N grade 7 = 583, N grade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497; second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%, average (51%, and negative academic well-being (15% and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%, average (50%, negative academic well-being (18%, and low-performing (7% with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan
It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:29593603
percentage (11%) of students seeking academic advising and students' needs .... Students at different years of study experience different and unique problems ..... sociocultural and clinical literature with particular reference to depression.
Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study examined whether teacher-child interactions characterized by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support at the beginning of second grade predicted children's global, academic, social, and behavioural self-concept at the end of second grade. The study was conducted in 30 second grade classrooms with 570 children and their…
Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.
The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Rickels, Heather; Assouline, Susan G.; Richards, Allison
Intellectually gifted students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face unique academic and social challenges, yet little research has been conducted with this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-esteem and self-concept of intellectually gifted children with and without a coexisting diagnosis of ADHD.…
Ehm, Jan-Henning; Lindberg, Sven; Hasselhorn, Marcus
The internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model (Marsh, "Am Educ Res J" 23:129-149, 1986) conceptualizes students' self-concepts as being formed by dimensional as well as social comparison processes. In the present study, the I/E model was tested and extended in a sample of elementary school children. Core academic skills of…
Košir, Katja; Horvat, Marina; Aram, Urška; Jurinec, Nina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different…
Dhaqane, Mahad Khalif; Afrah, Nor Abdulle
This study examines the role of satisfaction on students' academic performance and investigates the relationship between satisfaction of students and academic performance and explores other factors that contribute academic performance. A correlation research was used. The study population was the third and the last year students of Benadir…
Van der Beek, Jojanneke P J; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Leseman, Paul P M
Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. The aims were (1) to investigate the mediating role of mathematical self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and the achievement emotions of enjoyment and anxiety in a comprehensive model, and (2) to test possible differences in this mediating role between low-, average-, and high-achieving students. Participants were ninth-grade students (n = 1,014) from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands. Through an online survey including mathematical problems, students were asked to indicate their levels of mathematics enjoyment, anxiety, and self-concept. Structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating role of self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. Multigroup analyses were performed to compare these relations across the three achievement groups. Results confirmed full mediation of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions by mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, we found higher self-concepts, more enjoyment and less math anxiety in high-achieving students compared to their average and low-achieving peers. No differences across these achievement groups were found in the relations in the mediational model. Mathematical self-concept plays a pivotal role in students' appraisal of mathematics. Mathematics achievement is only one factor explaining students' self-concept. Likely also classroom instruction and teachers' feedback strategies help to shape students' self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Graham, Andrew T.
This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Zapf, Dieter
In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…
Background. Adolescents with epilepsy experience significant academic difficulties. However, little is known about the effects of epilepsy on the academic performance of adolescents with the disorder in Northern Nigeria. Objective. To assess the academic performance of adolescents with epilepsy and factors associated ...
girls) who obtained the basic requirements for courses that they ... Academic performance of students from less endowed senior high ... 106 ... only pay academic facility user fees. The second ..... certificate education, Pro is senior executive.
Libby, Lisa K; Eibach, Richard P
People who change often report that their old selves seem like "different people." Correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies showed that participants tended to use a 3rd-person observer perspective when visualizing memories of actions that conflicted with their current self-concept. A similar pattern emerged when participants imagined performing actions that varied in self-concept compatibility (Study 4). The authors conclude that on-line judgments of an action's self-concept compatibility affect the perspective used for image construction. Study 5 shows applied implications. Use of the 3rd-person perspective when recalling past episodes of overindulgent eating was related to optimism about behaving differently at an upcoming Thanksgiving dinner. The authors discuss the effect of self-concept compatibility on cognitive and emotional reactions to past actions and consider the role of causal attributions in defining the self across time.
Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal
This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also…
Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith
Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…
S.A. Oloruntoba1 ,J.L.Akinode2
This paper investigates the relationship between students' preadmission academic profile and final academic performance. Data Sample of students in one of the Federal Polytechnic in south West part of Nigeria was used. The preadmission academic profile used for this study is the 'O' level grades(terminal high school results).The academic performance is defined using student's Grade Point Average(GPA). This research focused on using data mining technique to develop a model for predicting stude...
Baudson, Tanja G; Weber, Kira E; Freund, Philipp A
One important goal of education is to develop students' self-esteem which, in turn, hinges on their self-concept in the academic, physical, and social domains. Prior studies have shown that physical self-concept accounts for most of the variation in self-esteem, with academic and social self-concepts playing a much lesser role. As pressure toward perfection seems to be increasing in education, appearance, and social relationships (three aspects that relate to crucial developmental tasks of adolescence), the goal of the present field study was to examine whether former findings still hold true in the light of the changing societal context. A sample of 2,950 students from a broad range of German secondary schools (47% girls, age 10-19 years) responded to a recently validated German-language questionnaire assessing multiple self-concept facets (Weber and Freund, 2016). We examined which self-concept aspects predict self-esteem best and whether the pattern is comparable across genders and achievement levels using latent regression analyses. Results show that self-concept of appearance is still by far the strongest predictor (total sample: B = 0.77, SE = 0.02, p educational schools. Other aspects play a much lesser role. The discussion explores why appearance is so neglected, compared to the more academic subjects, and what school can do to account for its vast importance for students' self-esteem.
Baudson, Tanja G.; Weber, Kira E.; Freund, Philipp A.
One important goal of education is to develop students’ self-esteem which, in turn, hinges on their self-concept in the academic, physical, and social domains. Prior studies have shown that physical self-concept accounts for most of the variation in self-esteem, with academic and social self-concepts playing a much lesser role. As pressure toward perfection seems to be increasing in education, appearance, and social relationships (three aspects that relate to crucial developmental tasks of adolescence), the goal of the present field study was to examine whether former findings still hold true in the light of the changing societal context. A sample of 2,950 students from a broad range of German secondary schools (47% girls, age 10–19 years) responded to a recently validated German-language questionnaire assessing multiple self-concept facets (Weber and Freund, 2016). We examined which self-concept aspects predict self-esteem best and whether the pattern is comparable across genders and achievement levels using latent regression analyses. Results show that self-concept of appearance is still by far the strongest predictor (total sample: B = 0.77, SE = 0.02, p educational schools. Other aspects play a much lesser role. The discussion explores why appearance is so neglected, compared to the more academic subjects, and what school can do to account for its vast importance for students’ self-esteem. PMID:27803681
Tanja Gabriele Baudson
Full Text Available One important goal of education is to develop students' self-esteem which, in turn, hinges on their self-concept in the academic, physical, and social domains. Prior studies have shown that physical self-concept accounts for most of the variation in self-esteem, with academic and social self-concepts playing a much lesser role. As pressure towards perfection seems to be increasing in education, appearance, and social relationships (three aspects that relate to crucial developmental tasks of adolescence, the goal of the present field study was to examine whether former findings still hold true in the light of the changing societal context. A sample of 2,950 students from a broad range of German secondary schools (47% girls, age 10–19 years responded to a recently validated German-language questionnaire assessing multiple self-concept facets (Weber & Freund, 2016. We examined which self-concept aspects predict self-esteem best and whether the pattern is comparable across genders and achievement levels using latent regression analyses. Results show that self-concept of appearance is still by far the strongest predictor (total sample: B = 0.77, SE = 0.02, p < .01 and that this is especially the case for girls and students from special educational schools. Other aspects play a much lesser role. The discussion explores why appearance is so neglected, compared to the more academic subjects, and what school can do to account for its vast importance for students' self-esteem.
Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin
This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…
Gao, Meng; Li, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Wei
To examine the mediating effect of self-concept between interparental conflict and mental health in children and adolescents. A total of 689 students (10-18 years) were surveyed using the convenient sampling method, and their mental health, self-concept, and interparental conflict were examined by the general status questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Self-Description Questionnaire, and Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and simultaneous analysis of several groups were used to construct the mediator model and analyze the data, respectively. The Bootstrap method was used to assess the significance of the mediating effects. Interparental conflict was positively correlated with mental health of children and adolescents (Pself-concept (PSelf-concept was negatively correlated with mental health (PSelf-concept had a partial (60%) mediating effect between interparental conflict and mental health. Academic stage, but not gender, had a regulatory role on interparental conflict, mental health, and self-concept. Self-concept plays an important role between interparental conflict and mental health. It is necessary to improve self-concept level in children and adolescents exposed to interparental conflict.
Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling
This study investigated the relationship between gifted students' academic self-concept (ASC) and academic achievement (AC) in earth science with internationally representative high-school students from the third International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO) held in Taiwan in 2009. The results of regression analysis indicated that IESO students' ASC…
Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Amado-Alonso, Diana; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; León-del-Barco, Benito
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature. PMID:28596750
Wang, Song; Kong, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Gong, Qiyong
As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI). Behaviorally, we confirmed the significant correlation between delay discounting and academic performance. Neurally, whole-brain regression analyses indicated that regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was associated with both delay discounting and academic performance. Furthermore, delay discounting partly accounted for the association between academic performance and brain structure. Differences in the rGMV of the left DLPFC related to academic performance explained over one-third of the impact of delay discounting on academic performance. Overall, these results provide the first evidence for the common neural basis linking delay discounting and academic performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3917-3926, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lucy Pujasari Supratman
Full Text Available Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The results showed thatadolescents have difficult experiencesto be in divorcefamily. The adolescent experience of being displaced communicated verbally and nonverbally. The verbal communication is the language of motivation adolescents enlightened and openness. While the non verbal, they follow parents advices, full of comfort, and positive appearance. Theybecome adolescents whohavevirtueinreligiousity, independence, futuristic and maturity self-concept.
The South African Higher Education system is in a state of rapid flux. Various factors are rendering education vulnerable to destructive influences. It has become imperative for academic managers to ensure that academic staff function productively. Management information systems which will generate correct information as ...
Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.
Soutar, Geoffrey N.; Wilkinson, Ian; Young, Louise
We report the results of an analysis of the research impact of marketing academics using citation metrics for 2263 academics in the top 500 research universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities based in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom and the USA. The metrics...... are computed for publications from 2001 to 2013, which were collected in 2014 and 2015. We also report the same metrics for all universities in Australia and New Zealand that employ more than 4 marketing academics. The results provide an objective measure of research impact and provide benchmarks that can...... be used by governments, universities and individual academics to compare research impact. In an appendix we rank the top 100 university marketing departments in the top 500....
Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç
Introduction: Procrastination has become one of the most researched topics due its adverse effects on the both general and student population in social sciences. The general tendency toward delaying academic tasks has been conceptualized as academic procrastination in academic setting. It is a prevalent issue among students and a numerous students…
Bechtoldt, Myriam N; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Zapf, Dieter
In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with contending or yielding. The positive relationship with cooperative behavior was mediated by less rumination (Study 2) and moderated by conflict intensity (Study 3). Specifically, it applied to relatively mild conflicts (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 extended these findings to the group level: Dyad members with higher self-concept clarity engaged in problem solving, whereas dyad members with lower self-concept clarity did not. We conclude that higher self-concept clarity associates with proactive problem solving in social conflict.
Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam
Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.
Students with visual impairment do experience discrimination, stigmatization, neglect and isolation from significant others around them. These unsavory experiences do have significant impact on their normal learning process. Although several studies have been conducted on the teaching and learning of students with ...
-concepts of male and female secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Four research questions were stated and answer in the field, four hypotheses were stated and tested to guide the study.
High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.
Amesberger, G; Müller, E; Würth, S
Physical self-concept in the elderly is assumed to be structured in terms of different domains and to contribute substantially to life satisfaction. However, little is known about the role of the physical self-concept in older persons that are engaged in physical activity while suffering from typical age-related impairments or chronic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the structure of physical self-concept in a group of older persons with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its development throughout a 12-week skiing intervention, and its importance to life satisfaction. Factor analyses of the present data reveal that the physical self-concept consists of four dimensions addressing strength, flexibility/coordination, endurance, and sportiness. One higher order factor extracted by hierarchical factor analyses reflects a global physical self-concept. The 12-week skiing intervention had no substantial impact in terms of an improvement of self-concept. Life satisfaction is best predicted by positive changes in the subjective ratings between pre- and post-test (i.e., global physical self-concept, flexibility and coordination, and perceived sportiness) and not by objective physical performance (isokinetic strength, endurance, or coordination). Results support the assumption that physical self-concept of older people with TKA is only marginally sensitive to a 12-week skiing intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sumartini, Tina Sri
Dalam pembelajaran matematika, siswa masih kurang memiliki self concept yang positif. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengembangkan self concept siswa adalah model concept attainment. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perkembangan self concept siswa setelah mendapatkan model pembelajaran concept attainment. Penelitian ini berbentuk one shot case study. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa di salah satu SMK di Kabupaten Garut. Pengambilan sampel d...
Pogosyan, Marianna; Marianna, Pogosyan
Self-concept has a significant impact on the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional systems of individuals. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the influence of self-concept on advertising effectiveness and consumer behavior. The present paper examines the role of ideal self-concept in advertising in the global beauty industry. Research suggests that in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements, the task of the advertisers is to bridge the rewarding and universal appe...
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic ... Recommendations were made on how to promote further development of science teachers in Nigeria. ... physical sciences like chemistry, engineering and.
Gannotti, Mary E; Minter, Christin L; Chambers, Henry G; Smith, Peter A; Tylkowski, Chester
To describe the self-concept of adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional design included the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, version 2 (TSCS:2), Functional Independence Measure (FIM™), Beck Depression Index II (BDI®-II), Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF), Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) levels and demographic questions. One hundred and two people with CP (52 females, mean age=26) participated. Thirty-eight participants had unreliable answers as indicated by validity scales and were excluded from the analysis. Ten participants had high self-concept; 41 had average self-concept and 13 had low total self-concept. Self-concept had a fair and inverse association with the BDI-II (Pearson's r= -0.3, pSelf-concept was not associated with GMFCS level or FIM score. Family and Personal sub-domain scores were lowest sub-domain scores for people with low self-concept (pself-concept; and self-concept was not associated with severity of CP, but with lack of depression and life satisfaction. Results suggest the need for family centred care into adulthood. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
da Silva Pacheco, Sheila Cristina; Gabbard, Carl; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy
The specific mechanisms linking motor ability and cognitive performance, especially academic achievement, are still unclear. Whereas the literature provides an abundance of information on fine and visual-motor skill and cognitive attributes, much less has been reported on gross motor ability. This study examined interlimb coordination and its relationship to academic performance in children aged 8-11 years. Motor and academic skills were examined in 100 Brazilian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Academic Performance Test. Participants were grouped into low (75%) academic achievers. There was a significant difference between groups for Total Motor Composite (P academic performance and Body Coordination. Of the subtests of Body Coordination (Bilateral Coordination and Balance), Bilateral Coordination accounted for the highest impact on academic performance. Of interest here, that subtest consists primarily of gross motor tasks involving interlimb coordination. Overall, there was a positive relationship between motor behavior, in particular activities involving interlimb coordination, and academic performance. Application of these findings in the area of early assessment may be useful in the identification of later academic problems. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Jéssica Ribeiro Rangel
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the use of social networks influences on the academic performance of students in the undergraduate program in accounting. Data were collected from 322 students of the course of a federal University of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regression results show that the variables "gender", "motivation" and "classification in the University entrance examination" are significant in explaining students' academic performance measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA. The results show that the performance of male students is lower than that of female students at the level of 5%. Also was identified that the greater the student's motivation level, the greater your academic performance (at the level of 1 percent. Finally, it was observed that the best ranked students in the University entrance examination, the higher their academic performance. However, none of the variables relating to the use of social networks ("familiarity with technological resources", "hours", "Internet hours on social networks" and "use of social networks to study" presented relation with academic performance. In other words, these results show that the use of social networks does not have positive or negative impacts directly on academic performance. We can conclude for the sample analyzed, that use of social networks during the academic period does not influence significantly the performance of the students. However, you can verify that the motivation is directly related to the academic performance of the Accounting student with regard to perception of motivation, to familiarity with technological resources and the use of applications.
Full Text Available Despite the increase in Latin America of Higher Education coverage, grave dropout problems persist that question the role of educational experiences to foster students’ academic engagement. This study was carried out in Colombia and sought to establish the relationship between the five benchmarks that compose academic engagement and the academic performance of a group of Colombian university students. The transversal and correlational study used the Spanish version of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE that measures students’ level of participation in five dimensions: Academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student-faculty interaction, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment and its relationship to academic performance. The findings of 1906 students from 7 universities indicate that there are statistically significant, but weak correlations between the items that compose the benchmarks and students’ academic performance, which lead to reflect upon key aspects to strengthen the education experiences offered to university students.
Academic performance at universities in South Africa is a cause of concern. It is widely acknowledged that there are a variety of factors that contribute to poor academic performance, but language is regarded as one of the most important issues in this discussion. In this article, the relationship between language and ...
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette
The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Taun, Chih-Yang
Background: This study examined the association between fitness change and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese schoolchildren from 7th grade to 9th grade. Methods: The 7th graders from 1 junior high school district participated in this study (N=669). Academic performance was
It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students from high socio-economic status background and those from low SES backgrounds, also there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students form intact homes and the broken homes.
Comparison between the Academic Performance of the National and Regional Intake Medical Students at the University of Kordofan, Western Sudan. ... The dropout rate was 5.9% among the regional students compared to 8.9% among the national students. Conclusions: The academic performance of the national intake ...
The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...
Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández
The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Determinants of Academic Performance in Public Day Secondary Schools, Manga District, Kenya. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... student's discipline, student's entry mark, teacher's teaching experience and level of education among others have significant impact in academic performance of a child.
Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing
Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…
This study investigated the impact of classroom attendance on academic performance of university students in an Organic Chemistry course. It also looked into the moderating effect of gender on attendance and academic performance. Data was collected through expo-facto survey involving real time documentation of ...
Honken, Nora; Ralston, Patricia A.; Tretter, Thomas R.
Self-control has been related to positive student outcomes including academic performance of college students. Because of the critical nature of the first semester academic performance for engineering students in terms of retention and persistence in pursuing an engineering degree, this study investigated the relationship between freshmen…
So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo
This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Angel, Elizabeth; Craven, Rhonda; Denson, Nida
Professional self-concept is a critical driver of job satisfaction. In Australia, as international nursing enrolments rise, nursing is increasingly characterised by a professional body of international nurses who may differ from domestic Australian nurses in their nursing self-concept. At present, no psychometrically sound instrument for assessing nursing self-concept for Australian domestic and international nursing students is available. The purpose of this study was to: (1) develop an instrument (the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument (NSCI)) to measure the professional self-concept of domestic and international nursing students in Australia, and (2) test the psychometric properties of this newly developed instrument. A literature review was conducted to generate the initial dimension and item pools to measure nurses' professional self-concept (NSCI). Two stakeholders examined the content and face validity of dimensions and items. Analysis was performed on data collected from 253 undergraduate nursing students in a large public university in Sydney, Australia, and consisted of domestic (n=218) and international (n=35) nursing students. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's Alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the construct validity of the NSCI. The resulting NSCI consisted of 14 items across four self-concept domains: care, leadership, staff relations, and knowledge. The CFA supported the hypothesised factor structure of the self-concept model. All reliabilities were acceptable for both domestic and international students (ranging from r=.78 to .93). The NSCI was shown to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing Australian domestic and international student nurses' professional self-concept. This instrument may also enable those responsible for recruitment of students into nursing courses to assess students' professional self-concept and implement appropriate strategies to foster the growth of lifelong career development
How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement
Holliday, A'lon Michael
Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how the father or…
Lee, Wincy Wing Sze
The present study examined the relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress levels of Hong Kong associate degree students using path analysis. Three hundred and forty-five students from a community college in Hong Kong voluntarily participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire that measured their grit (operationalized as interest and perseverance) and stress levels. The students also provided their actual academic performance and evaluated their perception of their academic performance as a success or a failure. The results of the path analysis showed that interest and perseverance were negatively associated with stress, and only perceived academic failure was positively associated with stress. These findings suggest that psychological appraisal and resources are more important antecedents of stress than objective negative events. Therefore, fostering students' psychological resilience may alleviate the stress experienced by associate degree students or college students in general. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.
Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra
The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.
Drago, Anthony; Rheinheimer, David C.; Detweiler, Thomas N.
This study investigated the connection between locus of control (LOC), academic self-efficacy (ASE), and academic performance, and whether these variables are affected by tutoring. Additional variables of interest, including gender, students' Pell Grant status, ethnicity, and class size, were also considered for the research models. The population…
Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.
The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Smith, Ian D.
The multidimensionality of self-concept and the use of factor analysis in the development of self-concept instruments are supported in multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Sears and Coopersmith instruments. Convergent validity and discriminate validity of subscales in factor analysis and multitrait-multimethod analysis of longitudinal data are…
A. Laverne Dickerson
Four dimensions of self-concept were measured at the beginning and the end of the Youth Conservation Corps's 1971 pilot program. The overall evaluation of the program had found no changes in self-concept, but factor analysis identified some significant differences. The campers' perceptions of their adequacy decreased, while their perceptions of their personal...
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; Van der Werf, Greetje
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a
Shapiro, Deborah R.; Martin, Jeffrey J.
The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N =…
Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.
Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…
Kantek, Filiz; Şimşek, Belkıs
To investigate the self-concept in nurse managers in Turkey and the effects of certain variables on professional self-concept. Professional self-concept plays a significant role in improving certain professional behaviours. Nursing managers have the potential to influence other members of the profession with their attitudes and behaviours. The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted with 159 nurse managers in nine different hospitals. The study data were collected with a Personal Information Form and Professional Self-concept Nursing Inventory, and the data analysis was accomplished with descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector analyses. The professional self-concept score of nurse managers was 3·33 (SD = 0·308). Professional competence subdimension had the highest scores, while professional satisfaction subdimension had the lowest. The types of hospital were found to be influential on professional self-concept. The types of hospital were reported to influence the professional self-concept of nurses. Nursing managers are visionaries who can potentially influence nursing practices and decisions. Nursing leaders must monitor and administer strategies to improve their professional self-concept. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…
Chen, Yi-Hsin; Thompson, Marilyn S.
One of the valued objectives of education is the enhancement of a positive self-concept, which itself is a mediating variable of other desired outcomes. To facilitate the assessment of this goal, reliable and valid scores on self-concept scales are required for the proper interpretation of related substantive issues. The main purpose of this study…
Tarquin, Kristen; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
This study investigated the relationships among previous experiences of student alienation and the various aspects of self concept. A total of 351 undergraduate students were administered the Student Alienation and Trauma Survey-Revised (SATS-R) and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS:2). Students were asked to report on their…
The idea that individual behavior is the result of society's influence on individual self-concept beliefs reflects more than a century of theory and research. Therefore, this study focuses on self-concept as a construct of primordial human characteristics such as emotion, aspiration, love, conflict, anger, jealousy, contradiction, guilt, and…
Langheinrich, Jessica; Schönfelder, Mona; Bogner, Franz X.
A positive self-concept supposedly affects a student's well-being as well as his or her perception of individual competence at school. As computer-based learning is becoming increasingly important in school, a positive computer-related self-concept (CSC) might help to enhance cognitive achievement. Consequently, we focused on establishing a short,…
Schwartz, S.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Hale, W.W.; Frijns, T.; Oosterwegel, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
We examined the daily dynamics among self-concept clarity and identity processes, and their effects on distress, among a sample of 580 Dutch adolescents. Participants completed measures of identity, self-concept clarity, anxiety and depression at annual intervals; and daily single-item measures of
Yusop, Yusni Mohamad; Sumari, Melati; Mohamed, Fatanah; Said, Shahriza; Azeez, Mohd Ibrahim K.; Jamil, Mohd Ridhuan Mohd
This research studies needs analyses conducted to examine the need for a self-concept module. Two types of analyses had been conducted; content analysis and experts' consensus. Content analysis was conducted to explore the issues of self-concept from the theory and literature perspective. Later, needs analysis had also been carried out to observe…
Creative self-concept has become a notable construct of interest in creativity literature in the last decade. The predictors, correlates, determinants, and consequences of self-rated creativity, creative self-efficacy, creative personal identity, and creative metacognition--as well as other self-concept constructs--have been studied intensively,…
Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls' self-concept. The aim of this research was to ...
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18-0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.56). In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance.
Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju
The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Silvestri, Paola R; Chiarotti, Flavia; Baglioni, Valentina; Neri, Valeria; Cardona, Francesco; Cavanna, Andrea E
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by multiple tics and often associated with behavioural problems. Although there is evidence of significantly reduced self-esteem in children and adolescents with GTS, little is known about perceived self-concept and its clinical determinants at the transition age between adolescence and adulthood. We therefore set out to investigate self-concept in a clinical sample of young patients with GTS at this crucial age for personal development. In addition to standard demographic and clinical data, we collected self-ratings using a standardised battery of psychometric instruments, as well as the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale, a comprehensive questionnaire developed to assess self-concept in subjects aged 9- to 19 years, tapping into the social, competence, affect, academic, family, and physical domains. We found that patients diagnosed with at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder ("GTS-plus" phenotype) reported significantly lower self-concept than patients with "pure GTS", whereas tic-related variables had no impact on self-concept. Anxiety symptoms were the main determinants of self-concept, especially trait anxiety with regard to social and affective domains. Affective symptoms could also have a negative impact on the physical, affective, competence, and social domains of self-concept. Routine screening for anxiety and affective symptoms should be recommended in all patients with GTS seen at transition clinics from paediatric to adult care, in order to implement effective treatment interventions whenever possible. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Study habit is one of the major factors that could influence students' academic attainment. Thus, this study examined study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of undergraduates in Edo state, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design, using multistage sampling technique. Two hundred and forty eight ...
Zubairu, Umaru Mustapha; Sakariyau, Olalekan Busra
In this paper, the association between religiosity and academic performance among accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is explored, as recent research demonstrates a positive association between religiosity and academic success. Students' religiosity was measured using proxies from an Islamic…
Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I
Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.
Galland, Barbara; Spruyt, Karen; Dawes, Patrick; McDowall, Philippa S; Elder, Dawn; Schaughency, Elizabeth
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with daytime functioning decrements in cognitive performance and behavioral regulation. Studies addressing academic achievement are underrepresented. This study aimed to evaluate the strength of the relationships between SDB and achievement in core domains and general school performance. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Studies of school-aged children investigating the relationships between SDB and academic achievement were selected for inclusion in a systematic literature review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data extracted were converted into standardized mean differences; effect sizes (ES) and statistics were calculated by using random-effects models. Heterogeneity tests (I(2)) were conducted. Of 488 studies, 16 met eligibility criteria. SDB was significantly associated with poorer academic performance for core academic domains related to language arts (ES -0.31; P performance. Variable definitions of both academic performance and SDB likely contributed to the heterogeneity among published investigations. Clear links between SDB and poorer academic performance in school-age children are demonstrated. ES statistics were in the small to medium range, but nevertheless the findings serve to highlight to parents, teachers, and clinicians that SDB in children may contribute to academic difficulties some children face. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hayley, Amie C; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon
Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal. To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. A total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale). Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting 'extreme' DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.57, p academic outcomes as well as poorer self-rated academic proficiency among higher education students. Amelioration of sleep difficulties may improve overall academic performance and health outcomes in affected students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Ferrari, Joseph R; Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco
Two samples of university students completed self-report measures of chronic procrastination and either self-concept variables (Sample 1, n = 233) or self-presentational styles (Sample 2, n = 210). Results indicated that procrastination was significantly related to a self-concept of oneself as dominated by issues related to task performance, and to self-presentation strategies that reflected a person as continually justifying and excusing task delays and being "needy" of others' approval. It seems that men and women procrastinate in order to improve their social standing by making their accomplishments seem greater than they really are.
De Vos, H. M.; Louw, D. A.
The creation and implementation of strategies that could improve student development is receiving new research interest. The main objective of the research was to establish whether hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy could alter the self-concept of students which in turn could improve their overall academic functioning. Two…
Villatte, Aude; Courtinat-Camps, Amélie; de Léonardis, Myriam
This study sought comprehension of several specifics concerning the self-concept of gifted high school students in France. Eighty-four gifted high school students (IQ = 130) between the ages of 13 and 18 were matched with 84 nongifted high school students possessing the same gender, family background, and academic characteristics. Each of these…
Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J
The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training
Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.
General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by focusing on the affective domain, in this case students' self-concept, or self-evaluation of ability as it pertains to a specific field of study. First, a profile of students' self-concept in the general chemistry setting is created. Next, the relationship between self-concept and success in the course is investigated, including examining the role of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure (SAT scores). This study is unique in that evidence is found for the impact of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure. Finally, the effect of a semester-long, inquiry-oriented learning environment on students' self-concept is described. Suggested interventions to improve student self-concept are also discussed.
Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Dumuid, Dot; Cassidy, Leah; Olds, Tim
To examine the relationships between children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviours, and academic performance. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between children's accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns, and academic performance using a standardised, nationally-administered academic assessment. A total of 285 Australian children aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools undertook 7-day 24h accelerometry to objectively determine their MVPA and sedentary behaviour. In the same year, they completed nationally-administered standardised academic testing (National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy; NAPLAN). BMI was measured, and socio-demographic variables were collected in a parent-reported survey. Relationships between MVPA, sedentary behaviour and academic performance across five domains were examined using Generalised Linear Mixed Models, adjusted for a wide variety of socio-demographic variables. Higher academic performance was strongly and consistently related to higher sedentary time, with significant relationships seen across all five academic domains (range F=4.13, p=0.04 through to F=18.65, p=academic performance was only related to higher MVPA in two academic domains (writing F=5.28, p=0.02, and numeracy F=6.28, p=0.01) and was not related to language, reading and spelling performance. Findings highlight that sedentary behaviour can have positive relationships with non-physical outcomes. Positive relationships between MVPA and literacy and numeracy, as well as the well documented benefits for MVPA on physical and social health, suggest that it holds an important place in children's lives, both in and outside of school. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic characteristics checklist, academic burnout questionnaire, and academic stress scale were used to gather data, and grade point average was considered to be the indicator of academic performance. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The level of significance was considered to be p<0.05. Results: The mean score for students' academic burnout was 28.52±15.84. Univariate regression analysis showed that the students' employment, years of education, academic performance, and all academic stress subscales had a significant correlation with academic burnout. According to multivariate regression analysis, having a field of study-related occupation was a protective factor and academic stress a risk factor for academic burnout. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a large proportion of students experienced academic burnout, and students with higher levels of stress experienced more severe academic burnout and had poorer performance. Therefore, training ways to cope with stress can cause reduction in academic burnout and improvement of performance.
epilepsy is associated with impairment in academic performance,3-7 which may limit .... investigated children and adolescents with mental retardation and so could have ... direct brain damage with resultant cognitive deficits. In addition, an.
Data was collected through expo-facto survey involving real time ... still a major concern for educators and educational researchers all over the world ..... attendance on students' academic performance using association rule mining technique.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre- ... for increased public investment in Early Child Development (ECD) as a strategic ..... students' academic performance: A case study of Islamia University sub-.
Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor
This could be done through the use of mass media, schools and social ... KEYWORDS: Child labour, Abuse, Academic performance and Effect. ... have overtime given the researcher a cause for ... Child labour is not significantly dependent.
Firssova, O. (2012, 19 January). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation given at the ICO Masterclass, Theme Domain-Specific Instruction, January 19-February 10, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Saniee Monfared, Mohammad Ali; Safi, Mahsa
As governmental subsidies to universities are declining in recent years, sustaining excellence in academic performance and more efficient use of resources have become important issues for university stakeholders. To assess the academic performances and the utilization of the resources, two important issues need to be addressed, i.e., a capable methodology and a set of good performance indicators as we consider in this paper. In this paper, we propose a set of performance indicators to enable efficiency analysis of academic activities and apply a novel network DEA structure to account for subfunctional efficiencies such as teaching quality, research productivity, as well as the overall efficiency. We tested our approach on the efficiency analysis of academic colleges at Alzahra University in Iran.
and counselors should provide proper guidance to students on appropriate ways of using the internet to positively ... Ilorin. Key words: Internet, Academic performance, Undergraduate Student ..... students did not differ in their perception.
Lund, Asta Breinholt; Holm, Anders
Parental education and mothers education in particular are believed to play an important role for children’s academic outcomes. This paper analyzes the causal effect of mothers' education on children’s academic performance. Using Danish administrative data on mothers’ education careers, we apply...... a difference-in-differences design to control for the nonrandom selection into maternal education and find that mothers’ education has a positive effect on children’s academic performance. The effect diminishes, the higher the mothers’ initial educational attainment....
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16?years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8???0.5?years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point avera...
There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro Gordo
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students’ learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of their motivation do not vary across their sex, age, and curriculum year. Moreover, the respondents had good academic performances in science. Aptly, e...
Sapsani, Georgia; Tselios, Nikolaos
The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly ...
M. O. Welcome; E. V. Pereverzeva; V. A. Pereverzev
The regulatory competence of blood glucose homeostasis might determine the degree of academic performance. The aim of this study was to produce a model of students' alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions that might define the pathogenetic mechanism of alcohol's effect on academic performance. The study took six hours and thirty minutes on fasting, involving thirteen male students. Disturbances in cognitive functions, precisely a decrease in the effectiveness ...
The objective of the study is threefold. Firstly, the study explores the learning approaches adopted by students in completing their Business Finance. Secondly, it examines the impact that learning approaches has on the student's academic performance. Finally, the study considers gender differences in the learning approaches adopted by students and in the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was used...
Montanaro, Marilee Kaye Fannon
A variety of academic and financial performance metrics are used to assess higher education institution performance. However, there is no consensus on the best performance measures. Signaling theory and agency theory are used to frame the challenges of assessing post-secondary institution performance related to information asymmetry between the…
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeff F.
The central purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of how community service involvement affects the development of undergraduate self-concept. The findings from this study suggest that the quality of service involvement is more important than the amount of service performed by students. (Contains 23 references and 2 tables.)…
Beasley, Emily Kristin; Garn, Alex C.
This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh's theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the…
Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.
Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B
In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pusparani, Anindyta; Masykur, Achmad Mujab
Assertiveness is important for teenagers, that allows teens to put themselves and perform the strategic, directed, controlled and steady activities, so teens can avoid the negative behavior. Assertiveness is consist of by several factors, one of which is influenced by self-esteem. A person with a positive self-esteem has a positive self-concept. This study aims to empirically examine the relationship of self-concept with assertiveness in class X Kesatrian 2 Semarang High School. The sample...
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…
Mohd. Zin, Zuhana; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
Research into the factors that contribute to reading performance decrement in L2 reading among ESL university students is still being extensively researched in the context of ELT. This is because successful academic performance is highly dependent on good reading ability. While it is widely accepted that poor reading performance is due to lack of…
Li, Eria Ping-Ying; Tam, Alan Sing-Fai; Man, David Wai-Kwong
This study explores the self-concepts of Hong Kong Chinese with intellectual disabilities. Face-to-face and individual interviews were conducted in Cantonese, using the Chinese version of the Adult Source of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI) together with three open-ended questions to explore the participants' self-conceptions in different life domains. An opportunity sample of 135 young adults with intellectual disabilities was interviewed. The findings showed that the family self, the social self and achievement in school and work were the self-concept attributes most important to the participants. The participants of this study had a higher total self-concept than that of a comparison group of people without disabilities when the participants used the in-group social comparison to maintain positive self-perception. The importance of partnership with family, self-concept enhancement strategies and quality employment service are discussed in order to facilitate people with intellectual disabilities to develop more positive self-concepts and thus achieve better community integration.
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto
To analyze the relationship between self-concept, aerobic capacity and weight status in schoolchildren. Relational descriptive design in which was assessed the weight status and aerobic capacity of 256 schoolchildren among 8-11 years. Aerobic capacity (low vs high) and the body mass index (normal-weight vs overweight-obesity) were categorized using standard criteria. The self-concept was assessed through the Piers Harris self-concept scale for children. Schoolchildren with normal-weight and high fitness level showed better levels of conductual self-concept (P=.030), physical (Pself-concept (P=.002). The schoolchildren with normal-weight show higher levels of conductual self-concpt (P=.016), intellectual (P=.050), physical (Pself-concept (P=.001). The schoolchildren with a higher fitness level showed better conductual self-concept (P=.024), physical (P=.004), lack of anxiety (P=.011), social (P=.024), and global (P=.003). The results of the study strengthen the importance to transmit to the educative community the knowledge of the relationship between the variables analyzed aiming to improve the schoolchildren self-concept. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The idea that academic work requires certain personal qualities, character traits or dispositions is as old as the university. However, no matter how ubiquitous the phenomenon, it is only in recent years, in the wake of a ‘cultural turn’ in the history of science, that historians have begun exploring ideals and practices of scholarly selfhood. This theme issue seeks to make a modest contribution to this emerging field of scholarship with articles that offer conceptual reflection, as well as case studies drawn from the Low Countries. They do so under the banner of ‘scholarly personae’, not with the intention of excluding competing vocabularies, but by way of entry into a new and not yet clearly defined field of study. Introductie: repertoires voor de academische identiteitHet idee dat academisch onderzoek bepaalde persoonlijke kwaliteiten, karaktertrekken en talenten vereist is zo oud als de universiteit zelf. Toch zijn historici pas recent, in het kielzog van de ‘cultural turn’ in de wetenschapsgeschiedenis, de idealen en praktijken van de academische identiteit gaan onderzoeken. Dit themanummer wil met conceptuele reflecties en casestudies over de Lage Landen een bescheiden bijdrage leveren aan dit opkomende veld van onderzoek. De artikelen gebruiken daarvoor het concept ‘schoarly personae’, niet met de bedoeling om andere benaderingen uit te sluiten, maar bij wijze van ingang in een nieuw en nog niet helder afgebakend onderzoeksgebied.
Full Text Available The idea that academic work requires certain personal qualities, character traits or dispositions is as old as the university. However, no matter how ubiquitous the phenomenon, it is only in recent years, in the wake of a ‘cultural turn’ in the history of science, that historians have begun exploring ideals and practices of scholarly selfhood. This theme issue seeks to make a modest contribution to this emerging field of scholarship with articles that offer conceptual reflection, as well as case studies drawn from the Low Countries. They do so under the banner of ‘scholarly personae’, not with the intention of excluding competing vocabularies, but by way of entry into a new and not yet clearly defined field of study. Introductie: repertoires voor de academische identiteit. Het idee dat academisch onderzoek bepaalde persoonlijke kwaliteiten, karaktertrekken en talenten vereist is zo oud als de universiteit zelf. Toch zijn historici pas recent, in het kielzog van de ‘cultural turn’ in de wetenschapsgeschiedenis, de idealen en praktijken van de academische identiteit gaan onderzoeken. Dit themanummer wil met conceptuele reflecties en casestudies over de Lage Landen een bescheiden bijdrage leveren aan dit opkomende veld van onderzoek. De artikelen gebruiken daarvoor het concept ‘schoarly personae’, niet met de bedoeling om andere benaderingen uit te sluiten, maar bij wijze van ingang in een nieuw en nog niet helder afgebakend onderzoeksgebied.
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. Findings After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18–0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15–0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.56). Conclusion In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. PMID:26966329
Sofan Tri Prasetiyo
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the effectiveness of MURDER cooperative model towards students’ mathematics reasoning ability and self concept of ten grade. Population of this research were students of MIA ten grade Senior High School 1 Kebumen in the academic year 2016/1017. Sampling technique using simple random sampling technique. The data collected by the method of documentation, test methods, observation methods, and questionnaire methods. The analyzed of data are used completeness test and average different test. The results showed that: (1 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model have completed individual and classical study completeness; (2 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than mathematics reasoning ability of students that following ekspository learning; (3 self concept of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than self concept of students that following ekspository learning.
...) and retention in the Navy. Understanding the relationship between college academic performance and job performance is important because of the organizational and cultural emphasis placed on academic grades...
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D
Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Consecutive children with SCA aged 5-11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- matched normal classmates were recruited as controls. The total number of days of school absence for 2009/2010 academic session was obtained for each pair of pupils from the class attendance register. Academic performance was assessed using the average of the overall scores in the three term examinations of same session. Intelligence ability was determined with Draw-A-Person Quotient (DAPQ) using the Draw-A-Person Test while socio-economic status was determined using the occupational status and educational attainment of each parent. Academic performance of children with SCA showed statistically significant association with their socio-economic status (χ2 = 9.626, p = 0.047), and significant correlation with DAPQ (r = 0.394, p = 0.000) and age (r = -0.412, p = 0.000). However, no significant relationship existed between academic performance and school absence in children with SCA (r = -0.080, p = 0.453). Academic performance of children with SCA is influenced by their intelligence ability, age and socio-economic status but not negatively affected by their increased school absenteeism.
Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Shetty, Kunal; Sevdalis, Nick; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios
To determine the association between professors' self-perception of mentoring skills and their academic performance. Two hundred and fifteen professors from Imperial College London, the first Academic Health Science Centre (AHSC) in the UK, were surveyed. The instrument adopted was the Mentorship Skills Self-Assessment Survey. Statement scores were aggregated to provide a score for each shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skill. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate their relationship with quantitative measures of academic performance (publications, citations and h-index). There were 104 professors that responded (response rate 48%). There were no statistically significant negative correlations between any mentoring statement and any performance measure. In contrast, several mentoring survey items were positively correlated with academic performance. The total survey score for frequency of application of mentoring skills had a statistically significant positive association with number of publications (B=0.012, SE=0.004, p=0.006), as did the frequency of acquiring mentors with number of citations (B=1.572, SE=0.702, p=0.030). Building trust and managing risks had a statistically significant positive association with h-index (B=0.941, SE=0.460, p=0.047 and B=0.613, SE=0.287, p=0.038, respectively). This study supports the view that mentoring is associated with high academic performance. Importantly, it suggests that frequent use of mentoring skills and quality of mentoring have positive effects on academic performance. Formal mentoring programmes should be considered a fundamental part of all AHSCs' configuration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Topor, David R; Keane, Susan P; Shelton, Terri L; Calkins, Susan D
Parent involvement in a child's education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that explain this association. The present study examines two potential mechanisms of this association: the child's perception of cognitive competence and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. This study used a sample of 158 seven-year-old participants, their mothers, and their teachers. Results indicated a statistically significant association between parent involvement and a child's academic performance, over and above the impact of the child's intelligence. A multiple mediation model indicated that the child's perception of cognitive competence fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and the child's performance on a standardized achievement test. The quality of the student-teacher relationship fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and teacher ratings of the child's classroom academic performance. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for public policy initiatives are discussed.
Giones, Ferran; Billström, Anders; Rasmussen, Einar
Academic Spin-Offs (ASOs) are born with the mission to bring to market science and technology innovations. Nevertheless, their relative weak financial performance has been a focus of discussion. Prior research has explored factors that explain part of the performance diversity, including aspects...... source of performance heterogeneity. Academic spin-offs transition from a research to a market context is complex. The technology novelty in ASOs generates a staged challenge for the academic entrepreneur. First, identifying a market and activating the first sale; second, generating a sustainable revenue...... stream that brings growth to the ASO. However, we have still a limited knowledge on the relationship between technology innovativeness and firm performance in the ASOs context. This study tests the relationship between innovativeness dimensions, across different industries, and the observed firm (ASOs...
hamid Asayesh; Fatemeh Sharififard; Mojtaba Mosavi; Zahra Taheri Kharameh; Zahra Aliakbarzade Arani; Alireza Shouri Bidgoli
Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic ch...
Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo
To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.
Zhou, Yuanyuan; Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests were used to test if the two measurement points differed. Bivariate correlations and R 2 s were compared with five other relevant studies. The SDLRS was moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales in both measures (r (152) =.255, p=.001) to (r (152) =.592, p =.000). The first SDLRS, nor the first LASSI, were predictive of academic performance. The second LASSI measure was a significant predictor of academic performance (R 2 (138) = 0.188, p = .003). Six prior LASSI studies yielded a range of R 2 s from 10-49%. The SDLRS is moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales. However, the predictive value of the SDLRS and LASSI differ. The SDLRS does not appear to be directly related to academic performance, but LASSI subscales: Concentration, Motivation, Time Management, and Test Strategies tend to be correlated. The explained LASSI variance ranges from 10% to 49%, indicating a small to substantial effect. Utilizing the LASSI to provide medical school students with information about their strengths and weaknesses and implementing targeted support in specific study strategies may yield positive academic performance outcomes.
Huberty, Thomas J.; Austin, Joan K.; Huster, Gertrude A.; Dunn, David W.
Explores relation of gender, change in condition of severity, and change in school self-concept, to change in teachers' ratings of academic-related behaviors in children with asthma or epilepsy. Tests showed that these children were near population mean in academic-related behaviors, except students with high-severity epilepsy. (Author/JDM)
Wong, Phoebe; Mak, Connie; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Zhao, Jessie
This study explores the interrelationships between self-concept, motivation and academic and social experience among students from self-financing higher education institutions in Hong Kong. Although prior studies have investigated different aspects of self that drive various types of motivation in students' academic and social experience, most of…
Shephard Roy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Méndez-Alonso, David
The main objective was to analyze relationships and predictive patterns between 3x2 classroom goal structures (CGS), and motivational regulations, dimensions of self-concept, and affectivity in the context of secondary education. A sample of 1,347 secondary school students (56.6% young men, 43.4% young women) from 10 different provinces of Spain agreed to participate (M age = 13.43, SD = 1.05). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated the self-approach CGS was the most adaptive within the spectrum of self-determination, followed by the task-approach CGS. The other-approach CGS had an ambivalent influence on motivation. Task-approach and self-approach CGS predicted academic self-concept (p approach CGS (negatively) predicted family self-concept (p approach and other-approach CGS's (p approach-oriented CGS's (p approach (positively) and self-approach (negatively) CGS (p < .001; p < .05, respectively; R 2 = .028). These results expand the 3x2 achievement goal framework to include environmental factors, and reiterate that teachers should focus on raising levels of self- and task-based goals for students in their classes.
Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in
This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.
Emerson, Natacha D; Morrell, Holly E R; Neece, Cameron; Tapanes, Daniel; Distelberg, Brian
Although self-concept has been identified as salient to the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents dealing with a chronic illness (CI), little research has focused on its predictors it. Given that depression and parent-child attachment have been linked to self-concept in the population at large, the goal of this study was to evaluate these relationships longitudinally in a sample of adolescents with CI. Using participant data from the Mastering Each New Direction (MEND) program, a 3-month psychosocial, family based intensive outpatient program for adolescents with CI, we employed multilevel modeling to test longitudinal changes in self-concept, as predicted by depressive symptoms and parent-child attachment, in a sample of 50 youths (M age = 14.56, SD age = 1.82) participating in MEND. Both "time spent in the program" and decreases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in self-concept over time. Higher baseline levels of avoidant attachment to both mother and father were also associated with greater initial levels of self-concept. Targeting depressive symptoms and supporting adaptive changes in attachment may be key to promoting a healthy self-concept in pediatric CI populations. The association between avoidant attachment and higher baseline self-concept scores may reflect differences in participants' autonomy, self-confidence, or depression. Limitations of the study include variability in the amount of time spent in the program, attrition in final time point measures, and the inability to fully examine and model all potential covariates due to a small sample size (e.g. power). © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that
Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan
University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...
Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Kragh Andersen, Per
of academic performance from the 2010–2013 Danish National Tests. Hierarchical multilevel linear regression of 216,350 assessments made in 71,850 children born to 67,528 mothers revealed no differences in academic performance among the children according to prenatal exposure to fever (odds ratio (OR) = 1......Prenatal exposure to fever and infections has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, but it is not yet known whether more subtle effects on neurodevelopment may exist as well. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether these early-life exposures were associated with academic...... performance in childhood and early adolescence. Children and mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002 were included in this study. Information on fever and infections common in pregnancy was prospectively collected in 2 pregnancy interviews and linked with assessments...
Marianela Noriega Biggio
Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.
Nhorvien Jay P. Libao
Full Text Available This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students’ learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of their motivation do not vary across their sex, age, and curriculum year. Moreover, the respondents had good academic performances in science. Aptly, extrinsic motivation was found to be related with their academic performances among the indicators of motivations in learning science.
Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L
College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.
In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...
Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Caprioglio, Alberto; Attanasio, Stefania; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco
Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet). Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males) mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Pearson's analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding) and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score) of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492-8.225) and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence interval 3.545-10.678) as risk factors for development of global self-concept score abnormalities. Our findings confirm the relationship between psychosocial well-being, self-esteem, and dental malocclusion among adolescents.
Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Johnston, Leanne M
To evaluate the preliminary validity and reliability of the myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 8 to 12 years. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment includes 26 items divided into eight domains, assessed across three Performance Perspectives (Personal, Social, and Perceived) and an additional Importance Rating. Face and content validity was assessed by semi-structured interviews with seven expert professionals regarding the assessment construct, content, and clinical utility. Reliability was assessed with 50 children aged 8 to 12 years with CP (29 males, 21 females; mean age 10y 2mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I=35, II=8, III=5, IV=1; mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition [WISC-IV]=104), whose data was used to calculate internal consistency of the scale, and a subset of 35 children (20 males, 15 females; mean age 10y 5mo; GMFCS level I=26, II=4, III=4, IV=1; mean WISC-IV=103) who participated in test-retest reliability within 14 to 28 days. Face and content validity was supported by positive expert feedback, with only minor adjustments suggested to clarify the wording of some items. After these amendments, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.84-0.91) and moderate to good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.64-0.75) was found for each component. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment is a valid and reliable assessment of self-concept for children with CP aged 8 to 12 years. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft
of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...
Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even
García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana Manrique, Oswaldo; Canales Quevedo, Isaac
In the present job is studied the factors related to the academic performance in to university group of students of the Faculty of Psychology of the UN MSM, among the factors has been considered the motivation, the strategies of learning and the self-esteem and in it pertaining to the academic performance the average of notices there is been considered obtained by the students in the three first cycles of study. The sample studied was constituted by the ingresantes in the year 1,999 to the Fa...
Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R
The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual
Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M
Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have
Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua
The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.
Mahmood Yaghotian; Ali Akbar Soleimanian; Hamid Darrodi
Objectives: The present study has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of cognitivebehavioral group-therapy on the development of visually impaired adolescents’ self-concept. Methods: This study is a semi-experimental pre-test and post-test model. The study population consisted of visually impaired male students of the primary and secondary high school at the Omid-e-Mashhad Educational Center for the Blind in the 2014-2015 academic year. Beck’s Self...
Widya Kartika Sari
Full Text Available Teenager consider themselves based on the perception others and one of the element which affecting the maturation in self concept is how the assessment and social environment revenue toward it self .This study purpose to describe the self concept of teens and the implications in guidance and counseling .The research type descriptive quantitative methods. The Research was done to teenagers of simple orphanage in bengkulu with a population about 103 teenagers .The total of the research about 82 survey youth to the sample used purposive sampling techniqul instrument was used the closed of scale likert model with validity 0.873 , reliability ( 0,931 self concept .The findings of this research shows that: ( 1 self concept as of teens tend to be low category. (2 implications finding for service counseling guidance the basic of arranging the guidance counseling program service which can formed and improved the self concept of teens positively.
Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R
The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.
Meggs, Jennifer; Ditzfeld, Christopher; Golby, Jim
The present study examines the relationship between individual differences in evaluative self-organisation and mental toughness in sport, proposing that motivation and emotional resiliency (facets of mental toughness) stem from differences in core self. A cross-sectional assessment of 105 athletes competing at a range of performance levels took part in an online study including measures of self-reported mental toughness (Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire; Sheard, M., Golby, J., & van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress towards construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 186-193. doi:10.1027/1015-57188.8.131.52) and self-organisation (self-descriptive attribute task; Showers, C. J. (2002). Integration and compartmentalisation: A model of self-structure and self-change. In D. Cervone & W. Mischel (Eds.), Advances in personality science (pp. 271-291). New York, NY: Guilford Press). As predicted, global mental toughness was associated with self-concept positivity, which was particularly high in individuals with positive-integrative self-organisation (individuals who distribute positive and negative self-attributes evenly across multiple selves). Specifically, positive integration was associated with constancy (commitment to goal achievement despite obstacles and the potential for failure), which extends presumably from positive integratives' emotional stability and drive to resolve negative self-beliefs.
Rania, Nadia; Siri, Anna; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana
The psychological climate within organisations affects not only the behaviour and the attitude of group members, but also the performance of the group itself. According to the ecological model, this research examines how learning in different classroom contexts of the same nursing degree programme can affect academic performance, well-being, self-esteem and perceived climate. Four scales were used to assess students' perceptions by collecting primary data while academic performance was measured by obtaining students' academic records. A questionnaire completed by 391 first-year nursing students was administered. Differences were observed in the perceptions of climate and academic performance in different classroom contexts with trends, which did not always overlap; however, strong correlations were observed among self-esteem, well-being and climate, and schoolmate relationships. Universities should not merely train competent professionals but also build learning communities that support the well-being of relationships and the development of well-being contexts. The findings support the need for an educational intervention for improving the quality of life and well-being of the community and individual students. This type of intervention requires a 'compliant' organisational environment that puts studetns, teachers and professionals in the condition to practice their professional skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An, Brian P.; Loes, Chad N.; Trolian, Teniell L.
Using longitudinal data from multiple institutions, we focused on the relation between binge drinking and academic performance. Binge drinking exerts a negative influence on grade point average, even after accounting for a host of precollege confounding variables. Furthermore, the number of times a student binge drinks in college is less…
Alberto A. Alegre
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic performance of first-year university students in the Metropolitan Lima area. An assessment was made of 284 students (138 male and 146 female students admitted to a private university of Lima for the 2013-2 term by using a non-probability and incidental procedure and the General Academic Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, the University Academic Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire; and for the academic performance of every student, their registered weighted GPA was taken into account. Formulated hypothesis was accepted as correlation coefficients resulting from academic selfefficacy; self-regulated learning and academic performance were both positive and significant, but low. In addition, the correlation between academic selfefficacy and self-regulated learning were positive, significant and moderate.
Full Text Available The way students perceive learning is influenced by multiple factors. The present study aimed at establishing relationships between the learning approaches, academic performance, and the academic year in a sample of students from different courses of Universidad Central “Marta Abreu”, Las Villas. For this ex post facto study, a probabilistic sample was used based on a simple random sampling of 524 university students who participated in the Study Process Questionnaire. The analysis of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA and the analysis of clusters reported associations between a deep approach to learning and a better academic performance. These analyses showed differences in the learning approach in the different courses, predominantly a soft approach.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.
Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.
Neamţu Adina Claudia
Full Text Available The current economical evolution determines the improvement process of the employees that should be prepared as well as possible at all levels, so that they could accomplish the objectives of the organization in a world where the success depends on the capacity to supply quality, diversity, the satisfaction of the clients’ needs, optimal advantages and promptness. The easy access to information in the current world forces the universities to keep up to the requirements of the labour market and of the future graduates, to change into open, active, dynamic, emphatic spaces, in launching ramps for them, allowing the simulation of the roles the students will have as adults in the knowledge economy. In this context, the higher education institutions in Romania have understood that only by means of performance and competence we may reach the global domination of a category of complex situation, by mobilizing certain diverse resources (knowledge, practical abilities, social representations, values and attitudes. All of these may develop in the context of a university centre that understands that, next to the theory, the students’ practice is based on an integrated ensemble of knowledge, skills and attitudes that allow the subject, in front of a category of situations of adapting, solving problems and accomplishing projects.
Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Keumho; Hur, Yera; Kim, Ji-Ha
Despite the importance of selecting students whom are capable for medical education and to become a good doctor, not enough studies have been done in the category. This study focused on analysing the medical students' academic performance (grade point average, GPA) differences, flunk and dropout rates by admission types. From 2004 to 2010, we gathered 369 Konyang University College of Medicine's students admission data and analyzed the differences between admission method and academic achievement, differences in failure and dropout rates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), ordinary least square, and logistic regression were used. The rolling students showed higher academic achievement from year 1 to 3 than regular students (p dropout rate by admission types, regular admission type students showed higher drop out rate than the rolling ones which demonstrates admission types gives significant effect on flunk or dropout rates in medical students (p students tend to show lower flunk rate and dropout rates and perform better academically. This implies selecting students primarily by Korean College Scholastic Ability Test does not guarantee their academic success in medical education. Thus we suggest a more in-depth comprehensive method of selecting students that are appropriate to individual medical school's educational goal.
This analysis of self-concept includes an examination of definitions, historical perspectives, theoretical basis, and closely related terms. Antecedents, consequences, defining attributes, and a definition were formulated based on the analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to provide support for the use of the label "self-concept" as a broad category that encompasses the self-esteem, identity, and body-image nursing diagnoses within Taxonomy I. This classification could allow the use of a broad diagnostic label to better describe conditions that necessitate nursing care. It may also further explain the relationships between and among those diagnoses that describe human responses to disturbance of any component of the self-concept.
Cicero, David C.; Martin, Elizabeth A; Becker, Theresa M.; Kerns, John G.
Disturbances in the perception of self are thought to be central to the development of psychosis. Self-concept clarity (SCC) is the extent to which one’s beliefs about oneself are internally consistent, stable, and clear. Participants with schizophrenia (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 32) completed the Me Not-Me Decision Task (MNMDT), in which they decided whether 60 adjectives (30 pairs of antonyms), did or did not describe themselves. SCC is conceptualized as the number of consistent responses. Participants also completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS). Compared to healthy controls, participants with schizophrenia scored lower on the MNMDT and SCCS, and scores were negatively correlated with positive and negative symptoms. In a simultaneous regression, SCCS scores were uniquely associated with positive symptoms, while MNMDT scores were uniquely associated with negative symptoms. This suggests that people with schizophrenia have decreased self-concept claritythat is related to positive and negative symptoms. PMID:26669980
Kuzucu, Yasar; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hofer, Scott M.; Stallings, Michael C.; Piccinin, Andrea M.
Previous research has demonstrated that adolescents make differential self-evaluations in multiple domains that include physical appearance, academic competence, and peer acceptance. We report growth curve analyses over a seven year period from age 9 to age 16 on the six domains of the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children. In general, we find little change in self-concept, on average, but do find substantial individual differences in level, rate of change, and time-specific variation in these self- evaluations. The results suggest that sex differences and adoptive status were related to only certain aspects of the participants’ self-concept. Depressive symptoms were found to have significant effects on individual differences in rate of change and on time-specific variation in general self-concept, as well as on some of the specific domains of self-concept. PMID:25143664
Irtwange, S. V.; Orsaah, S.
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of management style on academic staff performance with University of Agriculture, Makurdi as a case study. The management style of the vice chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi between the periods, September 3, 1996 to September 3, 2001 was determined using the Ohio State…
Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.
Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…
The study examined career choice and its influence on academic performance of library and information science students in the University of Benin. Questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. The entire population was used as sample because of the size of the population and the simple ...
The study investigated the influence of types of exceptionality on the self perception of students with special needs. It examined the influence of sex of students with special needs on their self perception. It also compared the academic performance of male and female students with special needs. One instrument named Self ...
A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...
This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, ...
Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Zhang, Yi
For this study we identified factors exerting significant influence on homesickness and explored the impact of the homesick experience on students' academic performance and retention in the first year in college. The findings reveal 2 constructs underlying the homesickness scale: homesick separation and homesick distress. Demographic variables…
This research work investigated the influence of instructional materials (teaching aids) on students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. One research question and one hypothesis were ...
The study was conducted to investigate the influence of family background on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the three senatorial districts of Kwara State. Three hundred respondents participated in this research. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the ...
The aim of this study was to find out the influence of child abuse on pupils academic performance in primary science. To carry out this study effectively two variables were identified for the study. These were used to formulate the research hypotheses. The design for the study was ex-post-facto. The area of study was Cross ...
Talib, Nadeem; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad
This study aims to investigate the effect of factor such as perceived stress on the academic performance of the students. A sample of 199 university graduates and undergraduates in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was selected as a statistical frame. Instrumentation used for this study is previously validated construct in order to evaluate the effect of…
Students' Academic Performance in English Language and Mathematics ... passed at credit level by secondary schools students in public examinations. A credit level ..... ls O n lin e: www.a jo l.in fo. T ab le 1. : P ercen tage of p asses and failu.
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
Shanti, T.I.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Setiadi, B.N.
The main purpose of this study was to examine relationships between university support and academic performance, as mediated by motivation to learn and emotional adjustment among freshmen of X University. Data were collected from 327 X University's freshmen at the end of their first year. Results
A survey of the examination of the factors that affect job satisfaction and performance of academic librarians was conducted on selected eight universities comprising both state and federal universities, in southwest Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was use to select 130 respondents across the institution of study.
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between pupils' academic self-esteem and performance in English language and Mathematics. The sample consisted of 365 pupils selected from 82 primary schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State. Krejcie and Morgan's table for determining sampling ...
The main intent of this study was to identify the impact of using learning log as a learning strategy on the academic performance of university students. Second year psychology students were included as subjects of this study. In the beginning of the study, the students were divided into two: experimental group (N = 60) and ...
Ayodele, Timothy Oluwafemi; Oladokun, Timothy Tunde; Gbadegesin, J.T.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting academic performance of real estate students in a developing country like Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study were collected with the aid of questionnaire served on 152 final year real estate students of
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3S (2018) > ... The present study was designed to analyze the academic performance of ... Management and Human Resource Development and Management are the participants of the study.
The need to provide research information about the prevalence of street hawking, its effects and educational factors was the focus of this research. The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who ...
This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...
The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. In a nutshell it is the exploitation of children, premature assumption of adult roles on the part of children; working long hours for low wages in the ...
Influence of motivation on academic library employees' performance and productivity in ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... motivated from time to time to boost their morale for efficiency and higher productivity. ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between Internet addiction and academic performance among university undergraduates. The study also focused to examine the gender differences among students on internet addiction. The sample comprised of 359 university undergraduates. Their responses to the "Internet Addiction…
Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe
The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…
Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos
Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.
affect or influence the academic performance of secondary school students. Information on the incidence will sensitize the family/guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study. Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship ...
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
This study assessed and investigated the academic performance of secondary school students in two principal subjects (English Language and. Mathematics) at the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in ten secondary schools typical of urban and rural locations in five randomised. Local Government Areas of ...
Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming
The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…
Meera, K. P.; Jumana, M. K.
This study reviews the relevant self-efficacy related literature, a central point of social cognitive theory, in the area of language learning. Role of self-efficacy in academic performance of learners is also considered. In the global world, English language has become the fundamental means of international affairs and communication. As a…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...
Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario
Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…
Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido
The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.
Alanzi, Khalid A.; Alfraih, Mishari M.
Purpose: This quantitative study aims to examine the impact of accumulated knowledge of accounting on the academic performance of Cost Accounting students. Design/methodology/approach The sample consisted of 89 students enrolled in the Accounting program run by a business college in Kuwait during 2015. Correlation and linear least squares…
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…
This research work investigates the impact of the internet on the academic performance of students in some selected tertiary institutions in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted in conducting this research. Questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. Frequency count and simple percentage was ...
students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. ... the motivation on the teaching-learning process. ... Today advances in technology have ... retention. A truism often heard in teaching is that if you have not learnt, I have not taught. A .... resources have significant effect on students'.
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...
Williams, Brett; Fowler, James
Near peer teaching is becoming increasingly popular within healthcare education. The experiences and effects of near-peer teaching upon the near-peer teachers' academic performance are poorly understood. In order to address this, the objective of this study was to examine whether a near-peer teaching program improved the overall clinical unit…
Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann
The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…
Recent developments in the higher education sectors of the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK concerning accountability and performance measurement in research have resulted in a variety of responses from individual academics. The concept of hybridity enables us to explain these developments over time.
The pass rate in all phases of medical study as well as the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) was lower among private admission students. This difference is proportionate to the difference in grades obtained at SSCE and number of re-sits. Conclusion: The academic performance of medical students in Sudan is ...
Fitting, M D; Salisbury, S; Davies, N H; Mayclin, D K
Differences in perceived self-concept and sexual response before and after spinal cord injury were examined. Twenty-four women between the ages of 20 and 40 completed a questionnaire and participated in a brief taped interview. Most of the women viewed themselves as very or somewhat attractive and had been involved in a sexual relationship since injury. The majority viewed sexual relationships as very enjoyable, although many commented that changes in bowel and bladder function had inhibited sexual expression. The need for more effective sexual counseling was highlighted. A trend was noted for an interrelationship between sexuality and self-concept in adapting to acquired disability.
Raschke, Helen J.; Raschke, Vernon J.
Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and self-reports for family structure and family conflict, no significant differences in self-concept scores of children from intact, single-parent, reconstituted, or other types of families were found. Self-concept scores were significantly lower for children reporting…
Cao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Lin; Tian, Lang; Diao, Yongshu; Hu, Xiuying
To examine the associations among professional self-concept, organisational commitment and burnout, and to analyse the mediating role of organisational commitment on the relationship between professional self-concept and burnout among community health nurses in Chengdu, China. Previous studies have focused on work environmental variables that contributed to burnout in nurses. However, no study has explored the mediating effect of organisational commitment on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout in community health nurses. A cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted at 36 community health centres in Chengdu, China with 485 nurses sampled using a two-stage sampling method. The measures used in our study included Nurses' Self-concept Questionnaire, Organisational Commitment Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results of structural equation model techniques indicated that, in the direct approach, positive professional self-concept resulted in increased organisational commitment and reduced burnout. Higher organisational commitment resulted in less burnout. In the indirect approach, organisational commitment performed as a partial mediator on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout. Positive perception of professional self-concept can result in reduced burnout via enhancing organisational commitment. It is crucial for nursing administrators to develop effective intervention strategies such as skills escalator training and assertive training, and establishing a supportive working environment to enhance nurses' professional self-concept and organisational commitment, and decrease burnout. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan
Research indicates that affective aspects of development provide a basis for autonomous learning. Pupils' liking for school may be a useful indicator of their relationships with teachers and the school. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to establish the properties of a measure of pupils' liking for school and to examine associations between this measure, pupils' experiences in lessons, their self-concepts and the amount of setting implemented in school. A stratified sample of 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools was selected for the research. Schools represented a variety of ability-grouping practices in the lower school (Years 7-9), from completely mixed-ability to setting in all academic subjects. All Year 9 pupils were included in the sample. Pupils completed a questionnaire containing items on their self-concept, liking for school, and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science. Data on pupils' gender, ethnic origin, social disadvantage and attainment was also collected. The properties and correlates of scales indicating pupils' liking for school and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science are established. Liking for school is greater among girls, pupils with higher academic self-concepts, and those with more positive perceptions of teaching. Pupils are more positive about teaching they experience in English than in mathematics or science. When other variables are statistically controlled, there is no significant effect of the extent of ability grouping in the school as a whole. Affective aspects of learning should not be neglected in the drive to raise standards.
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.
Marín Vila, María; Carballo Crespo, José Luis; Coloma Carmona, Ainhoa
Only few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in academic and cognitive performance (perception, attention, memory, verbal fluency and abstract reasoning) between adolescents with and without PIU. A total of 575 students from different high schools of the region of Alicante participated. Students were divided into two groups: adolescents with and without PIU (PIU and NPIU, respectively). Several questionnaires were administered to assess problematic Internet use, as well as students' academic performance. Substance use (alcohol / cannabis) was also assessed as exclusion criteria. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to assess cognitive abilities. On the one hand, PIU users group obtained poorer academic results than NPIU, in terms of lower marks and more failed subjects. On the other hand, PIU group had a better hit ratio in the perception test than NPIU group. However, PIU adolescents got higher error rates for the abstract reasoning test. This greater number of errors, plus a similar number of hits compared to the NPIU group, could indicated a higher response rate for the PIU group, which may might be associated with greater impulsivity. As occurs in other addictive and non-substance-related problems studies, these results could mean difficulties in impulse control and regulation of response inhibition circuits in PIU users group. Future research is needed to analyze in depth the results presented in this paper.
Angela S. Anderson
Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.