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Sample records for self-assembled inas quantum

  1. Spin effects in InAs self-assembled quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied the polarized resolved photoluminescence in an n-type resonant tunneling diode (RTD of GaAs/AlGaAs which incorporates a layer of InAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs in the center of a GaAs quantum well (QW. We have observed that the QD circular polarization degree depends on applied voltage and light intensity. Our results are explained in terms of the tunneling of minority carriers into the QW, carrier capture by InAs QDs and bias-controlled density of holes in the QW.

  2. Positioning of self-assembled InAs quantum dots by focused ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are envisioned as building blocks for realization of novel nanoelectronic devices, for which the site-selective growth is highly desirable. This thesis presents a successful route toward selective positioning of self-assembled InAs QDs on patterned GaAs surface by combination of in situ focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology. First, a buffer layer of GaAs was grown by MBE before a square array of holes with a pitch of 1-2 μm was fabricated by FIB implantation of Ga and In, ions respectively. Later, an in-situ annealing step followed by InAs deposition was performed. The InAs QDs were preferentially formed in the holes generated by FIB. The influence of ion dose, annealing parameters and InAs amount was investigated in this work. With optimized parameters, more than 50 % single dot occupancy per hole is achieved. Furthermore, the photoluminescence spectra from positioned QDs confirm their good optical quality. (orig.)

  3. The photoluminescence decay time of self-assembled InAs quantum dots covered by InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wang, C K; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Hsiao, R S; Chou, W C; Chen, J F; Lin, T Y; Ko, C H; Lai, C M

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) with InGaAs covering layers was investigated. The PL decay time increases with temperature from 50 to 170 K, and then decreases as the temperature increases further above 170 K. A model based on the phonon-assisted transition between the QD ground state and the continuum state is used to explain the temperature dependence of the PL decay time. This result suggests that the continuum states are important in the carrier capture in self-assembled InAs QDs

  4. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots formed by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and postgrowth annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, H.H.; Nötzel, R.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots are grown at low temperature (LT) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs substrates. The growth is in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and ex situ evaluated by atomic force microscopy for the morphological properties, and by

  5. Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy of excited states in InAs self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Rich, D.H.; Kim, Eui-Tae; Madhukar, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined state filling and thermal activation of carriers in buried InAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) with excitation-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and spectroscopy. The InAs SAQDs were formed during molecular-beam epitaxial growth of InAs on undoped planar GaAs (001). The intensities of the ground- and excited-state transitions were analyzed as a function of temperature and excitation density to study the thermal activation and reemission of carriers. The thermal activation energies associated with the thermal quenching of the luminescence were measured for ground- and excited-state transitions of the SAQDs, as a function of excitation density. By comparing these activation energies with the ground- and excited-state transition energies, we have considered various processes that describe the reemission of carriers. Thermal quenching of the intensity of the QD ground- and first excited-state transitions at low excitations in the ∼230-300-K temperature range is attributed to dissociation of excitons from the QD states into the InAs wetting layer. At high excitations, much lower activation energies of the ground and excited states are obtained, suggesting that thermal reemission of single holes from QD states into the GaAs matrix is responsible for the observed temperature dependence of the QD luminescence in the ∼230-300-K temperature range. The dependence of the CL intensity of the ground-and first excited-state transition on excitation density was shown to be linear at all temperatures at low-excitation density. This result can be understood by considering that carriers escape and are recaptured as excitons or correlated electron-hole pairs. At sufficiently high excitations, state-filling and spatial smearing effects are observed together with a sublinear dependence of the CL intensity on excitation. Successive filling of the ground and excited states in adjacent groups of QDs that possess different size distributions is assumed to

  6. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots. Properties, modification and emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, structural, optical as well as electronic properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) were studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), capacitance spectroscopy (CV) and capacitance transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The quantum dots were grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and embedded in Schottky diodes for electrical characterization. In this work growth aspects as well as the electronic structures of QD were discussed. By varying the QD growth parameters it is possible to control the structural, and thus the optical and electronic properties of QD. Two methods are presented. Adjusting the QD growth temperature leads either to small QD with a high areal density or to high QDs with a low density. The structural changes of the QD are reflected in the changes of the optical and electronic properties. The second method is to introduce a growth interruption after capping the QD with thin cap layers. It was shown that capping with AlAs leads to a well-developed alternative to control the QD height and thus the ground-state energies of the QD. A post-growth method modifying the QD properties ist rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raising the RTA temperature causes a lifting of the QD energy states with respect to the GaAs band edge energy due to In/Ga intermixing processes. A further main part of this work covers the emission processes of charge carriers in QD. Thermal emission, thermally assisted tunneling, and pure tunneling emission are studied by capacitance transient spectroscopy techniques. In DLTS experiments a strong impact of the electric field on the activation energies of electrons was found interfering the correct determination of the QD level energies. This behaviour can be explained by a thermally assisted tunneling model. A modified model taking the Coulomb interaction of occupied QD into account describes the emission rates of the electrons. In order to avoid several emission pathes in the experiments

  7. Self-assembly of InAs and Si/Ge quantum dots on structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patella, F; Sgarlata, A; Arciprete, F; Nufris, S; Szkutnik, P D; Placidi, E; Fanfoni, M; Motta, N; Balzarotti, A

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the self-aggregation process of InAs and Si-Ge quantum dots (QDs) on natural and patterned GaAs(001) and Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces, with reference to our recent studies with scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy and current experimental and theoretical works. Various methods for obtaining naturally structured surfaces are briefly surveyed, as the patterning formed by the surface instability and by the strain in mismatched heteroepitaxy, and the latest methods of pre-patterning and growth at selected sites are discussed. Basic topics are also addressed that determine the final morphology of QDs, such as the wetting layer formation, the elastic strain field and the two-dimensional to three-dimensional phase transition

  8. The role of strain-driven in migration in the growth of self-assembled InAs quantum dots on InP

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, S H; Lee, T W; Hwang, H D; Yoon, E J; Kim, Y D

    1999-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (SAQDs) were grown on InP by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The amount of excess InAs and the aspect ratio of the SAQD increased with temperature and V/III ratio. It is explained that the As/P exchange reaction at the surface played an important role in the kinetics of SAQD formation. Insertion of a lattice-matched InGaAs buffer layer suppressed the excess InAs formation, and lowered the aspect ratio. Moreover, the dots formed on InGaAs buffer layers were faceted, whereas those on InP were hemispherical, confirming the effect of the As/P exchange reaction. The shape of InAs quantum dots on InGaAs buffer layers was a truncated pyramid with four [136] facets and base edges parallel to directions.

  9. Magnetic-field-induced Fermi-edge singularity in the tunneling current through an InAs self-assembled quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanin, Yu. N.; Vdovin, E. E.; Eaves, L.; Larkin, I. A.; Patane, A.; Makarovskii, O. N.; Henini, M.

    2007-01-01

    The results of the investigation of tunneling transport through a GaAs/(AlGa)As/GaAs single-barrier heterostructure containing InAs self-assembled quantum dots at low temperatures are reported. An anomalous increase in the tunneling current through the quantum dots has been observed in the presence of a magnetic field both parallel and perpendicular to the current. This increase is a manifestation of a Fermi-edge singularity appearing in the current due to the interaction of a tunneling electron with the electron gas in an emitter

  10. Growth patterns of self-assembled InAs quantum dots near the two-dimensional to three-dimensional transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colocci, M.; Bogani, F.; Carraresi, L.; Mattolini, R.; Bosacchi, A.; Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.; Rosa-Clot, M.; Taddei, S.

    1997-06-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy in such a way as to obtain a continuous variation of InAs coverages across the wafer. Structured photoluminescence spectra are observed after excitation of a large number of dots; deconvolution into Gaussian components yields narrow emission bands (full width at half-maximum 20-30 meV) separated in energy by an average spacing of 30-40 meV. We ascribe the individual bands of the photoluminescence spectra after low excitation to families of dots with similar shapes and with heights differing by one monolayer, as strongly supported by numerical calculations of the fundamental electronic transitions in quantum dot structures.

  11. Size dependence of the wavefunction of self-assembled InAs quantum dots from time-resolved optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, Ivan S.

    2008-01-01

    and a theoretical model, we determine the striking dependence of the overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions on the quantum dot size. We conclude that the optical quality is best for large quantum dots, which is important in order to optimally tailor quantum dot emitters for, e.g., quantum electrodynamics......The radiative and nonradiative decay rates of InAs quantum dots are measured by controlling the local density of optical states near an interface. From time-resolved measurements, we extract the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency and their dependence on emission energy. From our results...

  12. Controlled tuning of the radiative lifetime in InAs self-assembled quantum dots through vertical ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colocci, M.; Vinattieri, A.; Lippi, L.; Bogani, F.; Rosa-Clot, M.; Taddei, S.; Bosacchi, A.; Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer structures of InAs quantum dots have been studied by means of photoluminescence techniques. A strong increase of the radiative lifetime with increasing number of stacked dot layers has been observed at low temperatures. Moreover, a strong temperature dependence of the radiative lifetime, which is not present in the single layer samples, has been found in the multistacked structures. The observed effects are nicely explained as a consequence of the electronic coupling between electrons and holes induced by vertical ordering.

  13. Towards Scalable Entangled Photon Sources with Self-Assembled InAs /GaAs Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Gong, Ming; Guo, G.-C.; He, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    The biexciton cascade process in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) provides an ideal system for realizing deterministic entangled photon-pair sources, which are essential to quantum information science. The entangled photon pairs have recently been generated in experiments after eliminating the fine-structure splitting (FSS) of excitons using a number of different methods. Thus far, however, QD-based sources of entangled photons have not been scalable because the wavelengths of QDs differ from dot to dot. Here, we propose a wavelength-tunable entangled photon emitter mounted on a three-dimensional stressor, in which the FSS and exciton energy can be tuned independently, thereby enabling photon entanglement between dissimilar QDs. We confirm these results via atomistic pseudopotential calculations. This provides a first step towards future realization of scalable entangled photon generators for quantum information applications.

  14. Coherent dynamics of excitons in a stack of self-assembled InAs quantum dots at 1.5-μm waveband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, N.; Kujiraoka, M.; Inoue, J.; Ema, K.; Tsuchiya, M.; Sasaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the excitonic dephasing in a stack of self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) by using a four-wave-mixing (FWM) technique performed in the optical telecomm-fiber wavelength region at 6 K. A sample used in our experiment is a 150-layer stack of InAs SAQDs embedded in InGaAlAs grown on InP(3 1 1)B substrate fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. By using a novel strain-controlled technique, the resonant wavelength of the exciton ground state (GS) ranges from 1.25 to 1.5 μm which is much longer than that in typical In(Ga)As SAQDs. In the weak excitation region, the intrinsic dephasing time of excitons at the excitation wavelength of 1.43 μm reaches 770 ps which is much longer than that in most SAQDs with the resonant wavelength of <1 μm. We also find a strong anisotoropy of the signal intensity with respect to the crystal axis attributed to the orientation of InP(3 1 1)B substrate and the elongated shape of QDs

  15. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots. Properties, modification and emission processes; Selbstorganisierte InAs-Quantenpunkte. Eigenschaften, Modifizierung und Emissionsprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, A.

    2007-09-06

    In this thesis, structural, optical as well as electronic properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) were studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), capacitance spectroscopy (CV) and capacitance transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The quantum dots were grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and embedded in Schottky diodes for electrical characterization. In this work growth aspects as well as the electronic structures of QD were discussed. By varying the QD growth parameters it is possible to control the structural, and thus the optical and electronic properties of QD. Two methods are presented. Adjusting the QD growth temperature leads either to small QD with a high areal density or to high QDs with a low density. The structural changes of the QD are reflected in the changes of the optical and electronic properties. The second method is to introduce a growth interruption after capping the QD with thin cap layers. It was shown that capping with AlAs leads to a well-developed alternative to control the QD height and thus the ground-state energies of the QD. A post-growth method modifying the QD properties ist rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raising the RTA temperature causes a lifting of the QD energy states with respect to the GaAs band edge energy due to In/Ga intermixing processes. A further main part of this work covers the emission processes of charge carriers in QD. Thermal emission, thermally assisted tunneling, and pure tunneling emission are studied by capacitance transient spectroscopy techniques. In DLTS experiments a strong impact of the electric field on the activation energies of electrons was found interfering the correct determination of the QD level energies. This behaviour can be explained by a thermally assisted tunneling model. A modified model taking the Coulomb interaction of occupied QD into account describes the emission rates of the electrons. In order to avoid several emission pathes in the experiments

  16. Strain engineering of quantum dots for long wavelength emission: Photoluminescence from self-assembled InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs(001) at wavelengths over 1.55 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, K.; Kamiya, I.

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) at wavelengths over 1.55 μm from self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(001) is observed at room temperature (RT) and 4 K using a bilayer structure with thin cap. The PL peak has been known to redshift with decreasing cap layer thickness, although accompanying intensity decrease and peak broadening. With our strain-controlled bilayer structure, the PL intensity can be comparable to the ordinary QDs while realizing peak emission wavelength of 1.61 μm at 4 K and 1.73 μm at RT. The key issue lies in the control of strain not only in the QDs but also in the cap layer. By combining with underlying seed QD layer, we realize strain-driven bandgap engineering through control of strain in the QD and cap layers

  17. Strain engineering of quantum dots for long wavelength emission: Photoluminescence from self-assembled InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs(001) at wavelengths over 1.55 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, K., E-mail: sd12502@toyota-ti.ac.jp; Kamiya, I., E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Photoluminescence (PL) at wavelengths over 1.55 μm from self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(001) is observed at room temperature (RT) and 4 K using a bilayer structure with thin cap. The PL peak has been known to redshift with decreasing cap layer thickness, although accompanying intensity decrease and peak broadening. With our strain-controlled bilayer structure, the PL intensity can be comparable to the ordinary QDs while realizing peak emission wavelength of 1.61 μm at 4 K and 1.73 μm at RT. The key issue lies in the control of strain not only in the QDs but also in the cap layer. By combining with underlying seed QD layer, we realize strain-driven bandgap engineering through control of strain in the QD and cap layers.

  18. Self-Assembled InAs Nanowires as Optical Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Floris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subwavelength nanostructured surfaces are realized with self-assembled vertically-aligned InAs nanowires, and their functionalities as optical reflectors are investigated. In our system, polarization-resolved specular reflectance displays strong modulations as a function of incident photon energy and angle. An effective-medium model allows one to rationalize the experimental findings in the long wavelength regime, whereas numerical simulations fully reproduce the experimental outcomes in the entire frequency range. The impact of the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanostructure assembly on the reflectance was estimated. In view of the present results, sensing schemes compatible with microfluidic technologies and routes to innovative nanowire-based optical elements are discussed.

  19. Atomic-scale structure and formation of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Fomin, V.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present an at.-scale anal. of the In distribution of self-assembled (In,Ga)As quantum rings (QRs), which are formed from InAs quantum dots by capping with a thin layer of GaAs and subsequent annealing. The size and shape of QRs as obsd. by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

  20. Height control of self-assembled quantum dots by strain engineering during capping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Smereka, P.; Keizer, J.G.; Ulloa, J.M.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Strain engineering during the capping of III-V quantum dots has been explored as a means to control the height of strained self-assembled quantum dots. Results of Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are confronted with cross-sectional Scanning Tunnel Microscopy (STM) measurements performed on InAs

  1. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-12-20

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the <110> directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Transformation of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots into quantum rings without capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jaakko; Riikonen, Juha; Mattila, Marco; Tiilikainen, Jouni; Sopanen, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri

    2005-08-01

    Transformation of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) on InP(100) into quantum rings (QRs) is studied. In contrast to the typical approach to III--V semiconductor QR growth, the QDs are not capped to form rings. Atomic force micrographs reveal a drastic change from InAs QDs into rings after a growth interruption in tertiarybutylphosphine ambient. Strain energy relief in the InAs QD is discussed and a mechanism for dot-to-ring transformation by As/P exchange reactions is proposed.

  4. Designing spatial correlation of quantum dots: towards self-assembled three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, J R R; Zelcovit, J G; Gutierrez, H R; Bettini, J; Cotta, M A

    2008-01-01

    Buried two-dimensional arrays of InP dots were used as a template for the lateral ordering of self-assembled quantum dots. The template strain field can laterally organize compressive (InAs) as well as tensile (GaP) self-assembled nanostructures in a highly ordered square lattice. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the InAs dots are vertically correlated to the InP template, while the GaP dots are vertically anti-correlated, nucleating in the position between two buried InP dots. Finite InP dot size effects are observed to originate InAs clustering but do not affect GaP dot nucleation. The possibility of bilayer formation with different vertical correlations suggests a new path for obtaining three-dimensional pseudocrystals

  5. Atomic-scale structure of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings in GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Fomin, V.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    We present an atomic-scale analysis of the indium distribution of self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum rings (QRs) which are formed from InAs quantum dots by capping with a thin layer of GaAs and subsequent annealing. We find that the size and shape of QRs as observed by cross-sectional scanning

  6. Isolated self-assembled InAs/InP(001) quantum wires obtained by controlling the growth front evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, David; Alen, Benito; Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Martinez-Pastor, Juan; Gonzalez, Maria Ujue; GarcIa, Jorge M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we explore the first stages of quantum wire (QWR) formation studying the evolution of the growth front for InAs coverages below the critical thickness, θ c , determined by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Our results obtained by in situ measurement of the accumulated stress evolution during InAs growth on InP(001) show that the relaxation process starts at a certain InAs coverage θ R c . At this θ R , the spontaneous formation of isolated quantum wires takes place. For θ>θ R this ensemble of isolated nanostructures progressively evolves towards QWRs that cover the whole surface for θ θ c . These results allow for a better understanding of the self-assembling process of QWRs and enable the study of the individual properties of InAs/InP self-assembled single quantum wires

  7. Optical orientation in self assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined Zeeman splitting in a series of ln x Ga (1-x) As/GaAs self assembled quantum dots (SAQD's) with different pump polarisations. All these measurements were made in very low external magnetic fields where direct determination of the Zeeman splitting energy is impossible due to its small value in comparison to the photoluminescence linewidths. The use of a technique developed by M. J. Snelling allowed us to obtain the Zeeman splitting and hence the excitonic g-factors indirectly. We observed a linear low field splitting, becoming increasingly non-linear at higher fields. We attribute this non-linearity to field induced level mixing. It is believed these are the first low field measurements in these structures. A number of apparent nuclear effects in the Zeeman splitting measurements led us onto the examination of nuclear effects in these structures. The transverse and oblique Hanie effects then allowed us to obtain the sign of the electronic g-factors in two of our samples, for one sample, a (311) grown In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs SAQD sample, we were able to ascertain the spin relaxation time, the maximum value of the nuclear field, and provide evidence of the existence of nuclear spin freezing in at least one of our samples. We have then used a novel technique investigated by D. J. Guerrier, to examine optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance in our samples. We believe this is the first such study on these structures. We could not ascertain the dipolar indium resonance signal, even though all other isotopes were seen. We have therefore suggested a number of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of an indium resonance signal. (author)

  8. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...

  9. Self-assembly of concentric quantum double rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Takaaki; Kuroda, Takashi; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Ochiai, Tetsuyuki; Tateno, Takahiro; Kim, Jongsu; Noda, Takeshi; Kawabe, Mitsuo; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Kido, Giyuu; Koguchi, Nobuyuki

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled formation of concentric quantum double rings with high uniformity and excellent rotational symmetry using the droplet epitaxy technique. Varying the growth process conditions can control each ring's size. Photoluminescence spectra emitted from an individual quantum ring complex show peculiar quantized levels that are specified by the carriers' orbital trajectories.

  10. Pressure dependence of photoluminescence of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Castillo, M.; Segura, A.; Sans, J.A.; Martinez-Pastor, J.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the electronic structure of self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWrs), grown under different conditions by molecular beam epitaxy on InP, by means of photoluminescence measurements under pressure. In samples with regularly distributed QWrs, room pressure photoluminescence spectra consist of a broad band centred at about 0.85 eV, which can be easily de-convoluted in a few Gaussian peaks. In samples with isolated QWrs, photoluminescence spectra exhibit up to four clearly resolved bands. Applying hydrostatic pressure, the whole emission band monotonously shifts towards higher photon energies with pressure coefficients ranging from 72 to 98 meV/GPa. In contrast to InAs quantum dots on GaAs, quantum wires photoluminescence is observed up to 10 GPa, indicating that InAs QWrs are metastable well above pressure at which bulk InAs undergoes a phase transition to the rock-salt phase (7 GPa). (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of ultrafast gain recovery in self-assembled InAs quantum-dot (QD) amplifiers are explained by a comprehensive numerical model. The on excited state carriers are found to act as a reservoir for the optically active ground state carriers resulting in an ultrafast gain recovery as long...... as the excited state is well populated. However, when pulses are injected into the device at high-repetition frequencies, the response of a on amplifier is found to be limited by the wetting-layer dynamics....

  12. Size quantization patterns in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colocci, M.; Bogani, F.; Carraresi, L.; Mattolini, R.; Bosacchi, A.; Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.; Taddei, S.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1997-07-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy has been used for growing self-assembled InAs quantum dots. A continuous variation of the InAs average coverage across the sample has been obtained by properly aligning the (001) GaAs substrate with respect to the molecular beam. Excitation of a large number of dots (laser spot diameter ≈ 100 μm) results in structured photoluminescence spectra; a clear quantization of the dot sizes is deduced from the distinct luminescence bands separated in energy by an average spacing of 20-30 meV. We ascribe the individual bands of the photoluminescence spectrum after low excitation to families of dots with roughly the same diameter and heights differing by one monolayer.

  13. Oscillatory persistent currents in self-assembled quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, N.A.J.M.; Bominaar-Silkens, I.M.A.; Fomin, V.; Gladilin, V.N.; Granados, D.; Taboada, A.G.; Garcia, J.M.; Offermans, P.; Zeitler, U.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Maan, J.C.; Devreese, J.T.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the direct measurement of the persistent current carried by a single electron by means of magnetization experiments on self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum rings. We measured the first Aharonov-Bohm oscillation at a field of 14 T, in perfect agreement with our model based on the structural

  14. Long lived coherence in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, Kristjan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    We report measurements of ultralong coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mu eV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single...

  15. Characterization of multilayer self-organized InAs quantum dot embedded waveguides at 1.3 and 1.5 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, I.B.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.; Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Fiore, A.; Dagli, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we characterized the electro-optic coefficient and loss of multilayer InAs quantum dot laser structures at 1309 and 1515 nm. Quantum dot waveguides were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, where the active region is formed by three or five layers of self-assembled InAs QDs. Loss

  16. Multi-scale ordering of self-assembled InAs/GaAs(001 quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiravittaya S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrdering phenomena related to the self-assembly of InAs quantum dots (QD grown on GaAs(001 substrates are experimentally investigated on different length scales. On the shortest length-scale studied here, we examine the QD morphology and observe two types of QD shapes, i.e., pyramids and domes. Pyramids are elongated along the 12345678910 directions and are bounded by {137} facets, while domes have a multi-facetted shape. By changing the growth rates, we are able to control the size and size homogeneity of freestanding QDs. QDs grown by using low growth rate are characterized by larger sizes and a narrower size distribution. The homogeneity of buried QDs is measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy and can be improved by low temperature overgrowth. The overgrowth induces the formation of nanostructures on the surface. The fabrication of self-assembled nanoholes, which are used as a template to induce short-range positioning of QDs, is also investigated. The growth of closely spaced QDs (QD molecules containing 2–6 QDs per QD molecule is discussed. Finally, the long-range positioning of self-assembled QDs, which can be achieved by the growth on patterned substrates, is demonstrated. Lateral QD replication observed during growth of three-dimensional QD crystals is reported.

  17. Carrier emission from the electronic states of self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.W.; Song, A.M.; Missous, M.; Hawkins, I.D; Hamilton, B.; Engstroem, O.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the new technique of high resolution (Laplace) transient spectroscopy to examine the electronic states of ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots of InAs in a GaAs matrix. These have been produced by solid source MBE. We have monitored the s and p state occupancies as a function of time under thermal excitation over a range of temperatures after electrons have been captured by the quantum dots with different Fermi level positions. This can provide more information about the interaction of the dots with the host matrix than is possible with optical techniques and gives new fundamental insights into how such dots may operate in electronic devices such as memory and sensors. The increase in resolution of Laplace transient spectroscopy over conventional experiments reveals quite specific rates of carrier loss which we attribute to tunnelling at low temperatures and a combination of thermal emission and tunnelling as the temperature is increased

  18. Frequency dependence of the radiative decay rate of excitons in self-assembled quantum dots: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2009-01-01

    We analyze time-resolved spontaneous emission from excitons confined in self-assembled InAs quantum dots placed at various distances to a semiconductor-air interface. The modification of the local density of optical states due to the proximity of the interface enables unambiguous determination...... furthermore discuss three models of quantum dot strain and compare the measured wave-function overlap to these models. The observed frequency dependence of the wave-function overlap can be understood qualitatively in terms of the different compressibility of electrons and holes originating from...

  19. Oscillatory persistent currents in self-assembled quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, N A J M; Bominaar-Silkens, I M A; Fomin, V M; Gladilin, V N; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; García, J M; Offermans, P; Zeitler, U; Christianen, P C M; Maan, J C; Devreese, J T; Koenraad, P M

    2007-10-05

    We report the direct measurement of the persistent current carried by a single electron by means of magnetization experiments on self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum rings. We measured the first Aharonov-Bohm oscillation at a field of 14 T, in perfect agreement with our model based on the structural properties determined by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. The observed oscillation magnitude of the magnetic moment per electron is remarkably large for the topology of our nanostructures, which are singly connected and exhibit a pronounced shape asymmetry.

  20. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    Fine structure splittings in optical spectra of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) generally arise from spin interactions between particles confined in the dots. We present experimental studies of the fine structure that arises from multiple charges confined in a single dot [1] or in molecular orbitals of coupled pairs of dots. To probe the underlying spin interactions we inject particles with a known spin orientation (by using polarized light to perform photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments) or use a magnetic field to orient and/or mix the spin states. We develop a model of the spin interactions that aids in the development of quantum information processing applications based on controllable interactions between spins confined to QDs. [1] Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 177403 (2005)

  1. GaAs structures with InAs and As quantum dots produced in a single molecular beam epitaxy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskii, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhenskii, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial GaAs layers containing InAs semiconductor quantum dots and As metal quantum dots are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The InAs quantum dots are formed by the Stranskii-Krastanow mechanism, whereas the As quantum dots are self-assembled in the GaAs layer grown at low temperature with a large As excess. The microstructure of the samples is studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is established that the As metal quantum dots formed in the immediate vicinity of the InAs semiconductor quantum dots are larger in size than the As quantum dots formed far from the InAs quantum dots. This is apparently due to the effect of strain fields of the InAs quantum dots upon the self-assembling of As quantum dots. Another phenomenon apparently associated with local strains around the InAs quantum dots is the formation of V-like defects (stacking faults) during the overgrowth of the InAs quantum dots with the GaAs layer by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Such defects have a profound effect on the self-assembling of As quantum dots. Specifically, on high-temperature annealing needed for the formation of large-sized As quantum dots by Ostwald ripening, the V-like defects bring about the dissolution of the As quantum dots in the vicinity of the defects. In this case, excess arsenic most probably diffuses towards the open surface of the sample via the channels of accelerated diffusion in the planes of stacking faults.

  2. Statistical analysis of AFM topographic images of self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevriuk, V. A.; Brunkov, P. N., E-mail: brunkov@mail.ioffe.ru; Shalnev, I. V.; Gutkin, A. A.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Konnikov, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    To obtain statistical data on quantum-dot sizes, AFM topographic images of the substrate on which the dots under study are grown are analyzed. Due to the nonideality of the substrate containing height differences on the order of the size of nanoparticles at distances of 1-10 {mu}m and the insufficient resolution of closely arranged dots due to the finite curvature radius of the AFM probe, automation of the statistical analysis of their large dot array requires special techniques for processing topographic images to eliminate the loss of a particle fraction during conventional processing. As such a technique, convolution of the initial matrix of the AFM image with a specially selected matrix is used. This makes it possible to determine the position of each nanoparticle and, using the initial matrix, to measure their geometrical parameters. The results of statistical analysis by this method of self-assembled InAs quantum dots formed on the surface of an AlGaAs epitaxial layer are presented. It is shown that their concentration, average size, and half-width of height distribution depend strongly on the In flow and total amount of deposited InAs which are varied within insignificant limits.

  3. Self-assembling hybrid diamond–biological quantum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A; B Plenio, M; Koplovitz, G; Yochelis, S; Paltiel, Y; Retzker, A; Nevo, Y; Shoseyov, O; Jelezko, F; Porath, D

    2014-01-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio–nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications. (papers)

  4. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  5. Spin-flip transitions in self-assembled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed realistic calculations of the spin-flip time (T 1) for an electron in a self-assembled quantum dot (SAQD) due to emission of an acoustic phonon, using only bulk properties with no fitting parameters, are presented. Ellipsoidal lens shaped Inx Ga1-x As quantum dots, with electronic states calculated using 8-band strain dependent {k \\cdot p} theory, are considered. The phonons are treated as bulk acoustic phonons coupled to the electron by both deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions. The dependence of T 1 on the geometry of SAQD, on the applied external magnetic field and on the lattice temperature is highlighted. The theoretical results are close to the experimental measurements on the spin-flip times for a single electron in QD.

  6. Self-assembled monolayers of alkyl-thiols on InAs: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwajca, A.; Wei, J.; Schukfeh, M. I.; Tornow, M.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers from aliphatic thiols with different chain length and termination on InAs (100) planar surfaces. This included as first step the development and investigation of a thorough chemical InAs surface preparation step using a dedicated bromine/NH4OH-based etching process. Ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the formation of smooth, surface conforming monolayers. The molecular tilt angles were obtained as 30 ± 10° with respect to the surface normal. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements in hand with Parameterized Model number 5 (PM5) calculations of the involved molecular dipoles allowed for an estimation of the molecular packing densities on the surface. We obtained values of up to n = 1014 cm- 2 for the SAMs under study. These are close to what is predicted from a simple geometrical model that would calculate a maximum density of about n = 2.7 × 1014 cm- 2. We take this as additional conformation of the substrate smoothness and quality of our InAs-SAM hybrid layer systems.

  7. Shape analysis of single and stacked InAs quantum dots at the atomic level by cross-sectional STM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruls, D.M.; Vugs, J.W.A.M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Hopkinson, M.; Wolter, J.H.; Miura, N.; Ando, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of InAs self-assembled quantum dots in GaAs by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM). Our results shows that the dots consist of an JnGaAs alloy and that the indium content increases towards the top. The analysis of the height versus base length relation obtained

  8. Self-assembled quantum dot structures in a hexagonal nanowire for quantum photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Dou, Xiu-Ming; Wei, Bin; Zha, Guo-Wei; Shang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Li; Su, Dan; Xu, Jian-Xing; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Sun, Bao-Quan; Ji, Yuan; Han, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Two types of quantum nanostructures based on self-assembled GaAs quantumdots embedded into GaAs/AlGaAs hexagonal nanowire systems are reported, opening a new avenue to the fabrication of highly efficient single-photon sources, as well as the design of novel quantum optics experiments and robust quantum optoelectronic devices operating at higher temperature, which are required for practical quantum photonics applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian

    2009-08-19

    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  10. Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on Germanium Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on germanium substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Effects of growth temperature and InAs coverage on the size, density, and height of quantum dots were investigated. Growth temperature was varied from 400 to 450 °C and InAs coverage was varied between 1.40 and 2.35 monolayers (MLs. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of the quantum dots analyzed by atomic force microscope revealed that the density of the InAs quantum dots first increased and then decreased with the amount of InAs coverage; whereas density decreased with increase in growth temperature. It was observed that the size and height of InAs quantum dots increased with increase in both temperature and InAs coverage. The density of QDs was effectively controlled by growth temperature and InAs coverage on GaAs buffer layer.

  11. Temperature dependent empirical pseudopotential theory for self-assembled quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Gong, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin

    2012-11-28

    We develop a temperature dependent empirical pseudopotential theory to study the electronic and optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) at finite temperature. The theory takes the effects of both lattice expansion and lattice vibration into account. We apply the theory to InAs/GaAs QDs. For the unstrained InAs/GaAs heterostructure, the conduction band offset increases whereas the valence band offset decreases with increasing temperature, and there is a type-I to type-II transition at approximately 135 K. Yet, for InAs/GaAs QDs, the holes are still localized in the QDs even at room temperature, because the large lattice mismatch between InAs and GaAs greatly enhances the valence band offset. The single-particle energy levels in the QDs show a strong temperature dependence due to the change of confinement potentials. Because of the changes of the band offsets, the electron wavefunctions confined in QDs increase by about 1-5%, whereas the hole wavefunctions decrease by about 30-40% when the temperature increases from 0 to 300 K. The calculated recombination energies of excitons, biexcitons and charged excitons show red shifts with increasing temperature which are in excellent agreement with available experimental data.

  12. Cross-sectional nanophotoluminescence studies of Stark effects in self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htoon, H.; Keto, J. W.; Baklenov, O.; Holmes, A. L. Jr.; Shih, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    By using a cross-sectional geometry, we show the capability to perform single-dot spectroscopy in self-assembled quantum dots using far-field optics. By using this method, we study the quantum-confined Stark effect in self-assembled quantum dots. For single-stack quantum dots (QDs), we find that the spectra are redshifted with an increase in electric field. For vertically coupled double-stack quantum dots, while most of the QDs are redshifted, some QDs show blueshifted spectra, which can be interpreted as an evidence of coupled QD molecules. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Multiphonon capture processes in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    We investigate capture of carriers from states in the continuous part of the energy spectrum into the discrete states of self-assembled InAs/GaAs QDs via emission of one or two phonons. We are not aware of any other investigations of two-phonon mediated capture processes in QDs, but we show...

  14. Raman study of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wire stacks with varying spacer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2008-08-01

    Self-assembled InAs/InP (001) quantum wire stacks have been investigated by means of Raman scattering. The characteristics of the observed vibrational modes show clear evidence of confinement and atomic intermixing between As and P atoms from the wire and the spacer. The change in the intermixing with spacer layer thickness and growth temperature is investigated. Likewise, the effect of annealing on the exchange of As and P atoms is also studied. Resonance effects in confined and interface phonons are discussed for excitation in the vicinity of the InAs E1 critical point. Finally, the energy of the interface modes is related to the structural characteristics of the wires by comparing the experimental data with a lattice dynamic calculation based on the dielectric continuum model.

  15. Determination of anisotropic dipole moments in self-assembled quantum dots using Rabi oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, A.; Wang, Q. Q.; Bianucci, P.; Xue, Q. K.; Shih, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    By investigating the polarization-dependent Rabi oscillations using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we determined the respective transition dipole moments of the two excited excitonic states |Ex> and |Ey> of a single self-assembled quantum dot that are nondegenerate due to shape anisotropy. We find that the ratio of the two dipole moments is close to the physical elongation ratio of the quantum dot.

  16. Two-color single-photon emission from InAs quantum dots: toward logic information management using quantum light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; García-Calzada, Raúl; Trevisi, Giovanna; Seravalli, Luca; Frigeri, Paola; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P

    2014-02-12

    In this work, we propose the use of the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometric technique and a switchable two-color excitation method for evaluating the exciton and noncorrelated electron-hole dynamics associated with single photon emission from indium arsenide (InAs) self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Using a microstate master equation model we demonstrate that our single QDs are described by nonlinear exciton dynamics. The simultaneous detection of two-color, single photon emission from InAs QDs using these nonlinear dynamics was used to design a NOT AND logic transference function. This computational functionality combines the advantages of working with light/photons as input/output device parameters (all-optical system) and that of a nanodevice (QD size of ∼ 20 nm) while also providing high optical sensitivity (ultralow optical power operational requirements). These system features represent an important and interesting step toward the development of new prototypes for the incoming quantum information technologies.

  17. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  18. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseli, M.; Ruppert, C.; Trumm, S.; Betz, M.; Krenner, H.J.; Finley, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carrier dynamics in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots is analyzed with highly sensitive femtosecond transmission spectroscopy. In a first step, measurements on a large ensemble of nanoislands reveal the dynamical electronic filling of quantum dots from the surrounding wetting layer. Most interestingly, we find a spin-preserving phonon mediated scattering into fully localized states within a few picoseconds. Then, individual artificial atoms are isolated with metallic shadow masks. For the first time, a single self-assembled quantum dot is addressed in an ultrafast transmission experiment. We find bleaching signals in the order of 10 -5 that arise from individual interband transitions of one quantum dot. As a result, we have developed an ultrafast optical tool for both manipulation and read-out of a single self-assembled quantum dot. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Long-range energy transfer in self-assembled quantum dot-DNA cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Siu, Albert; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films.The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient

  20. Large size self-assembled quantum rings: quantum size effect and modulation on the surface diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Wang, Lijun

    2012-09-24

    We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.

  1. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouassa, Mansour, E-mail: mansour.aouassa@yahoo.fr [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Jadli, Imen [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Bandyopadhyay, Anup [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kim, Sung Kyu [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lee, Jeong Yong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • We report the new fabrication approach for producing a self- assembled Mn dpoed Ge quantum dots (QDs) on SiO{sub 2} thin film with a Curie temperature above room temperature. These magnetic QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and have a well-defined shape and a controlled size. The investigation opens new routes for elaboration of self-assembled magnetic nanocrystals - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO{sub 2} thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO{sub 2} thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.

  2. Probing long-lived dark excitons in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived dark exciton states are formed in self-assembled quantum dots due to the combination of the angular momentum of electrons and holes. The lifetime of dark excitons are determined by spin-flip processes that transfer dark excitons into radiative bright excitons. We employ time......-resolved spontaneous emission measurements in a modified local density of optical states to unambiguously record the spin-flip rate. Pronounced variations in the spin-flip rate with the quantum dot emission energy are observed demonstrating that the exciton storage time can be extended by controlling the quantum dot......, which illustrates the important role of interfaces for quantum dot based nanophotonic structures....

  3. On-Chip Single-Plasmon Nanocircuit Driven by a Self-Assembled Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Ping; Razinskas, Gary; Huo, Yongheng; Zhang, Hongyi; Kamp, Martin; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G; Hecht, Bert; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus

    2017-07-12

    Quantum photonics holds great promise for future technologies such as secure communication, quantum computation, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. An outstanding challenge for quantum photonics is to develop scalable miniature circuits that integrate single-photon sources, linear optical components, and detectors on a chip. Plasmonic nanocircuits will play essential roles in such developments. However, for quantum plasmonic circuits, integration of stable, bright, and narrow-band single photon sources in the structure has so far not been reported. Here we present a plasmonic nanocircuit driven by a self-assembled GaAs quantum dot. Through a planar dielectric-plasmonic hybrid waveguide, the quantum dot efficiently excites narrow-band single plasmons that are guided in a two-wire transmission line until they are converted into single photons by an optical antenna. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fully on-chip plasmonic nanocircuits for quantum optical applications.

  4. Quantum-Chemical Insights into the Self-Assembly of Carbon-Based Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calbo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how molecular systems self-assemble to form well-organized superstructures governed by noncovalent interactions is essential in the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the nanoscience context, the self-assembly of different carbon-based nanoforms (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene with, in general, electron-donor molecular systems, has received increasing attention as a means of generating potential candidates for technological applications. In these carbon-based systems, a deep characterization of the supramolecular organization is crucial to establish an intimate relation between supramolecular structure and functionality. Detailed structural information on the self-assembly of these carbon-based nanoforms is however not always accessible from experimental techniques. In this regard, quantum chemistry has demonstrated to be key to gain a deep insight into the supramolecular organization of molecular systems of high interest. In this review, we intend to highlight the fundamental role that quantum-chemical calculations can play to understand the supramolecular self-assembly of carbon-based nanoforms through a limited selection of supramolecular assemblies involving fullerene, fullerene fragments, nanotubes and graphene with several electron-rich π-conjugated systems.

  5. Femtosecond upconverted photocurrent spectroscopy of InAs quantum nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tex, David M.; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko, E-mail: kanemitu@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kamiya, Itaru [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    The carrier upconversion dynamics in InAs quantum nanostructures are studied for intermediate-band solar-cell applications via ultrafast photoluminescence and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy based on femtosecond excitation correlation (FEC) techniques. Strong upconverted PC-FEC signals are observed under resonant excitation of quantum well islands (QWIs), which are a few monolayer-thick InAs quantum nanostructures. The PC-FEC signal typically decays within a few hundred picoseconds at room temperature, which corresponds to the carrier lifetime in QWIs. The photoexcited electron and hole lifetimes in InAs QWIs are evaluated as functions of temperature and laser fluence. Our results provide solid evidence for electron–hole–hole Auger process, dominating the carrier upconversion in InAs QWIs at room temperature.

  6. Determination of anisotropic dipole moments in self-assembled quantum dots using Rabi oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas; Wang, Qu-Quan; Bianucci, Pablo; Xue, Qi-Kun; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2004-03-01

    By investigating the polarization-dependent Rabi oscillations using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we determined the respective transition dipole moments of the two excited excitonic states |Ex> and |Ey> of a single self-assembled quantum dot that are nondegenerate due to shape anisotropy. We find that the ratio of the two dipole moments is close to the physical elongation ratio of the quantum dot. We also measured the ground state radiative lifetimes of several quantum dots. The dipole moments calculated from the latter are in reasonable agreement with the dipole moments determined from the periodicity of the Rabi oscillations.

  7. Optical Properties of GaAs Quantum Dots Fabricated by Filling of Self-Assembled Nanoholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyn Ch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental results of the local droplet etching technique for the self-assembled formation of nanoholes and quantum rings on semiconductor surfaces are discussed. Dependent on the sample design and the process parameters, filling of nanoholes in AlGaAs generates strain-free GaAs quantum dots with either broadband optical emission or sharp photoluminescence (PL lines. Broadband emission is found for samples with completely filled flat holes, which have a very broad depth distribution. On the other hand, partly filling of deep holes yield highly uniform quantum dots with very sharp PL lines.

  8. In-capillary self-assembly and proteolytic cleavage of polyhistidine peptide capped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhao; Li, Jingyan; Li, Jinchen; Liu, Feifei [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Yi [Changzhou Qianhong Bio-pharma Co. Ltd, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Cheli [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Qiu, Lin, E-mail: linqiupjj@gmail.com [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); Jiang, Pengju, E-mail: pengju.jiang@gmail.com [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-10-01

    A new method using fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL) for monitoring self-assembly and proteolytic cleavage of hexahistidine peptide capped quantum dots (QDs) inside a capillary has been developed in this report. QDs and the ATTO 590-labeled hexahistidine peptide (H6-ATTO) were injected into a capillary, sequentially. Their self-assembly inside the capillary was driven by a metal-affinity force which yielded a new fluorescence signal due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The highly efficient separation of fluorescent complexes and the FRET process were analyzed using CE-FL. The self-assembly of QDs and biomolecules was found to effectively take place inside the capillary. The kinetics of the assembly was monitored by CE-FL, and the approach was extended to the study of proteolytic cleavage of surface conjugated peptides. Being the first in-depth analysis of in-capillary nanoparticle–biomolecule assembly, the novel approach reported here provides inspiration to the development of QD-based FRET probes for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We examined the self-assembly QDs with H6-ATTO inside a capillary. • We prove CE-FL to be a powerful method to resolve QDs-H6-ATTO complex. • We achieve chromatographic separation of QDs-H6-ATTO complex. • We discovered a novel strategy for the online detection of thrombin. • This technique integrated “injection, mixing, reaction, separation and detection”.

  9. Stress evolution during growth of bilayer self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaadt, D.M.; Krauss, S.; Koch, R.; Ploog, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the stress evolution during molecular-beam epitaxy of bilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot (QD) structures in real time and with sub-monolayer precision using an in-situ cantilever beam setup. During growth of the InAs at 470 C a stress of 5.1 GPa develops in the wetting layer, in good agreement with the theoretical misfit stress. At a critical thickness of 1.5 monolayers the strain is relieved by the QD formation. In the case of InAs/GaAs bilayer structures, the second InAs layer grows identical to the first for GaAs spacer thicknesses exceeding ∝13 nm. For thinner spacers the critical thickness for the 2D/3D transition in the second layer decreases. The stress of the second InAs layer does not reach the value of the first, indicating that InAs QDs grow on partially strained areas due to the strain field of the previous InAs layer. (orig.)

  10. The spectral analysis and threshold limits of quasi-supercontinuum self-assembled quantum dot interband lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon; Wang, Yang; Djie, Hery Susanto; Ooi, Boon S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model to explain the quasi-supercontinuum interband emission from InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot lasers by accounting for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous optical gain broadening

  11. Strain and spin-orbit effects in self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Jaskolski, W.; Aizpurua, J.; Bryant, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Effects of strain and spin-orbit interaction in self-assembled lien-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dots are investigated. Calculations are performed with empirical tight-binding theory supplemented by the valence force field method to account for effects of strain caused by lattice mismatch at the InAs-GaAs interface. It is shown that both effects influence strongly the electron and hole energy structure: splitting of the energy levels, the number of bound states, density distributions, and transition rates. We show that piezoelectric effects are almost negligible in quantum dots of the size investigated. (author)

  12. Formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in CdTe on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, F.; Fognini, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Müller, E.; Zogg, H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the growth and formation of self assembled PbTe quantum dots in a CdTe host on a silicon (111) substrate. Annealing yields different photoluminescence spectra depending on initial PbTe layer thickness, thickness of the CdTe cap layer and annealing temperature. Generally two distinct emission peaks at ˜0.3 eV and ˜0.45 eV are visible. Model calculations explaining their temperature dependence are performed. The dot size corresponds well with the estimated sizes from electron microscopy images. The quantum dots may be used as absorber within a mid-infrared detector.

  13. Spin injection in self-assembled quantum dots coupled with a diluted magnetic quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, A.; Asahina, T.; Souma, I.; Koyama, T.; Hyomi, K.; Nishibayashi, K.; Oka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Spin injection is studied in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) of CdSe coupled with a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well (DMS-QW) of Zn 1- x - y Cd x Mn y Se, by means of time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence (PL). Excitonic PL from the CdSe QDs shows σ - -circular polarization in magnetic fields, mainly due to negative g-values of individual dots, when the energy difference of excitons between the QDs and DMS-QW is large as 300 meV. However, when such energy difference is comparable with LO-phonon energy in the QD, we observe an additional PL peak with the long lifetime as 3.5 ns and σ + -polarization in magnetic fields. It can be attributed to a type-II transition between the down-spin electron injected from the DMS-QW into the QDs, via LO-phonon-assisted resonant tunneling, and the down-spin heavy hole in the DMS-QW. In addition, the electron spin-injection is also evidenced by σ + -polarized PL with the fast rise-time of 20 ps in the QDs

  14. Adding GaAs Monolayers to InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers on (001) InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueming; Chacon, Rebecca; Uhl, David; Yang, Rui

    2005-01-01

    In a modification of the basic configuration of InAs quantum-dot semiconductor lasers on (001)lnP substrate, a thin layer (typically 1 to 2 monolayer thick) of GaAs is incorporated into the active region. This modification enhances laser performance: In particular, whereas it has been necessary to cool the unmodified devices to temperatures of about 80 K in order to obtain lasing at long wavelengths, the modified devices can lase at wavelengths of about 1.7 microns or more near room temperature. InAs quantum dots self-assemble, as a consequence of the lattice mismatch, during epitaxial deposition of InAs on ln0.53Ga0.47As/lnP. In the unmodified devices, the quantum dots as thus formed are typically nonuniform in size. Strainenergy relaxation in very large quantum dots can lead to poor laser performance, especially at wavelengths near 2 microns, for which large quantum dots are needed. In the modified devices, the thin layers of GaAs added to the active regions constitute potential-energy barriers that electrons can only penetrate by quantum tunneling and thus reduce the hot carrier effects. Also, the insertion of thin GaAs layer is shown to reduce the degree of nonuniformity of sizes of the quantum dots. In the fabrication of a batch of modified InAs quantum-dot lasers, the thin additional layer of GaAs is deposited as an interfacial layer in an InGaAs quantum well on (001) InP substrate. The device as described thus far is sandwiched between InGaAsPy waveguide layers, then further sandwiched between InP cladding layers, then further sandwiched between heavily Zn-doped (p-type) InGaAs contact layer.

  15. Self-assembly of single "square" quantum rings in gold-free GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guowei; Shang, Xiangjun; Su, Dan; Yu, Ying; Wei, Bin; Wang, Li; Li, Mifeng; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Jianxing; Ni, Haiqiao; Ji, Yuan; Sun, Baoquan; Niu, Zhichuan

    2014-03-21

    Single nanostructures embedded within nanowires (NWs) represent one of the most promising technologies for applications in quantum photonics. However, fabrication imperfections and etching-induced defects are inevitable for top-down fabrications, whereas self-assembly bottom-up approaches cannot avoid the difficulties of its stochastic nature and are limited to restricted heterogeneous material systems. Here we demonstrate the versatile self-assembly of single "square" quantum rings (QR) on the sidewalls of gold-free GaAs NWs for the first time. By tuning the deposition temperature, As overpressure and amount of gallium-droplets, we were able to control the density and morphology of the structure, yielding novel single quantum dots, QR, coupled QRs, and nano-antidots. A proposed model based on a strain-driven, transport-dependent nucleation of gallium droplets at high temperature accounts for the formation mechanism of these structures. We achieved a single-QR-in-NW structure, of which the optical properties were analyzed using micro-photoluminescence at 10 K and a spatially resolved cathodoluminescence technique at 77 K. The spectra show sharp discrete peaks; of these peaks, the narrowest linewidth (separation) was 578 μeV (1-3 meV), reflecting the quantized nature of the ring-type electronic states.

  16. Space charge spectroscopy of self assembled Ge quantum dots in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, T.; Miesner, C.; Brunner, K.; Abstreiter, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik

    2001-03-01

    Admittance spectroscopy was used to investigate the density of states in self assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) of different size embedded in Si Schottky diodes. From the admittance results, activation energies of hole in the QDs have been determined as a function of the external bias which shifts the Fermi level with respect to the energy states in the QDs. The activation energy of a quantum well sample remains constant up to 6 V bias voltage. Large Ge dots (70 nm diameter) show a continuum of activation energies and a low continuous averaged density of states. In small Ge dots (20 nm diameter) a discrete energy level structure with level separations of 40 to 4 meV are observed. They are attributed to strongly quantum confined hole states with significant Coulomb blockade energies. (orig.)

  17. Direct self-assembling and patterning of semiconductor quantum dots on transferable elastomer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, Sara [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Vespini, Veronica, E-mail: v.vespini@isasi.cnr.it [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Olivieri, Federico [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); University of Naples Federico II, Department of Chemical Materials and Production Engineering, Piazzale Tecchio 80, Naples 80125 (Italy); Nasti, Giuseppe; Todino, Michele; Mandracchia, Biagio; Pagliarulo, Vito; Ferraro, Pietro [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A quantum dots self-patterning on micrometrical polymeric array is proposed. • The effect of a quantum dots mix on the array is evaluated. • A PDMS membrane is exploited to transfer the pattern on it. - Abstract: Functionalization of thin and stretchable polymer layers by nano- and micro-patterning of nanoparticles is a very promising field of research that can lead to many different applications in biology and nanotechnology. In this work, we present a new procedure to self-assemble semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles by a simple fabrication process on a freestanding flexible PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) membrane. We used a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal to imprint a micrometrical pattern on the PDMS membrane that drives the QDs self-structuring on its surface. This process allows patterning QDs with different wavelength emissions in a single step in order to tune the overall emission spectrum of the composite, tuning the QDs mixing ratio.

  18. Single-photon generation with InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santori, Charles; Fattal, David; Vuckovic, Jelena; Solomon, Glenn S; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Single-photon generation using InAs quantum dots in pillar microcavities is described. The effects on performance of the excitation wavelength and polarization, and the collection bandwidth and polarization, are studied in detail. The efficiency and photon state purity of these devices have been measured, and issues affecting these parameters are discussed. Prospects for improved devices are also discussed

  19. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.

  20. Competition between the In/Ga intermixing and the electronic coupling effects in self-assembled InAs/GaAs double-quantum-dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocas, Luiz Carlos; Sawata, Marcella Ferraz [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Apucarana, PR (Brazil); Lourenco, Sidney Alves [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil); Laureto, Edson; Duarte, Jose Leonil; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Quivy, A.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    technique with GaAs spacer layers having different thickness, using photoluminescence technique (PL). PL spectra as a function of the intensity of the excitation laser allowed identifying in a reference sample containing a single layer of QDs, the formation characteristics of self-assembled InAs QDs with bimodal size distribution. The PL results from the samples with stacked InAs/GaAs double-quantum-dots can be explained by a competition between the In/Ga intermixing, which emerge during the growth process, and the electronic coupling dependent on the spacer layer thickness. (author)

  1. In-plane nuclear field formation investigated in single self-assembled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Matsusaki, R.; Kaji, R.; Adachi, S.

    2018-02-01

    We studied the formation mechanism of the in-plane nuclear field in single self-assembled In0.75Al0.25As /Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots. The Hanle curves with an anomalously large width and hysteretic behavior at the critical transverse magnetic field were observed in many single quantum dots grown in the same sample. In order to explain the anomalies in the Hanle curve indicating the formation of a large nuclear field perpendicular to the photo-injected electron spin polarization, we propose a new model based on the current phenomenological model for dynamic nuclear spin polarization. The model includes the effects of the nuclear quadrupole interaction and the sign inversion between in-plane and out-of-plane components of nuclear g factors, and the model calculations reproduce successfully the characteristics of the observed anomalies in the Hanle curves.

  2. Self-assembled colloidal PbS quantum dots on GaAs substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Wei; Yamada, Fumihiko; Kamiya, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication and analysis of self-assembled monolayer and bilayer films of colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (001) substrates. 1,6-hexanedithiol is used as link molecule between QDs and GaAs substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the formation of PbS QD film on GaAs. For the monolayer PbS QD film, the temperature-dependent PL shows a feature typical of close-packed film. For the bilayer PbS QD film fabricated from two different mean-sized PbS QDs, we find that the stacking sequence of QDs with different size affects the quantum yield and emission wavelength of the film.

  3. Influence of the growth conditions on the optical and structural properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots for low As/In ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Samet; Suyolcu, Y. Eren [Advanced Technologies Research Unit: Nanotechnology, Graduate School of Sciences, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Turan, Servet [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentaslan@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Effects of systematically changed growth conditions on InAs/GaAs QDs were studied. • Growths were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved PL spectra. • XRD rocking curve signal fitting was used to analyze the samples. • XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density and WL behavior. - Abstract: We report on the growth and characterization of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The influence of the systematically changed growth conditions on the opto-electronic and structural properties of the QDs were investigated. Combination of the amount of the deposited InAs, growth temperature and growth rate were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved ground and excited states in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra. SEM and TEM techniques were also used for the characterization of QDs. The results were evaluated simply through the conservation of mass approximation and the x-ray diffraction measurements with fitted curves. The extracted InAs and wetting layer thicknesses were brought out that the XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density change and WL behaviors in response to the changes in growth conditions.

  4. Optical spectroscopy of single, planar, self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Williams, R.L.; Lefebvre, J.; Lapointe, J.; Reimer, M.E.; Mckee, J.; Poole, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present optical spectra from numerous, single, self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots. More than 50 individual dots are studied that emit in the 1.1-1.6 mm wavelength range. The dots are of high optical quality as judged by the clean, single exciton emission line at low power, the resolution limited linewidth, and the brightness. Each dot exhibits similar trends in the power evolution spectra, despite large variations in height and diameter. The level splittings in the p -shell increase with decreasing height, which we interpret to be from dot elongation along the [01 anti 1] direction. The evolution of the spectra with increasing power agrees well with predictions from effective bond orbital calculations. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of three-dimensional self-assembled quantum dot islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin; Feng Hao; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yin Hao-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    By three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the effects of the temperature, the flux rate, the total coverage and the interruption time on the distribution and the number of self-assembled InAs/GaAs (001) quantum dot (QD) islands are studied, which shows that a higher temperature, a lower flux rate and a longer growth time correspond to a better island distribution. The relations between the number of islands and the temperature and the flux rate are also successfully simulated. It is observed that for the total coverage lower than 0.5 ML, the number of islands decreases with the temperature increasing and other growth parameters fixed and the number of islands increases with the flux rate increasing when the deposition is lower than 0.6 ML and the other parameters are fixed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  6. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  7. Room-Temperature Dephasing in InAs Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    The room temperature dephasing in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, embedded in a waveguide for laser applications, is measured using two independent methods: spectral hole burning and four-wave mixing. Without the application of bias current for electrical carrier injection......, a dephasing time of ~260 fs, weakly dependent on the optical excitation density, is found and attributed to phonon interaction. The application of bias current, leading to population inversion in the dot ground state and optical gain, strongly decreases the dephasing time to less than 50 fs, likely due...

  8. Influence of wetting-layer wave functions on phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    Models of carrier dynamics in quantum dots rely strongly on adequate descriptions of the carrier wave functions. In this work we numerically solve the one-band effective mass Schrodinger equation to calculate the capture times of phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots. C....... Comparing with results obtained using approximate carrier wave functions, we demonstrate that the capture times are strongly influenced by properties of the wetting layer wave functions not accounted for by earlier theoretical analyses....

  9. Singlet and triplet polaron relaxation in doubly charged self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, T; Zibik, E A; Ferreira, R; Bastard, G; Carpenter, B A; Phillips, P J; Stehr, D; Winnerl, S; Helm, M; Steer, M J; Hopkinson, M; Cockburn, J W; Skolnick, M S; Wilson, L R

    2007-01-01

    Polaron relaxation in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot samples containing 2 electrons per dot is studied using far-infrared, time-resolved pump-probe measurements for transitions between the s-like ground and p-like first excited conduction band states. Spin-flip transitions between singlet and triplet states are observed experimentally in the decay of the absorption bleaching, which shows a clear biexponential dependence. The initial fast decay (∼30 ps) is associated with the singlet polaron decay, while the decay component with the longer time constant (∼5 ns) corresponds to the excited state triplet lifetime. The results are explained by considering the intrinsic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, which induces spin-flip transitions by acoustic phonon emission or phonon anharmonicity. We have calculated the spin-flip decay times, and good agreement is obtained between the experiment and the simulation of the pump-probe signal. Our results demonstrate the importance of spin-mixing effects for intraband energy relaxation in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

  10. Plasmon-enhanced terahertz emission in self-assembled quantum dots by femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreño, F., E-mail: ferpo@fis.ucm.es; Antón, M. A., E-mail: antonm@fis.ucm.es; Melle, Sonia, E-mail: smelle@fis.ucm.es; Calderón, Oscar G., E-mail: oscargc@fis.ucm.es; Cabrera-Granado, E., E-mail: ecabrera@fis.ucm.es [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/ Arcos de Jalón 118, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Cox, Joel, E-mail: jcox27@uwo.ca; Singh, Mahi R., E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Egatz-Gómez, A., E-mail: Ana.Egatz-Gomez.1@nd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    A scheme for terahertz (THz) generation from intraband transition in a self-assembled quantum dot (QD) molecule coupled to a metallic nanoparticle (MNP) is analyzed. The QD structure is described as a three-level atom-like system using the density matrix formalism. The MNP with spherical geometry is considered in the quasistatic approximation. A femtosecond laser pulse creates a coherent superposition of two subbands in the quantum dots and produces localized surface plasmons in the nanoparticle which act back upon the QD molecule via dipole-dipole interaction. As a result, coherent THz radiation with a frequency corresponding to the interlevel spacing can be obtained, which is strongly modified by the presence of the MNP. The peak value of the terahertz signal is analyzed as a function of nanoparticle's size, the MNP to QD distance, and the area of the applied laser field. In addition, we theoretically demonstrate that the terahertz pulse generation can be effectively controlled by making use of a train of femtosecond laser pulses. We show that by a proper choice of the parameters characterizing the pulse train a huge enhancement of the terahertz signal is obtained.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Emission Properties of Self-Assembled InGaN Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wan-Ru; Zhang Jiang-Yong; Zhang Bao-Ping; Weng Guo-En; Liang Ming-Ming; Li Zeng-Cheng; Liu Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Emission properties of self-assembled green-emitting InGaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on sapphire substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition are studied by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. As temperature increases (15–300 K), the PL peak energy shows an anomalous V-shaped (redshift—blueshift) variation instead of an S-shaped (redshift—blueshift—redshift) variation, as observed typically in green-emitting InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The PL full width at half maximum (FWHM) also shows a V-shaped (decrease—increase) variation. The temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and FWHM of QDs are well explained by a model similar to MQWs, in which carriers transferring in localized states play an important role, while the confinement energy of localized states in the QDs is significantly larger than that in MQWs. By analyzing the integrated PL intensity, the larger confinement energy of localized states in the QDs is estimated to be 105.9 meV, which is well explained by taking into account the band-gap shrinkage and carrier thermalization with temperature. It is also found that the nonradiative combination centers in QD samples are much less than those in QW samples with the same In content

  12. Imaging surface plasmon polaritons using proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, Gregor; Schraml, Konrad; Blauth, Mäx; Wierzbowski, Jakob; López, Nicolás Coca; Bichler, Max; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Kaniber, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Kaniber@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching, Germany and Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    We present optical investigations of hybrid plasmonic nanosystems consisting of lithographically defined plasmonic Au-waveguides or beamsplitters on GaAs substrates coupled to proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. We designed a sample structure that enabled us to precisely tune the distance between quantum dots and the sample surface during nano-fabrication and demonstrated that non-radiative processes do not play a major role for separations down to ∼10 nm. A polarized laser beam focused on one end of the plasmonic nanostructure generates propagating surface plasmon polaritons that, in turn, create electron-hole pairs in the GaAs substrate during propagation. These free carriers are subsequently captured by the quantum dots ∼25 nm below the surface, giving rise to luminescence. The intensity of the spectrally integrated quantum dot luminescence is used to image the propagating plasmon modes. As the waveguide width reduces from 5 μm to 1 μm, we clearly observe different plasmonic modes at the remote waveguide end, enabling their direct imaging in real space. This imaging technique is applied to a plasmonic beamsplitter facilitating the determination of the splitting ratio between the two beamsplitter output ports as the interaction length L{sub i} is varied. A splitting ratio of 50:50 is observed for L{sub i}∼9±1 μm and 1 μm wide waveguides for excitation energies close to the GaAs band edge. Our experimental findings are in good agreement with mode profile and finite difference time domain simulations for both waveguides and beamsplitters.

  13. The polarization response in InAs quantum dots: theoretical correlation between composition and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; O’Reilly, Eoin P; Tasco, Vittorianna; Todaro, Maria Teresa; De Giorgi, Milena; Passaseo, Adriana; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    III–V growth and surface conditions strongly influence the physical structure and resulting optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Beyond the design of a desired active optical wavelength, the polarization response of QDs is of particular interest for optical communications and quantum information science. Previous theoretical studies based on a pure InAs QD model failed to reproduce experimentally observed polarization properties. In this work, multi-million atom simulations are performed in an effort to understand the correlation between chemical composition and polarization properties of QDs. A systematic analysis of QD structural parameters leads us to propose a two-layer composition model, mimicking In segregation and In–Ga intermixing effects. This model, consistent with mostly accepted compositional findings, allows us to accurately fit the experimental PL spectra. The detailed study of QD morphology parameters presented here serves as a tool for using growth dynamics to engineer the strain field inside and around the QD structures, allowing tuning of the polarization response. (paper)

  14. Unique self-assembly properties of a bridge-shaped protein dimer with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju; Gao, Liqian; Yu, Yongsheng; Lu, Yao; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Cheli; Xia, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    How protein–protein interaction affects protein–nanoparticle self-assembly is the key to the understanding of biomolecular coating of nanoparticle in biological fluids. However, the relationship between protein shape and its interaction with nanoparticles is still under-exploited because of lack of a well-conceived binding system and a method to detect the subtle change in the protein–nanoparticle assemblies. Noticing this unresolved need, we cloned and expressed a His-tagged SpeA protein that adopts a bridge-shaped dimer structure, and utilized a high-resolution capillary electrophoresis method to monitor assembly formation between the protein and quantum dots (QDs, 5 nm in diameter). We observed that the bridge-shaped structure rendered a low SpeA:QD stoichiometry at saturation. Also, close monitoring of imidazole (Im) displacement of surface-bound protein revealed a unique two-step process. High-concentration Im could displace surface-bound SpeA protein and form a transient QD–protein intermediate, through a kinetically controlled displacement process. An affinity-driven equilibrium step then followed, resulting in re-assembling of the QD–protein complex in about 1 h. Through a temporarily formed intermediate, Im causes a rearrangement of His-tagged proteins on the surface. Thus, our work showcases that the synergistic interplay between QD–His-tag interaction and protein–protein interaction can result in unique properties of protein–nanoparticle assembly for the first time

  15. Unique self-assembly properties of a bridge-shaped protein dimer with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju; Gao, Liqian; Yu, Yongsheng; Lu, Yao; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Cheli; Xia, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    How protein-protein interaction affects protein-nanoparticle self-assembly is the key to the understanding of biomolecular coating of nanoparticle in biological fluids. However, the relationship between protein shape and its interaction with nanoparticles is still under-exploited because of lack of a well-conceived binding system and a method to detect the subtle change in the protein-nanoparticle assemblies. Noticing this unresolved need, we cloned and expressed a His-tagged SpeA protein that adopts a bridge-shaped dimer structure, and utilized a high-resolution capillary electrophoresis method to monitor assembly formation between the protein and quantum dots (QDs, 5 nm in diameter). We observed that the bridge-shaped structure rendered a low SpeA:QD stoichiometry at saturation. Also, close monitoring of imidazole (Im) displacement of surface-bound protein revealed a unique two-step process. High-concentration Im could displace surface-bound SpeA protein and form a transient QD-protein intermediate, through a kinetically controlled displacement process. An affinity-driven equilibrium step then followed, resulting in re-assembling of the QD-protein complex in about 1 h. Through a temporarily formed intermediate, Im causes a rearrangement of His-tagged proteins on the surface. Thus, our work showcases that the synergistic interplay between QD-His-tag interaction and protein-protein interaction can result in unique properties of protein-nanoparticle assembly for the first time.

  16. 2D optical photon echo spectroscopy of a self-assembled quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Mukamel, Shaul; Richter, Marten; Luo, Jun-Wei; Zunger, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of two dimensional coherent photon echo (2D-PE) spectra of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) in different charged states are presented revealing the coupling between the individual mono-exciton X q transitions and contributions of bi-excitons XX q . The information about the XX q states is crucial for various application scenarios of QDs, like e.g. highly efficient solar cells. The simulations rely on a microscopic description of the electronic structure by high-level atomistic many-body pseudopotential calculations. It is shown that asymmetric diagonal peak shapes and double cross-peaks are the result of XX q state contributions to the PE signal by analyzing the contributions of the individual pathways excited state emission, ground state bleach and excited state absorption. The results show that from the detuned X q and XX q contributions the bi-exciton binding energies of the XX q manifold are revealed in 2D-PE signals. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy as tools to investigate the heteroepitaxial capping of self-assembled quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, J.G.; Koenraad, P.M.; Smereka, P.; Ulloa, J.M.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, an ever increasing understanding of heteroepitaxial growth has paved the way for the fabrication of a multitude of self-assembled nanostructures. Nowadays, nanostructures such as quantum rings,1 quantum wires,2 quantum dashes,3 quantum rods,4 and quantum dots (QDs)5 can be grown

  18. Spectroscopy of size dependent many-particle effects in single self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Savio, C.

    2006-02-20

    Single InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown with the Stranski-Krastanov method in a In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As quantum well embedded in GaAs and emitting in the near infrared have been optically investigated. To perform QD spectroscopy at low temperatures a very stable micro-photoluminescence ({mu}-PL) microscope set-up fully integrated in a liquid helium (LHe) cryostate has been successfully developed. The system is based on the cold finger technique and a Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer combined with a nitrogen cooled Ge detector. Photoluminescence of the QDs was excited non resonantly with a He-Ne laser and single dot spectroscopy was carried out at temperatures below 60 K. The experimental set-up allows mapping of the optical emission by recording spectra for every point of a scan grid. This mapping mode is used to acquire optical images and to locate a particular dot for investigation. Series of measurement on a single QD were normally performed over a long time (from a few days to a week), with the need of daily adjustment in the sub-micrometer range. At low excitation power a single sharp line (E{sub x}) arising from recombination of a single exciton in the dot is observed. Varying the excitation density the spectra become more complex, with appearance of the biexciton emission line (E{sub xx}) on the lower energies side of the E{sub x} line, followed by emission from excitons occupying higher shells in the dot. Measured biexciton binding energies and power dependence are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The temperature dependence of the optical emission was investigated. The energy shows the characteristic decrease related to the shrinking of the semiconductor band gap, while the linewidth evolution is compatible with broadening due to coupling with acoustic and optical phonons. A statistics of biexciton binding energies over a dozen of dots was acquired and the results compared with single QD spectroscopy data available in the

  19. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly-interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete...... demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly-perfect state transfer....

  20. Anomalous X-ray diffraction from self-assembled PbSe/PbEuTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V.; Schuelli, T.U.; Lechner, R.T.; Springholz, G.; Bauer, G.

    2005-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray scattering from self-assembled PbSe quantum dots embedded in Pb 1-x Eu x Te was used for the study of their structure. The measured reciprocal-space distributions of diffracted intensity were compared with simulations based on kinematical scattering theory and continuum elasticity. From the comparison, the mean chemical composition of the dots and their aspect ratio (height/width) were estimated

  1. Ambient temperature dependence on emission spectrum of InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, C.Y.; Yoon, S.F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Chua, S.J. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Singapore)

    2009-04-15

    Semiconductor superluminescent diodes (SLDs) are important broadband light source for fiber optic gyroscope and biomedical imaging. Quantum dots (QDs) have been proposed to be the best candidate for broadband light sources due to the inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum as a result of the inherited size inhomogeneity of the self-assembled QD growth. In this work, the effect of ambient temperature (25-100 C) on the emission spectrum of InAs QDs with wideband emission was investigated. It was found that the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra remains more than 125 nm throughout the temperature range, and the redshift as function of temperature is approximately 0.27 meV/K. Activation energy of 270 meV is extracted from the Arrhenius plot and the PL quenching at high temperature is attributed to thermally induced carriers escaping out of the In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As strain-reducing layer. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Understanding the self-assembly of proteins onto gold nanoparticles and quantum dots driven by metal-histidine coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeek, Fadi; Safi, Malak; Zhan, Naiqian; Palui, Goutam; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2013-11-26

    Coupling of polyhistidine-appended biomolecules to inorganic nanocrystals driven by metal-affinity interactions is a greatly promising strategy to form hybrid bioconjugates. It is simple to implement and can take advantage of the fact that polyhistidine-appended proteins and peptides are routinely prepared using well established molecular engineering techniques. A few groups have shown its effectiveness for coupling proteins onto Zn- or Cd-rich semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Expanding this conjugation scheme to other metal-rich nanoparticles (NPs) such as AuNPs would be of great interest to researchers actively seeking effective means for interfacing nanostructured materials with biology. In this report, we investigated the metal-affinity driven self-assembly between AuNPs and two engineered proteins, a His7-appended maltose binding protein (MBP-His) and a fluorescent His6-terminated mCherry protein. In particular, we investigated the influence of the capping ligand affinity to the nanoparticle surface, its density, and its lateral extension on the AuNP-protein self-assembly. Affinity gel chromatography was used to test the AuNP-MPB-His7 self-assembly, while NP-to-mCherry-His6 binding was evaluated using fluorescence measurements. We also assessed the kinetics of the self-assembly between AuNPs and proteins in solution, using time-dependent changes in the energy transfer quenching of mCherry fluorescent proteins as they immobilize onto the AuNP surface. This allowed determination of the dissociation rate constant, Kd(-1) ∼ 1-5 nM. Furthermore, a close comparison of the protein self-assembly onto AuNPs or QDs provided additional insights into which parameters control the interactions between imidazoles and metal ions in these systems.

  3. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  4. Self-assembling complexes of quantum dots and scFv antibodies for cancer cell targeting and imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A Zdobnova

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots represent a novel class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties which could enable a remarkable broadening of the current applications of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Complexes of quantum dots and antibodies are promising visualising agents for fluorescent detection of selective biomarkers overexpressed in tumor tissues. Here we describe the construction of self-assembling fluorescent complexes of quantum dots and anti-HER1 or anti-HER2/neu scFv antibodies and their interactions with cultured tumor cells. A binding strategy based on a very specific non-covalent interaction between two proteins, barnase and barstar, was used to connect quantum dots and the targeting antibodies. Such a strategy allows combining the targeting and visualization functions simply by varying the corresponding modules of the fluorescent complex.

  5. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Yoon, Yung Jin; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, Fengjia; Ip, Alexander H.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high

  6. Steering of quantum waves: Demonstration of Y-junction transistors using InAs quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory M.; Qin, Jie; Yang, Chia-Hung; Yang, Ming-Jey

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate using an InAs quantum wire Y-branch switch that the electron wave can be switched to exit from the two drains by a lateral gate bias. The gating modifies the electron wave functions as well as their interference pattern, causing the anti-correlated, oscillatory transconductances. Our result suggests a new transistor function in a multiple-lead ballistic quantum wire system.

  7. Effects of InAlAs strain reducing layer on the photoluminescence properties of InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingmin, E-mail: konglm@qq.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000 (China); Sun, Wei [SEM School of Electromechanical Engineering, Weifang Engineering Vocational College, Qingzhou 262500 (China); Feng, Zhe Chuan, E-mail: zcfeng@nut.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, and Center for Emerging Material and Advanced Devices, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China); Xie, Sheng [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhou, Yunqing; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Cunxi; Zong, Zhaocun; Wang, Hongxia; Qiao, Qian [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000 (China); Wu, Zhengyun [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 China (China)

    2014-07-01

    Two kinds of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) embedded within InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells were grown by molecular beam epitaxy: one was capped with an InAlAs strain reducing (SR) layer, while the other was not. Their emission dynamics was investigated by time-resolved and temperature dependent (TD) photoluminescence (PL) measurements. A significant redshift can be observed in the emission peak position of InAs QDs with thin InAlAs SR cap layer, which results from SR effects. Different behaviors of the integrated PL intensity for the samples with or without InAlAs layer may be ascribed to the reduced carrier transition at higher temperature for the higher energy barrier of the InAlAs layer, and the TD mode of carrier migration. The PL decay time of quantum dots grown with InAlAs layer was much longer than that without the layer, which implies that the InAlAs layer with higher energy barrier may enhance the quantum restriction of carriers in InAs QDs. These observations are discussed from the viewpoint of strain compensation and potential barrier variation with SR layers. Our experiments also demonstrate that the main mode of carrier migration is quantum tunneling effect at lower temperature, while it is quantum transition at higher temperature. The results demonstrate the importance of InAlAs SR layer for the optical quality of InAs QDs. - Highlights: • InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown on GaAs. • A thin InAlAs layer was grown on InAs QDs. • Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL were carried out. • Both a redshift and a double exponential decay of PL emission were generated by the InAlAs layer.

  8. Influencing factors on the size uniformity of self-assembled SiGe quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Lv, Y; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Zhong, Z; Jiang, Z M

    2011-03-25

    The size uniformity of self-assembled SiGe quantum rings, which are formed by capping SiGe quantum dots with a thin Si layer, is found to be greatly influenced by the growth temperature and the areal density of SiGe quantum dots. Higher growth temperature benefits the size uniformity of quantum dots, but results in low Ge concentration as well as asymmetric Ge distribution in the dots, which induces the subsequently formed quantum rings to be asymmetric in shape or even broken somewhere in the ridge of rings. Low growth temperature degrades the size uniformity of quantum dots, and thus that of quantum rings. A high areal density results in the expansion and coalescence of neighboring quantum dots to form a chain, rather than quantum rings. Uniform quantum rings with a size dispersion of 4.6% and an areal density of 7.8×10(8) cm(-2) are obtained at the optimized growth temperature of 640°C.

  9. Linear electro-optic coefficient in multilayer self-organized InAs quantum dot structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, I.B.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.; Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Dagli, N.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The electro-optic coefficients of self-organized InAs quantum dot layers in molecular beam epitaxy grown laser structures in reverse bias have been investigated. Enhanced electrooptic coefficients compared to bulk GaAs were observed.

  10. Electric-Field-Induced Energy Tuning of On-Demand Entangled-Photon Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zallo, Eugenio; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Böttner, Stefan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-01-11

    We explore a method to achieve electrical control over the energy of on-demand entangled-photon emission from self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). The device used in our work consists of an electrically tunable diode-like membrane integrated onto a piezoactuator, which is capable of exerting a uniaxial stress on QDs. We theoretically reveal that, through application of the quantum-confined Stark effect to QDs by a vertical electric field, the critical uniaxial stress used to eliminate the fine structure splitting of QDs can be linearly tuned. This feature allows experimental realization of a triggered source of energy-tunable entangled-photon emission. Our demonstration represents an important step toward realization of a solid-state quantum repeater using indistinguishable entangled photons in Bell state measurements.

  11. DNA origami: a quantum leap for self-assembly of complex structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Thomas; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Nangreave, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    The spatially controlled positioning of functional materials by self-assembly is one of the fundamental visions of nanotechnology. Major steps towards this goal have been achieved using DNA as a programmable building block. This tutorial review will focus on one of the most promising methods: DNA...... origami. The basic design principles, organization of a variety of functional materials and recent implementation of DNA robotics are discussed together with future challenges and opportunities....

  12. Effects of growth temperature and arsenic pressure on size distribution and density of InAs quantum dots on Si (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.M.; Hul'ko, O.; Kim, H.J.; Liu, J.; Shi, B.; Xie, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    InAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si (001) substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. The size distribution and density of InAs QDs grown under different conditions were studied using plan-view transmission electron microscopy. Dot density was shown to strongly depend on arsenic beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ranging from 2.8x10 -5 to 1.2x10 -3 Pa. In contrast, dot density was nearly independent of substrate temperature from 295 to 410 deg. C under constant arsenic BEP, while broadening of size distribution was observed with increasing temperature. The mechanism accounting for some of the main features of the experimental observations is discussed. Finally, InAs quantum dots with optimized narrow size distribution and high density were grown at low arsenic BEP of 7.2 x10 -5 Pa and low temperature of 250 deg. C followed by annealing at arsenic BEP of 1.9 x10 -4 Pa and temperature of 410 deg. C

  13. Changes of photoluminescence of electron beam irradiated self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliya; Aierken, Abuduwayiti; Li, Yudong; Zhou, Dong; Zhao, Xiaofan; Guo, Qi; Liu, Chaoming

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effects of 1.0MeV electron beam irradiation on the photoluminescence of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. After irradiation doses up to 1×1016e-/cm2 , photoluminescence of all samples was degraded dramatically and some additional radiation-induced changes in photo-carrier recombination from QDs, which include a slight increase in PL emission with low electron doses under different photo-injection condition in two samples, are also noticed. Different energy shift was observed in two samples with different Quantum Dot sizes. We attribute this remarkable phenomenon to combination of stress relaxation induced red-shift and In-Ga intermixing caused blue-shift.

  14. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Exfoliated From Carbon Fibers by Microwave Irradiation: Two Photoluminescence Centers and Self-Assembly Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Zhen-Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Xin-Guo

    2018-04-17

    Graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) attract great attention for their unique properties and promising application potential. The difficulty in the formation of a confined structure, and the numerous and diverse oxygen-containing functional groups results in a low emission yield to GOQDs. Here, GOQDs with a size of about 5 nm, exfoliated from carbon fibers by microwave irradiation, are detected and analyzed. The exfoliated GOQDs are deeply oxidized and induce large numbers of epoxy groups and ether bonds, but only a small amount of carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. The subdomains of sp 2 clusters, involving epoxy groups and ether bonds, are responsible for the two strong photoluminescence emissions of GOQDs under different excitation wavelengths. Moreover, GOQDs tend to self-assemble at the edges of their planes to form self-assembly films (SAFs) with the evaporation of water. SAFs can further assemble into different 3D patterns with unique microstructures such as sponge bulk, sponge ball, microsheet, sisal, and schistose coral, which are what applications such as supercapacitors, cells, catalysts, and electrochemical sensors need. This method for preparation of GOQDs is easy, quick, and environmentally friendly, and this work may open up new research interests about GOQDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Self-assembly and photoluminescence evolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic quantum dots in sol–gel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Krakow 31-155 (Poland); Song, Xueling; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Yumeng; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were assembled into various morphologies including chain, hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures through sol–gel processes. The PL properties during assembly as investigated. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized from several ligands. • The evolution of PL in self-assembly via sol–gel processes was investigated. • CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling hydrolysis and condensation reactions. • Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created via CdSe/ZnS QDs in sol–gel processes. - Abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were synthesized from several ligands to investigate the PL evolution in QD self-assembly via sol–gel processes. After ligand exchange, CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The chain was then coated with a SiO{sub 2} shell from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created from CdSe/ZnS QDs via various sol–gel processes. CdTe QDs revealed red-shifted and narrowed PL spectrum after assembly compared with their initial one. In contrast, the red-shift of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs is small. By optimizing experimental conditions, SiO{sub 2} spheres with multiple CdSe/ZnS QDs were fabricated using TEOS and MPS. The QDs in these SiO{sub 2} spheres retained their initial PL properties. This result is useful for application because of their high stability and high PL efficiency of 33%.

  16. The spectral analysis and threshold limits of quasi-supercontinuum self-assembled quantum dot interband lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model to explain the quasi-supercontinuum interband emission from InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot lasers by accounting for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous optical gain broadening. The experimental and theoretical agreement of a room temperature (293 K) broadband laser emission confirms the presence of multiple-state lasing actions in highly inhomogeneous dot ensembles. The corresponding full-width half-maximum of the photoluminescence is 76 meV as opposed to those wideband lasing coverage at only low temperature (∼60 K) from typical quantum dot lasers. A newly proposed change of homogeneous broadening with injection that occurs only in highly inhomogeneous quantum dot system is critical to account for the continuous wideband lasing but not the conventional ideas of carrier dynamics in semiconductor lasers. In addition, the analysis of threshold conditions reveals that broadband lasing only occurs when the energy spacing between quantized energy states is comparable to the inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot nanostructures. The study is important in providing a picture of this novel device and realization of broad lasing coverage for diverse applications, especially in the research field of short-pulse generation and ultra-fast phenomena in semiconductor quantum-dot laser. © 2009 IEEE.

  17. Intrinsic quantum dots in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karl Martin Darius

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with InAs nanowire field effect transistors in back gate configuration. In such devices, quantum dots can form at low temperatures in the order of magnitude of a few Kelvin. These dots are henceforth referred to as intrinsic as they are not intentionally defined by electrodes. For the interpretation of their stability diagrams, a thorough knowledge of the structure and transport properties of the nanowires is required. Therefore, first of all, the influence of growth method and doping on the transport properties is studied at room temperature. The wires are grown by two types of metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy: a selective-area (SA-MOVPE) and an Au-catalyzed vapour-liquid-solid method (VLS-MOVPE). Transport data shows that the background doping of VLS-MOVPE wires is higher than for SA-MOVPE wires, but the variability of the transport properties is lower. The polytypism of the SA-MOVPE wires (they are composed of wurtzite and zinc blende segments) is a possible explanation for the second observation. Furthermore, it is shown that the measured transport properties significantly depend on the dielectric environment of the nanowires and on the way the electrical measurements are done (two- or four-terminal configuration). The conductivity is tunable via doping and the gate voltage. Conductivity measurements in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K show that different transport regimes can occur (partially metallic behaviour for sufficiently high conductivity, otherwise purely semiconducting behaviour). This is attributed to different positions of the Fermi level and thus, a different effect of potential fluctuations. If conductivity and temperature are sufficiently low, the onset of Coulomb blockade is observed for semiconducting samples. It is even possible to tune the very same sample to different regimes via the gate voltage. The semiconducting behaviour observed in many samples contradicts the Thomas-Fermi theory. This is attributed to the

  18. Single-dot Spectroscopy of GaAs Quantum Dots Fabricated by Filling of Self-assembled Nanoholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyn Ch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We study the optical emission of single GaAs quantum dots (QDs. The QDs are fabricated by filling of nanoholes in AlGaAs and AlAs which are generated in a self-assembled fashion by local droplet etching with Al droplets. Using suitable process parameters, we create either uniform QDs in partially filled deep holes or QDs with very broad size distribution in completely filled shallow holes. Micro photoluminescence measurements of single QDs of both types establish sharp excitonic peaks. We measure a fine-structure splitting in the range of 22–40μeV and no dependence on QD size. Furthermore, we find a decrease in exciton–biexciton splitting with increasing QD size.

  19. Investigation of the fabrication mechanism of self-assembled GaAs quantum rings grown by droplet epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, C Z; Yoon, S F

    2008-09-10

    We have directly imaged the formation of a GaAs quantum ring (QR) using droplet epitaxy followed by annealing in arsenic ambient. Based on the atomic force micrograph measurement and the analysis of surface energy, we determine that the formation of self-assembled GaAs QRs is due to the gallium atom's diffusion and crystallization driven by the gradient of surface energy. The phenomenon that GaAs is etched by the gallium droplets is reported and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the epitaxy layers, such as AlAs and InGaP, can be used as the etching stop layer and hence can be used to control the shape and height of the QRs.

  20. Templated self-assembly of quantum dots from aqueous solution using protein scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Amy Szuchmacher [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Wilson, Charmaine D [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Moore, Martin H [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Lin, Tianwei [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Chatterji, Anju [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2006-10-28

    Short, histidine-containing peptides can be conjugated to lysine-containing protein scaffolds to controllably attach quantum dots (QDs) to the scaffold, allowing for generic attachment of quantum dots to any protein without the use of specially engineered domains. This technique was used to bind quantum dots from aqueous solution to both chicken IgG and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a 30 nm viral particle. These quantum dot-protein assemblies were studied in detail. The IgG-QD complexes were shown to retain binding specificity to their antigen after modification. The CPMV-QD complexes have a local concentration of quantum dots greater than 3000 nmol ml{sup -1}, and show a 15% increase in fluorescence quantum yield over free quantum dots in solution.

  1. Wave function analysis of type-II self-assembled quantum dot structures using magneto-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Marcio Peron Franco de; Nakaema, Marcelo K.K.; Gomes, Paulo F.; Iikawa, Fernando; Brasil, Maria Jose S.P.; Bortoleto, Jose Roberto R.; Cotta, Monica A.; Ribeiro, Evaldo; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Marques, Gilmar E.; Bittencourt, A.C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently, self-assembled quantum dots have attracted considerable attention for their potential for device applications. Type II interface, in particular, present interesting properties due to the space separation of the carriers. One of the carriers is confined at the lower band gap layer and the other remains at the barrier layers and is only localized by the Coulomb attraction. An essential information for using type II quantum wells and quantum dots on technological applications is the localization of the carrier wave function, which is an experimentally difficult parameter to be measured. Some techniques have been proposed to map the wave functions in quantum dots such as magneto-tunneling spectroscopy and near- field scanning optical microscopy. These techniques involve however a very complex experimental apparatus and sample processing. The magneto-exciton transition can be used as an alternative tool to investigate the exciton wave function distribution, since this distribution has a strong influence on the diamagnetic shift and Zeeman splitting. In this work, we present magneto-optical studies of In P/GaAs type II self-assembled quantum dots, where the electron is strongly confined at the In P, while the hole is weakly localized at the GaAs barrier due to the Coulombic attraction from the electrons. This scenery is very distinct from type I systems. The weaker hole confinement should alter the valence band mixing resulting in a different valence band contribution on the Zeeman splitting as compared to type I systems. Based on the results of the magneto-exciton emission from the wetting layer and from the individual dots, we obtained interesting results concerning the wave function distribution in our system. We discuss the localization of the hole wave function along the growth direction based on the measured Zeeman splitting and the in-plane wave function distribution, based on the observed diamagnetic shift. A remarkable result is that the

  2. Theory of electron energy spectrum and Aharonov-Bohm effect in self-assembled Inx Ga1-x As quantum rings in GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Klimin, S.N.; Devreese, J.T.; Kleemans, N.A.J.M.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the electron energy spectrum and the magnetization of an electron in a strained Inx Ga1-x As GaAs self-assembled quantum ring (SAQR) with realistic parameters, determined from the cross-sectional scanning-tunneling microscopy characterization of that nanostructure. The SAQRs

  3. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-07

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF 3D SELF-ASSEMBLED PHOTONIC CRYSTALS AND COLLOIDAL CORE-SHELL SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thu Nga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present an experimental study of 3D opal photonic crystals. The samples are opals constituted by colloidal silica spheres, realized with self-assembly technique. The sphere diameter is selected in order to obtain coupling of the photonic band gap with the emission from CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. The quantum dots infiltrated in the opals is expected to be enhanced or suppressed depending on the detection angle from the photonic crystal. The structural and optical characterization of the SiO2 opal photonic crystals are performed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and reflectivity spectroscopy. Measurements performed on samples permits to put into evidence the influence of the different preparation methods on the optical properties. Study of self-activated luminescence of the pure opals is also presented. It is shown that the luminescence of the sample with QDs have original QD emission and not due to the photonic crystal structure. The optical properties of colloidal core-shell semiconductor quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS which are prepared in our lab will be mention.

  5. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar; Brennan, Thomas P.; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2011-02-22

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. InAs quantum dots as charge storing elements for applications in flash memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul; Biswas, Pranab [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Catalyst-free growth of InAs quantum dots was carried out on high-k ZrO{sub 2}. • Memory device with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes are fabricated. • Superior memory window, low leakage and reasonably good retention were observed. • Carrier transport phenomena are explained in both program and erase operations. - Abstract: InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to use them as charge storage nodes. Uniform QDs were formed with average diameter 5 nm and height 5–10 nm with a density of 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}. The QDs were grown on high-k dielectric layer (ZrO{sub 2}), which was deposited onto ultra-thin GaP passivated p-GaAs (1 0 0) substrate. A charge storage device with the structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/ZrO{sub 2}/(GaP)GaAs/Metal was fabricated. The devices containing InAs QDs exhibit superior memory window, low leakage current density along with reasonably good charge retention. A suitable electronic band diagram corresponding to programming and erasing operations was proposed to explain the operation.

  8. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of high-density InAs quantum dots on Sb/GaAs layers and the suppression of coalescence by Sb-irradiated growth interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuda, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Takahasi, Masamitu; Fujikawa, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembly of high-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on Sb-irradiated GaAs buffer layers was observed in-situ by a time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique using a combination of XRD and molecular beam epitaxy. Evolution of dot height and lattice constant was analyzed during InAs QD growth and subsequent growth interruption (GI), and as a result, dislocated giant dots due to coalescence and coherent dots were separately evaluated. An Sb-irradiated GI (Sb-GI) method to be applied after InAs growth was attempted for the suppression of coalescence. Using this method, the XRD intensity of giant dots decreased, and the photoluminescence intensity of InAs QDs was enhanced. High-density InAs QDs without giant dots were produced by using the combination of the QD growth on the Sb-irradiated GaAs buffer layers and the Sb-GI. (author)

  9. Self-Assembled BN and BCN Quantum Dots Obtained from High Intensity Ultrasound Exfoliated Nanosheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2014), s. 1106-1116 ISSN 1947-2935 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * BN * BCN * Quantum Dots Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2014

  10. Growth and characterization of InAs quantum dots on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.; Ankudinov, A.; Bensing, F.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Geurts, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik 3; Ade, G.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Waag, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Halbleiterphysik

    2001-03-08

    We present a comprehensive investigation of molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) grown InAs quantum dots (QD) on silicon (001) and (111) by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and Raman spectroscopy in UHV environment and ex-situ by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two different ways were developed to prepare up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} InAs QDs on Si(001). One is the conventional mode by exceeding a critical thickness of deposition at which 2D growth changes towards a 3D growth mode. A second way is a dewetting transition, induced by cooling an approximately 1 ML thin 2D InAs layer from growth temperature below a critical temperature at which RHEED indicates the formation of nanoislands. Samples grown in both manners show significant differences in morphology and shape though RHEED, TEM and Raman studies correspondingly indicate strain relaxation. On Si(111) InAs grows in the common temperature range for InAs growth ({proportional_to}400 C) in flat clusters separated by deep trenches. A previous passivation of the Si(111) surface with arsenic at {proportional_to}700 C on the other hand leads to the formation of large InAs nanocrystals. (orig.)

  11. Real-Time Observation of Exciton-Phonon Coupling Dynamics in Self-Assembled Hybrid Perovskite Quantum Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Limeng; Huynh, Uyen; Cheminal, Alexandre; Thomas, Tudor H; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Hinrichsen, Ture F; Ahmad, Shahab; Sadhanala, Aditya; Rao, Akshay

    2017-11-28

    Self-assembled hybrid perovskite quantum wells have attracted attention due to their tunable emission properties, ease of fabrication, and device integration. However, the dynamics of excitons in these materials, especially how they couple to phonons, remains an open question. Here, we investigate two widely used materials, namely, butylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 and hexylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 , both of which exhibit broad photoluminescence tails at room temperature. We performed femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy to obtain a real-time picture of the exciton-phonon interaction and directly identified the vibrational modes that couple to excitons. We show that the choice of the organic cation controls which vibrational modes the exciton couples to. In butylammonium lead iodide, excitons dominantly couple to a 100 cm -1 phonon mode, whereas in hexylammonium lead iodide, excitons interact with phonons with frequencies of 88 and 137 cm -1 . Using the determined optical phonon energies, we analyzed photoluminescence broadening mechanisms. At low temperatures (photoluminescence line shape observed in hybrid perovskite quantum wells and provide insights into the mechanism of exciton-phonon coupling in these materials.

  12. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers as organic linkers in solid-state quantum dot sensetized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2010-06-01

    We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements to study the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ∼2 to ∼6 nm size CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the SAM-passivated TiO2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Our results show differences in the bonding of the CdS QDs at the TiO2 surfaces with a SAM linker. Moreover, our data indicate that presence of a SAM increases the CdS uptake on TiO2 as well as the performance of the resulting devices. Importantly, we observe ∼2 times higher power conversion efficiencies in the devices with a SAM compared to those that lack a SAM. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. Self-assembly of Ge quantum dots on periodically corrugated Si surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buljan, M.; Jerčinović, M.; Radić, N.; Facsko, S.; Baehtz, C.; Muecklich, A.; Grenzer, J.; Delač Marion, I.; Mikšić Trontl, V.; Kralj, M.; Holý, V.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of regularly ordered Ge quantum dot arrays on Si surfaces usually requires extensive preparation processing, ensuring clean and atomically ordered substrates, while the ordering parameters are quite limited by the surface properties of the substrate. Here, we demonstrate a simple method for fabrication of ordered Ge quantum dots with highly tunable ordering parameters on rippled Si surfaces. The ordering is achieved by magnetron sputter deposition, followed by an annealing in high vacuum. We show that the type of ordering and lattice vector parameters of the formed Ge quantum dot lattice are determined by the crystallographic properties of the ripples, i.e., by their shape and orientation. Moreover, the ordering is achieved regardless the initial amorphisation of the ripples surface and the presence of a thin oxide layer

  14. Electron Spin Polarization and Detection in InAs Quantum Dots Through p-Shell Trions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    optical control of spin states in quantum dots. II. EXPERIMENT The QD sample consists of 20 layers of InAs QDs, grown by molecular -beam epitaxy through...anisotropic 2D harmonic poten- tials. The electrons and holes are described by Fock- Darwin states harmonic oscillators with lateral sizes ax and ay in this

  15. Electronic and excitonic properties of self-assembled semiconductor quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.; Blokland, J.H.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Maan, J.C.; Taboada, A.G.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Kleemans, N.A.J.M.; Genuchten, van H.C.M.; Bozkurt, M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wixforth, A.; Lorke, A.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the electron energy spectrum and the magnetization in a strained InxGa1-xAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum ring (SAQR) is performed using realistic parameters, determined from the cross-sectional scanning-tunneling microscopy characterization. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in

  16. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, V; Ivanov, T S; Borisov, K; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Fuster, D; Shtinkov, N; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  17. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, V.; Ivanov, T. S.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borisov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-02-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  18. Materials challenges for devices based on single, self-assembled InGaN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Rachel A; Jarjour, Anas F; Tahraoui, Abbes; Kappers, Menno J; Taylor, Robert A; Humphreys, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    Builiding on earlier studies of single InGaN quantum dots (QDs), we are considering their potential for use in blue- and green-emitting single photon sources. Envisaging a device based on a resonant cavity light emitting diode, we have studied the effect of growing QDs on an underlying AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector, and have shown that enhanced single QD emission may be obtained. Additionally, we have studied the effect of the growth and activation of a p-type cap on an underlying QD layer and have shown that the QDs survive the anneal process

  19. Renormalization of effective mass in self-assembled quantum dots due to electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, A; Korkusinski, M; Hawrylak, P; Wasilewski, Z R; Potemski, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic-field dispersion of the multiexcitons related to the p shell of a single quantum dot (QD) is analysed in this work. The reduced cyclotron effective mass of carriers is determined from the energy splitting between the p + - and p − - related multiexcitonic emission lines. The reduced mass in the occupied QD was found to be larger than the mass related to the QD's single particle structure. The apparent increase of the reduced mass with increasing excitonic occupation of the dot is related to the mass renoralization due to electron-electron interactions within a multiexcitonic droplet

  20. Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Alloing, B.; Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/μm 2 ) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 μm emission at 4 K

  1. Effect of ligand self-assembly on nanostructure and carrier transport behaviour in CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kuiying, E-mail: kuiyingli@ysu.edu.cn; Xue, Zhenjie

    2014-11-14

    Adjustment of the nanostructure and carrier behaviour of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by varying the ligands used during QD synthesis enables the design of specific quantum devices via a self-assembly process of the QD core–shell structure without additional technologies. Surface photovoltaic (SPV) technology supplemented by X-ray diffractometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy were used to probe the characteristics of these QDs. Our study reveals that while CdSe QDs synthesized in the presence of and capped by thioglycolic acid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, mercaptoethanol or α-thioglycerol ligands display zinc blende nanocrystalline structures, CdSe QDs modified by L-cysteine possess wurtzite nanocrystalline structures, because different end groups in these ligands induce distinctive nucleation and growth mechanisms. Carboxyl end groups in the ligand served to increase the SPV response of the QDs, when illuminated by hν ≥ E{sub g,nano-CdSe}. Increased length of the alkyl chains and side-chain radicals in the ligands partially inhibit photo-generated free charge carrier (FCC) transfer transitions of CdSe QDs illuminated by photon energy of 4.13 to 2.14 eV. The terminal hydroxyl group might better accommodate energy released in the non-radiative de-excitation process of photo-generated FCCs in the ligand's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in the 300–580 nm wavelength region, when compared with other ligand end groups. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs modified by L-cysteine possess wurtzite nanocrystalline structures. • Carboxyl end groups in the ligand serve to increase the SPV response of CdSe QDs. • Terminal hydroxyl group in the ligand might accommodate non-radiative de-excitation process in CdSe QDs. • Increased length of the alkyl chains and side-chain radicals in the ligands partially inhibit carriers transport of CdSe QDs.

  2. Critical strain region evaluation of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, D L [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Pizarro, J [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, R [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Trevisi, G [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Frigeri, P [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Nasi, L [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Franchi, S [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-28

    A novel peak finding method to map the strain from high resolution transmission electron micrographs, known as the Peak Pairs method, has been applied to In(Ga)As/AlGaAs quantum dot (QD) samples, which present stacking faults emerging from the QD edges. Moreover, strain distribution has been simulated by the finite element method applying the elastic theory on a 3D QD model. The agreement existing between determined and simulated strain values reveals that these techniques are consistent enough to qualitatively characterize the strain distribution of nanostructured materials. The correct application of both methods allows the localization of critical strain zones in semiconductor QDs, predicting the nucleation of defects, and being a very useful tool for the design of semiconductor devices.

  3. Influence of nitrogen on the growth and the properties of InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, O.

    2004-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of nitrogen incorporation on the growth and the optical properties of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(001) substrates. On the basis of systematic growth interruptions it was shown that the large quantum dots nucleate at dislocations, which are already formed during the growth of the wetting layer. After solving the growth problems, the influence of different combinations of matrix layers on the structural and optical properties of the quantum dots was investigated in the second part of this work. The strain and bandgap of these layers were varied systematically. (orig.)

  4. The convergence of quantum-dot-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer and microfluidics for monitoring DNA polyplex self-assembly in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Yiping; Wang, T-H; Chen, Hunter H; Leong, Kam W

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel convergence of quantum-dot-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (QD-FRET) and microfluidics, through which molecular interactions were precisely controlled and monitored using highly sensitive quantum-dot-mediated FRET. We demonstrate its potential in studying the kinetics of self-assembly of DNA polyplexes under laminar flow in real time with millisecond resolution. The integration of nanophotonics and microfluidics offers a powerful tool for elucidating the formation of polyelectrolyte polyplexes, which is expected to provide better control and synthesis of uniform and customizable polyplexes for future nucleic acid-based therapeutics.

  5. Intermediate band solar cell simulation use InAs quantum dot in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra P, I. B.; Rahayu, F.; Sahdan, M. F.; Darma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a new approach in increasing solar cell efficiency significantly. One way to create intermediate band is by proposing quantum dots (QD) technology. One of the important aspects in utilizing IBSC is the absorption of light. In this work we simulated the influence of QD arrangement in order to increase absorption coefficient and solar cell efficiency. We also simulated the influence of QD size to capture a wider light spectrum. We present a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results show that the increasing in quantum dot size can increase in capturing wider spectrum of light. Arrangement InAs QD in bulk material GaAs can capture wider spectrum of light and increase the absorption coefficient. The arrangement InAs QD 2 nm in GaAs bulk can increase solar cell efficiency up to 49.68%

  6. Narrow optical linewidths and spin pumping on charge-tunable close-to-surface self-assembled quantum dots in an ultrathin diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbl, Matthias C.; Söllner, Immo; Javadi, Alisa; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Schott, Rüdiger; Midolo, Leonardo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Stobbe, Søren; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Ludwig, Arne; Warburton, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate full charge control, narrow optical linewidths, and optical spin pumping on single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a 162.5 -nm -thin diode structure. The quantum dots are just 88 nm from the top GaAs surface. We design and realize a p -i -n -i -n diode that allows single-electron charging of the quantum dots at close-to-zero applied bias. In operation, the current flow through the device is extremely small resulting in low noise. In resonance fluorescence, we measure optical linewidths below 2 μ eV , just a factor of 2 above the transform limit. Clear optical spin pumping is observed in a magnetic field of 0.5 T in the Faraday geometry. We present this design as ideal for securing the advantages of self-assembled quantum dots—highly coherent single-photon generation, ultrafast optical spin manipulation—in the thin diodes required in quantum nanophotonics and nanophononics applications.

  7. Light emitting diodes with InAs/GaAsSb self-assembled quantum dot layer embedded in GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hazdra, P.; Oswald, Jiří; Hospodková, Alice; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 543, Sept (2013), 83-87 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA ČR GA202/09/0676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * electroluminescence * metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * InAs * GaAsSb * light emitting diodes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  8. Wavelength tuning of InAs quantum dots grown on InP (100) by chemical-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Q.; Noetzel, R.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an effective way to continuously tune the emission wavelength of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InP (100) by chemical-beam epitaxy. The InAs QD layer is embedded in a GaInAsP layer lattice matched to InP. With an ultrathin GaAs layer inserted between the InAs QD layer and the GaInAsP buffer, the peak wavelength from the InAs QDs can be continuously tuned from above 1.6 μm down to 1.5 μm at room temperature. The major role of the thin GaAs layer is to greatly suppress the As/P exchange during the deposition of InAs and subsequent growth interruption under arsenic flux, as well as to consume the segregated surface In layer floating on the GaInAsP buffer layer

  9. Carrier dynamics in InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs multi quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinola, J L Casas; Dybic, M; Ostapenko, S; Torchynska, T V; Polupan, G

    2007-01-01

    Ground and multi excited state photoluminescence, as well as its temperature dependence, in InAs quantum dots embedded in symmetric In x Ga 1-x As/GaAs (x = 0.15) quantum wells (DWELL) have been investigated. The solution of the set of rate equations for exciton dynamics (relaxation into QWs or QDs and thermal escape) solved by us earlier is used for analysis the variety of thermal activation energies of photoluminescence thermal quenching for ground and multi excited states of InAs QDs. The obtained solutions were used at the discussion of the variety of activation energies of PL thermal quenching in InAs QDs. It is revealed three different regimes of thermally activated quenching of the QD PL intensity. These three regimes were attributed to thermal escape of excitons: i) from the high energy excited states of InAs QDs into the WL with follows exciton re-localization; ii) from the In x Ga 1-x As QWs into the GaAs barrier and iii) from the WL into the GaAs barrier with their subsequent nonradiative recombination in GaAs barrier

  10. Self-assembling peptide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Makam, Pandeeswar; Aizen, Ruth; Gazit, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are central to the modern electronics and optics industries. Conventional semiconductive materials bear inherent limitations, especially in emerging fields such as interfacing with biological systems and bottom-up fabrication. A promising candidate for bioinspired and durable nanoscale semiconductors is the family of self-assembled nanostructures comprising short peptides. The highly ordered and directional intermolecular π-π interactions and hydrogen-bonding network allow the formation of quantum confined structures within the peptide self-assemblies, thus decreasing the band gaps of the superstructures into semiconductor regions. As a result of the diverse architectures and ease of modification of peptide self-assemblies, their semiconductivity can be readily tuned, doped, and functionalized. Therefore, this family of electroactive supramolecular materials may bridge the gap between the inorganic semiconductor world and biological systems. PMID:29146781

  11. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, M.F.; Ware, M.E.; Stinaff, E.A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A.S.; Ponomarev, I.V.; Badescu, S.C.; Reinecke, T.L.; Gammon, D. [Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Korenev, V.L. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-15

    Spin interactions between particles in quantum dots or quantum dot molecules appear as fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra. Using the understanding of exchange interactions that has been developed from single dot spectra, we analyze the spin signatures of coupled quantum dots separated by a wide barrier such that inter-dot interactions are negligible. We find that electron-hole exchange splitting is directly evident. In dots charged with an excess hole, an effective hole-hole interaction can be turned on through tunnel coupling. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Photoluminescence characteristics of InAs quantum dots grown by STM/MBE site-control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Kohmoto, S.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Asakawa, K.; Wada, O. [Femtosecond Technology Research Association, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). FESTA Lab.

    2001-03-08

    This paper describes micro-photoluminescence (PL) analysis of site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) grown using a novel in-situ MBE growth technique in which sites of self-assembled InAs QDs are controlled by forming nanometer deposits using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) probe. We found from the temperature dependence of PL that the carrier collection at QDs at low temperature is limited by carrier diffusion in the wetting layer. The analysis of PL data considering this effect has indicated that individual QDs grown have high crystalline quality in spite of the addition of an artificial STM process during growth. (orig.)

  13. Effects of crossed states on photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of InAs quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chien-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this report, the influence of the intrinsic transitions between bound-to-delocalized states (crossed states or quasicontinuous density of electron-hole states on photoluminescence excitation (PLE spectra of InAs quantum dots (QDs was investigated. The InAs QDs were different in size, shape, and number of bound states. Results from the PLE spectroscopy at low temperature and under a high magnetic field (up to 14 T were compared. Our findings show that the profile of the PLE resonances associated with the bound transitions disintegrated and broadened. This was attributed to the coupling of the localized QD excited states to the crossed states and scattering of longitudinal acoustical (LA phonons. The degree of spectral linewidth broadening was larger for the excited state in smaller QDs because of the higher crossed joint density of states and scattering rate.

  14. Increasing the quantum efficiency of GaAs solar cells by embedding InAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salii, R. A.; Mintairov, S. A.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Brunkov, P. N.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Development of Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) technology of InAs quantum dots (QDs) in GaAs for photovoltaic applications is presented. The growth peculiarities in InAs-GaAs lattice-mismatched system were considered. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity dependences on different growth parameters were obtained. The multimodal distribution of QDs by sizes was found using AFM and PL methods. GaAs solar cell nanoheterostructures with imbedded QD arrays were designed and obtained. Ones have been demonstrated a significant increase of quantum efficiency and photogenerated current of QD solar cells due to photo effect in InAs QD array (0.59 mA/cm2 for AM1.5D and 82 mA/cm2 for AM0).

  15. A Photovoltaic InAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Hua, Tang; Bo, Xu; Li-Wen, Jiang; Jin-Xia, Kong; Ning, Kong; De-Chun, Liang; Ping, Liang; Xiao-Ling, Ye; Peng, Jin; Feng-Qi, Liu; Yong-Hai, Chen; Zhan-Guo, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A photovoltaic quantum dot infrared photodetector with InAs/GaAs/AlGaAs structures is reported. The detector is sensitive to normal incident light. At zero bias and 78K, a clear spectral response in the range of 2–7 μm has been obtained with peaks at 3.1, 4.8 and 5.7 μm. The bandgap energies of GaAs and Alo.2Gao.sAs at 78K are calculated and the energy diagram of the transitions in the Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) is given out. The photocurrent signals can be detected up to 110K, which is state-of-the-art for photovoltaic QDIP. The photovoltaic effect in our detector is a result of the enhanced band asymmetry as we design in the structure

  16. Heterostructures on the basis of GaAs with quantum points of InAs for photo-electric transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maronchuk I. E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterostructures based on GaAs with InAs quantum dots obtained in the process of liquid-phase epitaxy by the method of pulse cooling of saturated solution in indium or heterostructures containing quantum dots in the area of the p–n-junction were much worse than control solar cells manufactured on the same structures but without quantum dots. Solar cells containing quantum dots in the p-region were slightly better than control solar cells.

  17. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  18. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  19. Shape, strain, and ordering of lateral InAs quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.; Metzger, T.H.; Rastelli, A.; Songmuang, R.; Kiravittaya, S.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an x-ray study on freestanding, self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy are presented. The studied samples cover the range from statistically distributed single quantum dots to quantum dot bimolecules, and finally to quantum dot quadmolecules. The x-ray diffraction data of the single quantum dots and the bimolecules, obtained in grazing incidence geometry, have been analyzed using the isostrain model. An extended version of the isostrain model has been developed, including the lateral arrangement of the quantum dots within a quantum dot molecule and the superposition of the scattering from different parts of the dots. This model has been applied to the scattering maps of all three samples. Quantitative information about the positions of the dots, the shape, and the lattice parameter distribution of their crystalline core has been obtained. For the single dot and the bimolecule, a strong similarity of the shape and lattice parameter distribution has been found, in agreement with the similarity of their photoluminescence spectra

  20. Direct Identification of Atomic-Like Electronic Levels in InAs Nano crystal Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, O.; Katz, D.

    1999-01-01

    The size dependent level structure of InAs nano crystals in the range 2-7 nm in diameter is investigated using both tunneling and optical spectroscopies. The tunneling measurements are performed using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope on individual nano crystals that, are attached to a gold substrate via dithiol molecules. The tunneling I-V characteristics manifest an interplay between single electron charging and quantum size effects. We are able to directly identify quantum confined states of isolated InAs nano crystals having s and p symmetries. These states are observed in the I-V curves as two and six-fold single electron charging multiplets. Excellent agreement is found between the strongly allowed optical transitions [1] and the spacing of levels detected in the tunneling experiment. This correlation provides new information on the quantum-dot level structure, from which we conclude that the top-most valence band state has both s and p characteristics. The interplay between level structure singles electron charging of the nano crystals obeys an atomic-like Aufbau sequential electron level occupation

  1. Electrical characterization of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots with InGaAs strain-relief layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, E. K.; Hwang, H.; Park, K.; Yoon, E.; Park, I. W.; Park, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the energy levels of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in various barrier layers such as InP, InGaAs and GaAs by using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement. The apparent activation energy of 0.56 eV below the conduction band edge of barrier layers in the InAs/InP QD system was higher than 0.32 eV in the InAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As QD system or 0.29 eV in the InAs/GaAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As QD system, which was inserted in 10 mono-layers (MLs) GaAs between InAs QDs and the InGaAs barrier. The capture barrier heights of InAs QDs in the InAs/InP system was measured at more than about 0.18 eV, showing the existence of strain between QDs and barrier layers. The InAs/GaAs(10 MLs)/InGaAs system also showed about 0.12 eV capture barrier, but the InAs/InGaAs system has a very small barrier. This result might originate from the strain-relief effect due to InGaAs layers.

  2. Towards quantitative three-dimensional characterisation of buried InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Semenova, Elizaveta; Schubert, Martin

    2011-01-01

    InAs quantum dots grown on InP or InGaAsP are used for optical communication applications operating in the 1.3 – 1.55 μm wavelength range. It is generally understood that the optical properties of such dots are highly dependent on their structural and chemical profiles. However, morphological...... and compositional measurements of quantum dots using transmission electron microscopy can be ambiguous because the recorded signal is usually a projection through the thickness of the specimen. Here, we discuss the application of scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography to the morphological and chemical...... characterisation of surface and buried quantum dots. We highlight some of the challenges involved and introduce a new specimen preparation method for creating needle-shaped specimens that each contain multiple dots and are suitable for both scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography and atom probe...

  3. Towards quantitative three-dimensional characterisation of buried InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadkhodazadeh, S; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Semenova, E S; Schubert, M; Yvind, K; Thuvander, M; Stiller, K M

    2011-01-01

    InAs quantum dots grown on InP or InGaAsP are used for optical communication applications operating in the 1.3 – 1.55 μm wavelength range. It is generally understood that the optical properties of such dots are highly dependent on their structural and chemical profiles. However, morphological and compositional measurements of quantum dots using transmission electron microscopy can be ambiguous because the recorded signal is usually a projection through the thickness of the specimen. Here, we discuss the application of scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography to the morphological and chemical characterisation of surface and buried quantum dots. We highlight some of the challenges involved and introduce a new specimen preparation method for creating needle-shaped specimens that each contain multiple dots and are suitable for both scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography and atom probe tomography.

  4. Effect of the nitrogen incorporation and fast carrier dynamics in (In,Ga)AsN/GaP self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.-P.; Almosni, S.; Léger, Y.; Perrin, M.; Even, J.; Cornet, C., E-mail: charles.cornet@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O. [UMR FOTON, CNRS, INSA-Rennes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Robert, C. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Balocchi, A.; Carrère, H.; Marie, X. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the structural and optical properties of (In,Ga)AsN self-assembled quantum dots grown on GaP (001) substrate. A comparison with nitrogen free (In,Ga)As system is presented, showing a clear modification of growth mechanisms and a significant shift of the photoluminescence spectrum. Low temperature carrier recombination dynamics is studied by time-resolved photoluminescence, highlighting a drastic reduction of the characteristic decay-time when nitrogen is incorporated in the quantum dots. Room temperature photoluminescence is observed at 840 nm. These results reveal the potential of (In,Ga)AsN as an efficient active medium monolithically integrated on Si for laser applications.

  5. Simulation of quantum dots size and spacing effect for intermediate band solar cell application based on InAs quantum dots arrangement in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendra, P. I. B., E-mail: ib.hendra@gmail.com; Rahayu, F., E-mail: ib.hendra@gmail.com; Darma, Y., E-mail: ib.hendra@gmail.com [Physical Vapor Deposition Laboratory, Physics of Material Electronics Research, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a promising technology in increasing solar cell efficiency. In this work we compare absorption coefficient profile between InAs quantum dots with GaAs bulk. We calculate the efficiency of GaAs bulk and GaAs doped with 2, 5, and 10 nm InAs quantum dot. Effective distances in quantum dot arrangement based on electron tunneling consideration were also calculated. We presented a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results showed that arrangement of quantum dot InAs in GaAs can increase solar cell efficiency from 23.9 % initially up to 60.4%. The effective distance between two quantum dots was found 2 nm in order to give adequate distance to prevent electron tunneling and wave functions overlap.

  6. Self-assembled monolayer of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on copper detected using electrochemical methods, surface enhanced Raman scattering and quantum chemistry calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.-Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.cn [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.-W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.-H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.-J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDTC) monolayer was self-assembled on fresh copper surface obtained after oxidation-reduction cycle treatment in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} potassium chloride solution at ambient temperature. The APDTC self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface was investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and the results show that APDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its sulfur atoms with perpendicular orientation. The optimum immersing period for SAM formation is 4 h at 0.01 mol L{sup -1} concentration of APDTC. The impedance results indicate that APDTC SAM has good corrosion inhibition effects for copper in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution and its maximum inhibition efficiency could reach 95%. Quantum chemical calculations show that APDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitate formation of an insulating Cu/APDTC film on copper surface.

  7. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN quantum dot lasers: solid source molecular beam epitaxy growth and high-temperature operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon SF

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSelf-assembled GaInNAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on GaAs (001 substrate using solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy (SSMBE equipped with a radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source. The GaInNAs QD growth characteristics were extensively investigated using atomic-force microscopy (AFM, photoluminescence (PL, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN single layer QD lasers grown using SSMBE have been fabricated and characterized. The laser worked under continuous wave (CW operation at room temperature (RT with emission wavelength of 1175.86 nm. Temperature-dependent measurements have been carried out on the GaInNAs QD lasers. The lowest obtained threshold current density in this work is ∼1.05 kA/cm2from a GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,700 µm2 at 10 °C. High-temperature operation up to 65 °C was demonstrated from an unbonded GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,060 µm2, with high characteristic temperature of 79.4 K in the temperature range of 10–60 °C.

  8. Growth and characterization of InAs columnar quantum dots on GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Patriarche, G.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer (ML) InAs seed dot layer and a short period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). It was found that the growth of the CQDs is very sensitive to growth interruption (GI) and growth temperature. Both longer GI and higher growth temperature impact the size dispersion of the CQDs, which causes the broadening of photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and the presence of the additional PL peak tails. By properly choosing the GI and the growth temperature, CQDs including GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL with period number up to 35 without plastic relaxation were grown. The corresponding equivalent thickness of the SL is 41 nm which is two times higher than the theoretical critical thickness of the strained InGaAs layer with the same average In composition of 16%. The increase of the critical thickness is partially associated with the formation of the CQDs. Based on a five-stack CQD active region, laser diodes emitting around 1120 nm at room temperature were demonstrated, indicating a high material quality. CQDs with nearly isotropic cross section (20 nmx20 nm dimensions) were formed by depositing a 16-period GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL on an InAs seed dot layer, indicating the feasibility of artificial shape engineering of QDs. Such a structure is expected to be very promising for polarization insensitive device applications, such as semiconductor optical amplifiers

  9. Fabrication and optical properties of multishell InAs quantum dots on GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia, E-mail: xzhang@bupt.edu.cn; Li, Junshuai; Cui, Jiangong; Ren, Xiaomin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-02-07

    Hybrid nanostructures combining nanowires with quantum dots promote the development of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices with integrated functionalities. In this work, we present a complex nanostructure with multishell quantum dots grown on nanowires. 1–4 shells of Stranski-Krastanov InAs quantum dots are grown on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Different dot shells are separated by 8 nm GaAs spacer shells. With increasing the number of shells, the quantum dots become sparser and tend to align in one array, which is caused by the shrinkage of facets on which dots prefer to grow as well as the strain fields produced by the lower set of dots which influences the migration of In adatoms. The size of quantum dots increases with the increase of shell number due to enhanced strain fields coupling. The spectra of multishell dots exhibit multiwavelength emission, and each peak corresponds to a dot shell. This hybrid structure may serve as a promising element in nanowire intermediate band solar cells, infrared nanolasers, and photodetectors.

  10. Structural characterization of GaAs self-assembled quantum dots grown by Droplet Epitaxy on Ge virtual substrates on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigeri, C.; Bietti, S.; Isella, G.; Sanguinetti, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) grown by Droplet Epitaxy on Ge virtual substrates has been investigated by TEM. The QDs have a pyramidal shape with base and height of 50 nm. By (0 0 2) dark field TEM it was seen that the pyramid top is Ga poor and Al rich most likely because of the higher mobility of Ga along the pyramid sides down to the base. The investigated QDs contain defects identified as As precipitates by Moirè fringes. The smallest ones (3–5 nm) are coherent with the GaAs lattice suggesting that they could be a cubic phase of As precipitation. It seems to be a metastable phase since the hexagonal phase is recovered as the precipitate size increases above ∼5 nm.

  11. High-temperature operation of self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN quantum-dot lasers grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Yoon, S.F.; Sun, Z.Z.; Yew, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN single layer quantum-dot (QD) lasers grown using solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy have been fabricated and characterized. Temperature-dependent measurements have been carried out on the GaInNAs QD lasers. The lowest obtained threshold current density in this work is ∼1.05 kA/cm 2 from a GaInNAs QD laser (50x1700 μm 2 ) at 10 deg. C. High-temperature operation up to 65 deg. C was also demonstrated from an unbonded GaInNAs QD laser (50x1060 μm 2 ), with high characteristic temperature of 79.4 K in the temperature range of 10-60 deg. C

  12. Electron microscopy of GaAs-based structures with InAs and As quantum dots separated by an AlAs barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhenskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Electron microscopy studies of GaAs-based structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and containing arrays of semiconductor InAs quantum dots and metal As quantum dots are performed. The array of InAs quantum dots is formed by the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism and consists of vertically coupled pairs of quantum dots separated by a GaAs spacer 10 nm thick. To separate the arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots and to prevent diffusion-induced mixing, the array of InAs quantum dots is overgrown with an AlAs barrier layer 5 or 10 nm thick, after which a GaAs layer is grown at a comparatively low temperature (180°C). The array of As quantum dots is formed in an As-enriched layer of the low-temperature GaAs by means of post-growth annealing at 400–760°C for 15 min. It is established that the AlAs barrier layer has a surface profile corresponding to that of a subbarrier layer with InAs quantum dots. The presence of such a profile causes the formation of V-shaped structural defects upon subsequent overgrowth with the GaAs layer. Besides, it was obtained that AlAs layer is thinned over the InAs quantum dots tops. It is shown that the AlAs barrier layer in the regions between the InAs quantum dots effectively prevents the starting diffusion of excess As at annealing temperatures up to 600°C. However, the concentration of mechanical stresses and the reduced thickness of the AlAs barrier layer near the tops of the InAs quantum dots lead to local barrier breakthroughs and the diffusion of As quantum dots into the region of coupled pairs of InAs quantum dots at higher annealing temperatures

  13. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, M; Budkin, G; Reznitsky, A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings. (paper)

  14. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, M.; Budkin, G.; Reznitsky, A.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings.

  15. Enhancement of optical properties of InAs quantum dots grown by using periodic arsine interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungsub; Yang, Changjae; Sim, Uk; Lee, Jaeyel; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Youngsoo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the morphological and optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by using periodic arsine interruption (PAI) and compared them with QDs grown conventionally. In the conventional growth, the formation of large islands was observed, which suppresses the nucleation and growth of QDs. Furthermore, the growth of capping layers was significantly degraded by these large islands. On the other hand, in the PAI growth, the formation of large islands was completely suppressed, resulting in the increase of the density and aspect ratio of QDs and the uniform growth of capping layers. As a result of photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we found that the emission efficiency was enhanced and the full-width-half-maximum was reduced to 32 meV. The temperature dependence of these optical properties also revealed the enhancement of the uniformity of QDs grown by the PAI method.

  16. Excitonic behavior in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum rings in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, N.A.J.M.; Blokland, J.H.; Taboada, A.G.; Genuchten, van H.C.M.; Bozkurt, M.; Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Maan, J.C.; Devreese, J.T.; Koenraad, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the exciton energy level structure of a large ensemble of InAs/GaAs quantum rings by photoluminescence spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 30 T for different excitation densities. The confinement of an electron and a hole in these type I quantum rings along with the Coulomb

  17. Polarization spectroscopy of positive and negative trions in an InAs quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Morgan E.; Bracker, Allan S.; Stinaff, Eric; Gammon, Daniel; Gershoni, David; Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2005-02-01

    Using polarization-sensitive photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we study single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots. The dots were embedded in an n-type, Schottky diode structure allowing for control of the charge state. We present here the exciton, singly charged exciton (positive and negative trions), and the twice negatively charged exciton. For non-resonant excitation below the wetting layer, we observed a large degree of polarization memory from the radiative recombination of both the positive and negative trions. In excitation spectra, through the p-shell, we have found several sharp resonances in the emission from the s-shell recombination of the dot in all charged states. Some of these excitation resonances exhibit strong coulomb shifts upon addition of charges into the quantum dot. One particular resonance of the negatively charged trion was found to exhibit a fine structure doublet under circular polarization. This observation is explained in terms of resonant absorption into the triplet states of the negative trion.

  18. Functionalized Self-Assembled InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Structures Hybridized with Organic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Kobashi, K.; Chen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Low-dimensional III-V semiconductors have many advantages over other semiconductors; however, they are not particularly stable under physiological conditions. Hybridizing biocompatible organic molecules with advanced optical and electronic semiconductor devices based on quantum dots (QDs...

  19. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  20. Quantum plasmon and Rashba-like spin splitting in self-assembled Co x C60 composites with enhanced Co content (x > 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentiev, Vasily; Chvostova, Dagmar; Stupakov, Alexandr; Lavrentieva, Inna; Vacik, Jiri; Motylenko, Mykhaylo; Barchuk, Mykhailo; Rafaja, David; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2018-04-01

    Driving by interplay between plasmonic and magnetic effects in organic composite semiconductors is a challenging task with a huge potential for practical applications. Here, we present evidence of a quantum plasmon excited in the self-assembled Co x C60 nanocomposite films with x > 15 (interval of the Co cluster coalescence) and analyse it using the optical absorption (OA) spectra. In the case of Co x C60 film with x = 16 (LF sample), the quantum plasmon generated by the Co/CoO clusters is found as the 1.5 eV-centred OA peak. This finding is supported by the establishment of four specific C60-related OA lines detected at the photon energies E p > 2.5 eV. Increase of the Co content up to x = 29 (HF sample) leads to pronounced enhancement of OA intensity in the energy range of E p > 2.5 eV and to plasmonic peak downshift of 0.2 eV with respect to the peak position in the LF spectrum. Four pairs of the OA peaks evaluated in the HF spectrum at E p > 2.5 eV reflect splitting of the C60-related lines, suggesting great change in the microscopic conditions with increasing x. Analysis of the film nanostructure and the plasmon-induced conditions allows us to propose a Rashba-like spin splitting effect that suggests valuable sources for spin polarization.

  1. Excited state dynamics in In0.5Al0.04Ga0.46As/Al0.08Ga0.92As self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, L.M.; Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland

    2001-01-01

    We use time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to probe the relaxation of excited states in In0.5Al0.04Ga0.40As/Al0.08Ga0.92As self-assembled quantum dots. The relaxation rate of excitons confined to the quantum dots increases by nearly an order of magnitude as the energy of the states...... approaches the top of the quantum dot potential. This dramatic change in the dynamics of these states reflects the increasing complexity of the states localized near the top of the quantum dots....

  2. Effect of antimony incorporation on the density, shape, and luminescence of InAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. F.; Chiang, C. H.; Wu, Y. H.; Chang, L.; Chi, J. Y.

    2008-07-01

    This work investigates the surfactant effect on exposed and buried InAs quantum dots (QDs) by incorporating Sb into the QD layers with various Sb beam equivalent pressures (BEPs). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy shows the presence of Sb in the exposed and buried QD layers with the Sb intensity in the exposed layer substantially exceeding that in the buried layer. Incorporating Sb can reduce the density of the exposed QDs by more than two orders of magnitude. However, a high Sb BEP yields a surface morphology with a regular periodic structure of ellipsoid terraces. A good room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) at ˜1600 nm from the exposed QDs is observed, suggesting that the Sb incorporation probably improves the emission efficiency by reducing the surface recombination velocity at the surface of the exposed QDs. Increasing Sb BEP causes a blueshift of the emission from the exposed QDs due to a reduction in the dot height as suggested by atomic force microscopy. Increasing Sb BEP can also blueshift the ˜1300 nm emission from the buried QDs by decreasing the dot height. However, a high Sb BEP yields a quantum well-like PL feature formed by the clustering of the buried QDs into an undulated planar layer. These results indicate a marked Sb surfactant effect that can be used to control the density, shape, and luminescence of the exposed and buried QDs.

  3. Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löthman, Per Arvid

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the

  4. Growth and optical characteristics of InAs quantum dot structures with tunnel injection quantum wells for 1.55 μ m high-speed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sven; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2018-06-01

    InP based lattice matched tunnel injection structures consisting of a InGaAs quantum well, InAlGaAs barrier and InAs quantum dots designed to emit at 1.55 μ m were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The strong influence of quantum well and barrier thicknesses on the samples emission properties at low and room temperatures was investigated. The phenomenon of a decreased photoluminescence linewidth of tunnel injection structures compared to a reference InAs quantum dots sample could be explained by the selection of the emitting dots through the tunneling process. Morphological investigations have not revealed any effect of the injector well on the dot formation and their size distribution. The optimum TI structure design could be defined.

  5. Dispersion of the electron g factor anisotropy in InAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belykh, V. V., E-mail: vasilii.belykh@tu-dortmund.de [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schindler, J. J. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Bree, J. van; Koenraad, P. M.; Silov, A. Yu., E-mail: A.Y.Silov@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-28

    The electron g factor in an ensemble of InAs/InP quantum dots with emission wavelengths around 1.4 μm is measured using time-resolved pump-probe Faraday rotation spectroscopy in different magnetic field orientations. Thereby, we can extend recent single dot photoluminescence measurements significantly towards lower optical transition energies through 0.86 eV. This allows us to obtain detailed insight into the dispersion of the recently discovered g factor anisotropy in these infrared emitting quantum dots. We find with decreasing transition energy over a range of 50 meV a strong enhancement of the g factor difference between magnetic field normal and along the dot growth axis, namely, from 1 to 1.7. We argue that the g factor cannot be solely determined by the confinement energy, but the dot asymmetry underlying this anisotropy therefore has to increase with increasing dot size.

  6. Size filtering effect in vertical stacks of In(Ga)As/GaAs self-assembled quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouerghui, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M.A.; Martinez-Pastor, J.; Gomis, J.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic study of closely In(Ga)As/InAs quantum rings (QRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong filtering effect in the ring being stacked and simultaneous linewidth narrowing for the appropriate layer thickness (thinner thickness). If the spacer thickness is further reduced, a strong coupling between the nanostructures is produced and the signal shifts to low energy

  7. Optically Driven Spin Based Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing - Research Area 6 Physics 6.3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This program conducted experimental and theoretical research aimed at developing an optically driven quantum dot quantum ...computer, where, the qubit is the spin of the electron trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot in InAs. Optical manipulation using the trion state...reports. In this reporting period, we discovered the nuclear spin quieting first discovered in 2008 is present in vertically coupled quantum dots but

  8. A CE-FL based method for real-time detection of in-capillary self-assembly of the nanoconjugates of polycysteine ligand and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhao; Zhu, Zhilan; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Jianpeng; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Qicai; Xia, Jiang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaoqian; Feng, Wei; Wang, Jinmei; Miao, Peng; Gao, Liqian

    2018-07-06

    Small molecules with free thiol groups always show high binding affinity to quantum dots (QDs). However, it is still highly challenging to detect the binding capacity between thiol-containing molecules and QDs inside a capillary. To conquer this limitation, a capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection (CE-FL) based assay was proposed and established to investigate the binding capacity between QDs and a poly-thiolated peptide (ATTO 590-DDSSGGCCPGCC, ATTO-C4). Interestingly, the results showed that interval time had a great influence on QDs and ATTO-C4 self-assembly, which can be attributed to longer interval time benefitting the binding of QDs to ATTO-C4. The stability assays on ATTO-C4-QD assembly indicated that high concentration of imidazole or GSH had a high capability of competing with the bound ATTO-C4, evidenced by dramatically dropping of S 625 /S 565 ratio from 0.78 to 0.30 or 0.29. Therefore, all these results above suggested that this novel CE-FL based detection assay could be successfully applied to the binding studies between QDs and thiol-containing biomolecules.

  9. Short-range order structures of self-assembled Ge quantum dots probed by multiple-scattering extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhihu; Wei Shiqiang; Kolobov, A.V.; Oyanagi, H.; Brunner, K.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-scattering extended x-ray absorption fine structure (MS-EXAFS) has been used to investigate the local structures around Ge atoms in self-assembled Ge-Si quantum dots (QDs) grown on Si(001) substrate. The MS effect of Ge QDs is dominated by the scattering path Ge 0 →B 1 →B 2 →Ge 0 (DS2), which contributes a signal destructively interfering with that of the second shell single-scattering path (SS2). MS-EXAFS analysis reveals that the degree of Ge-Si intermixing for Ge-Si QDs strongly depends on the temperature at which the silicon cap layer is overgrown. It is found that the interatomic distances (R Ge-Ge and R Ge-Si ) within the third nearest-neighbor shells in Ge-Si QDs indicate the compressively strained nature of QDs. The present study demonstrates that the MS-EXAFS provides detailed information on the QDs strain and the Ge-Si mixing beyond the nearest neighbors

  10. Formation of self-assembled quantum dots of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis from non-aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, J.D.; Pathan, H.M.; Min, Sun-Ki; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) of iron oxide have been deposited onto ITO coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique, using ferric chloride (FeCl 3 .7H 2 O) in non-aqueous medium as a starting material. The non-aqueous solvents namely methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol were used as solvents. The effect of solvents on the film structure and morphology was studied. The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), and optical absorption measurement techniques

  11. In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeesh, K.; Baumberg, J. J.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2009-07-01

    Thin films of self-organized quantum wells of inorganic-organic hybrid perovskites of (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 are formed from a simple intercalation strategy to yield well-ordered uniform films over centimeter-size scales. These films compare favorably with traditional solution-chemistry-synthesized thin films. The hybrid films show strong room-temperature exciton-related absorption and photoluminescence, which shift with fabrication protocol. We demonstrate the potential of this method for electronic and photonic device applications.

  12. Kinetics of self-assembled InN quantum dots grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Roul, Basanta; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Sinha, Neeraj; Kalghatgi, A. T.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the scientific challenges of growing InN quantum dots (QDs), using Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), is to understand the fundamental processes that control the morphology and distribution of QDs. A systematic manipulation of the morphology, optical emission, and structural properties of InN/Si (111) QDs is demonstrated by changing the growth kinetics parameters such as flux rate and growth time. Due to the large lattice mismatch, between InN and Si (∼8%), the dots formed from the Strannski–Krastanow (S–K) growth mode are dislocated. Despite the variations in strain (residual) and the shape, both the dot size and pair separation distribution show the scaling behavior. We observed that the distribution of dot sizes, for samples grown under varying conditions, follow the scaling function.

  13. Evaporation-induced self-assembly of quantum dots-based concentric rings on polymer-based nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaofu; Luan, Weiling; Zhong, Qixin; Yin, Shaofeng; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-10-12

    The "ball-on-film" template is used to construct concentric rings on the surface of PMMA-QDs (polymethyl methacrylate - quantum dots) nanocomposite films via the evaporation of pure chloroform droplets, which are confined by a steel ball. The concentric rings consist of QDs, as revealed by the fluorescence images of the concentric rings. The photoluminescence intensity of the concentric rings increases with the increase of the distance to the ball center, suggesting that the amount of QDs accumulated around the contact line at individual stick state increases with the increase of the distance to the ball center. Both the wavelength and cross-sectional area (width) of the concentric rings increase approximately linearly with increasing distance to the ball center, independent of the ball size, the film thickness and the QDs concentration. For the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite films prepared from the same QDs concentration in chloroform, the thicker the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite film, the larger the wavelength for the same distance to the ball center. The effect of confinement of two steel balls on the surface patterns over the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite films is studied via a template of "two spheres on film". Symmetric surface patterns are formed. There exist two types of featureless zone between the two balls, depending on the distance between the two balls: one is the inner featureless zone and the other is the outer featureless zone. The size of both featureless zones increases with the increase of the ball distance.

  14. The dynamic characteristics and linewidth enhancement factor of quasi-supercontinuum self-assembled quantum dot lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2009-09-01

    The theoretical analysis of optical gain and chirp characteristics of a semiconductor quantum dot (Qdot) broadband laser is presented. The model based on population rate equations, has been developed to investigate the multiple states lasing or quasi-supercontinuum lasing in InGaAs/GaAs Qdot laser. The model takes into account factors such as Qdot size fluctuation, finite carrier lifetime in each confined energy states, wetting layer induced nonconfined states and the presence of continuum states. Hence, calculation of the linewidth enhancement factor together with the variation of optical gain and index change across the spectrum of interest becomes critical to yield a basic understanding on the limitation of this new class of lasers. Such findings are important for the design of a practical single broadband laser diode for applications in low coherence interferometry sensing and optical fiber communications. Calculation results show that the linewidth enhancement factor from the ground state of broadband Qdot lasers (α ∼ 3) is slightly larger but in the same order of magnitude as compared to that of conventional Qdot lasers. The gain spectrum of the quasi-supercontinuum lasing system exhibits almost twice the bandwidth than conventional lasers but with comparable material differential gain (∼ 10-16 cm2) and material differential refractive index (∼ 10sup>-20 cm3 ) near current threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  15. The dynamic characteristics and linewidth enhancement factor of quasi-supercontinuum self-assembled quantum dot lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon; Wang, Yang; Djie, Hery Susanto; Ooi, Boon S.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of optical gain and chirp characteristics of a semiconductor quantum dot (Qdot) broadband laser is presented. The model based on population rate equations, has been developed to investigate the multiple states lasing or quasi-supercontinuum lasing in InGaAs/GaAs Qdot laser. The model takes into account factors such as Qdot size fluctuation, finite carrier lifetime in each confined energy states, wetting layer induced nonconfined states and the presence of continuum states. Hence, calculation of the linewidth enhancement factor together with the variation of optical gain and index change across the spectrum of interest becomes critical to yield a basic understanding on the limitation of this new class of lasers. Such findings are important for the design of a practical single broadband laser diode for applications in low coherence interferometry sensing and optical fiber communications. Calculation results show that the linewidth enhancement factor from the ground state of broadband Qdot lasers (α ∼ 3) is slightly larger but in the same order of magnitude as compared to that of conventional Qdot lasers. The gain spectrum of the quasi-supercontinuum lasing system exhibits almost twice the bandwidth than conventional lasers but with comparable material differential gain (∼ 10-16 cm2) and material differential refractive index (∼ 10sup>-20 cm3 ) near current threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  16. Studies on the controlled growth of InAs nanostructures on scission surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the controlled alignment of self-assembled InAs nano-structures on a {110}-oriented surface. The surface is prestructured with the atomic precision offered by molecular beam epitaxy, using the cleaved edge overgrowth-technique. On all samples grown within this work, the epitaxial template in the first growth step was deposited on a (001)GaAs substrate, while the InAs-layer forming the nanostructures during the second growth step was grown on cleaved {110}-GaAs surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations demonstrate the formation of quantum dot (QD)-like nanostructures on top of the AlAs-stripes. X-ray diffraction measurements on large arrays of aligned quantum dots demonstrate that the quantum dots are formed of pure InAs. First investigations on the optical properties of these nanostructures were done using microphotoluminescence-spectroscopy with both high spatial and spectral resolution. (orig.)

  17. Seeded growth of InP and InAs quantum rods using indium acetate and myristic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweky, Itzhak; Aharoni, Assaf; Mokari, Taleb; Rothenberg, Eli; Nadler, Moshe; Popov, Inna; Banin, Uri

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of soluble III-V semiconductor quantum rods using gold nanoparticles to direct and catalyze one-dimensional growth is developed. The growth takes place via the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism where proper precursors are injected into a coordinating solvent. We report the synthesis of InP nanorods using indium acetate and myristic acid with gold nanoparticles as the catalysts in the SLS growth mode. A similar route was successfully developed for the growth of InAs nanorods. We find that the amount of Au catalyst in the reaction is an important parameter to achieve shape control. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of InP and InAs nanocrystals revealed that the crystals are mostly rod-shaped, and provide strong evidence for Au presence in one edge. The rods were characterized structurally using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM and optically by absorption and photoluminescence

  18. Optical characterization of InAs quantum wells and dots grown radially on wurtzite InP nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Heurlin, Magnus; Borgström, Magnus T; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Correlated micro-photoluminescence (μPL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements are reported for single core–shell InP–InAs wurtzite nanowires grown using metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy. Samples covering a radial InAs shell thickness of 1–12 ML were investigated. The effective masses for the wurtzite material were determined from the transition energy dependence of the InAs shell thickness, using a model based on linear deformation potential theory. InP cores with segments of mixed zincblende and wurtzite, on which quantum dots nucleated selectively, were also investigated. Narrow peaks were observed by μPL and the spatial origin of the emission was identified with CL imaging. (paper)

  19. The influence of post-growth annealing on the optical properties of InAs quantum dot chains grown on pre-patterned GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkarainen, T V; Polojärvi, V; Schramm, A; Tommila, J; Guina, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the effect of post-growth thermal annealing of [011]-, [01 1-bar ]-, and [010]-oriented quantum dot chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates patterned by UV-nanoimprint lithography. We show that the quantum dot chains experience a blueshift of the photoluminescence energy, spectral narrowing, and a reduction of the intersubband energy separation during annealing. The photoluminescence blueshift is more rapid for the quantum dot chains than for self-assembled quantum dots that were used as a reference. Furthermore, we studied polarization resolved photoluminescence and observed that annealing reduces the intrinsic optical anisotropy of the quantum dot chains and the self-assembled quantum dots. (paper)

  20. Quantum Sensing of Mechanical Motion with a Single InAs Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Wenner, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, “ Quantum ground state and single- phonon control of a mechanical resonator.,” Nature, vol. 464, no...G. Nogues, S. Seidelin, J. Poizat, O. Arcizet, and M. Richard, “Strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot- mechanical oscillator hybrid system...Pos 4 Dep 5 School of N upling quantu ctive for funda dded a semico nical resonat vances in thi es large ch ell as the spin for quantum s antum Dots

  1. A modified gradient approach for the growth of low-density InAs quantum dot molecules by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandlal; Reuter, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    Two vertically stacked quantum dots that are electronically coupled, so called quantum dot molecules, are of great interest for the realization of solid state building blocks for quantum communication networks. We present a modified gradient approach to realize InAs quantum dot molecules with a low areal density so that single quantum dot molecules can be optically addressed. The individual quantum dot layers were prepared by solid source molecular beam epitaxy depositing InAs on GaAs(100). The bottom quantum dot layer has been grown without substrate rotation resulting in an In-gradient across the surface, which translated into a density gradient with low quantum dot density in a certain region of the wafer. For the top quantum dot layer, separated from the bottom quantum dot layer by a 6 nm thick GaAs barrier, various InAs amounts were deposited without an In-gradient. In spite of the absence of an In-gradient, a pronounced density gradient is observed for the top quantum dots. Even for an In-amount slightly below the critical thickness for a single dot layer, a density gradient in the top quantum dot layer, which seems to reproduce the density gradient in the bottom layer, is observed. For more or less In, respectively, deviations from this behavior occur. We suggest that the obvious influence of the bottom quantum dot layer on the growth of the top quantum dots is due to the strain field induced by the buried dots.

  2. Specific features of electroluminescence in heterostructures with InSb quantum dots in an InAs matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomenko, Ya. A.; Ivanov, E. V.; Moiseev, K. D., E-mail: mkd@iropt2.ioffe.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The electrical and electroluminescence properties of a single narrow-gap heterostructure based on a p-n junction in indium arsenide, containing a single layer of InSb quantum dots in the InAs matrix, are studied. The presence of quantum dots has a significant effect on the shape of the reverse branch of the current-voltage characteristic of the heterostructure. Under reverse bias, the room-temperature electroluminescence spectra of the heterostructure with quantum dots, in addition to a negative-luminescence band with a maximum at the wavelength {lambda} = 3.5 {mu}m, contained a positive-luminescence emission band at 3.8 {mu}m, caused by radiative transitions involving localized states of quantum dots at the type-II InSb/InAs heterointerface.

  3. Modelling Polar Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Sayar, Mehmet; Solis, Francisco J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2001-03-01

    Recent experimental studies in our group have shown that self assembled thin films of noncentrosymmetric supramolecular objects composed of triblock rodcoil molecules exhibit finite polar order. These aggregates have both long range dipolar and short range Ising-like interactions. We study the ground state of a simple model with these competing interactions. We find that the competition between Ising-like and dipolar forces yield a periodic domain structure, which can be controlled by adjusting the force constants and film thickness. When the surface forces are included in the potential, the system exhibits a finite macroscopic polar order.

  4. Tuning of the hole spin relaxation time in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hai; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin, E-mail: helx@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the electric field tuning of the phonon-assisted hole spin relaxation in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs), using an atomistic empirical pseudopotential method. We find that the electric field along the growth direction can tune the hole spin relaxation time for more than one order of magnitude. The electric field can prolong or shorten the hole spin lifetime and the tuning shows an asymmetry in terms of the field direction. The asymmetry is more pronounced for the taller dot. The results show that the electric field is an effective way to tune the hole spin-relaxation in self-assembled QDs.

  5. Quantum Dots obtained by LPE from under-saturated In-As liquid phases on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz F E; Mishurnyi V; Gorbatchev A; De Anda F [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karacorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., CP 78210San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Prutskij T, E-mail: fcoe_ov@prodigy.net.mx, E-mail: andre@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx [BUAP, Instituto de Ciencias, Apartado Postal 207, 72000, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work we inform about quantum dots (QD) obtained by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) on GaAs substrates from under-saturated In-As liquid phases. In our processes, we have prepared saturated In-rich liquid phases by dissolving an InAs wafer at one of the temperatures interval from 450 to 414 C for 60 minutes. The contact between In-As liquid phase and the GaAs substrate was always done at a constant temperature of 444 C for 5 seconds. Thus, the growth temperature for most of the samples was higher than the liquidus temperature. We think that the growth driving force is related to a transient process that occurs when the system is trying to reach equilibrium. Under the atom force microscope (AFM) we have observed nano-islands on the surfaces of the samples obtained from under-saturated liquid phases prepared at 438, 432 and 426 C. The 25 K photoluminescence spectrum shows a peak at a 1.33 eV, in addition to the GaAs related line.

  6. New process for high optical quality InAs quantum dots grown on patterned GaAs(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Gonzalez, Pablo; Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Fuster, David; Fernandez-Martinez, Ivan; Martin-Sanchez, Javier; Abelmann, Leon

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a selective ultraviolet (UV)-ozone oxidation-chemical etching process that has been used, in combination with laser interference lithography (LIL), for the preparation of GaAs patterned substrates. Further molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of InAs results in ordered InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays with high optical quality from the first layer of QDs formed on the patterned substrate. The main result is the development of a patterning technology that allows the engineering of customized geometrical displays of QDs with the same optical quality as those formed spontaneously on flat non-patterned substrates

  7. Improved optical properties of InAs quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells by suppression of misfit strain relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, H. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Prioli, R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A., E-mail: ponce@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Kawabata, R. M. S.; Pinto, L. D.; Souza, P. L. [LabSem, CETUC, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Jakomin, R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Campus de Xerem, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Pires, M. P. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-21

    The properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for application in intermediate band solar cells. It is found that suppression of plastic relaxation in the QDs has a significant effect on the optoelectronic properties. Partial capping plus annealing is shown to be effective in controlling the height of the QDs and in suppressing plastic relaxation. A force balancing model is used to explain the relationship between plastic relaxation and QD height. A strong luminescence has been observed from strained QDs, indicating the presence of localized states in the desired energy range. No luminescence has been observed from plastically relaxed QDs.

  8. High uniformity of self-organized InAs quantum wires on InAlAs buffers grown on misoriented InP(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanli; Jin, P.; Ye, X.L.; Zhang, C.L.; Shi, G.X.; Li, R.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Wang, Z.G.

    2006-01-01

    Highly uniform InAs quantum wires (QWRs) have been obtained on the In 0.5 Al 0.5 As buffer layer grown on the InP substrate 8 (convolutionsign) off (001) towards (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy. The quasi-periodic composition modulation was spontaneously formed in the In 0.5 Al 0.5 As buffer layer on this misoriented InP (001). The width and period of the In-rich bands are about 10 and 40 nm, respectively. The periodic In-rich bands play a major role in the sequent InAs QWRs growth and the InAs QWRs are well positioned atop In-rich bands. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed a significant reduction in full width at half maximum and enhanced PL efficiency for InAs QWRs on misoriented InP(001) as compared to that on normal InP(001)

  9. Emission and elastic strain in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells with embedded InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Macotela, L.G.; Polupan, G. [ESIME - Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Shcherbyna, Ye. [National Technical University-' ' KPI' ' , Kiev 03057 (Ukraine)

    2012-07-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been studied in the symmetric GaAs/In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs), grown at different temperatures from the range 470-535 C. The increase of QD growth temperature is accompanied by decreasing the QD surface density and the enlargement of QD lateral diameters. Simultaneously the variation of the PL intensity and PL peak positions none monotonously have been detected. To understand the reason of the variation of PL intensity and peak positions the PL temperature dependences and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) at low angles (1.75-1.92 ) have been studied. The fitting procedure is applied to analysis the temperature shift of PL peak positions. Fitting has been done on the base of empirical expression for the band gap shrinkage that uses the Einstein temperature parameter. The character non monotonous for the Ga/In inter diffusion versus QD growth temperatures has been revealed. The XRD study has detected the high intensity peaks that corresponds to the diffraction of X-ray beam from the (311) crystal planes in GaAs QWs. The position of XRD peaks in the structures with QD grown at 490-510 C is very close to the angles related to the diffraction from (311) planes in the bulk GaAs. In QD structures with QD grown at 470 and 525-535 C the (311) XRD peaks shift to the higher diffraction angles that testifies on the essential compressive strains in these structures. The reason of the variation non monotonously of elastic strain versus QD densities has been discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  11. InAs quantum dot growth on AlxGa1−xAs by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for intermediate band solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakomin, R.; Kawabata, R. M. S.; Souza, P. L.; Mourão, R. T.; Pires, M. P.; Micha, D. N.; Xie, H.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al x Ga 1−x As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using an aluminium composition of x = 0.3 and InAs dot vertical dimensions of 5 nm, transitions to an intermediate band with energy close to the ideal theoretical value have been obtained. Optimum size uniformity and density have been achieved by capping the quantum dots with GaAs following the indium-flush method. This approach has also resulted in minimization of crystalline defects in the epilayer structure

  12. Structural and electrooptical characteristics of quantum dots emitting at 1.3 μm on gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiore, A.; Oesterle, U.; Stanley, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the structural and emission properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 mum. The dots are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on gallium arsenide substrates. Room-temperature emission at 1.3 mum is obtained by embedding the dots in an InGaAs layer...

  13. Direct-Bandgap InAs Quantum-Dots Have Long-Range Electron--Hole Exchange Whereas Indirect Gap Si Dots Have Short-Range Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juo, J.W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excitons in quantum dots manifest a lower-energy spin-forbidden 'dark' state below a spin-allowed 'bright' state; this splitting originates from electron-hole (e-h) exchange interactions, which are strongly enhanced by quantum confinement. The e-h exchange interaction may have both a short-range and a long-range component. Calculating numerically the e-h exchange energies from atomistic pseudopotential wave functions, we show here that in direct-gap quantum dots (such as InAs) the e-h exchange interaction is dominated by the long-range component, whereas in indirect-gap quantum dots (such as Si) only the short-range component survives. As a result, the exciton dark/bright splitting scales as 1/R 2 in InAs dots and 1/R 3 in Si dots, where R is the quantum-dot radius.

  14. INFLUENCE OF LOW-ENERGY AR-SPUTTERING ON THE ELECTRONIC-PROPERTIES OF INAS-BASED QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnee, P.H.C.; den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; van de Graaf, W.; Borghs, G.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low energy (80-500 eV) Ar-ion milling cleaning techniques on InAs based quantum well structures is investigated. It is found that both etching with a Kaufmann source and sputter-etching with a rf-plasma enhances the electron density and reduces the mobility. An anneal at 180 degrees

  15. Lab-in-a-drop: controlled self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and quantum rods into polycrystalline nanostructures with desired optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Volkov, Yuri; Rogach, Andrey L; Baranov, Alexander V; Susha, Andrei S; Klinov, Dmitriy; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Cohen, Jacques H M; Nabiev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Among the different nanometre-scale building blocks, colloidal nanocrystals are of special interest in construction of ordered assemblies to be used in optoelectronics, photonics and biosensing. It is important that the nanocrystal properties essential to allow the arrangement process, including their size, shape, surface protection, stabilization and charge, can be controlled along with the electronic structure of each nanocrystal. Here, we describe an operation of the 'lab-in-a-drop', droplets of the aqueous solutions of the water-solubilized CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots and quantum rods, in which a variety of nanostructures with desired properties may be produced. We show that, upon incubation and controlled evaporation of the solvent from the aqueous droplets of nanocrystals, one may produce either nanowires or polycrystalline dendrites of different morphologies and dimensions, depending on the nanocrystal shape and on the very narrow concentration and temperature specific ranges. Hence, the operation of this 'lab-in-a-drop' is controlled by external parameters providing the fluorescent nanostructures of desired size and morphology. Although a majority of the results presented here were obtained with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and rods, similar polycrystalline patterns may be produced in the aqueous suspensions of other nanocrystals

  16. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lin-Wang, E-mail: lwwang@lbl.gov [Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10{sup 5} atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose.

  17. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi; Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2014-01-01

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10 5 atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose

  18. InAs quantum wires on InP substrate for VCSEL applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lamy , Jean-Michel; Paranthoën , Cyril; Levallois , Christophe; Nakkar , Abdulhadi; Folliot , Hervé; Dehaese , Olivier; Le Corre , Alain; Loualiche , Slimane; Castany , Olivier; Dupont , Laurent

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Quantum dash based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) on InP substrate are presented. Single and close stacking layers were successfully grown with molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized quantum dash layers exhibit a strong polarized 1.55 µm photoluminescence along the [1-10] crystallographic axis. Continuous wave laser emission is demonstrated at room temperature for the first time on a quantum dash VCSEL structure on InP susbtrate. The quantum dash VCSEL lase...

  19. Onset of self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    We have formulated a theory of self-assembly based on the notion of local gauge invariance at the mesoscale. Local gauge invariance at the mesoscale generates the required long-range entropic forces responsible for self-assembly in binary systems. Our theory was applied to study the onset of mesostructure formation above a critical temperature in estane, a diblock copolymer. We used diagrammatic methods to transcend the Gaussian approximation and obtain a correlation length ξ∼(c-c * ) -γ , where c * is the minimum concentration below which self-assembly is impossible, c is the current concentration, and γ was found numerically to be fairly close to 2/3. The renormalized diffusion constant vanishes as the critical concentration is approached, indicating the occurrence of critical slowing down, while the correlation function remains finite at the transition point. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Characterization of highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers on InP substrate for a planar saturable absorber at 1.5 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Isu, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined the absorption saturation properties in the 1.5 μm band of novel highly stacked InAs quantum dot layers. The transmission change at vertical incidence based on the saturable absorption of the quantum dots was more than 1%. This value is as large as the reflection changes of previously reported 1-μm-band quantum dot saturable absorber with interference enhancement. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Self-assembly of cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Z.; Kurkov, S.V.; Nielsen, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    The design of functional cyclodextrin (CD) nanoparticles is a developing area in the field of nanomedicine. CDs can not only help in the formation of drug carriers but also increase the local concentration of drugs at the site of action. CD monomers form aggregates by self-assembly, a tendency...... that increases upon formation of inclusion complexes with lipophilic drugs. However, the stability of such aggregates is not sufficient for parenteral administration. In this review CD polymers and CD containing nanoparticles are categorized, with focus on self-assembled CD nanoparticles. It is described how...

  2. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 μm. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10 9 cm -2 and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 μeV between the cavity mode and

  3. Interaction and Cooperative Nucleation of InAsSbP Quantum Dots and Pits on InAs(100 Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambaryan Karen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An example of InAsSbP quaternary quantum dots (QDs, pits and dots–pits cooperative structures’ growth on InAs(100 substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE is reported. The interaction and surface morphology of the dots–pits combinations are investigated by the high-resolution scanning electron microscope. Bimodal growth mechanism for the both QDs and pits nucleation is observed. Cooperative structures consist of the QDs banded by pits, as well as the “large” pits banded by the quantum wires are detected. The composition of the islands and the pits edges is found to be quaternary, enriched by antimony and phosphorus, respectively. This repartition is caused by dissociation of the wetting layer, followed by migration (surface diffusion of the Sb and P atoms in opposite directions. The “small” QDs average density ranges from 0.8 to 2 × 109 cm−2, with heights and widths dimensions from 2 to 20 nm and 5 to 45 nm, respectively. The average density of the “small” pits is equal to (6–10 × 109 cm−2 with dimensions of 5–40 nm in width and depth. Lifshits–Slezov-like distribution for the amount and surface density of both “small” QDs and pits versus their average diameter is experimentally detected. A displacement of the absorption edge toward the long wavelength region and enlargement toward the short wavelength region is detected by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.

  4. Coherent Transport in a Linear Triple Quantum Dot Made from a Pure-Phase InAs Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Yin; Huang, Shaoyun; Huang, Guang-Yao; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H Q

    2017-07-12

    A highly tunable linear triple quantum dot (TQD) device is realized in a single-crystalline pure-phase InAs nanowire using a local finger gate technique. The electrical measurements show that the charge stability diagram of the TQD can be represented by three kinds of current lines of different slopes and a simulation performed based on a capacitance matrix model confirms the experiment. We show that each current line observable in the charge stability diagram is associated with a case where a QD is on resonance with the Fermi level of the source and drain reservoirs. At a triple point where two current lines of different slopes move together but show anticrossing, two QDs are on resonance with the Fermi level of the reservoirs. We demonstrate that an energetically degenerated quadruple point at which all three QDs are on resonance with the Fermi level of the reservoirs can be built by moving two separated triple points together via sophistically tuning of energy levels in the three QDs. We also demonstrate the achievement of direct coherent electron transfer between the two remote QDs in the TQD, realizing a long-distance coherent quantum bus operation. Such a long-distance coherent coupling could be used to investigate coherent spin teleportation and superexchange effects and to construct a spin qubit with an improved long coherent time and with spin state detection solely by sensing the charge states.

  5. Studying the InAs quantum points on the vicinal surface of a GaAs crystal by the atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Evtikhiev, V P; Kotelnikov, E Y; Matveentsev, A V; Titkov, A N; Shkolnik, A S

    2002-01-01

    The methodology for processing the images, obtained through the atomic force microscopy, is proposed. It is shown by the concrete example, how the parameters of the InAs clusters on the vicinal surface of the GaAs crystal are determined. This makes it possible to calculate the energy levels of the electrons and holes in the quantum point with application of the previously developed cluster spherical model

  6. Absorption coefficients for interband optical transitions in a strained InAs1−xPx/InP quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, S.; John Peter, A.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Excitons confined in an InAs 1−x P x /InP (x=0.2) quantum well wire are studied in the presence of magnetic field strength. Numerical calculations are carried out using variational approach within the single band effective mass approximation. The compressive strain contribution to the confinement potential is included throughout the calculations. The energy difference of the ground and the first excited state is investigated in the influence of magnetic field strength taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. The magnetic field induced optical band as a function of wire radius is investigated in the InAs 0.8 P 0.2 /InP quantum well wire. The valence-band anisotropy is included in our theoretical model by employing different hole masses in different spatial directions. The optical gain as a function of incident photon energy is computed in the presence of magnetic field strength. The corresponding 1.55 μm wavelength is achieved for 40 Å InAs 0.8 P 0.2 /InP quantum well wire. We hope that the results could be used for the potential applications in fiber optic communications. -- Highlights: • Magnetic field induced excitons confined in a InAs 1−x P x /InP (x=0.2) quantum well wire are studied. • The compressive strain is included throughout the calculations. • The energy difference of the ground and the first excited state is investigated in the presence of magnetic field strength. • The magnetic field induced optical band with the geometrical confinement is studied. • The optical gain with the photon energy is computed in the presence of magnetic field strength

  7. Combined vertically correlated InAs and GaAsSb quantum dots separated by triangular GaAsSb barrier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodková, Alice; Oswald, Jiří; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta; Kubištová, Jana; Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J.; Kuldová, Karla; Hulicius, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 17 (2013), "174305-1"-"174305-5" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk 7AMB12GR034; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy * InAs * GaAs * GaAsSb Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2013

  8. Tuning of Rashba/Dresselhaus Spin Splittings by Inserting Ultra-Thin InAs Layers at Interfaces in Insulating GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinling; Zeng, Xiaolin; Cheng, Shuying; Chen, Yonghai; Liu, Yu; Lai, Yunfeng; Zheng, Qiao; Ren, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings of the (001)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs), investigated by the spin photocurrent spectra induced by circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation, has been effectively tuned by changing the well width of QWs and by inserting a one-monolayer-thick InAs layer at interfaces of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) is also employed to study the interface asymmetry of the QWs, whose results are in good agreement with that obtained by CPGE measurements. It is demonstrated that the inserted ultra-thin InAs layers will not only introduce structure inversion asymmetry (SIA), but also result in additional interface inversion asymmetry (IIA), whose effect is much stronger in QWs with smaller well width. It is also found that the inserted InAs layer brings in larger SIA than IIA. The origins of the additional SIA and IIA introduced by the inserted ultra-thin InAs layer have been discussed.

  9. Fabrication of GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum well nanostructures on (100) si substrate using a 1-nm InAs relief layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H J; Park, S J; Lim, J Y; Cho, N K; Song, J D; Lee, W; Lee, Y J; Myoung, J M; Choi, W J

    2014-04-01

    Nanometer scale thin InAs layer has been incorporated between Si (100) substrate and GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum well (MQW) nanostructure in order to reduce the defects generation during the growth of GaAs buffer layer on Si substrate. Observations based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggest that initiation and propagation of defect at the Si/GaAs interface could be suppressed by incorporating thin (1 nm in thickness) InAs layer. Consequently, the microstructure and resulting optical properties improved as compared to the MQW structure formed directly on Si substrate without the InAs layer. It was also observed that there exists some limit to the desirable thickness of the InAs layer since the MQW structure having thicker InAs layer (4 nm-thick) showed deteriorated properties.

  10. Assembly of CdSe onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films induced by a self-assembled monolayer for quantum dot-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Lai-Wan; Chien, Huei-Ting; Lee, Yuh-Lang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethyoxysilane (MPTMS) is pre-assembled onto a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film and is used as a surface-modified layer to induce the growth of CdSe QDs in the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. Due to the specific interaction of the terminal thiol groups to CdSe, the MPTMS SAM is found to increase the nucleation and growth rates of CdSe in the SILAR process, leading to a well covering and higher uniform CdSe layer which has a superior ability, compared with the electrode without MPTMS, in inhibiting the charge recombination at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the performance of the CdSe-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrode can further be improved by an additional heat annealing after film deposition, attributable to a better interfacial connection between CdSe and TiO{sub 2}, as well as a better connection among CdSe QDs. The CdSe-sensitized solar cell prepared by the present strategy can achieve an energy conversion efficiency of 2.65% under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  11. Origin of localized states in zinc-blende ZnCdSe thin films and the influence on carrier relaxation of self-assembled ZnTe/ZnCdSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ling; Dai, Yue-Ru; Yang, Chu-Shou; Fan, Wen-Chung; Chou, Wu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The localized emission in zinc-blende ZnCdSe is induced by excess selenium. • An optimized growth is demonstrated as the VI/II ratio approaches unity. • Size-independent lifetimes are observed in ZnTe/ZnCdSe quantum dots. • Localized electrons in the capping layer dominate size-independent lifetimes. - Abstract: This study discovered the origin of deep level emission in zinc-blende ZnCdSe thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in which a localization behavior was noticed. Pronounced deep level emission observed in films grown under a VI/II ratio of 1.74 (Se-accumulated regime) could be suppressed by a lower VI/II ratio of 1.04 (intermediate regime) and 0.74 (metal-rich regime). Hence the localized states could be correlated to excess selenium accumulated at the growth surface. The localized states also influence the carrier relaxation process of self-assembled ZnTe quantum dots embedded in a ZnCdSe matrix. Once quantum dots surmount the wetting layer, localized electrons in the capping layer dominate the type-II transition and exhibit size-independent lifetimes

  12. Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s-1 directly modulated lasers and 40 Gb s-1 signal-regenerative amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, M; Hatori, N; Ishida, M; Ebe, H; Arakawa, Y; Akiyama, T; Otsubo, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakata, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the field of semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers with InAs-based self-assembled quantum dots in the active region for optical telecommunication. Based on our design in terms of the maximum bandwidth for high-speed modulation and p-type doping in quantum dots for high temperature stability, we realized temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s -1 laser diodes on a GaAs substrate at 1.3 μm. The output waveform at 10 Gb s -1 maintained a clear eye opening, average output power and extinction ratio without current adjustments from 20 deg. C to 70 deg. C. We developed ultrawide-band high-power amplifiers in the 1.5 μm wavelength region on an InP substrate. The amplifier showed ultrafast gain response under gain saturation, and enabled signal regeneration at 40 Gb s -1 by suppressing the '1'-level noise due to the beating between the signal and amplified spontaneous emission. We present our amplifier module with polarization diversity to enable a stable polarization-insensitive performance, and also, discuss prospects for polarization-insensitive quantum dots by the close stacking technique

  13. Self-assembled fluorescent organic nanoparticles for live cell imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, I.; Petkau, K.; Dorland, Y.L.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent, cell-permeable, organic nanoparticles based on self-assembled p-conjugated oligomers with high absorption cross-sections and high quantum yields have been developed. The nanoparticles are generated with a tuneable density of amino groups for charge-mediated cellular uptake by a

  14. All-optical control of the g-factor in self-assembled (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, G.W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have improved solid-state laser technology and introduced a new controllable zero-dimensional system to physicists. Next to laser technology, they can be applied as memory elements and (infrared) detectors as well. Quantum dots are commonly grown by epitaxial methods like

  15. Magnetoresistance engineering and singlet/triplet switching in InAs nanowire quantum dots with ferromagnetic sidegates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábián, G.; Makk, P.; Madsen, M. H.; Nygârd, J.; Schönenberger, C.; Baumgartner, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present magnetoresistance (MR) experiments on an InAs nanowire quantum dot device with two ferromagnetic sidegates (FSGs) in a split-gate geometry. The wire segment can be electrically tuned to a single dot or to a double dot regime using the FSGs and a backgate. In both regimes we find a strong MR and a sharp MR switching of up to 25% at the field at which the magnetizations of the FSGs are inverted by the external field. The sign and amplitude of the MR and the MR switching can both be tuned electrically by the FSGs. In a double dot regime close to pinch-off we find two sharp transitions in the conductance, reminiscent of tunneling MR (TMR) between two ferromagnetic contacts, with one transition near zero and one at the FSG switching fields. These surprisingly rich characteristics we explain in several simple resonant tunneling models. For example, the TMR-like MR can be understood as a stray-field controlled transitions between singlet and triplet double dot states. Such local magnetic fields are the key elements in various proposals to engineer novel states of matter and may be used for testing electron spin based Bell inequalities.

  16. Biomedical Applications of Self-Assembling Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radmalekshahi, Mazda; Lempsink, Ludwijn; Amidi, Maryam; Hennink, Wim E.; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling peptides have gained increasing attention as versatile molecules to generate diverse supramolecular structures with tunable functionality. Because of the possibility to integrate a wide range of functional domains into self-assembling peptides including cell attachment sequences,

  17. Electronic properties of excited states in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, Till

    2009-01-01

    The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (μPLE). One of the main difficulties using μPLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence (μPL) and μPLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton binding

  18. Thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot stacks using AlAs strain compensating layers on InP substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, S.; Folliot, H.; Le Pouliquen, J.; Chevalier, N.; Rohel, T.; Paranthoën, C.; Bertru, N.; Labbé, C.; Letoublon, A.; Le Corre, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal conductivity of InAs on InP (1 1 3)B quantum dots stacks is measured. ► The growth of a close stack of 100 layers of InAs using AlAs strain compensating layers is presented. ► New data on the thermal conductivity of InP n-doped susbtrate are given. - Abstract: The growth and thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot (QD) stacks embedded in GaInAs matrix with AlAs compensating layers deposited on (1 1 3)B InP substrate are presented. The effect of the strain compensating AlAs layer is demonstrated through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The thermal conductivity (2.7 W/m K at 300 K) measured by the 3ω method reveals to be clearly reduced in comparison with a bulk InGaAs layer (5 W/m K). In addition, the thermal conductivity measurements of S doped InP substrates and the SiN insulating layer used in the 3ω method in the 20–200 °C range are also presented. An empirical law is proposed for the S doped InP substrate, which slightly differs from previously presented results.

  19. Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Kuo, C.-T.; Gehlmann, M.; Conlon, C.; Keqi, A.; Rattanachata, A.; Karslıoǧlu, O.; Mueller, J.; Sethian, J.; Bluhm, H.; Rault, J. E.; Rueff, J. P.; Fang, H.; Javey, A.; Fadley, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    Free-standing nanoribbons of InAs quantum membranes (QMs) transferred onto a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror substrate are characterized by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPS) and by standing-wave HXPS (SW-HXPS). Information on the chemical composition and on the chemical states of the elements within the nanoribbons was obtained by HXPS and on the quantitative depth profiles by SW-HXPS. By comparing the experimental SW-HXPS rocking curves to x-ray optical calculations, the chemical depth profile of the InAs(QM) and its interfaces were quantitatively derived with ångström precision. We determined that (i) the exposure to air induced the formation of an InAsO4 layer on top of the stoichiometric InAs(QM); (ii) the top interface between the air-side InAsO4 and the InAs(QM) is not sharp, indicating that interdiffusion occurs between these two layers; (iii) the bottom interface between the InAs(QM) and the native oxide SiO2 on top of the (Si/Mo) substrate is abrupt. In addition, the valence band offset (VBO) between the InAs(QM) and the SiO2/(Si/Mo) substrate was determined by HXPS. The value of VBO = 0.2 ± 0.04 eV is in good agreement with literature results obtained by electrical characterization, giving a clear indication of the formation of a well-defined and abrupt InAs/SiO2 heterojunction. We have demonstrated that HXPS and SW-HXPS are non-destructive, powerful methods for characterizing interfaces and for providing chemical depth profiles of nanostructures, quantum membranes, and 2D layered materials.

  20. Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Conti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Free-standing nanoribbons of InAs quantum membranes (QMs transferred onto a (Si/Mo multilayer mirror substrate are characterized by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPS and by standing-wave HXPS (SW-HXPS. Information on the chemical composition and on the chemical states of the elements within the nanoribbons was obtained by HXPS and on the quantitative depth profiles by SW-HXPS. By comparing the experimental SW-HXPS rocking curves to x-ray optical calculations, the chemical depth profile of the InAs(QM and its interfaces were quantitatively derived with ångström precision. We determined that (i the exposure to air induced the formation of an InAsO4 layer on top of the stoichiometric InAs(QM; (ii the top interface between the air-side InAsO4 and the InAs(QM is not sharp, indicating that interdiffusion occurs between these two layers; (iii the bottom interface between the InAs(QM and the native oxide SiO2 on top of the (Si/Mo substrate is abrupt. In addition, the valence band offset (VBO between the InAs(QM and the SiO2/(Si/Mo substrate was determined by HXPS. The value of VBO = 0.2 ± 0.04 eV is in good agreement with literature results obtained by electrical characterization, giving a clear indication of the formation of a well-defined and abrupt InAs/SiO2 heterojunction. We have demonstrated that HXPS and SW-HXPS are non-destructive, powerful methods for characterizing interfaces and for providing chemical depth profiles of nanostructures, quantum membranes, and 2D layered materials.

  1. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  2. Coherent versus incoherent dynamics in InAs quantum-dot active wave guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    Coherent dynamics measured by time-resolved four-wave mixing is compared to incoherent population dynamics measured by differential transmission spectroscopy on the ground-state transition at room temperature of two types of InAs-based quantum dots with different confinement energies. The measure....... The measurements are performed with heterodyne detection on quantum-dot active wave guides to enhance the light-matter interaction length. An elastic nature of the measured dephasing is revealed which is independent of the dot energy level scheme....

  3. Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaibley, J R; Burgers, A P; McCracken, G A; Duan, L-M; Berman, P R; Steel, D G; Bracker, A S; Gammon, D; Sham, L J

    2013-04-19

    The electron spin state of a singly charged semiconductor quantum dot has been shown to form a suitable single qubit for quantum computing architectures with fast gate times. A key challenge in realizing a useful quantum dot quantum computing architecture lies in demonstrating the ability to scale the system to many qubits. In this Letter, we report an all optical experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to a single charged semiconductor quantum dot and the polarization state of a photon spontaneously emitted from the quantum dot's excited state. We obtain a lower bound on the fidelity of entanglement of 0.59±0.04, which is 84% of the maximum achievable given the timing resolution of available single photon detectors. In future applications, such as measurement-based spin-spin entanglement which does not require sub-nanosecond timing resolution, we estimate that this system would enable near ideal performance. The inferred (usable) entanglement generation rate is 3×10(3) s(-1). This spin-photon entanglement is the first step to a scalable quantum dot quantum computing architecture relying on photon (flying) qubits to mediate entanglement between distant nodes of a quantum dot network.

  4. Photoreflectance study of InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhifallah, I.; Daoudi, M.; Bardaoui, A.; Eljani, B.; Ouerghi, A.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Photoreflectance and photoluminescence studies were performed to characterize InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistors. These structures were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on (1 0 0) oriented GaAs substrates with different silicon-delta-doped layer densities. Interband energy transitions in the InAs ultrathin layer quantum well were observed below the GaAs band gap in the photoreflectance spectra, and assigned to electron-heavy-hole (E e-hh ) and electron-light-hole (E e-lh ) fundamental transitions. These transitions were shifted to lower energy with increasing silicon-δ-doping density. This effect is in good agreement with our theoretical results based on a self-consistent solution of the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations and was explained by increased escape of photogenerated carriers and enhanced Quantum Confined Stark Effect in the Si-delta-doped InAs/GaAs QW. In the photoreflectance spectra, not only the channel well interband energy transitions were observed, but also features associated with the GaAs and AlGaAs bulk layers located at about 1.427 and 1.8 eV, respectively. By analyzing the Franz-Keldysh Oscillations observed in the spectral characteristics of Si-δ-doped samples, we have determined the internal electric field introduced by ionized Si-δ-doped centers. We have observed an increase in the electric field in the InAs ultrathin layer with increasing silicon content. The results are explained in terms of doping dependent ionized impurities densities and surface charges. - Research highlights: → Studying HEMTs structures with different silicon doping content. → An increase of the electric field in the InAs layer with increasing Si content. → The interband energy transitions in the HEMTs structures have been obtained from PR. → Experimental and theoretical values of transitions energies were in good agreement.

  5. Vertical coupling effects in arrays of InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, S. [Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Firenze (Italy); Colocci, M.; Vinattieri, A.; Gucciardi, P.G. [Dipt. di Fisica, INFM, and LENS, Firenze (Italy); Bogani, F. [Dipt. di Energetica and INFM, Firenze (Italy); Franchi, S.; Frigeri, P.; Lazzarini, L.; Salviati, G. [CNR-MASPEC, Fontanini, Parma (Italy)

    2001-03-08

    We show that either a blueshift or a redshift of the fundamental transition energy can be observed in vertical arrays of InAs/GaAs quantum dots, depending on the spacer thicknesses, and explained by including strain, indium segregation, and Coulomb effects. (orig.)

  6. Carrier multiplication and its reduction by photodoping in colloidal InAs quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, J. J. H.; Hendry, E.; Milder, M.T.W.; Fanciulli, R.; Savolainen, J.; Herek, J.L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Ruhman, S.; Mocatta, D.; Oron, D.; Aharoni, A.; Banin, U.; Bonn, M.

    2007-01-01

    Carrier (exciton) multiplication in colloidal InAs/CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots (QDs) is investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, time-resolved transient absorption, and quasi-continuous wave excitation spectroscopy. For excitation by high-energy photons (~2.7 times the band gap

  7. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  8. Controlling the size of InAs quantum dots on Si1-xGex/Si(0 0 1) by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Ebe, Hiroji; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Sugama, Akio; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The formation of III-V InAs quantum dots (QDs) on group-IV Si 1-x Ge x /Si(0 0 1) was investigated by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Two types of QDs, round-shaped QDs and giant QDs elongated in the [1 1 0] or [1,-1,0] direction, were observed in a growth condition of low V/III ratios. An increase in the V/III ratio and AsH 3 preflow during the cooling process was found to suppress the formation of giant QDs. It was considered that replacing the H-stabilized SiGe surface with the As-stabilized surface was necessary for increasing the QD nucleation. The size and density of InAs QDs on SiGe were controllable as well as that on III-V semiconductor buffer layers, and InAs QDs with a density as high as 5 x 10 10 cm -2 were obtained.

  9. Contactless electroreflectance and photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots with GaInNAs barriers grown on GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Misiewicz, J.; Pucicki, D.; Tlaczala, M.; Fischer, M.; Marquardt, B.; Forchel, A.

    2007-01-01

    InAs quantum dots (QDs) with GaInNAs barriers grown on (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by contactless electroreflectance (CER) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. It has been observed that the overgrowth of self-organized InAs QDs with GaInNAs layers effectively tunes the QD emission to the 1.3 μm spectral region. In case of PL spectra only one peak related to QD emission has been observed. In the case of CER spectra, in addition to a CER feature corresponding to the QD ground state, a rich spectrum of CER resonances related to optical transitions in InAs/GaInNAs/GaAs QW has been observed. It has been concluded that the application of GaInNAs instead InGaAs leads to better control of emission wavelength from InAs QDs since strains in GaInNAs can be tuned from compressive to tensile. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Formation of InAs/GaAs quantum dots from a subcritical InAs wetting layer: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Z.; Usuki, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Sasakura, H.; Muto, S.

    2006-01-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) are formed by postgrowth annealing of an InAs wetting layer thinner than the critical thickness for the transition from two- (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) growth mode. Reflection high energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the QD formation. Based on a mean-field theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 897 (1997)], the time evolution of total QD's volume, first increasing and finally saturating, is well explained by precursors forming during wetting layer growth and converting into nucleated QD's after growth stop. Both the saturation QD's volume and the QD nucleation rate depend exponentially on the InAs coverage. These behaviors and their temperature and InAs growth rate dependences are essentially understandable in the frame of the mean-field theory. Similar analysis to conventional QD growth suggests that the often observed significant mass transport from wetting layer to QD's can be ascribed to the precursors existing before 2D-3D growth mode transition

  11. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO_2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) were decorated onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays (NTAs). • The CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs exhibits much improved photoelectrochemical activity. • The heterojunction displays efficient removal efficiencies for RhB and phenol. • Pollutants degradation mechanism over CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs was clarified. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO_2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO_2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  12. InAs0.45P0.55/InP strained multiple quantum wells intermixed by inductively coupled plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Meng; Wu, Hui-Zhen; Lao, Yan-Feng; Cao, Chun-Fang; Liu, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The intermixing effect on InAs 0.45 P 0.55 /InP strained multiple quantum wells (SMQWs) by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is investigated. Experiments show that the process of ICP etching followed RTA induces the blue shift of low temperature photoluminescence (PL) peaks of QWs. With increasing etching depth, the PL intensities are firstly enhanced and then diminished. This phenomenon is attributed to the variation of surface roughness and microstructure transformation inside the QW structure during ICP processing.

  13. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-28

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  14. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  15. Antibonding hole ground state in InAs quantum dot molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planelles, Josep [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080, Castelló (Spain)

    2015-01-22

    Using four-band k⋅p Hamiltonians, we study how strain and position-dependent effective masses influence hole tunneling in vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Strain reduces the tunneling and hence the critical interdot distance required for the ground state to change from bonding to antibonding. Variable mass has the opposite effect and a rough compensation leaves little affected the critical bonding-to-antibonding ground state crossover. An alternative implementation of the magnetic field in the envelope function Hamiltonian is given which retrieves the experimental denial of possible after growth reversible magnetically induced bonding-to-antibonding ground state transition, predicted by the widely used Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian.

  16. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  17. Mobility in excess of 106 cm2/V s in InAs quantum wells grown on lattice mismatched InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatke, A. T.; Wang, T.; Thomas, C.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas residing in strained composite quantum wells of In0.75Ga0.25As/InAs/In0.75Ga0.25As cladded with In0.75Al0.25As barriers grown metamorphically on insulating InP substrates. By optimizing the widths of the In0.75Ga0.25As layers, the In0.75Al0.25As barrier, and the InAs quantum well, we demonstrate mobility in excess of 1 ×106 cm2/V s. Mobility vs. density data indicate that scattering is dominated by a residual three dimensional distribution of charged impurities. We extract the effective Rashba parameter and spin-orbit length for these composite quantum wells.

  18. Quantum plasmon and Rashba-like spin splitting in self-assembled CoxC60 composites with enhanced Co content (x > 15)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Chvostová, Dagmar; Stupakov, Alexandr; Lavrentieva, Inna; Vacík, Jiří; Motylenko, M.; Barchuk, M.; Rafaja, D.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    Roč. 29, č. 13 ( 2018 ), č. článku 135701. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015088; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : fullerene * nanocomposites * quantum plasmon * optical spectra * energy band splitting Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  19. Realization and optical characterisation of micro-cavities in strong coupling regime using self-assembled multi-quantum wells structure of 2D perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanty, Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    The research work which is reported in this manuscript focuses on 2D perovskites and their use to obtain micro-cavities working in the strong coupling regime. Perovskite structure forms a multi-quantum wells in which the excitonic states have a high oscillator strength and a large binding energy (a few 100 MeV) due to quantum and dielectric confinement effects. A first axis of this work was to collect information on the excitonic properties of these materials. On a particular perovskite (PEPI), we performed photoluminescence and pump-probe measurements, which seem to suggest the existence, under high excitation density, a process of Auger recombination of excitons. A second research axis was to put in cavity thin layers of some perovskites. With PEPI and PEPC perovskites, we have shown that the realization of micro-cavities with a quality factor of the order of ten is sufficient to obtain at room temperature, the strong coupling regime in absorption and emission with Rabi splitting up to 220 MeV. A bottleneck effect has been clearly demonstrated for the PEPI microcavity. We have also shown that perovskites could be associated with inorganic semiconductors in 'hybrid' micro-cavities. According Agranovich et al., these micro-cavities could present polariton lasing with lower quality factors. To this end, the ZnO/MFMPB association seems particularly promising. (author)

  20. Hybrid nanostructures of well-organized arrays of colloidal quantum dots and a self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles for enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; McBride, Sean P.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprised of well-organized arrays of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in close proximity to metal nanoparticles (NPs) represent an appealing system for high-performance, spectrum-tunable photon sources with controlled photoluminescence. Experimental realization of such materials requires well-defined QD arrays and precisely controlled QD-metal interspacing. This long-standing challenge is tackled through a strategy that synergistically combines lateral confinement and vertical stacking. Lithographically generated nanoscale patterns with tailored surface chemistry confine the QDs into well-organized arrays with high selectivity through chemical pattern directed assembly, while subsequent coating with a monolayer of close-packed Au NPs introduces the plasmonic component for fluorescence enhancement. The results show uniform fluorescence emission in large-area ordered arrays for the fabricated QD structures and demonstrate five-fold fluorescence amplification for red, yellow, and green QDs in the presence of the Au NP monolayer. Encapsulation of QDs with a silica shell is shown to extend the design space for reliable QD/metal coupling with stronger enhancement of 11 times through the tuning of QD-metal spatial separation. This approach provides new opportunities for designing hybrid nanomaterials with tailored array structures and multiple functionalities for applications such as multiplexed optical coding, color display, and quantum transduction.

  1. Effect of multicomponent InAsSbP matrix surface on formation of InSb quantum dots at MOVPE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V. V.; Dement’ev, P. A.; Moiseev, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-antimonide quantum dots (7–9 × 10"9 cm"2) are produced on an InAs(001) substrate by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy at a temperature of T = 440°C. Epitaxial deposition occurred simultaneously onto an InAs binary matrix and an InAsSbP quaternary alloy matrix layer lattice-matched to the InAs substrate in terms of the lattice parameter. Transformation of the quantum-dot shape and size is studied in relation to the chemical composition of the working matrix surface, onto which the quantum dots are deposited. The use of a multicomponent layer makes it possible to control the lattice parameter of the matrix and the strains produced in the system during the formation of self-assembled quantum dots.

  2. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  3. Influence of CdTe sub-monolayer stressor on CdSe quantum dot self-assembling in ZnSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedova, I.V.; Lyublinskaya, O.G.; Sorokin, S.V.; Sitnikova, A.A.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Rykhova, O.V.; Toropov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the attempt to apply the stressor-controlled quantum dot (QD) fabrication technique to the conventional CdSe/ZnSe nanostructures. Super-strained CdTe fractional monolayer (Δa/a∝14% for CdTe/ZnSe) grown on top of the Te-stabilized ZnSe surface prior to deposition of the QD material (CdSe) has been used as a stressor which is expected to affect size, composition and density of CdSe QDs. The grown structures are studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission-electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation in comparison with conventional CdSe/ZnSe QDs obtained by a modified migration enhanced epitaxy technique. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots: From enlarged quantum dot height to alloy fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Herrero, J.M.; Gargallo-Caballero, R.; Bozkurt, M.; Moral, del M.; Guzman, A.; Koenraad, P.M.; Hierro, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sb-induced changes in the optical properties of GaAsSb-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are shown to be strongly correlated with structural changes. The observed redshift of the photoluminescence emission is shown to follow two different regimes. In the first regime, with Sb concentrations up

  5. Effect of an in-situ thermal annealing on the structural properties of self-assembled GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Delgado, N., E-mail: natalia.fernandezdelgado@alum.uca.es [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Chisholm, M.F. [Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Kamarudin, M.A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zhuang, Q.D.; Hayne, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Molina, S.I. [Department of Material Science, Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, IMEYMAT, University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • GaSb QDs are more elongated and Sb is less concentrated after the thermal annealing. • The density of misfit dislocations in GaSb QDs is reduced after the annealing. • Threading dislocations in GaSb/GaAs QDs are Sb-rich after the thermal annealing. • The gliding of a threading dislocation favors Sb diffusion in GaSb/GaAs QDs. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of the application of a thermal annealing on the structural properties of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) is analyzed by aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) Our results show that the GaSb/GaAs QDs are more elongated after the annealing, and that the interfaces are less abrupt due to the Sb diffusion. We have also found a strong reduction in the misfit dislocation density with the annealing. The analysis by EELS of a threading dislocation has shown that the dislocation core is rich in Sb. In addition, the region of the GaAs substrate delimited by the threading dislocation is shown to be Sb-rich as well. An enhanced diffusion of Sb due to a mechanism assisted by the dislocation movement is discussed.

  6. A layer-by-layer ZnO nanoparticle-PbS quantum dot self-assembly platform for ultrafast interfacial electron injection

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2014-08-28

    Absorbent layers of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are now used as material platforms for low-cost, high-performance solar cells. The semiconductor metal oxide nanoparticles as an acceptor layer have become an integral part of the next generation solar cell. To achieve sufficient electron transfer and subsequently high conversion efficiency in these solar cells, however, energy-level alignment and interfacial contact between the donor and the acceptor units are needed. Here, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique is used to assemble ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), providing adequate PbS QD uptake to achieve greater interfacial contact compared with traditional sputtering methods. Electron injection at the PbS QD and ZnO NP interface is investigated using broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 femtosecond temporal resolution. The results indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to ZnO NPs occurs on a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This observation is supported by the interfacial electronic-energy alignment between the donor and acceptor moieties. Finally, due to the combination of large interfacial contact and ultrafast electron injection, this proposed platform of assembled thin films holds promise for a variety of solar cell architectures and other settings that principally rely on interfacial contact, such as photocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul, E-mail: masiulelt@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mukherjee, Rabibrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.

  8. Deterministic self-organization: Ordered positioning of InAs quantum dots by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on patterned GaAs(311)B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, E.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Noetzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Laterally ordered InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays, InAs QD molecules, and single InAs QDs in a spot-like periodic arrangement are created by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of InGaAs/GaAs superlattice (SL) templates on planar GaAs (311)B substrates in molecular beam epitaxy. On shallow- and deep-patterned substrates the respectively generated steps and facets guide the self-organization process during SL template formation to create more complex ordering such as periodic stripes, depending on pattern design. Here we demonstrate for patterns such as shallow- and deepetched round holes and deep-etched zigzag mesas that the self-organized periodic arrangement of QD molecules and single QDs is spatially locked to the pattern sidewalls and corners. This extends the concept of guided self-organization to deterministic self-organization. Absolute position control of the QDs is achieved without one-to-one pattern definition. This guarantees the excellent arrangement control of the ordered QD molecules and single QDs with strong photoluminescence emission up to room temperature, which is required for future quantum functional devices. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. New process for high optical quality InAs quantum dots grown on patterned GaAs(001) substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-González, Pablo; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda; Fuster, David; Fernández-Martinez, Ivan; Martin-Sánchez, Javier; Abelmann, Leon

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a selective ultraviolet (UV)-ozone oxidation-chemical etching process that has been used, in combination with laser interference lithography (LIL), for the preparation of GaAs patterned substrates. Further molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of InAs results in ordered InAs/GaAs

  10. Photoreflectance study of InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhifallah, I., E-mail: ines.dhifallah@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Daoudi, M.; Bardaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Eljani, B. [Unite de recherche sur les Hetero-Epitaxie et Applications, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Ouerghi, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS Route de Nozay 91 46a0, Marcoussis (France); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semiconducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' energie, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    Photoreflectance and photoluminescence studies were performed to characterize InAs ultrathin layer embedded in Si-delta-doped GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistors. These structures were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on (1 0 0) oriented GaAs substrates with different silicon-delta-doped layer densities. Interband energy transitions in the InAs ultrathin layer quantum well were observed below the GaAs band gap in the photoreflectance spectra, and assigned to electron-heavy-hole (E{sub e-hh}) and electron-light-hole (E{sub e-lh}) fundamental transitions. These transitions were shifted to lower energy with increasing silicon-{delta}-doping density. This effect is in good agreement with our theoretical results based on a self-consistent solution of the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations and was explained by increased escape of photogenerated carriers and enhanced Quantum Confined Stark Effect in the Si-delta-doped InAs/GaAs QW. In the photoreflectance spectra, not only the channel well interband energy transitions were observed, but also features associated with the GaAs and AlGaAs bulk layers located at about 1.427 and 1.8 eV, respectively. By analyzing the Franz-Keldysh Oscillations observed in the spectral characteristics of Si-{delta}-doped samples, we have determined the internal electric field introduced by ionized Si-{delta}-doped centers. We have observed an increase in the electric field in the InAs ultrathin layer with increasing silicon content. The results are explained in terms of doping dependent ionized impurities densities and surface charges. - Research highlights: {yields} Studying HEMTs structures with different silicon doping content. {yields} An increase of the electric field in the InAs layer with increasing Si content. {yields} The interband energy transitions in the HEMTs structures have been obtained from PR. {yields} Experimental and theoretical values of transitions energies were in good agreement.

  11. Self-Assembly of Infinite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Summers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review some recent results related to the self-assembly of infinite structures in the Tile Assembly Model. These results include impossibility results, as well as novel tile assembly systems in which shapes and patterns that represent various notions of computation self-assemble. Several open questions are also presented and motivated.

  12. Bola-amphiphile self-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Bola-amphiphiles are rod-like molecules where both ends of the molecule likes contact with water, while the central part of the molecule dislikes contact with water. What do such molecules do when they are dissolved in water? They self-assemble into micelles. This is a Dissipartive particle...... dynamics simulation of this self-assembly behaviour....

  13. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  14. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  15. Molecular self-assembly advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dequan, Alex Li

    2012-01-01

    In the past several decades, molecular self-assembly has emerged as one of the main themes in chemistry, biology, and materials science. This book compiles and details cutting-edge research in molecular assemblies ranging from self-organized peptide nanostructures and DNA-chromophore foldamers to supramolecular systems and metal-directed assemblies, even to nanocrystal superparticles and self-assembled microdevices

  16. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selçuk, E.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering is combined with growth on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates to realize complex lateral ordering of InGaAs and InAs quantum dots (QDs) guided by steps and facets generated along the pattern sidewalls. Depending on the pattern design, size,

  17. Physical properties of metal–insulator–semiconductor structures based on n-GaAs with InAs quantum dots deposited onto the surface of an n-GaAs layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhov, S. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Koryazhkina, M. N., E-mail: mahavenok@mail.ru; Kasatkin, A. P.; Antonov, I. N.; Vihrova, O. V.; Morozov, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The properties of metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures based on n-GaAs in which silicon oxide and yttria-stabilized zirconia and hafnia are used as the insulator containing InAs quantum dots, which are embedded at the insulator/n-GaAs interface, are investigated. The structures manifest the resistive switching and synaptic behavior.

  18. Probing into hybrid organic-molecule and InAs quantum-dots nanosystem with multistacked dots-in-a-well units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miaoxiang; Kobashi, Kazufumi

    2012-09-01

    Hybridizing air-stable organic-molecules with advanced III-V semiconductor quantum-dots (QDs) structures can be utilized to create a new generation of biochemical sensing devices. In order to enhance their optical performances, the active regions in these QDs structures commonly consist of multistacked dots-in-a-well (DWELL) units. The effects of grafted molecules on the performances of the QDs structures with multistacked DWELLs, however, still remain unclear. Here, we show the significant improvements in the optical properties of InAs QDs in a hybrid nanosystem obtained by grafting biocompatible diazonium salt compound (amine donor) atop InAs QDs structure. Since its interface between the QDs structure and molecular monolayer retains an uncontaminated and non-oxidized condition, the nanosystem is an ideal platform to study the intrinsic properties of charge-carrier transport inside the system. Because of the complexity of the energy-levels in the QDs structure due to the existing surface QDs and DWELLs, selective excitation wavelengths (400, 633, and 885 nm, respectively) with different photo-energies are used to exactly analyze the complete charging mechanism in these QDs. A clear view of charge-carrier transfer inside the nanosystem is revealed by employing photoluminescence technique under selective-wavelength excitations. The present work provides new quantitative evidences for exploiting inorganic QDs applications in complex biological systems.

  19. Probing into hybrid organic-molecule and InAs quantum-dots nanosystem with multistacked dots-in-a-well units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Miaoxiang [Department of Micro- and Nano technology, Technical University of Denmark, Orsteds Plads, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kobashi, Kazufumi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Hybridizing air-stable organic-molecules with advanced III-V semiconductor quantum-dots (QDs) structures can be utilized to create a new generation of biochemical sensing devices. In order to enhance their optical performances, the active regions in these QDs structures commonly consist of multistacked dots-in-a-well (DWELL) units. The effects of grafted molecules on the performances of the QDs structures with multistacked DWELLs, however, still remain unclear. Here, we show the significant improvements in the optical properties of InAs QDs in a hybrid nanosystem obtained by grafting biocompatible diazonium salt compound (amine donor) atop InAs QDs structure. Since its interface between the QDs structure and molecular monolayer retains an uncontaminated and non-oxidized condition, the nanosystem is an ideal platform to study the intrinsic properties of charge-carrier transport inside the system. Because of the complexity of the energy-levels in the QDs structure due to the existing surface QDs and DWELLs, selective excitation wavelengths (400, 633, and 885 nm, respectively) with different photo-energies are used to exactly analyze the complete charging mechanism in these QDs. A clear view of charge-carrier transfer inside the nanosystem is revealed by employing photoluminescence technique under selective-wavelength excitations. The present work provides new quantitative evidences for exploiting inorganic QDs applications in complex biological systems.

  20. Longer than 1.9 μm photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum structure on GaAs (001) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ke; Ma, Wenquan, E-mail: wqma@semi.ac.cn; Huang, Jianliang; Zhang, Yanhua; Cao, Yulian; Huang, Wenjun; Luo, Shuai; Yang, Tao [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qinghua East Road A 35, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-27

    We report on photoluminescence (PL) emission with long wavelength for quantum structure by the sub-monolayer (SML) growth technique on GaAs (001) substrate. It is found that the PL emission wavelength can be controlled by controlling the SML InAs deposition amount. At 12 K, the PL peak position of the grown samples changes from about 1.66 to 1.78 μm. At 120 K, the PL emission of a sample reaches 1.91 μm. The physical mechanism responsible for the measured long wavelength PL emission may be related to strong In segregation and intermixing effects occurred in the structure grown by SML growth technique.

  1. Self-Assembly of Colloidal Particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is self-assembly where one engineers interaction between nanoscopic building blocks so ..... big question in the field how this microscopic chirality of the virus gets translated ... shape emerges due to a competition between the surface tension.

  2. Polymorphism of lipid self-assembly systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    When lipid molecules are dispersed into an aqueous medium, various self-organized structures are formed, depending on conditions (temperature, concentration, etc), in consequence of the amphipathic nature of the molecules. In addition, lipid self-assembly systems exhibit polymorphic phase transition behavior. Since lipids are one of main components of biomembranes, studies on the structure and thermodynamic properties of lipid self-assembly systems are fundamentally important for the consideration of the stability of biomembranes. (author)

  3. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware

    2013-11-15

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the

  4. Mechanical Self-Assembly Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical Self-Assembly: Science and Applications introduces a novel category of self-assembly driven by mechanical forces. This book discusses self-assembly in various types of small material structures including thin films, surfaces, and micro- and nano-wires, as well as the practice's potential application in micro and nanoelectronics, MEMS/NEMS, and biomedical engineering. The mechanical self-assembly process is inherently quick, simple, and cost-effective, as well as accessible to a large number of materials, such as curved surfaces for forming three-dimensional small structures. Mechanical self-assembly is complementary to, and sometimes offer advantages over, the traditional micro- and nano-fabrication. This book also: Presents a highly original aspect of the science of self-assembly Describes the novel methods of mechanical assembly used to fabricate a variety of new three-dimensional material structures in simple and cost-effective ways Provides simple insights to a number of biological systems and ...

  5. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  6. Influence of nitrogen on the growth and the properties of InAs quantum dots; Einfluss von Stickstoff auf das Wachstum und die Eigenschaften von InAs-Quantenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, O.

    2004-11-01

    This work investigates the influence of nitrogen incorporation on the growth and the optical properties of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(001) substrates. On the basis of systematic growth interruptions it was shown that the large quantum dots nucleate at dislocations, which are already formed during the growth of the wetting layer. After solving the growth problems, the influence of different combinations of matrix layers on the structural and optical properties of the quantum dots was investigated in the second part of this work. The strain and bandgap of these layers were varied systematically. (orig.)

  7. Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yin, Peng; Park, Sung Ha; Li, Hanying; Feng, Liping; Guan, Xiaoju; Liu, Dage; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, a number of research groups have begun developing nanofabrication methods based on DNA self-assembly. Here we review our recent experimental progress to utilize novel DNA nanostructures for self-assembly as well as for templates in the fabrication of functional nano-patterned materials. We have prototyped a new DNA nanostructure known as a cross structure. This nanostructure has a 4-fold symmetry which promotes its self-assembly into tetragonal 2D lattices. We have utilized the tetragonal 2D lattices as templates for highly conductive metallic nanowires and periodic 2D protein nano-arrays. We have constructed and characterized a DNA nanotube, a new self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. We have also demonstrated an aperiodic DNA lattice composed of DNA tiles assembled around a long scaffold strand; the system translates information encoded in the scaffold strand into a specific and reprogrammable barcode pattern. We have achieved metallic nanoparticle linear arrays templated on self-assembled 1D DNA arrays. We have designed and demonstrated a 2-state DNA lattice, which displays expand/contract motion switched by DNA nanoactuators. We have also achieved an autonomous DNA motor executing unidirectional motion along a linear DNA track.

  8. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-02

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  9. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  10. Electron and hole spectrum in InAs quantum dot renormalized by InAs/GaAs heterostructure deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan'kiv, O.O.; Peleshchak, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expressions describing the energy spectrum of electrons and holes are obtained for a quantum dot occurring in a self-consistent strain field created by an array of coherently stressed quantum dots. A method of taking into account the lattice mismatch at the quantum dot-matrix interface is proposed that allows for the dependence of the mismatch parameter on the quantum dot size and the matrix layer thickness. It is shown that the internal elastic strain arising at the quantum dot-matrix interface influences the energy spectrum of electrons more significantly than the spectrum of holes [ru

  11. Wetting layer states in low density InAs/InGaAs quantum dots from sub-critical InAs coverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L; Trevisi, G; Frigeri, P; Rossi, F; Buffagni, E; Ferrari, C

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of wetting layers in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structures suitable for single photon emission; the mandatory low density of QDs is obtained by an molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach based on the deposition of sub-critical InAs coverages followed by post-growth annealing. Such a growth regime is fundamentally different from the Stranski–Krastanow (SK) one commonly used for the deposition of QDs. By fitting x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, ten-steps composition profiles were derived and used as inputs of model calculations of the two-dimensional quantum energy system: model results were validated by comparison with photoluminescence spectra. A strong reduction of In molar fraction in wetting layers in comparison with SK structures was found, causing a larger wavefunction delocalization for carriers that populate the wetting layer energy levels. Moreover, by considering the limits for strain relaxation when In x Ga 1−x As capping layers are used, we grew structures with the highest possible values of x to study the modifications of the energy system. When x = 0.20 the electron–heavy hole overlap is almost halved and the carriers' probability of being in the first nanometre of the wetting layer is reduced by 60%. These results will be useful for advanced design of QD nanostructures for single photon sources. (paper)

  12. InAs quantum dot growth on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for intermediate band solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakomin, R., E-mail: robertojakomin@xerem.ufrj.br [Campus de Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Campus de Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Kawabata, R. M. S.; Souza, P. L. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro, 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Mourão, R. T.; Pires, M. P. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Micha, D. N. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Coordenação de Licenciatura em Física, CEFET/RJ, Petrópolis-RJ (Brazil); Xie, H.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using an aluminium composition of x = 0.3 and InAs dot vertical dimensions of 5 nm, transitions to an intermediate band with energy close to the ideal theoretical value have been obtained. Optimum size uniformity and density have been achieved by capping the quantum dots with GaAs following the indium-flush method. This approach has also resulted in minimization of crystalline defects in the epilayer structure.

  13. Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-27

    Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing is a concept that allows the strength of thick-wall rigid pipe, and the flexibility of thin-wall tubing, to be realized in a single design. The primary use is for a drillstring tubular, but it has potential for other applications requiring transmission of mechanical loads (forces and torques) through an initially coiled tubular. The concept uses a spring-loaded spherical `ball-and-socket` type joint to interconnect two or more short, rigid segments of pipe. Use of an optional snap ring allows the joint to be permanently made, in a `self-assembling` manner.

  14. Strain, size and composition of InAs quantum sticks, embedded in InP, determined via X-ray anomalous diffraction and diffraction anomalous fine structure in grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letoublon, A.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Renevier, H.; Proietti, M.G.; Monat, C.; Gendry, M.; Marty, O.; Priester, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the study of strain, size and composition of small-size encapsulated semiconductor nanostructures. We show that the partial structure factor of As atoms in InAs stick-like nanostructures (quantum sticks), embedded in InP, can be directly extracted from grazing incidence anomalous X-ray diffraction maps at the As K-edge. We have recovered the average height and strain of the islands and determined their composition. The average height of the quantum sticks (QSs), as deduced from the width of the structure factor profile is 2.54 nm. The InAs out of plane deformation, relative to InP, is equal to 6.1%. Fixed-Q anomalous diffraction spectra, measured at the As K-edge, in grazing incidence provide clear evidence of pure InAs QSs. This is confirmed by the analysis of the diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) that also gives a direct way to recover the strain accomodation inside the quantum sticks. Finite difference method calculations reproduce well the diffraction data. Chemical mixing at interfaces is at most 1 ML. This paper shows that ultimate application of anomalous diffraction and DAFS together with reciprocal space maps is a powerful method to sudy the structural properties of nanostructures

  15. Large branched self-assembled DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, Paul; Waelti, Christoph; Middelberg, Anton P J; Davies, A Giles

    2007-01-01

    Many biological molecules have been demonstrated to self-assemble into complex structures and networks by using their very efficient and selective molecular recognition processes. The use of biological molecules as scaffolds for the construction of functional devices by self-assembling nanoscale complexes onto the scaffolds has recently attracted significant attention and many different applications in this field have emerged. In particular DNA, owing to its inherent sophisticated self-organization and molecular recognition properties, has served widely as a scaffold for various nanotechnological self-assembly applications, with metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, proteins, macromolecular complexes, inter alia, being assembled onto designed DNA scaffolds. Such scaffolds may typically contain multiple branch-points and comprise a number of DNA molecules selfassembled into the desired configuration. Previously, several studies have used synthetic methods to produce the constituent DNA of the scaffolds, but this typically constrains the size of the complexes. For applications that require larger self-assembling DNA complexes, several tens of nanometers or more, other techniques need to be employed. In this article, we discuss a generic technique to generate large branched DNA macromolecular complexes

  16. Self-assembled nanogaps for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Jain, Titoo; Hassenkam, Tue; Wan, Qing; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-06-17

    A nanogap for molecular devices was realized using solution-based self-assembly. Gold nanorods were assembled to gold nanoparticle-coated conducting SnO2:Sb nanowires via thiol end-capped oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs). The molecular gap was easily created by the rigid molecule itself during self-assembly and the gap length was determined by the molecule length. The gold nanorods and gold nanoparticles, respectively covalently bonded at the two ends of the molecule, had very small dimensions, e.g. a width of approximately 20 nm, and hence were expected to minimize the screening effect. The ultra-long conducting SnO2:Sb nanowires provided the bridge to connect one of the electrodes of the molecular device (gold nanoparticle) to the external circuit. The tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) was contacted onto the other electrode (gold nanorod) for the electrical measurement of the OPV device. The conductance measurement confirmed that the self-assembly of the molecules and the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanorods was a feasible method for the fabrication of the nanogap of the molecular devices.

  17. Self-assembled nanogaps for molecular electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Jain, Titoo

    2009-01-01

    A nanogap for molecular devices was realized using solution-based self-assembly. Gold nanorods were assembled to gold nanoparticle-coated conducting SnO2:Sb nanowires via thiol end-capped oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs). The molecular gap was easily created by the rigid molecule itself during se...

  18. Self-assembly of patchy colloidal dumbbells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avvisati, Guido|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407630198; Vissers, Teun|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829943; Dijkstra, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123538807

    2015-01-01

    We employ Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the self-assembly of patchy colloidal dumbbells interacting via a modified Kern-Frenkel potential by probing the system concentration and dumbbell shape. We consider dumbbells consisting of one attractive sphere with diameter sigma(1) and one

  19. Inverse Problem in Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    2012-02-01

    By decorating colloids and nanoparticles with DNA, one can introduce highly selective key-lock interactions between them. This leads to a new class of systems and problems in soft condensed matter physics. In particular, this opens a possibility to solve inverse problem in self-assembly: how to build an arbitrary desired structure with the bottom-up approach? I will present a theoretical and computational analysis of the hierarchical strategy in attacking this problem. It involves self-assembly of particular building blocks (``octopus particles''), that in turn would assemble into the target structure. On a conceptual level, our approach combines elements of three different brands of programmable self assembly: DNA nanotechnology, nanoparticle-DNA assemblies and patchy colloids. I will discuss the general design principles, theoretical and practical limitations of this approach, and illustrate them with our simulation results. Our crucial result is that not only it is possible to design a system that has a given nanostructure as a ground state, but one can also program and optimize the kinetic pathway for its self-assembly.

  20. Self-assembled nanogaps for molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qingxin; Tong Yanhong; Jain, Titoo; Hassenkam, Tue; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjoernholm, Thomas; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A nanogap for molecular devices was realized using solution-based self-assembly. Gold nanorods were assembled to gold nanoparticle-coated conducting SnO 2 :Sb nanowires via thiol end-capped oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs). The molecular gap was easily created by the rigid molecule itself during self-assembly and the gap length was determined by the molecule length. The gold nanorods and gold nanoparticles, respectively covalently bonded at the two ends of the molecule, had very small dimensions, e.g. a width of ∼20 nm, and hence were expected to minimize the screening effect. The ultra-long conducting SnO 2 :Sb nanowires provided the bridge to connect one of the electrodes of the molecular device (gold nanoparticle) to the external circuit. The tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) was contacted onto the other electrode (gold nanorod) for the electrical measurement of the OPV device. The conductance measurement confirmed that the self-assembly of the molecules and the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanorods was a feasible method for the fabrication of the nanogap of the molecular devices.

  1. Fluorescent Self-Assembled Polyphenylene Dendrimer Nanofibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Daojun; Feyter, Steven De; Cotlet, Mircea; Wiesler, Uwe-Martin; Weil, Tanja; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Schryver, Frans C. De

    2003-01-01

    A second-generation polyphenylene dendrimer 1 self-assembles into nanofibers on various substrates such as HOPG, silicon, glass, and mica from different solvents. The investigation with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NCAFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the morphology of the

  2. Optical Rabi Oscillations in a Quantum Dot Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2010-09-01

    We have investigated Rabi oscillations of exciton polarization in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot ensemble. The four-wave mixing signals measured as a function of the average of the pulse area showed the large in-plane anisotropy and nonharmonic oscillations. The experimental results can be well reproduced by a two-level model calculation including three types of inhomogeneities without any fitting parameter. The large anisotropy can be well explained by the anisotropic dipole moments. We also find that the nonharmonic behaviors partly originate from the polarization interference.

  3. Impact of capping layer type on emission of InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchynska, T. V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx; Casas Espinola, J. L. [ESFM–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Stintz, A. [Center of High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    The optical and structural properties of In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As/GaAs quantum wells with embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs) were investigated by the photoluminescence (PL), its temperature dependence, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high resolution (HR-XRD) methods in dependence on the composition of capping In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As layers. Three types of capping layers (Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, Al{sub 0.10}Ga{sub 0.75}In{sub 0.15}As, and Al{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.45}In{sub 0.15}As) have been used and their impact on PL parameters has been compared. Temperature dependences of PL peak positions in QDs have been analyzed in the range of 10–500 K and to compare with the temperature shrinkage of band gap in the bulk InAs crystal. This permits to investigate the QD material composition and the efficiency of Ga(Al)/In inter diffusion in dependence on the type of In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As capping layers. XRD and HR-XRD used to control the composition of quantum well layers. It is shown that QD material composition is closer to InAs in the structure with the Al{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.45}In{sub 0.15}As capping layer and for this structure the emission 1.3 μm is detected at 300 K. The thermal decay of the integrated PL intensity has been studied as well. It is revealed the fast 10{sup 2}-fold thermal decay of the integrated PL intensity in the structure with the Al{sub 0.10}Ga{sub 0.75}In{sub 0.15}As capping layer in comparison with 10-fold decay in other structures. Finally, the reasons of PL spectrum transformation and the mechanism of PL thermal decay for different capping layers have been analyzed and discussed.

  4. Competitive growth mechanisms of InAs quantum dots on InxGa1-xAs layer during post growth interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changjae; Kim, Jungsub; Sim, Uk; Lee, Jaeyel; Choi, Won Jun; Yoon, Euijoon

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the post growth interruption (GI) on InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on In x Ga 1-x As strained buffer layers (SBL). When QDs were grown on the 5 and 10% In content SBLs by using post GI, the size of QDs increased as its density decreased. Based on the 50 meV red-shift of PL in these cases, the transport of materials between QDs leads to the increase of QD size with maintaining its composition during the post GI. On the other hand, when using SBLs with the 15 and 20% In contents, the size of QDs increased, but its density was a little reduced. In addition, PL results were observed blue-shifted by about 20 meV and 2 meV, respectively. Considering the interruption of source gases during the post GI, these observations are strong evidence of the Ga incorporation from 15 and 20% In content SBLs. Therefore, these results imply that the dominant mechanism which increases the size of QDs during the post GI depends on the growth condition of SBL.

  5. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures

  6. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru, E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  7. Observation of infrared absorption of InAs quantum dot structures in AlGaAs matrix toward high-efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Kotani, Teruhisa; Izumi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2018-06-01

    In accordance with the detailed balance limit model of single-intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs), the optimum matrix bandgap and IB–conduction band (CB) energy gap are ∼1.9 and 0.7 eV, respectively. We present the room-temperature polarized infrared absorption of 20 stacked InAs quantum dot (QD) structures in the Al0.32Ga0.68As matrix with a bandgap of ∼1.9 eV for the design of high-efficiency IBSCs by using a multipass waveguide geometry. We find that the IB–CB absorption is almost independent of the light polarization, and estimate the magnitude of the absorption per QD layer to be ∼0.01%. We also find that the IB–CB absorption edge of QD structures with a wide-gap matrix is ∼0.41 eV. These results indicate that both the significant increase in the magnitude of IB–CB absorption and the lower energy of the IB state for the higher IB–CB energy gap are necessary toward the realization of high-efficiency IBSCs.

  8. A Novel Strategy for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Self Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Veen, Henk A.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle self assemblies are one-dimensional structures of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle self assemblies exhibit unique physical properties and find applications in the development of biosensors. Methodologies currently available for lab-scale and commercial synthesis of gold

  9. Electronic structure properties of the In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot–quantum well tunnel-injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sęk, Grzegorz; Andrzejewski, Janusz; Ryczko, Krzysztof; Poloczek, Przemysław; Misiewicz, Jan; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lemaitre, Aristide; Patriarche, Gilles; Ramdane, Aberrahim

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electronic properties of GaAs-substrate-based structures designed as a tunnel-injection system composed of self-assembled InAs quantum dots and an In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum well separated by a GaAs barrier. We have performed photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements which have allowed the determination of the optical transitions in the QW–QD tunnel structure and its respective references with just quantum dots or a quantum well. The effective mass calculations of the band structure dependence on the tunnelling barrier thickness have shown that in spite of an expected significant tunnelling between both parts of the system, its strong asymmetry and the strain distribution cause that the quantum-mechanical-coupling-induced energy shift of the optical transitions is almost negligible for the lowest energy states and weakly sensitive to the width of the barrier, which finds confirmation in the existing experimental data

  10. Studies on the controlled growth of InAs nanostructures on scission surfaces; Untersuchungen zum kontrollierten Wachstum von InAs-Nanostrukturen auf Spaltflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, J.

    2006-01-15

    The aim of this thesis was the controlled alignment of self-assembled InAs nano-structures on a {l_brace}110{r_brace}-oriented surface. The surface is prestructured with the atomic precision offered by molecular beam epitaxy, using the cleaved edge overgrowth-technique. On all samples grown within this work, the epitaxial template in the first growth step was deposited on a (001)GaAs substrate, while the InAs-layer forming the nanostructures during the second growth step was grown on cleaved {l_brace}110{r_brace}-GaAs surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations demonstrate the formation of quantum dot (QD)-like nanostructures on top of the AlAs-stripes. X-ray diffraction measurements on large arrays of aligned quantum dots demonstrate that the quantum dots are formed of pure InAs. First investigations on the optical properties of these nanostructures were done using microphotoluminescence-spectroscopy with both high spatial and spectral resolution. (orig.)

  11. Ternary self-assemblies in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Leila R.; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Jones, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of higher order structures in water is realised by using the association of 1,3-biscarboxylates to binuclear meta-xylyl bridged DO3A complexes. Two dinicotinate binding sites are placed at a right-angle in a rhenium complex, which is shown to form a 1 : 2 complex with α,α'-bis(E......The self-assembly of higher order structures in water is realised by using the association of 1,3-biscarboxylates to binuclear meta-xylyl bridged DO3A complexes. Two dinicotinate binding sites are placed at a right-angle in a rhenium complex, which is shown to form a 1 : 2 complex with α...

  12. Self-assembling membranes and related methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capito, Ramille M; Azevedo, Helena S; Stupp, Samuel L

    2013-08-20

    The present invention relates to self-assembling membranes. In particular, the present invention provides self-assembling membranes configured for securing and/or delivering bioactive agents. In some embodiments, the self-assembling membranes are used in the treatment of diseases, and related methods (e.g., diagnostic methods, research methods, drug screening).

  13. High mobility In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells in an InAs phonon lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Holmes, S. N.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    InGaAs based devices are great complements to silicon for CMOS, as they provide an increased carrier saturation velocity, lower operating voltage and reduced power dissipation (International technology roadmap for semiconductors (www.itrs2.net)). In this work we show that In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells with a high mobility, 15 000 to 20 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at ambient temperature, show an InAs-like phonon with an energy of 28.8 meV, frequency of 232 cm-1 that dominates the polar-optical mode scattering from  ˜70 K to 300 K. The measured optical phonon frequency is insensitive to the carrier density modulated with a surface gate or LED illumination. We model the electron scattering mechanisms as a function of temperature and identify mechanisms that limit the electron mobility in In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells. Background impurity scattering starts to dominate for temperatures  <100 K. In the high mobility In0.75Ga0.25As quantum well, GaAs-like phonons do not couple to the electron gas unlike the case of In0.53Ga0.47As quantum wells.

  14. Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Chemotherapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Aileen

    The self-assembly of short designed peptides into functional nanostructures is becoming a growing interest in a wide range of fields from optoelectronic devices to nanobiotechnology. In the medical field, self-assembled peptides have especially attracted attention with several of its attractive features for applications in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biological engineering as well as cosmetic industry and also the antibiotics field. We here describe the self-assembly of peptide conjugated with organic chromophore to successfully deliver sequence independent micro RNAs into human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. The nanofiber used as the delivery vehicle is completely non-toxic and biodegradable, and exhibit enhanced permeability effect for targeting malignant tumors. The transfection efficiency with nanofiber as the delivery vehicle is comparable to that of the commercially available RNAiMAX lipofectamine while the toxicity is significantly lower. We also conjugated the peptide sequence with camptothecin (CPT) and observed the self-assembly of nanotubes for chemotherapeutic applications. The peptide scaffold is non-toxic and biodegradable, and drug loading of CPT is high, which minimizes the issue of systemic toxicity caused by extensive burden from the elimination of drug carriers. In addition, the peptide assembly drastically increases the solubility and stability of CPT under physiological conditions in vitro, while active CPT is gradually released from the peptide chain under the slight acidic tumor cell environment. Cytotoxicity results on human colorectal cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines display promising anti-cancer properties compared to the parental CPT drug, which cannot be used clinically due to its poor solubility and lack of stability in physiological conditions. Moreover, the peptide sequence conjugated with 5-fluorouracil formed a hydrogel with promising topical chemotherapeutic applications that also display

  15. Centrioles: Some Self-Assembly Required

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi Hye; Miliaras, Nicholas B.; Peel, Nina; O'Connell, Kevin F.

    2008-01-01

    Centrioles play an important role in organizing microtubules and are precisely duplicated once per cell cycle. New (daughter) centrioles typically arise in association with existing (mother) centrioles (canonical assembly), suggesting that mother centrioles direct the formation of daughter centrioles. However, under certain circumstances, centrioles can also self-assemble free of an existing centriole (de novo assembly). Recent work indicates that the canonical and de novo pathways utilize a ...

  16. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling; Selbstorganisiertes Wachstum von (Ga)InAs/GaAs-Quantenpunkten und Entwicklung von Mikroresonatoren hoechster Guete fuer Experimente zur starken Exziton-Photon-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-11-05

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 {mu}m. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 {mu}eV between the

  17. Theory of the electronic structure and carrier dynamics of strain-induced (Ga, In)As quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxberg, Fredrik; Tulkki, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    Strain-induced quantum dots (SIQD) confine electrons and holes to a lateral potential minimum within a near-surface quantum well (QW). The potential minimum is located in the QW below a nanometre-sized stressor crystal grown on top of the QW. SIQD exhibit well-resolved and prominently atomic-like optical spectra, making them ideal for experimental and theoretical studies of mesoscopic phenomena in semiconductor nanocrystals. In this report we review the theory of strain-induced confinement, electronic structure, photonics and carrier relaxation dynamics in SIQD. The theoretical results are compared with available experimental data. Electronic structure calculations are mainly performed using the multiband envelope function approach. Many-body effects are discussed using a direct diagonalization method, albeit, for the sake of computational feasibility, within a two-band model. The QD carrier dynamics are discussed in terms of a master equation model, which accounts for the details of the electronic structure as well as the leading photon, phonon and Coulomb interaction processes. We also discuss the quantum confined Stark effect, the Zeeman splitting and the formation of Landau levels in external fields. Finally, we review a recent theory of the cooling of radiative QD excitons by THz radiation. In particular we discuss the resonance charge transfer of holes between piezoelectric trap states and the deformation potential minima. The agreement between the theory and experiment is fair throughout, but calls for further investigations

  18. Effect of GaAs interlayer thickness variations on the optical properties of multiple InAs QD structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.Y.; Park, K.W.; Kim, J.M.; Lee, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) with vertically stacked structure are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and the effects of GaAs interlayer thickness variation on optical properties are studied. The growth conditions are optimized by in-situ RHEED, AFM, and PL measurement. The five InAs QD layers are embedded in GaAs and Al0.3Ga0.7As layer. The PL intensity is increased with increasing GaAs interlayer thickness. The thin GaAs interlayer has strain field, the strain-induced intermixing of indium atoms in the InAs QDs (blue-shift) can overcompensate for the effect on the increased QD size (red-shift) (H. Heidemeyer et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1544 (2002); T. Nakaoka et al. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 150 (2004)[1, 2], respectively). For the interlayer thickness larger than about 7 nm, the blue-shifts are correlated to the dominant high-energy excited state transitions due to the successive state filling of the ground and higher excited states in the QDs. The energy separation of double PL peaks, originated from two different excited states, was kept at around 50 meV at room temperature. A possible mechanism concerning this phenomenon is also discussed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Self-assembled biomimetic nanoreactors I: Polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Matt; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Jugroot, Manish

    2015-09-01

    The variety of nanoarchitectures made feasible by the self-assembly of alternating copolymers opens new avenues for biomimicry. Indeed, self-assembled structures allow the development of nanoreactors which combine the efficiency of high surface area metal active centres to the effect of confinement due to the very small cavities generated by the self-assembly process. A novel self-assembly of high molecular weight alternating copolymers is characterized in the present study. The self-assembly is shown to organize into nanosheets, providing a 2 nm hydrophobic cavity with a 1D confinement.

  20. Centrioles: some self-assembly required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Hye; Miliaras, Nicholas B; Peel, Nina; O'Connell, Kevin F

    2008-12-01

    Centrioles play an important role in organizing microtubules and are precisely duplicated once per cell cycle. New (daughter) centrioles typically arise in association with existing (mother) centrioles (canonical assembly), suggesting that mother centrioles direct the formation of daughter centrioles. However, under certain circumstances, centrioles can also selfassemble free of an existing centriole (de novo assembly). Recent work indicates that the canonical and de novo pathways utilize a common mechanism and that a mother centriole spatially constrains the self-assembly process to occur within its immediate vicinity. Other recently identified mechanisms further regulate canonical assembly so that during each cell cycle, one and only one daughter centriole is assembled per mother centriole.

  1. Broadband light sources using InAs quantum dots with InGaAs strain-reducing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Megumi; Inoue, Tomoya; Kita, Takashi; Wada, Osamu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    We fabricated broadband superluminescent diodes (SLDs) for optical coherence tomography (OCT). We used three kinds of quantum dot (QD) layers with different emission peak wavelengths in the active region of SLD. The emission wavelength was controlled by reducing the strain in QDs; by using the In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9} As strain-reducing layer, the peak wavelength shifted toward the longer-wavelength side, and the photoluminescence peak intensity becomes strong in contrast to QDs on GaAs. By stacking these strain-controlled QD layers, the SLD device shows a broad electroluminescence spectrum with the center wavelength of 1130 nm and the spectral linewidth of approximately 240 nm at the injection of 1A caused by the increased emission intensity from the excited states. This corresponds to an resolution of 2.3 {mu}m in OCT. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Quantifying quality in DNA self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Wachauf, Christian H.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly with DNA is an attractive route for building nanoscale devices. The development of sophisticated and precise objects with this technique requires detailed experimental feedback on the structure and composition of assembled objects. Here we report a sensitive assay for the quality of assembly. The method relies on measuring the content of unpaired DNA bases in self-assembled DNA objects using a fluorescent de-Bruijn probe for three-base ‘codons’, which enables a comparison with the designed content of unpaired DNA. We use the assay to measure the quality of assembly of several multilayer DNA origami objects and illustrate the use of the assay for the rational refinement of assembly protocols. Our data suggests that large and complex objects like multilayer DNA origami can be made with high strand integration quality up to 99%. Beyond DNA nanotechnology, we speculate that the ability to discriminate unpaired from paired nucleic acids in the same macromolecule may also be useful for analysing cellular nucleic acids. PMID:24751596

  3. Oxide nanostructures through self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S.; Ogale, S. B.; Ganpule, C. S.; Shinde, S. R.; Novikov, V. A.; Monga, A. P.; Burr, M. R.; Ramesh, R.; Ballarotto, V.; Williams, E. D.

    2001-03-01

    A prominent theme in inorganic materials research is the creation of uniformly flat thin films and heterostructures over large wafers, which can subsequently be lithographically processed into functional devices. This letter proposes an approach that will lead to thin film topographies that are directly counter to the above-mentioned philosophy. Recent years have witnessed considerable research activity in the area of self-assembly of materials, stimulated by observations of self-organized behavior in biological systems. We have fabricated uniform arrays of nonplanar surface features by a spontaneous assembly process involving the oxidation of simple metals, especially under constrained conditions on a variety of substrates, including glass and Si. In this letter we demonstrate the pervasiveness of this process through examples involving the oxidation of Pd, Cu, Fe, and In. The feature sizes can be controlled through the grain size and thickness of the starting metal thin film. Finally, we demonstrate how such submicron scale arrays can serve as templates for the design and development of self-assembled, nanoelectronic devices.

  4. Stereochemistry in subcomponent self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Ana M; Ramsay, William J; Nitschke, Jonathan R

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: As Pasteur noted more than 150 years ago, asymmetry exists in matter at all organization levels. Biopolymers such as proteins or DNA adopt one-handed conformations, as a result of the chirality of their constituent building blocks. Even at the level of elementary particles, asymmetry exists due to parity violation in the weak nuclear force. While the origin of homochirality in living systems remains obscure, as does the possibility of its connection with broken symmetries at larger or smaller length scales, its centrality to biomolecular structure is clear: the single-handed forms of bio(macro)molecules interlock in ways that depend upon their handednesses. Dynamic artificial systems, such as helical polymers and other supramolecular structures, have provided a means to study the mechanisms of transmission and amplification of stereochemical information, which are key processes to understand in the context of the origins and functions of biological homochirality. Control over stereochemical information transfer in self-assembled systems will also be crucial for the development of new applications in chiral recognition and separation, asymmetric catalysis, and molecular devices. In this Account, we explore different aspects of stereochemistry encountered during the use of subcomponent self-assembly, whereby complex structures are prepared through the simultaneous formation of dynamic coordinative (N → metal) and covalent (N═C) bonds. This technique provides a useful method to study stereochemical information transfer processes within metal-organic assemblies, which may contain different combinations of fixed (carbon) and labile (metal) stereocenters. We start by discussing how simple subcomponents with fixed stereogenic centers can be incorporated in the organic ligands of mononuclear coordination complexes and communicate stereochemical information to the metal center, resulting in diastereomeric enrichment. Enantiopure subcomponents were then

  5. The self-assembly of monodisperse nanospheres within microtubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuebing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Huang, Tony Jun

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled monodisperse nanospheres within microtubes have been fabricated and characterized. In comparison with colloidal crystals formed on planar substrates, colloidal nanocrystals self-assembled in microtubes demonstrate high spatial symmetry in their optical transmission and reflection properties. The dynamic self-assembly process inside microtubes is investigated by combining temporal- and spatial-spectrophotometric measurements. The understanding of this process is achieved through both experimentally recorded reflection spectra and finite difference time domain (FDTD)-based simulation results

  6. Magnetic self-assembly of small parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetye, Sheetal B.

    Modern society's propensity for miniaturized end-user products is compelling electronic manufacturers to assemble and package different micro-scale, multi-technology components in more efficient and cost-effective manners. As the size of the components gets smaller, issues such as part sticking and alignment precision create challenges that slow the throughput of conventional robotic pick-n-place systems. As an alternative, various self-assembly approaches have been proposed to manipulate micro to millimeter scale components in a parallel fashion without human or robotic intervention. In this dissertation, magnetic self-assembly (MSA) is demonstrated as a highly efficient, completely parallel process for assembly of millimeter scale components. MSA is achieved by integrating permanent micromagnets onto component bonding surfaces using wafer-level microfabrication processes. Embedded bonded powder methods are used for fabrication of the magnets. The magnets are then magnetized using pulse magnetization methods, and the wafers are then singulated to form individual components. When the components are randomly mixed together, self-assembly occurs when the intermagnetic forces overcome the mixing forces. Analytical and finite element methods (FEM) are used to study the force interactions between the micromagnets. The multifunctional aspects of MSA are presented through demonstration of part-to-part and part-to-substrate assembly of 1 mm x 1mm x 0.5 mm silicon components. Part-to-part assembly is demonstrated by batch assembly of free-floating parts in a liquid environment with the assembly yield of different magnetic patterns varying from 88% to 90% in 20 s. Part-to-substrate assembly is demonstrated by assembling an ordered array onto a fixed substrate in a dry environment with the assembly yield varying from 86% to 99%. In both cases, diverse magnetic shapes/patterns are used to control the alignment and angular orientation of the components. A mathematical model is

  7. Multifunctional Materials Based on Self Assembly of Molecular Nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stupp, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    .... The objective was to integrate self assembly, encoded in the triblock structure, luminescent properties, and the properties characteristic of materials that have macroscopically polar structure...

  8. Self-assembled software and method of overriding software execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2013-01-08

    A computer-implemented software self-assembled system and method for providing an external override and monitoring capability to dynamically self-assembling software containing machines that self-assemble execution sequences and data structures. The method provides an external override machine that can be introduced into a system of self-assembling machines while the machines are executing such that the functionality of the executing software can be changed or paused without stopping the code execution and modifying the existing code. Additionally, a monitoring machine can be introduced without stopping code execution that can monitor specified code execution functions by designated machines and communicate the status to an output device.

  9. The effect of Au amount on size uniformity of self-assembled Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Wang, D-C; Chen, G-Y; Chen, K-Y [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-15

    The self-assembled fabrication of nanostructure, a dreaming approach in the area of fabrication engineering, is the ultimate goal of this research. A finding was proved through previous research that the size of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles could be controlled with the mole ratio between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol. In this study, the moles of Au were fixed, only the moles of thiol were adjusted. Five different mole ratios of Au/S with their effect on size uniformity were investigated. The mole ratios were 1:1/16, 1:1/8, 1:1, 1:8, 1:16, respectively. The size distributions of the gold nanoparticles were analyzed by Mac-View analysis software. HR-TEM was used to derive images of self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The result reached was also the higher the mole ratio between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol the bigger the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Under the condition of moles of Au fixed, the most homogeneous nanoparticles in size distribution derived with the mole ratio of 1:1/8 between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol. The obtained nanoparticles could be used, for example, in uniform surface nanofabrication, leading to the fabrication of ordered array of quantum dots.

  10. Heterogeneous self-assembled media for biopolymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous media, such as micro-structured aqueous environments, could offer an alternative approach to the synthesis of biopolymers with novel functions. Structured media are here defined as specialized, self-assembled structures that are formed, e.g, by amphiphiles, such as liposomes, emulsion...... polymerization, the initial elongation rates clearly depended on the complementarity of the monomers with the templating nucleobases3. However, metal-ion catalyzed reactions deliver RNA analogs with heterogeneous linkages. Moreover, the usefulness of this medium in the form of quasi-compartmentalization extends...... beyond metal-ion catalysis reactions, as we have recently demonstrated the catalytic power of a dipeptide, SerHis, for the regioselective formation of phosphodiester bonds. These results in conjonction with the synthesis of nucleobases at -78˚C, the demonstration of ribozyme activity (RNA ligase ribozyme...

  11. Controlling water evaporation through self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kevin; Liebi, Marianne; Heimdal, Jimmy; Pham, Quoc Dat; Sparr, Emma

    2016-09-13

    Water evaporation concerns all land-living organisms, as ambient air is dryer than their corresponding equilibrium humidity. Contrarily to plants, mammals are covered with a skin that not only hinders evaporation but also maintains its rate at a nearly constant value, independently of air humidity. Here, we show that simple amphiphiles/water systems reproduce this behavior, which suggests a common underlying mechanism originating from responding self-assembly structures. The composition and structure gradients arising from the evaporation process were characterized using optical microscopy, infrared microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We observed a thin and dry outer phase that responds to changes in air humidity by increasing its thickness as the air becomes dryer, which decreases its permeability to water, thus counterbalancing the increase in the evaporation driving force. This thin and dry outer phase therefore shields the systems from humidity variations. Such a feedback loop achieves a homeostatic regulation of water evaporation.

  12. Beam damage of self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, P.C.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Porter, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray and electron beam damage studies were performed on Br-terminated and methyl-terminated alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers. X-ray beam initiated damage was primarily limited to removal of the labile Br group and did not significantly damage the hydrocarbon chain. Some of the x-ray beam damage could be attributed to low-energy electrons emitted by the non-monochromatic source, but further damage was attributed to secondary electrons produced in the sample by x-ray exposure. Electron beams caused significant damage to the hydrocarbon chains. Maximum damage occurred with a beam energy of 600 eV and a dosage of 6x10 -3 C/cm 2

  13. Elimination of Bimodal Size in InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots for Preparation of 1.3-μm Quantum Dot Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiang-Bin; Ding, Ying; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Ke-Lu; Chen, Ze-Sheng; Li, Jing-Lun; Cui, Xiao-Ran; Xu, Ying-Qiang; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2018-02-21

    The device characteristics of semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been improved with progress in active layer structures. Self-assembly formed InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs had been intensively promoted in order to achieve quantum dot lasers with superior device performances. In the process of growing high-density InAs/GaAs quantum dots, bimodal size occurs due to large mismatch and other factors. The bimodal size in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot system is eliminated by the method of high-temperature annealing and optimized the in situ annealing temperature. The annealing temperature is taken as the key optimization parameters, and the optimal annealing temperature of 680 °C was obtained. In this process, quantum dot growth temperature, InAs deposition, and arsenic (As) pressure are optimized to improve quantum dot quality and emission wavelength. A 1.3-μm high-performance F-P quantum dot laser with a threshold current density of 110 A/cm 2 was demonstrated.

  14. Grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure of self-assembled semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, S.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M.G.; Renevier, H.; Gonzalez, L.; Garcia, J.M.; Priester, C.; Garcia, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied self-organized quantum wires of InAs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto a InP(0 0 1) substrate, by means of grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS). The equivalent quantum wires thickness is 2.5 monolayers. We measured the (4 4 0) and (4 2 0) GIDAFS spectra, at the As K-edge, keeping the incidence and exit angles close to the InP critical angle. The analysis of both the smooth and oscillatory contributions of the DAFS spectrum, provide valuable information about composition and strain inside the quantum wires and close to the interface. We also show preliminary results on InAs wires encapsulated by a 40 A thick InP capping layer, suggesting the DAFS capability of probing different iso-strain regions of the wires

  15. Multicomponent and Dissipative Self-Assembly Approaches : Towards functional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-assembly has proven to be a powerful approach to create smart and functional materials and has led to a vast variety of successful examples. However, the full potential of self-assembly has not been reached. Despite the number of successful artificial materials based on

  16. Multivalent protein assembly using monovalent self-assembling building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Sonntag, M.H.; Colditz, A.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard

  17. Synthetic Self-Assembled Materials in Biological Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, F.; van Esch, J.H.; Eelkema, R.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic self-assembly has long been recognized as an excellent approach for the formation of ordered structures on the nanoscale. Although the development of synthetic self-assembling materials has often been inspired by principles observed in nature (e.g., the assembly of lipids, DNA,

  18. Equilibrium polymerization models of re-entrant self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Douglas, Jack F.; Freed, Karl F.

    2009-04-01

    As is well known, liquid-liquid phase separation can occur either upon heating or cooling, corresponding to lower and upper critical solution phase boundaries, respectively. Likewise, self-assembly transitions from a monomeric state to an organized polymeric state can proceed either upon increasing or decreasing temperature, and the concentration dependent ordering temperature is correspondingly called the "floor" or "ceiling" temperature. Motivated by the fact that some phase separating systems exhibit closed loop phase boundaries with two critical points, the present paper analyzes self-assembly analogs of re-entrant phase separation, i.e., re-entrant self-assembly. In particular, re-entrant self-assembly transitions are demonstrated to arise in thermally activated equilibrium self-assembling systems, when thermal activation is more favorable than chain propagation, and in equilibrium self-assembly near an adsorbing boundary where strong competition exists between adsorption and self-assembly. Apparently, the competition between interactions or equilibria generally underlies re-entrant behavior in both liquid-liquid phase separation and self-assembly transitions.

  19. Self-assembly behaviour of conjugated terthiophene surfactants in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick; Janeliunas, Dainius; Brizard, Aurelie M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Koper, Ger J. M.; Eelkema, Rienk; van Esch, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated self-assembled systems in water are of great interest because of their potential application in biocompatible supramolecular electronics, but so far their supramolecular chemistry remains almost unexplored. Here we present amphiphilic terthiophenes as a general self-assembling platform

  20. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, P. A.; Deville, S.; Fulkar, A.; Hakouk, K.; Impéror-Clerc, M.; Klotz, M.; Liu, Q.; Marcellini, M.; Perez, J.

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0{\\deg}C.

  1. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    compared with other less polar solvents) in order to determine optimized conditions for self-assembly, for which relatively large (> 1 mum2) areas of superlattices could be routinely formed. Depending on appropriate selection of the radius ratio, AuCu or CaCu 5 binary superlattices of CdSe-Au nanoparticles were generated. Chapter 4. The preparation of binary nanoparticle superlattices obtained by self-assembly of two different semiconductor quantum dots is presented. Such a system is a means to include two discretized, quantum-confined, and complimentary semiconductor units in close proximity, which might exhibit interesting charge transport properties for applications such as solar cells. From a range of possible structures predicted, we observe an exclusive preference for the formation of Cuboctahedral AB13 (Cuboctahedral modification of NaZn13) and AB5 (isostructural with CaCu5) structures in the system of 8.1 nm CdTe and 4.4 nm CdSe nanoparticles. To understand further the principles of superlattice formation, space-filling curves for binary component hard spheres over the full range of radius ratio are constructed. In addition, the pair interaction energies due to core-core and ligand-ligand van der Waals forces are estimated. The real structures are believed to form under a major influence of entropic driving forces (following the hard-sphere space filling principle) and combined with other influence from the surface (as nanoparticle deviates from hard spheres). Chapter 5. A nanoparticle radius ratio dependent study of the formation of binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots is reported. While keeping all other parameters identical in the system, the effective nanoparticle radius ratio, gammaeff, was tuned to allow the formation of five different BNSL structures, AlB 2, cub-NaZn13, ico-NaZn 13, CaCu5, and MgZn2. For each structure, gamma eff is located close to a local maximum of its space-filling factor, based on a model following the

  2. Toward a molecular programming language for algorithmic self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitz, Matthew John

    Self-assembly is the process whereby relatively simple components autonomously combine to form more complex objects. Nature exhibits self-assembly to form everything from microscopic crystals to living cells to galaxies. With a desire to both form increasingly sophisticated products and to understand the basic components of living systems, scientists have developed and studied artificial self-assembling systems. One such framework is the Tile Assembly Model introduced by Erik Winfree in 1998. In this model, simple two-dimensional square 'tiles' are designed so that they self-assemble into desired shapes. The work in this thesis consists of a series of results which build toward the future goal of designing an abstracted, high-level programming language for designing the molecular components of self-assembling systems which can perform powerful computations and form into intricate structures. The first two sets of results demonstrate self-assembling systems which perform infinite series of computations that characterize computably enumerable and decidable languages, and exhibit tools for algorithmically generating the necessary sets of tiles. In the next chapter, methods for generating tile sets which self-assemble into complicated shapes, namely a class of discrete self-similar fractal structures, are presented. Next, a software package for graphically designing tile sets, simulating their self-assembly, and debugging designed systems is discussed. Finally, a high-level programming language which abstracts much of the complexity and tedium of designing such systems, while preventing many of the common errors, is presented. The summation of this body of work presents a broad coverage of the spectrum of desired outputs from artificial self-assembling systems and a progression in the sophistication of tools used to design them. By creating a broader and deeper set of modular tools for designing self-assembling systems, we hope to increase the complexity which is

  3. Self-assembled nanostructures in oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Haris Masood

    Self-assembled nanoislands in the gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC)/ yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system have recently been discovered. This dissertation is an attempt to study the mechanism by which these nanoislands form. Nanoislands in the GDC/YSZ system form via a strain based mechanism whereby the stress accumulated in the GDC-doped surface layer on the YSZ substrate is relieved by creation of self-assembled nanoislands by a mechanism similar to the ATG instability. Unlike what was previously believed, a modified surface layer is not required prior to annealing, that is, this modification can occur during annealing by surface diffusion of dopants from the GDC sources (distributed on the YSZ surface in either lithographically defined patch or powder form) with simultaneous breakup, which occurs at the hold temperature independent of the subsequent cooling. Additionally, we have developed a simple powder based process of producing nanoislands which bypasses lithography and thin film deposition setups. The versatility of the process is apparent in the fact that it allows us to study the effect of experimental parameters such as soak time, temperature, cooling rate and the effect of powder composition on nanoisland properties in a facile way. With the help of this process, we have shown that nanoislands are not peculiar to Gd containing oxide source materials on YSZ substrates and can also be produced with other source materials such as La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm 2O3, Eu2O3, Tb2O3 and even Y2O3, which is already present in the substrate and hence simplifies the system further. We have extended our work to include YSZ substrates of the (110) surface orientation and have found that instead of nanoisland arrays, we obtain an array of parallel nanobars which have their long axes oriented along the [1-10] direction on the YSZ-(110) surface. STEM EDS performed on both the bars and the nanoislands has revealed that they are solid YSZ-rich solid solutions with the dopant species and

  4. Improvement of the optical quality of site-controlled InAs quantum dots by a double stack growth technique in wet-chemically etched holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfau, Tino Johannes; Gushterov, Aleksander; Reithmaier, Johann-Peter [Technische Physik, INA, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Cestier, Isabelle; Eisenstein, Gadi [Electrical Engineering Dept., Technion, Haifa (Israel); Linder, Evgany; Gershoni, David [Solid State Institute and Physics Dept., Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of the wet-chemically etching of holes and a special MBE growth stack technique allows enlarging the site-control of low density InAs QDs on GaAs substrates up to a buffer layer thickness of 55 nm. The strain of InAs QDs, grown in the etched holes, reduces the hole closing, so that a pre-patterned surface is conserved for the second QD layer. The distance of 50 nm GaAs between the two QD layers exceeds drastically the maximum vertical alignment based on pure strain coupling (20 nm). Compared to stacks with several QD layers, this method avoids electronic coupling between the different QD layers and reduces the problems to distinguish the dots of different layers optically. Confocal microphotoluminescence reveals a significant diminution of the low temperature photoluminescence linewidth of the second InAs QD layer to an average value of 505{+-}53 {mu}eV and a minimum width of 460 {mu}eV compared to 2 to 4 meV for QDs grown on thin buffer layers. The increase of the buffer layer thickness decreases the influence of the surface defects caused by prepatterning.

  5. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental determination of the electron effective masses and mobilities in each dimensionally-quantized subband in an InxGa1−xAs quantum well with InAs inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Oveshnikov, L. N.; Lunin, R. A.; Yuzeeva, N. A.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    HEMT structures with In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As quantum well are synthesized using molecular-beam epitaxy on InP substrates. The structures are double-side Si δ-doped so that two dimensionally-quantized subbands are occupied. The effect of the central InAs nanoinsert in the quantum well on the electron effective masses m* and mobilities in each subband is studied. For experimental determination of m*, the quantum μ q and transport μ t mobilities of the two-dimensional electron gas in each dimensionally-quantized subband, the Shubnikov-de Haas effect is measured at two temperatures of 4.2 and 8.4 K. The electron effective masses are determined by the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitudes, separating the oscillations of each dimensionally-quantized subband. The Fourier spectra of oscillations are used to determine the electron mobilities μ q and μ t in each dimensionally-quantized subband. It is shown that m* decreases as the InAs-nanoinsert thickness d in the In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As quantum well and electron mobilities increase. The maximum electron mobility is observed at the insert thickness d = 3.4 nm

  7. Characterization of iron surface modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yuanyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Shenhao [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: shchen@sdu.edu.cn; Zhang Honglin [Department of Chemistry, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Li Ping [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wu Ling [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Wenjuan [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-30

    A self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) adsorbed on the iron surface was prepared. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides, the microcalorimetry method was utilized to study the self-assembled process on iron surface and the adsorption mechanism was discussed from the power-time curve. The results indicated that MBT was able to form a film spontaneously on iron surface and the presence of it could protect iron from corrosion effectively. However, the assembling time and the concentration influence the protection efficiency. Quantum chemical calculations, according to which adsorption mechanism was discussed, could explain the experimental results to some extent.

  8. Electrical and optical measurements on a single InAs quantum dot using ion-implanted micro-LEDs; Elektrische und optische Untersuchungen an einem einzelnen InAs-Quantenpunkt mit Hilfe ionenstrahlimplantierter Mikro-LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.F.

    2006-10-19

    The goal of this present thesis was to electrically and optically address a single InAs quantum dot. Therefore micro-structured quantum-dot-LEDs with an emission area smaller than 1 {mu}m{sup 2} were developed. One major part of this work was contributed to optimizing several steps of the micro-LED fabrication process. To be able to compare the electrical conductivity obtained from Hall-measurements to the expected values, the implantation profile was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. As the thermal annealing step had to be performed in the growth chamber of the MBE-system several annealing parameters had to be modified to achieve optimum electrical conductivity and quantum dot growth. For one of the Be-implanted pin-samples the principle of the single-quantum-dot-LEDs could be proved. The smallest device of this sample, with nominal stripe widths of 150 nm (FIB-stripe) and 400 nm (top-stripe), showed typical features of a single quantum dot. In the high-resolution EL-spectra of this device three extremely sharp emission lines were observed which clearly could be assigned to the electron-hole recombination from a single quantum dot. To further identify the origin of these lines their optical intensities were plotted against the injection current. From this plot it could be deduced, that the first evolving line clearly belongs to the simple exciton 1X. The following lines could be assigned to the decay of the biexciton 2X and the triexciton 3X{sub s}, respectively. With increasing bias all three lines show a pronounced red-shift due to the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). To identify the charge state of the observed excitonic lines, additional high-resolution IV curves were taken. (orig.)

  9. Functional self-assembled lipidic systems derived from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Julian R; Samateh, Malick; John, George

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled lipidic amphiphile systems can create a variety of multi-functional soft materials with value-added properties. When employing natural reagents and following biocatalytic syntheses, self-assembling monomers may be inherently designed for degradation, making them potential alternatives to conventional and persistent polymers. By using non-covalent forces, self-assembled amphiphiles can form nanotubes, fibers, and other stimuli responsive architectures prime for further applied research and incorporation into commercial products. By viewing these lipid derivatives under a lens of green principles, there is the hope that in developing a structure-function relationship and functional smart materials that research may remain safe, economic, and efficient.

  10. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies...... of transfer converge at ∼-18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle...

  11. Onset wear in self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Acunto, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are very useful for the systematic modification of the physical, chemical and structural properties of a surface by varying the chain length, tail group and composition. Many of these properties can be studied making use of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the interaction between the AFM probe tip and the SAMs can also be considered an excellent reference to study the fundamental properties of dissipation phenomena and onset wear for viscoelastic materials on the nanoscale. We have performed a numerical study showing that the fundamental mechanism for the onset wear is a process of nucleation of domains starting from initial defects. An SAM surface repeatedly sheared by an AFM probe tip with enough applied loads shows the formation of progressive damages nucleating in domains. The AFM induced surface damages involve primarily the formation of radicals from the carbon chain backbones, but the deformations of the chains resulting in changes of period lattice also have to be taken into consideration. The nucleation of the wear domains generally starts at the initial surface defects where the energy cohesion between chains is lower. Moreover, the presence of surface defects is consistent with the changes in lateral force increasing the probability of the activation for the removal of carbon debris from the chain backbone. The quantification of the progressive worn area is performed making use of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) theory for phase transition kinetic processes. The advantage of knowing the general conditions for onset wear on the SAM surfaces can help in studying the fundamental mechanisms for the tribological properties of viscoelastic materials, in solid lubrication applications and biopolymer mechanics

  12. Optical emission of InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möller, M; De Lima Jr, M M; Cantarero, A; Chiaramonte, T; Cotta, M A; Iikawa, F

    2012-01-01

    Wurtzite InAs nanowire samples grown by chemical beam epitaxy have been analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit two main optical emission bands at low temperatures. They are attributed to the recombination of carriers in quantum well structures, formed by zincblende–wurtzite alternating layers, and to the donor–acceptor pair. The blue-shift observed in the former emission band when the excitation power is increased is in good agreement with the type-II band alignment between the wurtzite and zincblende sections predicted by previous theoretical works. When increasing the temperature and the excitation power successively, an additional band attributed to the band-to-band recombination from wurtzite InAs appears. We estimated a lower bound for the wurtzite band gap energy of approximately 0.46 eV at low temperature. (paper)

  13. Optical emission of InAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Cantarero, A.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.; Iikawa, F.

    2012-09-01

    Wurtzite InAs nanowire samples grown by chemical beam epitaxy have been analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit two main optical emission bands at low temperatures. They are attributed to the recombination of carriers in quantum well structures, formed by zincblende-wurtzite alternating layers, and to the donor-acceptor pair. The blue-shift observed in the former emission band when the excitation power is increased is in good agreement with the type-II band alignment between the wurtzite and zincblende sections predicted by previous theoretical works. When increasing the temperature and the excitation power successively, an additional band attributed to the band-to-band recombination from wurtzite InAs appears. We estimated a lower bound for the wurtzite band gap energy of approximately 0.46 eV at low temperature.

  14. Self-Assembled Nanostructured Health Monitoring Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed NASA SBIR program is to design, fabricate and evaluate the performance of self-assembled nanostructured sensors for the health...

  15. Self-Assembling Wireless Autonomous Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory propose Self-assembling, Wireless, Autonomous, Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) as an innovative approach to...

  16. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S

    1999-01-01

    ... the self-assembly of new rod-coil diblock, rod- coil-rod triblock, and coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers from solution and the resulting discrete and periodic mesostmctares with sizes in the 100...

  17. Preparation and self-assembly of amphiphilic polylysine dendrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsharghi, Sahar; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Bagherifam, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Polylysine dendrons with lipid tails prepared by divergent solid-phase synthesis showed self-assembling properties in aqueous solutions., Herein, we present the synthesis of new amphiphilic polylysine dendrons with variable alkyl chain lengths (C1–C18) at the C-terminal. The dendrons were...... synthesized in moderate to quantitative yields by divergent solid-phase synthesis (SPS) employing an aldehyde linker. The self-assembling properties of the dendrons in aqueous solutions were studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The self-assembling properties...... were influenced by the length of the alkyl chain and the generation number (Gn). Increasing the temperature and concentration did not have significant impact on the hydrodynamic diameter, but the self-assembling properties were influenced by the pH value. This demonstrated the need for positively...

  18. Enabling complex nanoscale pattern customization using directed self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerk, Gregory S; Cheng, Joy Y; Singh, Gurpreet; Rettner, Charles T; Pitera, Jed W; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Arellano, Noel; Sanders, Daniel P

    2014-12-16

    Block copolymer directed self-assembly is an attractive method to fabricate highly uniform nanoscale features for various technological applications, but the dense periodicity of block copolymer features limits the complexity of the resulting patterns and their potential utility. Therefore, customizability of nanoscale patterns has been a long-standing goal for using directed self-assembly in device fabrication. Here we show that a hybrid organic/inorganic chemical pattern serves as a guiding pattern for self-assembly as well as a self-aligned mask for pattern customization through cotransfer of aligned block copolymer features and an inorganic prepattern. As informed by a phenomenological model, deliberate process engineering is implemented to maintain global alignment of block copolymer features over arbitrarily shaped, 'masking' features incorporated into the chemical patterns. These hybrid chemical patterns with embedded customization information enable deterministic, complex two-dimensional nanoscale pattern customization through directed self-assembly.

  19. Understanding emergent functions in self-assembled fibrous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Robert; Keten, Sinan

    2015-09-01

    Understanding self-assembly processes of nanoscale building blocks and characterizing their properties are both imperative for designing new hierarchical, network materials for a wide range of structural, optoelectrical, and transport applications. Although the characterization and choices of these material building blocks have been well studied, our understanding of how to precisely program a specific morphology through self-assembly still must be significantly advanced. In the recent study by Xie et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 205602), the self-assembly of end-functionalized nanofibres is investigated using a coarse-grained molecular model and offers fundamental insight into how to control the structural morphology of nanofibrous networks. Varying nanoscale networks are observed when the molecular interaction strength is changed and the findings suggest that self-assembly through the tuning of molecular interactions is a key strategy for designing nanostructured networks with specific topologies.

  20. Synthesis and self-assembly of complex hollow materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hua Chun

    2011-01-01

    aspects of this field of development. The synthetic methodologies can be broadly divided into three major categories: (i) template-assisted synthesis, (ii) self-assembly with primary building blocks, and (iii) induced matter relocations. In most cases

  1. RT Self-assembly of Silica Nanoparticles on Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Lindoy, Lachlan; Huyang, George

    2013-01-01

    The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here.......The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here....

  2. Mesoscopic Self-Assembly: A Shift to Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eMastrangeli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By focusing on the construction of thermodynamically stable structures, the self-assembly of mesoscopic systems has proven capable of formidable achievements in the bottom-up engineering of micro- and nanosystems. Yet, inspired by an analogous evolution in supramolecular chemistry, synthetic mesoscopic self-assembly may have a lot more ahead, within reach of a shift toward fully three-dimensional architectures, collective interactions of building blocks and kinetic control. All over these challenging fronts, complexity holds the key.

  3. Construction of Supramolecular Architectures via Self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeharu; Haino

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In this paper we report supramolecular polymeric nano networks formed by the molecular-recognition-directed self-assembly between a calix[5]arene and C60[1]. Covalently-linked double-calix[5]arenes take up C60 into their cavities[2]. This complementary interaction creates a strong non-covalent bonding; thus,the iterative self-assembly between dumbbell fullerene 1 and ditopic host 2 can produce the supramolecular polymer networks (See Fig.1).

  4. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority

  5. Molecular engineering with artificial atoms: designing a material platform for scalable quantum spintronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Matthew F.; Ma, Xiangyu; Zide, Joshua M. O.; Bryant, Garnett W.

    2017-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) are often called "artificial atoms" and have long been of interest as components of quantum photonic and spintronic devices. Although there has been substantial progress in demonstrating optical control of both single spins confined to a single QD and entanglement between two separated QDs, the path toward scalable quantum photonic devices based on spins remains challenging. Quantum Dot Molecules, which consist of two closely-spaced InAs QDs, have unique properties that can be engineered with the solid state analog of molecular engineering in which the composition, size, and location of both the QDs and the intervening barrier are controlled during growth. Moreover, applied electric, magnetic, and optical fields can be used to modulate, in situ, both the spin and optical properties of the molecular states. We describe how the unique photonic properties of engineered Quantum Dot Molecules can be leveraged to overcome long-standing challenges to the creation of scalable quantum devices that manipulate single spins via photonics.

  6. The Self-Assembly of Nanogold for Optical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidetz, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    Optical metamaterials are an emerging field that enables manipulation of light like never before. Producing optical metamaterials requires sub-wavelength building blocks. The focus here was to develop methods to produce building blocks for metamaterials from nanogold. Electron-beam lithography was used to define an aminosilane patterned chemical template in order to electrostatically self-assemble citrate-capped gold nanoparticles. Equilibrium self-assembly was achieved in 20 minutes by immersing chemical templates into gold nanoparticle solutions. The number of nanoparticles that self-assembled on an aminosilane dot was controlled by manipulating the diameters of the dots and nanoparticles. Adding salt to the nanoparticle solution enabled the nanoparticles to self-assemble in greater numbers on the same sized dot. However, the preparation of the nanoparticle solution containing salt was sensitive to spikes in the salt concentration which led to aggregation of the nanoparticles and non-specific deposition. Gold nanorods were also electrostatically self-assembled. Polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods were patterned with limited success. A polyelectrolyte chemical template also patterned gold nanorods, but the gold nanorods preferred to pattern on the edges of the pattern. Ligand-exchanged gold nanorods displayed the best self-assembly, but suffered from slow kinetics. Self-assembled gold nanoparticles were cross-linked with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) allowed additional nanoparticles to pattern on top of the already patterned nanoparticles. Cross-linked nanoparticles were lifted-off of the substrate by sonication in a sodium hydroxide solution. The presence of van der Waals forces and/or amine bonding prevent the nanogold from lifting-off without sonication. A good-solvent evaporation process was used to self-assemble poly(styrene) coated gold nanoparticles into spherical microbead assemblies. The use of larger

  7. Self-assembled tethered bimolecular lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Ritz, Sandra; Naumann, Renate; Schiller, Stefan; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes some of the strategies developed in our group for designing, constructing and structurally and functionally characterizing tethered bimolecular lipid membranes (tBLM). We introduce this platform as a novel model membrane system that complements the existing ones, for example, Langmuir monolayers, vesicular liposomal dispersions and bimolecular ("black") lipid membranes. Moreover, it offers the additional advantage of allowing for studies of the influence of membrane structure and order on the function of integral proteins, for example, on how the composition and organization of lipids in a mixed membrane influence the ion translocation activity of integral channel proteins. The first strategy that we introduce concerns the preparation of tethered monolayers by the self-assembly of telechelics. Their molecular architecture with a headgroup, a spacer unit (the "tether") and the amphiphile that mimics the lipid molecule allows them to bind specifically to the solid support thus forming the proximal layer of the final architecture. After fusion of vesicles that could contain reconstituted proteins from a liposomal dispersion in contact to this monolayer the tethered bimolecular lipid membrane is obtained. This can then be characterized by a broad range of surface analytical techniques, including surface plasmon spectroscopies, the quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence and IR spectroscopies, and electrochemical techniques, to mention a few. It is shown that this concept allows for the construction of tethered lipid bilayers with outstanding electrical properties including resistivities in excess of 10 MOmega cm2. A modified strategy uses the assembly of peptides as spacers that couple covalently via their engineered sulfhydryl or lipoic acid groups at the N-terminus to the employed gold substrate, while their C-terminus is being activated afterward for the coupling of, for example, dimyristoylphosphatidylethanol amine (DMPE) lipid molecules

  8. Spin Properties of Transition-Metallorganic Self-Assembled Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhi Gang

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes SRI's accomplishments on the project, 'Spin Properties of Transition-Metallorganic Self-Assembled Molecules' funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. We have successfully carried out all tasks identified in our proposal and gained significant knowledge and understanding of spin-polarized electronic structure, spin relaxation, and spin-dependent transport in transition-metallorganic molecules and enhohedral fullerenes. These molecules contain integrated spin and charge components and will enable us to achieve sophisticated functions in spintronics and quantum computing at molecular level with simple circuitry and easy fabrication. We have developed microscopic theories that describe the underlying mechanisms of spin-dependent porcesses and constructed quantitative modeling tools that compute several important spin properties. These results represent the basic principles governing the spin-dependent behaviors in nanostructures containing such molecules. Based on these results we have shown that novel device functions, such as electrically controlled g-factor and noninvasive electrical detection of spin dynamics, can be achieved in these nanostructures. Some of our results have been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at professional conferences. In addition, we have established a close collaboration with experimentalists at Oxford University, UK (Dr. J. Morton and Prof. G. Briggs), Princeton University (Dr. A. Tyryshkin and Prof. S. Lyon), University of Delaware (Prof. E. Nowak), and University of California (Profs. R. Kawakami and J. Shi), who have been studying related systems and supplying us with new experimental data. We have provided our understanding and physical insights to the experimentalists and helped analyze their experimental measurements. The collaboration with experimentalists has also broadened our research scope and helped us focus on the most relevant issues concerning these

  9. Spin Properties of Transition-Metallorganic Self-Assembled Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi Gang Yu

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes SRI's accomplishments on the project, 'Spin Properties of Transition-Metallorganic Self-Assembled Molecules' funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. We have successfully carried out all tasks identified in our proposal and gained significant knowledge and understanding of spin-polarized electronic structure, spin relaxation, and spin-dependent transport in transition-metallorganic molecules and enhohedral fullerenes. These molecules contain integrated spin and charge components and will enable us to achieve sophisticated functions in spintronics and quantum computing at molecular level with simple circuitry and easy fabrication. We have developed microscopic theories that describe the underlying mechanisms of spin-dependent porcesses and constructed quantitative modeling tools that compute several important spin properties. These results represent the basic principles governing the spin-dependent behaviors in nanostructures containing such molecules. Based on these results we have shown that novel device functions, such as electrically controlled g-factor and noninvasive electrical detection of spin dynamics, can be achieved in these nanostructures. Some of our results have been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at professional conferences. In addition, we have established a close collaboration with experimentalists at Oxford University, UK (Dr. J. Morton and Prof. G. Briggs), Princeton University (Dr. A. Tyryshkin and Prof. S. Lyon), University of Delaware (Prof. E. Nowak), and University of California (Profs. R. Kawakami and J. Shi), who have been studying related systems and supplying us with new experimental data. We have provided our understanding and physical insights to the experimentalists and helped analyze their experimental measurements. The collaboration with experimentalists has also broadened our research scope and helped us focus on the most relevant issues

  10. Combined atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence imaging to select single InAs/GaAs quantum dots for quantum photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Luca; Liu, Jin; Song, Jin Dong; Fält, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-07-24

    We report on a combined photoluminescence imaging and atomic force microscopy study of single, isolated self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The motivation of this work is to determine an approach that allows to assess single quantum dots as candidates for quantum nanophotonic devices. By combining optical and scanning probe characterization techniques, we find that single quantum dots often appear in the vicinity of comparatively large topographic features. Despite this, the quantum dots generally do not exhibit significant differences in their non-resonantly pumped emission spectra in comparison to quantum dots appearing in defect-free regions, and this behavior is observed across multiple wafers produced in different growth chambers. Such large surface features are nevertheless a detriment to applications in which single quantum dots are embedded within nanofabricated photonic devices: they are likely to cause large spectral shifts in the wavelength of cavity modes designed to resonantly enhance the quantum dot emission, thereby resulting in a nominally perfectly-fabricated single quantum dot device failing to behave in accordance with design. We anticipate that the approach of screening quantum dots not only based on their optical properties, but also their surrounding surface topographies, will be necessary to improve the yield of single quantum dot nanophotonic devices.

  11. Magnetization and susceptibility of a parabolic InAs quantum dot with electron–electron and spin–orbit interactions in the presence of a magnetic field at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, CMR College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The magnetization and susceptibility of a two-electron parabolic quantum dot are studied in the presence of electron–electron and spin–orbit interactions as a function of magnetic field and temperature. The spin–orbit interactions are treated by a unitary transformation and an exactly soluble parabolic interaction model is considered to mimic the electron–electron interaction. The theory is finally applied to an InAs quantum dot. Magnetization and susceptibility are calculated using canonical ensemble approach. Our results show that Temperature has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic regime whereas electron–electron interaction reduces them. The temperature however reduces the height of the paramagnetic peak. The Rashba spin–orbit interaction is shown to shift the paramagnetic peak towards higher magnetic fields whereas the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction shifts it to the lower magnetic field side. Spin–orbit interaction has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility at larger temperatures. - Highlights: • Temperature has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic regime but reduces the height of the paramagnetic peak. • Electron-electron interaction reduces magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic region. • Rashba spin–orbit interaction shifts the paramagnetic peak towards higher magnetic fields. • Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction shifts the paramagnetic peak towards lower magnetic fields. • Spin–orbit interaction has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility at larger temperatures.

  12. Three-Dimensional Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kang-Hyun

    Photonic crystals (PCs), two- or three-dimensionally periodic, artificial, and dielectric structures, have a specific forbidden band for electromagnetic waves, referred to as photonic bandgap (PBG). The PBG is analogous to the electronic bandgap in natural crystal structures with periodic atomic arrangement. A well-defined and embedded planar, line, or point defect within the PCs causes a break in its structural periodicity, and introduces a state in the PBG for light localization. It offers various applications in integrated optics and photonics including optical filters, sharp bending light guides and very low threshold lasers. Using nanofabrication processes, PCs of the 2-D slab-type and 3-D layer-by-layer structures have been investigated widely. Alternatively, simple and low-cost self-assembled PCs with full 3-D PBG, inverse opals, have been suggested. A template with face centered cubic closed packed structure, opal, may initially be built by self-assembly of colloidal spheres, and is selectively removed after infiltrating high refractive index materials into the interstitials of spheres. In this dissertation, the optical waveguides utilizing the 3-D self-assembled PCs are discussed. The waveguides were fabricated by microfabrication technology. For high-quality colloidal silica spheres and PCs, reliable synthesis, self-assembly, and characterization techniques were developed. Its theoretical and experimental demonstrations are provided and correlated. They suggest that the self-assembled PCs with PBG are feasible for the applications in integrated optics and photonics.

  13. Physical principles for DNA tile self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Constantine G; Winfree, Erik

    2017-06-19

    DNA tiles provide a promising technique for assembling structures with nanoscale resolution through self-assembly by basic interactions rather than top-down assembly of individual structures. Tile systems can be programmed to grow based on logical rules, allowing for a small number of tile types to assemble large, complex assemblies that can retain nanoscale resolution. Such algorithmic systems can even assemble different structures using the same tiles, based on inputs that seed the growth. While programming and theoretical analysis of tile self-assembly often makes use of abstract logical models of growth, experimentally implemented systems are governed by nanoscale physical processes that can lead to very different behavior, more accurately modeled by taking into account the thermodynamics and kinetics of tile attachment and detachment in solution. This review discusses the relationships between more abstract and more physically realistic tile assembly models. A central concern is how consideration of model differences enables the design of tile systems that robustly exhibit the desired abstract behavior in realistic physical models and in experimental implementations. Conversely, we identify situations where self-assembly in abstract models can not be well-approximated by physically realistic models, putting constraints on physical relevance of the abstract models. To facilitate the discussion, we introduce a unified model of tile self-assembly that clarifies the relationships between several well-studied models in the literature. Throughout, we highlight open questions regarding the physical principles for DNA tile self-assembly.

  14. Zero-phonon-line emission of single molecules for applications in quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Alper; Ehrl, M.; Mustecaplioglu, O. E.; Hellerer, T.; Brauchle, C.; Zumbusch, A.

    2005-07-01

    A single photon source which generates transform limited single photons is highly desirable for applications in quantum optics. Transform limited emission guarantees the indistinguishability of the emitted single photons. This, in turn brings groundbreaking applications in linear optics quantum information processing within an experimental reach. Recently, self-assembled InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms have successfully been demonstrated as such sources for highly indistinguishable single photons. Here, we demonstrate that nearly transform limited zero-phonon-line (ZPL) emission from single molecules can be obtained by using vibronic excitation. Furthermore we report the results of coincidence detection experiments at the output of a Michelson-type interferometer. These experiments reveal Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations as a proof of the indistinguishability of the single photons emitted consecutively from a single molecule. Therefore, single molecules constitute an attractive alternative to single InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms for applications in linear optics quantum information processing. Experiments were performed with a home-built confocal microscope keeping the sample in a superfluid liquid Helium bath at 1.4K. We investigated terrylenediimide (TDI) molecules highly diluted in hexadecane (Shpol'skii matrix). A continuous wave single mode dye laser was used for excitation of vibronic transitions of individual molecules. From the integral fluorescence, the ZPL of single molecules was selected with a spectrally narrow interference filter. The ZPL emission was then sent to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for linewidth measurements or a Michelson-type interferometer for coincidence detection.

  15. Bioprinting synthetic self-assembling peptide hydrogels for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, Yihua; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a disruptive technology for creating organotypic constructs for high-throughput screening and regenerative medicine. One major challenge is the lack of suitable bioinks. Short synthetic self-assembling peptides are ideal candidates. Several classes of peptides self-assemble into nanofibrous hydrogels resembling the native extracellular matrix. This is a conducive microenvironment for maintaining cell survival and physiological function. Many peptides also demonstrate stimuli-responsive gelation and tuneable mechanical properties, which facilitates extrusion before dispensing and maintains the shape fidelity of the printed construct in aqueous media. The inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability bodes well for in vivo applications as implantable tissues and drug delivery matrices, while their short length and ease of functionalization facilitates synthesis and customization. By applying self-assembling peptide inks to bioprinting, the dynamic complexity of biological tissue can be recreated, thereby advancing current biomedical applications of peptide hydrogel scaffolds. (paper)

  16. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Actinide Sequestration Using Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Wu, Hong; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramic oxides condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. The ceramic oxide interface is receptive to surface functionalization through molecular self-assembly. The marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry creates a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials called self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS). These SAMMS materials are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Details addressing the design, synthesis and characterization of SAMMS materials specifically designed to sequester actinides, of central importance to the environmental clean-up necessary after 40 years of weapons grade plutonium production, as well as evaluation of their binding affinities and kinetics are presented

  18. Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ding; Liu, Min; Lin, Min; Bu, Xinyuan; Luo, Xintao; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-28

    Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSe(x)Te(1-x), and Cd(y)Hg(1-y)Te. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.

  19. Sambot II: A self-assembly modular swarm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Wei, Hongxing; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Cancan

    2018-04-01

    The new generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot II, based on the original generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot, adopting laser and camera module for information collecting, is introduced in this manuscript. The visual control algorithm of Sambot II is detailed and feasibility of the algorithm is verified by the laser and camera experiments. At the end of this manuscript, autonomous docking experiments of two Sambot II robots are presented. The results of experiments are showed and analyzed to verify the feasibility of whole scheme of Sambot II.

  20. Self-assembled three-dimensional chiral colloidal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, Matan Yah; He, Xiaojin; Maass, Corinna C.; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2017-11-01

    Although stereochemistry has been a central focus of the molecular sciences since Pasteur, its province has previously been restricted to the nanometric scale. We have programmed the self-assembly of micron-sized colloidal clusters with structural information stemming from a nanometric arrangement. This was done by combining DNA nanotechnology with colloidal science. Using the functional flexibility of DNA origami in conjunction with the structural rigidity of colloidal particles, we demonstrate the parallel self-assembly of three-dimensional microconstructs, evincing highly specific geometry that includes control over position, dihedral angles, and cluster chirality.

  1. Ultrafine luminescent structures through nanoparticle self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, K; Goetzinger, S; Shafi, K V P M; Mazzei, A; Schietinger, S; Benson, O

    2006-01-01

    We report the fabrication of ultrafine structures consisting of regular arrays of nanoemitters through the self-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles on a silicon wafer. Nanoparticles of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 3+ ions were synthesized by a sonochemical technique. These particles, suspended in ethanol, are introduced onto a pre-patterned silicon wafer, covered with a thin oxide layer. On annealing the sample in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the nanoparticles self-assemble along the pattern. We demonstrate this 'chemical lithography' by assembling the nanoparticles along a variety of patterns. We believe that such self-organized nanopatterning of functional structures is important for the realization of nanodevices

  2. Self-assembly of active amphiphilic Janus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, S. A.; Alarcon, F.; Cacciuto, A.; Valeriani, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we study the phenomenology of a two dimensional dilute suspension of active amphiphilic Janus particles. We analyze how the morphology of the aggregates emerging from their self-assembly depends on the strength and the direction of the active forces. We systematically explore and contrast the phenomenologies resulting from particles with a range of attractive patch coverages. Finally, we illustrate how the geometry of the colloids and the directionality of their interactions can be used to control the physical properties of the assembled active aggregates and suggest possible strategies to exploit self-propulsion as a tunable driving force for self-assembly.

  3. Electrostatic Force Microscopy of Self Assembled Peptide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Dimaki, Maria; Pantagos, Spyros P.

    2011-01-01

    In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures. In partic......In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures...

  4. Self-Assembled Hydrogel Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gama

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles—also referred to as polymeric nanogels or macromolecular micelles—are emerging as promising drug carriers for therapeutic applications. These nanostructures hold versatility and properties suitable for the delivery of bioactive molecules, namely of biopharmaceuticals. This article reviews the latest developments in the use of self-assembled polymeric nanogels for drug delivery applications, including small molecular weight drugs, proteins, peptides, oligosaccharides, vaccines and nucleic acids. The materials and techniques used in the development of self-assembling nanogels are also described.

  5. The electronic properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.A.

    2000-10-01

    This work is an investigation into the electronic behaviour of semiconductor quantum dots, particularly self-assembled quantum dot arrays. Processor-efficient models are developed to describe the electronic structure of dots, deriving analytic formulae for the strain tensor, piezoelectric distribution and diffusion- induced evolution of the confinement potential, for dots of arbitrary initial shape and composition profile. These models are then applied to experimental data. Transitions due to individual quantum dots have a narrow linewidth as a result of their discrete density of states. By contrast, quantum dot arrays exhibit inhomogeneous broadening which is generally attributed to size variations between the individual dots in the ensemble. Interpreting the results of double resonance spectroscopy, it is seen that variation in the indium composition of the nominally InAs dots is also present. This result also explains the otherwise confusing relationship between the spread in the ground-state and excited-state transition energies. Careful analysis shows that, in addition to the variations in size and composition, some other as yet unidentified broadening mechanism must also be present. The influence of rapid thermal annealing on dot electronic structure is also considered, finding that the experimentally observed blue-shift and narrowing of the photoluminescence linewidth may both be explained in terms of normal In/Ga interdiffusion. InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots are commonly assumed to have a pyramidal geometry, so that we would expect the energy separation of the ground-state electron and hole levels in the dot to be largest at a positive applied field. This should also be the case for any dot of uniform composition whose shape tapers inwards from base to top, counter to the results of experimental Stark-shift spectroscopy which show a peak transition energy at a negative applied field. It is demonstrated that this inversion of the ground state

  6. Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Lamy , Jean-Michel; Levallois , Christophe; Nakkar , Abdulhadi; Caroff , Philippe; Paranthoen , Cyril; Dehaese , Olivier; Le Corre , Alain; Ramdane , Abderrahim; Loualiche , Slimane

    2006-01-01

    International audience; We propose a new type of long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of quantum wires (QWires) layers of InAs/InGaAsP grown on InP(001) and dielectrics Bragg mirrors, in order to control the in plane polarization of output power. QWires and quantum wells growth are performed by molecular beam epitaxy. QWires present a strong photoluminescence dependence to the polarization in contrast to the quantum wells, a polarization rate of 33% is...

  7. Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangeli, M; Celis, J-P; Abbasi, S; Varel, C; Böhringer, K F; Van Hoof, C

    2009-01-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed. (topical review)

  8. Tuning of metal work functions with self-assembled monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B; Hadipour, A; Mandoc, MM; van Woudenbergh, T; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    Work functions of gold and silver are varied by over 1.4 and 1.7 eV, respectively, by using self-assembled monolayers. Using these modified electrodes, the hole current in a poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene vinylene) light-emitting diode is tuned by more than six orders of

  9. Applications of self-assembled monolayers in materials chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory,. Pune 411 008, India e-mail: viji@ems.ncl.res.in. Abstract. Self-assembly provides a simple route to organise suitable organic molecules on noble metal and selected nanocluster surfaces by using monolayers of long chain organic molecules with ...

  10. Synthesis, characterization and self-assembly with gold nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    characterization and self-assembly with gold nanoparticles. JUN-BO LI. 1, ... gold surface lead to the enhancement of device prop- erties. 36,37 ... Reactions were monitored by thin-layer ..... plasmon (SP) absorption band (figure 5) of TOAB-.

  11. Complex Colloidal Structures by Self-assembly in Electric Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is exploiting the directed self-assembly of both isotropic and anisotropic colloidal particles to achieve the fabrication of one-, two-, and three-dimensional complex colloidal structures using external electric fields and/or a simple in situ thermal annealing

  12. Self-assembled domain structures: From micro- to nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent achievements in studying the self-assembled evolution of micro- and nanoscale domain structures in uniaxial single crystalline ferroelectrics lithium niobate and lithium tantalate have been reviewed. The results obtained by visualization of static domain patterns and kinetics of the domain structure by different methods from common optical microscopy to more sophisticated scanning probe microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy, have been discussed. The kinetic approach based on various nucleation processes similar to the first-order phase transition was used for explanation of the domain structure evolution scenarios. The main mechanisms of self-assembling for nonequilibrium switching conditions caused by screening ineffectiveness including correlated nucleation, domain growth anisotropy, and domain–domain interaction have been considered. The formation of variety of self-assembled domain patterns such as fractal-type, finger and web structures, broad domain boundaries, and dendrites have been revealed at each of all five stages of domain structure evolution during polarization reversal. The possible applications of self-assembling for micro- and nanodomain engineering were reviewed briefly. The review covers mostly the results published by our research group.

  13. Characterization of self-assembled monolayers on a ruthenium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, Amrozia; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Ricciardi, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    We have modified and stabilized the ruthenium surface by depositing a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 1-hexadecanethiol on a polycrystalline ruthenium thin film. The growth mechanism, dynamics, and stability of these monolayers were studied. SAMs, deposited under ambient conditions, on

  14. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yongkun; Burkhard Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs...

  15. Dynamics of self-assembled cytosine nucleobases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Nabanita; Johnson, Floyd; Waters, Kevin; Pandey, Ravindra

    2018-05-01

    Molecular self-assembly of cytosine (C n ) bases on graphene was investigated using molecular dynamics methods. For free-standing C n bases, simulation conditions (gas versus aqueous) determine the nature of self-assembly; the bases prefer to aggregate in the gas phase and are stabilized by intermolecular H-bonds, while in the aqueous phase, the water molecules disrupt base-base interactions, which facilitate the formation of π-stacked domains. The substrate-induced effects, on the other hand, find the polarity and donor-acceptor sites of the bases to govern the assembly process. For example, in the gas phase, the assembly of C n bases on graphene displays short-range ordered linear arrays stabilized by the intermolecular H-bonds. In the aqueous phase, however, there are two distinct configurations for the C n bases assembly on graphene. For the first case corresponding to low surface coverage, the bases are dispersed on graphene and are isolated. The second configuration archetype is disordered linear arrays assembled with medium and high surface coverage. The simulation results establish the role of H-bonding, vdW π-stacking, and the influence of graphene surface towards the self-assembly. The ability to regulate the assembly into well-defined patterns can aid in the design of self-assembled nanostructures for the next-generation DNA based biosensors and nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Extending the self-assembly of coiled-coil hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson Marsden, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Of the various biomolecular building blocks in use in nature, coiled-coil forming peptides are amongst those with the most potential as building blocks for the synthetic self-assembly of nanostructures. Native coiled coils have the ability to function in, and influence, complex systems composed of

  17. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Polysaccharides into Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Strohmenger, Timm; Goycoolea, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the anionic polysaccharide Xanthan gum (X) was mixed with positively charged Chitosan oligomers (ChO), and used as building blocks, to generate novel nanofibers by electrostatic self-assembly in aqueous conditions. Different concentrations, ionic strength and order of mixing of both...

  18. Self-assembly of hydrofluorinated Janus graphene monolayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Yakang; Xue, Qingzhong; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    With remarkably interesting surface activities, two-dimensional Janus materials arouse intensive interests recently in many fields. We demonstrate by molecular dynamic simulations that hydrofluorinated Janus graphene (J-GN) can self-assemble into Janus nanoscroll (J-NS) at room temperature. The van...

  19. Nanoporous Network Channels from Self-Assembled Triblock Copolymer Supramolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Sart, Gerrit Gobius; Vukovic, Ivana; Vukovic, Zorica; Polushkin, Evgeny; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Loos, Katja; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Supramolecular complexes of a poly(tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock copolymers and less than stoichiometric amounts of pentadecylphenol (PDP) are shown to self-assemble into a core-shell gyroid morphology with the core channels formed by the hydrogen-bonded

  20. Self-assembling bilayers of palladiumthiolates in organic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    applications in catalytic systems, solubalizing agents and drug delivery matrices. Following the pioneering efforts of ... In this context, self-assembly of amphipiles in nonpolar organic media assumes significance 8 since .... structures in clear contrast to lamellar phases formed by the higher members. We sought to image the ...

  1. Self-assembling electroactive hydrogels for flexible display technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott L; Wong, Kok Hou; Ladouceur, Francois [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Thordarson, Pall, E-mail: f.ladouceur@unsw.edu.a [School of Chemistry, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    We have assessed the potential of self-assembling hydrogels for use in conformal displays. The self-assembling process can be used to alter the transparency of the material to all visible light due to scattering by fibres. The reversible transition is shown to be of low energy by differential scanning calorimetry. For use in technology it is imperative that this transition is controlled electrically. We have thus synthesized novel self-assembling hydrogelator molecules which contain an electroactive group. The well-known redox couple of anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone has been used as the hydrophobic component for a series of small molecule gelators. They are further functionalized with peptide combinations of L-phenylalanine and glycine to provide the hydrophilic group to complete 'head-tail' models of self-assembling gels. The gelation and electroactive characteristics of the series were assessed. Cyclic voltammetry shows the reversible redox cycle to be only superficially altered by functionalization. Additionally, spectroelectrochemical measurements show a reversible transparency and colour change induced by the redox process.

  2. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  3. Self-assembling electroactive hydrogels for flexible display technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Scott L; Wong, Kok Hou; Ladouceur, Francois; Thordarson, Pall

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the potential of self-assembling hydrogels for use in conformal displays. The self-assembling process can be used to alter the transparency of the material to all visible light due to scattering by fibres. The reversible transition is shown to be of low energy by differential scanning calorimetry. For use in technology it is imperative that this transition is controlled electrically. We have thus synthesized novel self-assembling hydrogelator molecules which contain an electroactive group. The well-known redox couple of anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone has been used as the hydrophobic component for a series of small molecule gelators. They are further functionalized with peptide combinations of L-phenylalanine and glycine to provide the hydrophilic group to complete 'head-tail' models of self-assembling gels. The gelation and electroactive characteristics of the series were assessed. Cyclic voltammetry shows the reversible redox cycle to be only superficially altered by functionalization. Additionally, spectroelectrochemical measurements show a reversible transparency and colour change induced by the redox process.

  4. Electronic properties of excited states in single InAs quantum dots; Elektronische Struktur angeregter Zustaende einzelner InAs-Quantenpunkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warming, Till

    2009-02-20

    The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy ({mu}PLE). One of the main difficulties using {mu}PLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence ({mu}PL) and {mu}PLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton

  5. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy); Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 9, Padua, 35131 (Italy); Iucci, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.iucci@uniroma3.it [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  6. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele; Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica; Iucci, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  7. Building polyhedra by self-assembly: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ryan; Klobušický, Joseph; Pandey, Shivendra; Gracias, David H; Menon, Govind

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a mathematical framework based on discrete geometry to model biological and synthetic self-assembly. Our primary biological example is the self-assembly of icosahedral viruses; our synthetic example is surface-tension-driven self-folding polyhedra. In both instances, the process of self-assembly is modeled by decomposing the polyhedron into a set of partially formed intermediate states. The set of all intermediates is called the configuration space, pathways of assembly are modeled as paths in the configuration space, and the kinetics and yield of assembly are modeled by rate equations, Markov chains, or cost functions on the configuration space. We review an interesting interplay between biological function and mathematical structure in viruses in light of this framework. We discuss in particular: (i) tiling theory as a coarse-grained description of all-atom models; (ii) the building game-a growth model for the formation of polyhedra; and (iii) the application of these models to the self-assembly of the bacteriophage MS2. We then use a similar framework to model self-folding polyhedra. We use a discrete folding algorithm to compute a configuration space that idealizes surface-tension-driven self-folding and analyze pathways of assembly and dominant intermediates. These computations are then compared with experimental observations of a self-folding dodecahedron with side 300 μm. In both models, despite a combinatorial explosion in the size of the configuration space, a few pathways and intermediates dominate self-assembly. For self-folding polyhedra, the dominant intermediates have fewer degrees of freedom than comparable intermediates, and are thus more rigid. The concentration of assembly pathways on a few intermediates with distinguished geometric properties is biologically and physically important, and suggests deeper mathematical structure.

  8. Electronic structure and self-assembly of cross-linked semiconductor nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Dov; Azulay, Doron; Aharoni, Assaf; Salant, Assaf; Banin, Uri; Millo, Oded

    2008-01-01

    We studied the electronic level structure of assemblies of InAs quantum dots and CdSe nanorods cross-linked by 1,4-phenylenediamine molecules using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We found that the bandgap in these arrays is reduced with respect to the corresponding ligand-capped nanocrystal arrays. In addition, a pronounced sub-gap spectral structure commonly appeared which can be attributed to unpassivated nanocrystal surface states or associated with linker-molecule-related levels. The exchange of the ligands by the linker molecules also affected the structural array properties. Most significantly, clusters of close-packed standing CdSe nanorods were formed

  9. Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001)InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, J.M.; Levallois, C.; Nakhar, A.; Caroff, P.; Paranthoen, C.; Piron, R.; Le Corre, A.; Loualiche, S. [UMR C6082 FOTON - INSA de Rennes, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, 35043 Rennes (France); Ramdane, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2007-06-15

    We propose a new type of long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of quantum wires (QWires) layers of InAs/InGaAsP grown on InP(001) and dielectrics Bragg mirrors, in order to control the in plane polarization of output power. QWires and quantum wells growth are performed by molecular beam epitaxy. QWires present a strong photoluminescence dependence to the polarization in contrast to the quantum wells, a polarization rate of 33% is measured. The optically pumped VCSEL is fabricated by metallic bonding, which allows the deposition of two dielectrics Bragg mirrors. The VCSEL with an active region based on InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum wells exhibits a lasing emission at 1.578 {mu}m at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The VCSEL with an active region based on quantum wires shows a luminescence at 1.53 {mu}m strongly polarized along the direction [1 anti 10] which is promising for the stabilization of in plane polarization of VCSEL emission. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001)InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, J.M.; Levallois, C.; Nakhar, A.; Caroff, P.; Paranthoen, C.; Piron, R.; Le Corre, A.; Loualiche, S.; Ramdane, A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new type of long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of quantum wires (QWires) layers of InAs/InGaAsP grown on InP(001) and dielectrics Bragg mirrors, in order to control the in plane polarization of output power. QWires and quantum wells growth are performed by molecular beam epitaxy. QWires present a strong photoluminescence dependence to the polarization in contrast to the quantum wells, a polarization rate of 33% is measured. The optically pumped VCSEL is fabricated by metallic bonding, which allows the deposition of two dielectrics Bragg mirrors. The VCSEL with an active region based on InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum wells exhibits a lasing emission at 1.578 μm at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The VCSEL with an active region based on quantum wires shows a luminescence at 1.53 μm strongly polarized along the direction [1 anti 10] which is promising for the stabilization of in plane polarization of VCSEL emission. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Probing into hybrid organic-molecule and InAs quantum-dots nanosystem with multistacked dots-in-a-well units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Kobashi, Kazufumi

    2012-01-01

    Hybridizing air-stable organic-molecules with advanced III-V semiconductor quantum-dots (QDs) structures can be utilized to create a new generation of biochemical sensing devices. In order to enhance their optical performances, the active regions in these QDs structures commonly consist of multis......Hybridizing air-stable organic-molecules with advanced III-V semiconductor quantum-dots (QDs) structures can be utilized to create a new generation of biochemical sensing devices. In order to enhance their optical performances, the active regions in these QDs structures commonly consist...

  12. High performance superluminescent diode with InAs quantum-dashes and chirped AlGaInAs barriers active region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of high power, ultra-low ripple superluminescent diode using multiple quantum-dash-in-a-well layers with variable barrier thickness is reported. The device exhibits >20 mW power, < 0.3dB ripple, and > 80 nm 3dB bandwidth at ~1.55 μm.

  13. Predicting supramolecular self-assembly on reconstructed metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas J.; Barrena, Esther; Ocal, Carmen; Faraudo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule-molecule interactions are enhanced in a way that long-range order is promoted. Also, the presence of a distortion in a reconstructed surface pattern not only induces the presence of long-range order but also is able to drive the organization of DIP into two coexisting homochiral domains, in quantitative agreement with STM experiments. On the other hand, only short range order is obtained in other reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. The simulation strategy opens interesting perspectives to tune the supramolecular structure by simulation design and surface engineering if choosing the right molecular building blocks and stabilising the chosen reconstruction pattern.The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule

  14. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  15. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale – one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004. They give examples of self-organization phenomena on micro- and nano-scale as well as examples of the interplay between phenomena on nano- and macro-scales leading to complex behavior in various physical, chemical and biological systems. They discuss such fascinating nano-scale self-organization phenomena as self-assembly of quantum dots in thin solid films, pattern formation in liquid crystals caused by light, self-organi...

  16. Tailoring the photoluminescence polarization anisotropy of a single InAs quantum dash by a post-growth modification of its dielectric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrowiński, P.; Misiewicz, J.; Sęk, G. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Division of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland); Tarnowski, K.; Olszewski, J.; Urbańczyk, W. [Division of Optics and Photonics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland); Somers, A.; Kamp, M. [Technische Physik & W. C. Röntgen-Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg Germany (Germany); Reithmaier, J. P. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Machnikowski, P. [Division of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-08-21

    Excitonic emission from single InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dashes has been investigated in terms of controlling the polarization anisotropy by altering the shape of the processed sub-micrometer mesa structures. Photoluminescence has been measured from exemplary single quantum dashes emitting around 1.3 and 1.55 μm and placed inside rectangular mesas of various orientation, asymmetry, and sizes. The detected degree of linear polarization of bright exciton emission ranges from −0.1 to ca. 0.55, compared to 0.25 for dashes in unaltered or isotropic in-plane dielectric surrounding. These results are interpreted by numerical simulations using an emitter coupled with a single optical mode in such a mesa and outgoing in the direction normal to the sample surface.

  17. Self-Assembly of Molecular Threads into Reversible Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2001-03-01

    Reversible gels formed by low concentrations of molecular gelators that self-assemble into fibers with molecular width and extremely long length have been studied via Monte Carlo simulations. The gelators of interest have two kinds of interactions, one governs self-assembly into fibers and the other provides inter-fiber connectivity to drive the formation of a network. The off-lattice Monte Carlo simulation presented here is based on a point particle representation of gelators. In this model each particle can form only two strong bonds, that enable linear fiber formation, but a variable number of weak bonds which provide inter-fiber connectivity. The gel formation has been studied as a function of concentration of monomers, the strength of interactions, number of bonding sites per particle for weak interactions, and the stiffness of the fibers. The simulation results are compared with two experimental systems synthesized in our group in order to understand gelation mechanisms.

  18. DNA Self-Assembly: From Chirality to Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youri Timsit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient or long-term DNA self-assembly participates in essential genetic functions. The present review focuses on tight DNA-DNA interactions that have recently been found to play important roles in both controlling DNA higher-order structures and their topology. Due to their chirality, double helices are tightly packed into stable right-handed crossovers. Simple packing rules that are imposed by DNA geometry and sequence dictate the overall architecture of higher order DNA structures. Close DNA-DNA interactions also provide the missing link between local interactions and DNA topology, thus explaining how type II DNA topoisomerases may sense locally the global topology. Finally this paper proposes that through its influence on DNA self-assembled structures, DNA chirality played a critical role during the early steps of evolution.

  19. Thermomechanical Response of Self-Assembled Nanoparticle Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifan [Department; James; Chan, Henry [Center; Narayanan, Badri [Center; McBride, Sean P. [Department; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S. [Center; Lin, Xiao-Min [Center; Jaeger, Heinrich M. [Department; James

    2017-07-21

    Monolayers composed of colloidal nanoparticles, with a thickness of less than 10 nm, have remarkable mechanical moduli and can suspend over micrometer-sized holes to form free-standing membranes. In this paper, we discuss experiment's and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations characterizing the thermomechanical properties of these self-assembled nanoparticle membranes. These membranes remain strong and resilient up to temperatures much higher than previous simulation predictions and exhibit an unexpected hysteretic behavior during the first heating cooling cycle. We show this hysteretic behavior can be explained by an asymmetric ligand configuration from the self assembly process and can be controlled by changing the ligand coverage or cross-linking the ligand molecules. Finally, we show the screening effect of water molecules on the ligand interactions can strongly affect the moduli and thermomechanical behavior.

  20. DNA-Based Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Neumann, Andre; Lindlau, Jessica; Wu, Yuzhou; Pramanik, Goutam; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Schüder, Florian; Huber, Sebastian; Huber, Marinus; Stehr, Florian; Högele, Alexander; Weil, Tanja; Liedl, Tim

    2015-08-12

    As a step toward deterministic and scalable assembly of ordered spin arrays we here demonstrate a bottom-up approach to position fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) with nanometer precision on DNA origami structures. We have realized a reliable and broadly applicable surface modification strategy that results in DNA-functionalized and perfectly dispersed NDs that were then self-assembled in predefined geometries. With optical studies we show that the fluorescence properties of the nitrogen-vacancy color centers in NDs are preserved during surface modification and DNA assembly. As this method allows the nanoscale arrangement of fluorescent NDs together with other optically active components in complex geometries, applications based on self-assembled spin lattices or plasmon-enhanced spin sensors as well as improved fluorescent labeling for bioimaging could be envisioned.

  1. The self-assembling process and applications in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K.; Link, Jarrett M.; Hu, Jerry C. Y.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2018-01-01

    Tissue engineering strives to create neotissues capable of restoring function. Scaffold-free technologies have emerged that can recapitulate native tissue function without the use of an exogenous scaffold. This chapter will survey, in particular, the self-assembling and self-organization processes as scaffold-free techniques. Characteristics and benefits of each process are described, and key examples of tissues created using these scaffold-free processes are examined to provide guidance for future tissue engineering developments. This chapter aims to explore the potential of self-assembly and self-organization scaffold-free approaches, detailing the recent progress in the in vitro tissue engineering of biomimetic tissues with these methods, toward generating functional tissue replacements. PMID:28348174

  2. Quantitative self-assembly prediction yields targeted nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay, Yosi; Shah, Janki; Işık, Mehtap; Mizrachi, Aviram; Leibold, Josef; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F.; Roxbury, Daniel; Budhathoki-Uprety, Januka; Nawaly, Karla; Sugarman, James L.; Baut, Emily; Neiman, Michelle R.; Dacek, Megan; Ganesh, Kripa S.; Johnson, Darren C.; Sridharan, Ramya; Chu, Karen L.; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Lowe, Scott W.; Chodera, John D.; Heller, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Development of targeted nanoparticle drug carriers often requires complex synthetic schemes involving both supramolecular self-assembly and chemical modification. These processes are generally difficult to predict, execute, and control. We describe herein a targeted drug delivery system that is accurately and quantitatively predicted to self-assemble into nanoparticles based on the molecular structures of precursor molecules, which are the drugs themselves. The drugs assemble with the aid of sulfated indocyanines into particles with ultrahigh drug loadings of up to 90%. We devised quantitative structure-nanoparticle assembly prediction (QSNAP) models to identify and validate electrotopological molecular descriptors as highly predictive indicators of nano-assembly and nanoparticle size. The resulting nanoparticles selectively targeted kinase inhibitors to caveolin-1-expressing human colon cancer and autochthonous liver cancer models to yield striking therapeutic effects while avoiding pERK inhibition in healthy skin. This finding enables the computational design of nanomedicines based on quantitative models for drug payload selection.

  3. Molecular Gels Materials with Self-Assembled Fibrillar Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Molecular gels and fibrillar networks – a comprehensive guide to experiment and theory Molecular Gels: Materials with Self-Assembled Fibrillar Networks provides a comprehensive treatise on gelators, especially low molecular-mass gelators (LMOGs), and the properties of their gels. The structures and modes of formation of the self-assembled fibrillar networks (SAFINs) that immobilize the liquid components of the gels are discussed experimentally and theoretically. The spectroscopic, rheological, and structural features of the different classes of LMOGs are also presented. Many examples of the application of the principal analytical techniques for investigation of molecular gels (including SANS, SAXS, WAXS, UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopies, scanning electron, transmission electron and optical microscopies, and molecular modeling) are presented didactically and in-depth, as are several of the theories of the stages of aggregation of individual LMOG molecules leading to SAFINs. Several actua...

  4. Understanding the self-assembly of TCNQ on Cu(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stradi, Daniele; Borca, Bogdana; Barja, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The structure of self-assembled monolayers of 7,7',8,8'-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) adsorbed on Cu(111) has been studied using a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We show that the polymorphism of the self......-assembled molecular layer can be controlled by tuning of the experimental conditions under which the deposition is carried out. When the Cu(111) substrate is held above room temperature (T-Cu(111) = 350 K) during deposition, a structure is formed in which the two molecules in the unit cell are oriented one...... perpendicular to the other. Conversely, when the substrate is held at room temperature during deposition and slightly annealed afterwards, a more complex structure with five molecules per unit cell is formed. DFT calculations complement the experimental results by revealing that the building blocks of the two...

  5. Self-assembling enzymes and the origins of the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Rachael; Gitai, Zemer

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial cytoskeleton is composed of a complex and diverse group of proteins that self-assemble into linear filaments. These filaments support and organize cellular architecture and provide a dynamic network controlling transport and localization within the cell. Here, we review recent discoveries related to a newly appreciated class of self-assembling proteins that expand our view of the bacterial cytoskeleton and provide potential explanations for its evolutionary origins. Specifically, several types of metabolic enzymes can form structures similar to established cytoskeletal filaments and, in some cases, these structures have been repurposed for structural uses independent of their normal role. The behaviors of these enzymes suggest that some modern cytoskeletal proteins may have evolved from dual-role proteins with catalytic and structural functions. PMID:22014508

  6. Colloidal Self-Assembly Driven by Deformability & Near-Critical Phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, C.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338775188

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly is the spontaneous formation of patterns or structures without human intervention. This thesis aims to increase our understanding of self-assembly. In self-assembly of proteins, the building blocks are very small and complex. Consequently, grasping the basic principles that drive the

  7. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  8. Electronic structure, morphology and emission polarization of enhanced symmetry InAs quantum-dot-like structures grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryński, A.; Sĕk, G.; Musiał, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Gilfert, C.; Reithmaier, J. P. [Technische Physik, Institute of Nanostructure Technology and Analytics, CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Capua, A.; Karni, O.; Gready, D.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kölling, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems, Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies, Königsbrücker Straße 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-09-07

    The optical and structural properties of a new kind of InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dot (QD)-like objects grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. These nanostructures were found to have significantly more symmetrical shapes compared to the commonly obtained dash-like geometries typical of this material system. The enhanced symmetry has been achieved due to the use of an As{sub 2} source and the consequent shorter migration length of the indium atoms. Structural studies based on a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) provided detailed information on both the structure and composition distribution within an individual nanostructure. However, it was not possible to determine the lateral aspect ratio from STEM or APT. To verify the in-plane geometry, electronic structure calculations, including the energy levels and transition oscillator strength for the QDs have been performed using an eight-band k·p model and realistic system parameters. The results of calculations were compared to measured polarization-resolved photoluminescence data. On the basis of measured degree of linear polarization of the surface emission, the in-plane shape of the QDs has been assessed proving a substantial increase in lateral symmetry. This results in quantum-dot rather than quantum-dash like properties, consistent with expectations based on the growth conditions and the structural data.

  9. Dispersion of nanoparticulate suspensions using self-assembled surfactant aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    The dispersion of particles is critical for several industrial applications such as paints, inks, coatings, and cosmetics. Several emerging applications such as abrasives for precision polishing, and drug delivery systems are increasingly relying on nanoparticulates to achieve the desired performance. In the case of nanoparticles, the dispersion becomes more challenging because of the lack of fundamental understanding of dispersant adsorption and interparticle force prediction. Additionally, many of these processes use severe processing environments such as high normal forces (>100 mN/m), high shear forces (>10,000 s -1), and high ionic strengths (>0.1 M). Under such processing conditions, traditionally used dispersants based on electrostatics, and steric force repulsion mechanism may not be adequate. Hence, the development of optimally performing dispersants requires a fundamental understanding of the dispersion mechanism at the atomic/molecular scale. This study explores the use of self-assembled surfactant aggregates at the solid-liquid interface for dispersing nanoparticles in severe processing environments. Surfactant molecules can provide a feasible alternative to polymeric or inorganic dispersants for stabilizing ultrafine particles. The barrier to aggregation in the presence of surfactant molecules was measured using atomic force microscopy. The barrier heights correlated to suspension stability. To understand the mechanism for nanoparticulate suspension stability in the presence of surfactant films, the interface was characterized using zeta potential, contact angle, adsorption, and FT-IR (adsorbed surfactant film structure measurements). The effect of solution conditions such as pH and ionic strength on the suspension stability, and the self-assembled surfactant films was also investigated. It was determined that a transition from a random to an ordered orientation of the surfactant molecules at the interface was responsible for stability of

  10. Microtubule dynamics. II. Kinetics of self-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Jobs, E.

    1997-01-01

    Inverse scattering theory describes the conditions necessary and sufficient to determine an unknown potential from known scattering data. No similar theory exists for when and how one may deduce the kinetics of an unknown chemical reaction from quantitative information about its final state and i...... to analyze the self-assembly of microtubules from tubulin are general, and many other reactions and processes may be studied as inverse problems with these methods when enough experimental data are available....

  11. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    the advantages of diphenylalanine are explained step by step offering new alternatives to fabricate nanostructures in a simple and rapid way. The chapter is complemented with techniques to manipulate the self-assembled diphenylalanine nanostructures without changing its properties during the manipulation process.......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self...

  12. Spin State As a Probe of Vesicle Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Bellouard, Christine; Eastoe, Julian; Canilho, Nadia; Rogers, Sarah E; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-03-02

    A novel system of paramagnetic vesicles was designed using ion pairs of iron-containing surfactants. Unilamellar vesicles (diameter ≈ 200 nm) formed spontaneously and were characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and light and small-angle neutron scattering. Moreover, for the first time, it is shown that magnetization measurements can be used to investigate self-assembly of such functionalized systems, giving information on the vesicle compositions and distribution of surfactants between the bilayers and the aqueous bulk.

  13. Spin State As a Probe of Vesicle Self-Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sanghoon; Bellouard, Christine; Eastoe, Julian; Canilho, Nadia; Rogers, Sarah E; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    A novel system of paramagnetic vesicles was designed using ion pairs of iron-containing surfactants. Unilamellar vesicles (diameter ≈ 200 nm) formed spontaneously and were characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and light and small-angle neutron scattering. Moreover, for the first time, it is shown that magnetization measurements can be used to investigate self-assembly of such functionalized systems, giving information on the vesicle compo...

  14. Phosphorylation Modulates Ameloblastin Self-assembly and Ca2+ Binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stakkestad, O.; Lyngstadaas, S. P.; Thiede, B.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Skalhegg, B. S.; Reseland, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 27 (2017), č. článku 531. ISSN 1664-042X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ameloblastin * phosphorylation * self-assembly * Ca2+-binding * enamel * intrinsically disordered proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2017.00531/full

  15. Self-assembled containers based on extended tetrathiafulvalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivaud, Sébastien; Goeb, Sébastien; Croué, Vincent; Dron, Paul I; Allain, Magali; Sallé, Marc

    2013-07-10

    Two original self-assembled containers constituted each by six electroactive subunits are described. They are synthesized from a concave tetratopic π-extended tetrathiafulvalene ligand bearing four pyridyl units and cis-M(dppf)(OTf)2 (M = Pd or Pt; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene; OTf = trifluoromethane-sulfonate) complexes. Both fully characterized assemblies present an oblate spheroidal cavity that can incorporate one perylene molecule.

  16. Self-assembly and speed distributions of active granular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, R.; Díaz-Leyva, P.

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between the dynamics of self-propelled systems and the self-assembly of structured clusters are studied via the experimental speed distributions of submonolayers of self-propelled granular particles. A distribution developed for non-self-propelled granular particles describes the speed distributions remarkably well, despite some of the assumptions behind its original derivation not being applicable. This is explained in terms of clustering and dissipation being the key phenomena governing this regime.

  17. Biocompatible and Biomimetic Self-Assembly of Functional Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-28

    evaporation induced self-assembly of aqueous silica precursors with a biologically compatible surfactant, glycerol monooleate ( GMO ) via dip-coating...film is first deposited, it has a relatively low contact angle with water and remains in a semi-solid state. Upon exposure to UV/ozone, the GMO begins...Figure 8. A) Water contact angle of a GMO -templated silica film as a function of UV light and ozone exposure time, B) Localization of fluorescently

  18. Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: Ab ovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous remarkable studies related to the self-organization of polymers, coordination compounds, microscale particles, biomolecules, macroscale particles, surfactants, and reactive molecules on surfaces. The focus of this paper is on the self-organization of nanoscale inorganic particles or simply nanoparticles (NPs). Although there are fascinating and profound discoveries made with other self-assembling structures, the ones involving NPs deserve particular attention because they (a) are omnipresent in Nature; (b) have relevance to numerous disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences, and others); (c) embrace most of the features, geometries, and intricacies observed for the self-organization of other chemical species; (d) offer new tools for studies of self-organization phenomena; and (e) have a large economic impact, extending from energy and construction industries, to optoelectronics, biomedical technologies, and food safety. Despite the overall success of the field it is necessary to step back from its multiple ongoing research venues and consider two questions: What is self-assembly of nanoparticles? and Why do we need to study it? The reason to bring them up is to achieve greater scientific depth in the understanding of these omnipresent phenomena and, perhaps, deepen their multifaceted impact. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  19. Supramolecular ribbons from amphiphilic trisamides self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fátima; Buendía, Julia; Sánchez, Luis

    2011-08-05

    Two amphiphilic C(3)-symmetric OPE-based trisamides have been synthesized and their self-assembling features investigated in solution and on surface. Variable-temperature UV-vis experiments demonstrate the cooperative supramolecular polymerization of these trisamides that self-assemble by the operation of triple C═O···H-N H-bonding arrays between the amide functional groups and π-π stacking between the aromatic units. The helical organization of the aggregates has been demonstrated by circular dichroism at a concentration as low as 1 × 10(-4) M in acetonitrile. In the reported trisamides, the large hydrophobic aromatic core acts as a solvophobic module impeding the interaction between the polar TEG chains and the amide H-bonds. This strategy makes unnecessary the separation of the amide functional groups to the polar tri(ethylene glycol) chains by paraffinic fragments. Achiral trisamide 1 self-assembles into flat ribbon-like structures that experience an amplification of chirality by the addition of a small amount of chiral 2 that generates twisted stripes.

  20. Molecular Motions in Functional Self-Assembled Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Saiter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of “smart” materials able to perform specific functions at the molecular scale through the application of various stimuli is highly attractive but still challenging. The most recent applications indicate that the outstanding flexibility of self-assembled architectures can be employed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative molecular devices, functional surfaces and smart nanomaterials. Structural flexibility of these materials is known to be conferred by weak intermolecular forces involved in self-assembly strategies. However, some fundamental mechanisms responsible for conformational lability remain unexplored. Furthermore, the role played by stronger bonds, such as coordination, ionic and covalent bonding, is sometimes neglected while they can be employed readily to produce mechanically robust but also chemically reversible structures. In this review, recent applications of structural flexibility and molecular motions in self-assembled nanostructures are discussed. Special focus is given to advanced materials exhibiting significant performance changes after an external stimulus is applied, such as light exposure, pH variation, heat treatment or electromagnetic field. The crucial role played by strong intra- and weak intermolecular interactions on structural lability and responsiveness is highlighted.

  1. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2011-01-07

    We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.

  2. Chitosan Based Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Quiñones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that is usually obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin poly(N-acetylglucosamine. It is biocompatible, biodegradable, mucoadhesive, and non-toxic. These excellent biological properties make chitosan a good candidate for a platform in developing drug delivery systems having improved biodistribution, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. In particular, chitosan nanoparticles are found to be appropriate for non-invasive routes of drug administration: oral, nasal, pulmonary and ocular routes. These applications are facilitated by the absorption-enhancing effect of chitosan. Many procedures for obtaining chitosan nanoparticles have been proposed. Particularly, the introduction of hydrophobic moieties into chitosan molecules by grafting to generate a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance promoting self-assembly is a current and appealing approach. The grafting agent can be a hydrophobic moiety forming micelles that can entrap lipophilic drugs or it can be the drug itself. Another suitable way to generate self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles is through the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions. This paper reviews the main approaches for preparing chitosan nanoparticles by self-assembly through both procedures, and illustrates the state of the art of their application in drug delivery.

  3. DNA assisted self-assembly of PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kumar, Mattaparthi Venkata Satish; Maiti, Prabal K

    2014-10-09

    We report DNA assisted self-assembly of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers using all atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and present a molecular level picture of a DNA-linked PAMAM dendrimer nanocluster, which was first experimentally reported by Choi et al. (Nano Lett., 2004, 4, 391-397). We have used single stranded DNA (ssDNA) to direct the self-assembly process. To explore the effect of pH on this mechanism, we have used both the protonated (low pH) and nonprotonated (high pH) dendrimers. In all cases studied here, we observe that the DNA strand on one dendrimer unit drives self-assembly as it binds to the complementary DNA strand present on the other dendrimer unit, leading to the formation of a DNA-linked dendrimer dimeric complex. However, this binding process strongly depends on the charge of the dendrimer and length of the ssDNA. We observe that the complex with a nonprotonated dendrimer can maintain a DNA length dependent inter-dendrimer distance. In contrast, for complexes with a protonated dendrimer, the inter-dendrimer distance is independent of the DNA length. We attribute this observation to the electrostatic complexation of a negatively charged DNA strand with the positively charged protonated dendrimer.

  4. Controlling Self-Assembly in Al(110) Homoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Yogesh; Fichthorn, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Homoepitaxial growth on Al(110) exhibits nanoscale self-assembly into huts with well-defined (100) and (111) facets [1]. Although some of the diffusion mechanisms underlying this kinetic self-assembly were identified and incorporated into a two-dimensional model [2], we used density-functional theory (DFT) to identify many other mechanisms that are needed to describe the three-dimensional assembly seen experimentally [3]. We developed a three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model of Al(110) homoepitaxy. The inputs to the model were obtained from DFT [3,4]. Our model is in agreement with experimentally observed trends for this system. We used KMC to predict self-assembly under various growth conditions. To achieve precise placement of Al nanohuts, we simulated thermal-field-directed assembly [5]. Our results indicate that this technique can be used to create uniform arrays of nanostructures. [1] F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003). [2] W. Zhu, F. Buatier de Mongeot, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, and Z. Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 106102 (2004). [3] Y. Tiwary and K. A. Fichthorn, submitted to Phys. Rev. B. [4] Y. Tiwary and K. A. Fichthorn, Phys. Rev. B 78, 205418 (2008). [5] C. Zhang and R. Kalyanaraman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4827 (2003).

  5. Self-assembled nanomaterials based on beta (β"3) tetrapeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoudi, Rania S; Hinds, Mark G; Wilson, David J D; Adda, Christopher G; Mechler, Adam; Del Borgo, Mark; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    β "3-amino acid based polypeptides offer a unique starting material for the design of self-assembled nanostructures such as fibres and hierarchical dendritic assemblies, due to their well-defined helical geometry in which the peptide side chains align at 120° due to the 3.0–3.1 residue pitch of the helix. In a previous work we have described the head-to-tail self-assembly of N-terminal acetylated β "3-peptides into infinite helical nanorods that was achieved by designing a bioinspired supramolecular self-assembly motif. Here we describe the effect of consecutively more polar side chains on the self-assembly characteristics of β "3-tetrapeptides Ac-β "3Ala-β "3Leu-β "3Ile-β "3Ala (Ac-β"3[ALIA]), Ac-β "3Ser-β "3Leu-β "3Ile-β "3Ala (Ac-β"3[SLIA]) and Ac-β "3Lys-β "3Leu-β "3Ile-β "3Glu (Ac-β"3[KLIE]). β "3-tetrapeptides complete 1 1/3 turns of the helix: thus in the oligomeric form the side chain positions shift 120° with each added monomer, forming a regular periodic pattern along the nanorod. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements confirmed that these peptides self-assemble even in highly polar solvents such as water and DMSO, while diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of a substantial monomeric population. Temperature dependence of the size distribution in DLS measurements suggests a dynamic equilibrium between monomers and oligomers. Solution casting produced distinct fibrillar deposits after evaporating the solvent. In the case of the apolar Ac-β "3[ALIA] the longitudinal helix morphology gives rise to geometrically defined (∼70°) junctions between fibres, forming a mesh that opens up possibilities for applications e.g. in tissue scaffolding. The deposits of polar Ac-β "3[SLIA] and Ac-β "3[KLIE] exhibit fibres in regular parallel alignment over surface areas in the order of 10 μm. (paper)

  6. Self-assembled Block Copolymer Membranes with Bioinspired Artificial Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin

    2018-04-01

    Nature is an excellent design that inspires scientists to develop smart systems. In the realm of separation technology, biological membranes have been an ideal model for synthetic membranes due to their ultrahigh permeability, sharp selectivity, and stimuliresponse. In this research, fabrications of bioinspired membranes from block copolymers were studied. Membranes with isoporous morphology were mainly prepared using selfassembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). An effective method that can dramatically shorten the path for designing new isoporous membranes from block copolymers via SNIPS was first proposed by predetermining a trend line computed from the solvent properties, interactions and copolymer block sizes of previously-obtained successful systems. Application of the method to new copolymer systems and fundamental studies on the block copolymer self-assembly were performed. Furthermore, the manufacture of bioinspired membranes was explored using (1) poly(styrene-b-4-hydroxystyrene-b-styrene) (PS-b-PHS-b-PS), (2) poly(styrene-bbutadiene- b-styrene) (PS-b-PB-b-PS) and (3) poly(styrene-b-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PSb- PBLG) copolymers via SNIPS. The structure formation was investigated using smallangle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and time-resolved grazing-Incidence SAXS. The PS-b- PHS-b-PS membranes showed preferential transport for proteins, presumably due to the hydrogen bond interactions within the channels, electrostatic attraction, and suitable pore dimension. Well-defined nanochannels with pore sizes of around 4 nm based on PS-b- PB-b-PS copolymers could serve as an excellent platform to fabricate bioinspired channels due to the modifiable butadiene blocks. Photolytic addition of thioglycolic acid was demonstrated without sacrificing the self-assembled morphology, which led to a five-fold increase in water permeance compared to that of the unmodified. Membranes with a unique feather-like structure and a lamellar morphology for dialysis and

  7. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of DNA Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Harish

    The control of matter and phenomena at the nanoscale is fast becoming one of the most important challenges of the 21st century with wide-ranging applications from energy and health care to computing and material science. Conventional top-down approaches to nanotechnology, having served us well for long, are reaching their inherent limitations. Meanwhile, bottom-up methods such as self-assembly are emerging as viable alternatives for nanoscale fabrication and manipulation. A particularly successful bottom up technique is DNA self-assembly where a set of carefully designed DNA strands form a nanoscale object as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the different components, without external direction. The final product of the self-assembly process might be a static nanostructure or a dynamic nanodevice that performs a specific function. Over the past two decades, DNA self-assembly has produced stunning nanoscale objects such as 2D and 3D lattices, polyhedra and addressable arbitrary shaped substrates, and a myriad of nanoscale devices such as molecular tweezers, computational circuits, biosensors and molecular assembly lines. In this dissertation we study multiple problems in the theory, simulations and experiments of DNA self-assembly. We extend the Turing-universal mathematical framework of self-assembly known as the Tile Assembly Model by incorporating randomization during the assembly process. This allows us to reduce the tile complexity of linear assemblies. We develop multiple techniques to build linear assemblies of expected length N using far fewer tile types than previously possible. We abstract the fundamental properties of DNA and develop a biochemical system, which we call meta-DNA, based entirely on strands of DNA as the only component molecule. We further develop various enzyme-free protocols to manipulate meta-DNA systems and provide strand level details along with abstract notations for these mechanisms. We simulate DNA circuits by

  8. Fracton pairing mechanism for unconventional superconductors: Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds are two classes of unconventional superconductors, whose challenging behavior does not comply with the traditional picture of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity in regular crystals. In this paper, we propose a theoretical...... or holes) exchange fracton excitations, quantum oscillations of fractal lattices that mimic the complex microscopic organization of the unconventional superconductors. For the copper oxides, the superconducting transition temperature T-c as predicted by the fracton mechanism is of the order of similar to......150 K. We suggest that the marginal ingredient of the high-temperature superconducting phase is provided by fracton coupled holes that condensate in the conducting copper-oxygen planes owing to the intrinsic field-effect-transistor configuration of the cuprate compounds. For the gate...

  9. Self-assembled patches in PtSi/n-Si (111) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandiyeva, I. M.; Altιndal, Ş.; Abdullayeva, L. K.; Bayramova, A. İ.

    2018-05-01

    Using the effect of the temperature on the capacitance–voltage (C–V) and conductance–voltage (G/ω–V) characteristics of PtSi/n-Si (111) Schottky diodes the profile of apparent doping concentration (N Dapp), the potential difference between the Fermi energy level and the bottom of the conduction band (V n), apparent barrier height (Φ Bapp), series resistance (R s) and the interface state density N ss have been investigated. From the temperature dependence of (C–V) it was found that these parameters are non-uniformly changed with increasing temperature in a wide temperature range of 79–360 K. The voltage and temperature dependences of apparent carrier distribution we attributed to the existence of self-assembled patches similar the quantum wells, which formed due to the process of PtSi formation on semiconductor and the presence of hexagonal voids of Si (111).

  10. Self-assembly and optical properties of patterned ZnO nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijian; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li

    2007-01-01

    Patterned ZnO nanodot (ND) arrays and a ND-cavity microstructure were realized on an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) surface through a spin-coating sol-gel process, which benefits from the morphology and localized negative charge surface of AAM as well as the optimized sol concentration. The growth mechanism is believed to be a self-assembly process. This provides a simple approach to fabricate semiconductor quantum dot (QD) arrays and a QD-cavity system with its advantage in low cost and mass production. Strong ultra-violet emission, a multi-phonon process, and its special structure-related properties were observed in the patterned ZnO ND arrays

  11. Self-Assembled Local Artificial Substrates of GaAs on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigeri C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a self-assembling procedure for the fabrication of GaAs islands by Droplet Epitaxy on silicon substrate. Controlling substrate temperature and amount of supplied gallium is possible to tune the base size of the islands from 70 up to 250 nm and the density from 107 to 109 cm−2. The islands show a standard deviation of base size distribution below 10% and their shape evolves changing the aspect ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 as size increases. Due to their characteristics, these islands are suitable to be used as local artificial substrates for the integration of III–V quantum nanostructures directly on silicon substrate.

  12. Light effects in asymmetric vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrou, V.N., E-mail: vstavrou@newton.physics.uiowa.edu

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the dependence of circular light polarization on the size asymmetry of self-assembled coupled quantum dots (SACQDs) has been studied. The heterostructure consists of ellipsoidal shaped QDs made with InAs which are embedded in a wetting layer and are surrounded by GaAs. By considering fully spin-polarized carriers within the QD structure, the light polarization has been estimated along the plane of spin polarized electrons (or holes). Circularly polarized light strongly depends on the ratio related to the different QD volumes. In the case of elongated QDs, small interdot distance and large volume ratio, the light polarization observed along the plane (110) receives the largest value (∼90%). On the other hand, the polarization efficiency of the emitted light decreases as the QD elongation decreases and finally vanishes for axially symmetric QD caps.

  13. Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, Eric R.; Noh, Heeso; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Cao, Hui; Prum, Richard O.; (Yale)

    2009-04-23

    Some of the most vivid colors in the animal kingdom are created not by pigments, but by wavelength-selective scattering of light from nanostructures. Here we investigate quasi-ordered nanostructures of avian feather barbs which produce vivid non-iridescent colors. These {beta}-keratin and air nanostructures are found in two basic morphologies: tortuous channels and amorphous packings of spheres. Each class of nanostructure is isotropic and has a pronounced characteristic length scale of variation in composition. These local structural correlations lead to strong backscattering over a narrow range of optical frequencies and little variation with angle of incidence. Such optical properties play important roles in social and sexual communication. To be effective, birds need to precisely control the development of these nanoscale structures, yet little is known about how they grow. We hypothesize that multiple lineages of birds have convergently evolved to exploit phase separation and kinetic arrest to self-assemble spongy color-producing nanostructures in feather barbs. Observed avian nanostructures are strikingly similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of fluid mixtures; the channel and sphere morphologies are characteristic of phase separation by spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth, respectively. These unstable structures are locked-in by the kinetic arrest of the {beta}-keratin matrix, likely through the entanglement or cross-linking of supermolecular {beta}-keratin fibers. Using the power of self-assembly, birds can robustly realize a diverse range of nanoscopic morphologies with relatively small physical and chemical changes during feather development.

  14. Particle self-assembly at ionic liquid-based interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Denzil S; Nofen, Elizabeth M; Dai, Lenore L

    2014-04-01

    This review presents an overview of the nature of ionic liquid (IL)-based interfaces and self-assembled particle morphologies of IL-in-water, oil- and water-in-IL, and novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions with emphasis on their unique phenomena, by means of experimental and computational studies. In IL-in-water Pickering emulsions, particles formed monolayers at ionic liquid-water interfaces and were close-packed on fully covered emulsion droplets or aggregated on partially covered droplets. Interestingly, other than equilibrating at the ionic liquid-water interfaces, microparticles with certain surface chemistries were extracted into the ionic liquid phase with a high efficiency. These experimental findings were supported by potential of mean force calculations, which showed large energy drops as hydrophobic particles crossed the interface into the IL phase. In the oil- and water-in-IL Pickering emulsions, microparticles with acidic surface chemistries formed monolayer bridges between the internal phase droplets rather than residing at the oil/water-ionic liquid interfaces, a significant deviation from traditional Pickering emulsion morphology. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed aspects of the mechanism behind this bridging phenomenon, including the role of the droplet phase, surface chemistry, and inter-particle film. Novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions exhibited an array of self-assembled morphologies including the previously observed particle absorption and bridging phenomena. The appearance of these morphologies depended on the particle surface chemistry as well as the ILs used. The incorporation of particle self-assembly with ionic liquid science allows for new applications at the intersection of these two fields, and have the potential to be numerous due to the tunability of the ionic liquids and particles incorporated, as well as the particle morphology by combining certain groups of particle surface chemistry, IL type (protic or aprotic), and whether oil

  15. Matrix development in self-assembly of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidon Ofek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a highly functional tissue which covers the ends of long bones and serves to ensure proper joint movement. A tissue engineering approach that recapitulates the developmental characteristics of articular cartilage can be used to examine the maturation and degeneration of cartilage and produce fully functional neotissue replacements for diseased tissue.This study examined the development of articular cartilage neotissue within a self-assembling process in two phases. In the first phase, articular cartilage constructs were examined at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days immunohistochemically, histologically, and through biochemical analysis for total collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content. Based on statistical changes in GAG and collagen levels, four time points from the first phase (7, 14, 28, and 56 days were chosen to carry into the second phase, where the constructs were studied in terms of their mechanical characteristics, relative amounts of collagen types II and VI, and specific GAG types (chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan. Collagen type VI was present in initial abundance and then localized to a pericellular distribution at 4 wks. N-cadherin activity also spiked at early stages of neotissue development, suggesting that self-assembly is mediated through a minimization of free energy. The percentage of collagen type II to total collagen significantly increased over time, while the proportion of collagen type VI to total collagen decreased between 1 and 2 wks. The chondroitin 6- to 4- sulfate ratio decreased steadily during construct maturation. In addition, the compressive properties reached a plateau and tensile characteristics peaked at 4 wks.The indices of cartilage formation examined in this study suggest that tissue maturation in self-assembled articular cartilage mirrors known developmental processes for native tissue. In terms of tissue engineering, it is

  16. Chemical solution route to self-assembled epitaxial oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Gibert, M; Queraltó, A; Zabaleta, J; Mestres, N

    2014-04-07

    Self-assembly of oxides as a bottom-up approach to functional nanostructures goes beyond the conventional nanostructure formation based on lithographic techniques. Particularly, chemical solution deposition (CSD) is an ex situ growth approach very promising for high throughput nanofabrication at low cost. Whereas strain engineering as a strategy to define nanostructures with tight control of size, shape and orientation has been widely used in metals and semiconductors, it has been rarely explored in the emergent field of functional complex oxides. Here we will show that thermodynamic modeling can be very useful to understand the principles controlling the growth of oxide nanostructures by CSD, and some attractive kinetic features will also be presented. The methodology of strain engineering is applied in a high degree of detail to form different sorts of nanostructures (nanodots, nanowires) of the oxide CeO2 with fluorite structure which then is used as a model system to identify the principles controlling self-assembly and self-organization in CSD grown oxides. We also present, more briefly, the application of these ideas to other oxides such as manganites or BaZrO3. We will show that the nucleation and growth steps are essentially understood and manipulated while the kinetic phenomena underlying the evolution of the self-organized networks are still less widely explored, even if very appealing effects have been already observed. Overall, our investigation based on a CSD approach has opened a new strategy towards a general use of self-assembly and self-organization which can now be widely spread to many functional oxide materials.

  17. Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles and bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Scibilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biohybrid nanostructured materials, composed of both inorganic nanoparticles and biomolecules, offer prospects for many new applications in extremely diverse fields such as chemistry, physics, engineering, medicine and nanobiotechnology. In the recent years, Phage display technique has been extensively used to generate phage clones displaying surface peptides with functionality towards organic materials. Screening and selection of phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest because of their use for development of hybrid materials with multiple functionalities. Here, we present a self-assembly approach for the construction of hybrid nanostructured networks consisting of M13 P9b phage clone, specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, selected by Phage display technology, directly assembled with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, previously prepared by pulsed laser ablation. These networks are characterized by UV–vis optical spectroscopy, scanning/transmission electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. We investigated the influence of different ions and medium pH on self-assembly by evaluating different phage suspension buffers. The assembly of these networks is controlled by electrostatic interactions between the phage pVIII major capsid proteins and the AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs-phage networks was obtained only in two types of tested buffers at a pH value near the isoelectric point of each pVIII proteins displayed on the surface of the clone. This systematic study allowed to optimize the synthesis procedure to assembly AgNPs and bacteriophage. Such networks find application in the biomedical field of advanced biosensing and targeted gene and drug delivery. Keywords: Phage display, Silver nanoparticles, Self-assembly, Hybrid architecture, Raman spectroscopy

  18. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongkun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The protein nanoparticles are formed upon self-assembly of a protein chain that is composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. The self-assembling protein nanoparticles form a central cavity of about 10 nm in size, which is ideal for the encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with similar sizes. Results We have used SAPNs to encapsulate several commercially available gold nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic size and the surface coating of gold nanoparticles are two important factors influencing successful encapsulation by the SAPNs. Gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size of less than 15 nm can successfully be encapsulated. Gold nanoparticles with citrate coating appear to have stronger interactions with the proteins, which can interfere with the formation of regular protein nanoparticles. Upon encapsulation gold nanoparticles with polymer coating interfere less strongly with the ability of the SAPNs to assemble into nanoparticles. Although the central cavity of the SAPNs carries an overall charge, the electrostatic interaction appears to be less critical for the efficient encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into the protein nanoparticles. Conclusions The SAPNs can be used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The SAPNs can be further functionalized by engineering functional peptides or proteins to either their N- or C-termini. Therefore encapsulation of gold

  19. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncheva, Mila; Gracias, David H; Jacobs, Heiko O; Whitesides, George M

    2002-04-16

    This paper introduces a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled on the folding of a chain of polypeptide structural motifs into a globular protein. Millimeter-size polyhedra-patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots-were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly, the string folded spontaneously into two domains: one functioned as a ring oscillator, and the other one as a shift register. This example demonstrates that biomimetic principles of design and self-organization can be applied to generate multifunctional electronic systems of complex, three-dimensional architecture.

  20. Self-assembly of heterogeneous supramolecular structures with uniaxial anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Osés, M; Gonzalez-Lakunza, N; Silanes, I; Gourdon, A; Arnau, A; Ortega, J E

    2006-12-28

    Uniaxial anisotropy in two-dimensional self-assembled supramolecular structures is achieved by the coadsorption of two different linear molecules with complementary amine and imide functionalization. The two-dimensional monolayer is defined by a one-dimensional stack of binary chains, which can be forced to line up along steps in vicinal surfaces. The competing driving forces in the self-organization process are discussed in light of the structures observed during single molecule adsorption and coadsorption on flat and vicinal surfaces and the corresponding theoretical calculations.

  1. Passivation effects in B doped self-assembled Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthen Veettil, B.; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Terry; Johnson, Craig; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Würfl, Ivan; McCamey, Dane

    2014-01-01

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals has enabled their widespread technological application in optoelectronics and micro/nano-electronics. In this work, boron-doped self-assembled silicon nanocrystal samples have been grown and characterised using Electron Spin Resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The passivation effects of boron on the interface dangling bonds have been investigated. Addition of boron dopants is found to compensate the active dangling bonds at the interface, and this is confirmed by an increase in photoluminescence intensity. Further addition of dopants is found to reduce the photoluminescence intensity by decreasing the minority carrier lifetime as a result of the increased number of non-radiative processes

  2. A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Vignolini, Silvia

    2011-10-24

    Optical metamaterials have unusual optical characteristics that arise from their periodic nanostructure. Their manufacture requires the assembly of 3D architectures with structure control on the 10-nm length scale. Such a 3D optical metamaterial, based on the replication of a self-assembled block copolymer into gold, is demonstrated. The resulting gold replica has a feature size that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Its optical signature reveals an archetypal Pendry wire metamaterial with linear and circular dichroism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Vignolini, Silvia; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Cunha, Pedro S.; Guldin, Stefan; Rushkin, Ilia; Stefik, Morgan; Hur, Kahyun; Wiesner, Ulrich; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2011-01-01

    Optical metamaterials have unusual optical characteristics that arise from their periodic nanostructure. Their manufacture requires the assembly of 3D architectures with structure control on the 10-nm length scale. Such a 3D optical metamaterial, based on the replication of a self-assembled block copolymer into gold, is demonstrated. The resulting gold replica has a feature size that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Its optical signature reveals an archetypal Pendry wire metamaterial with linear and circular dichroism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Microcolumns with self-assembled particle frits for proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Yasushi; Rappsilber, Juri; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    LC-MS-MS experiments in proteomics are usually performed with packed microcolumns employing frits or outlets smaller than the particle diameter to retain the packing material. We have developed packed microcolumns using self-assembled particles (SAPs) as frits that are smaller than the size...... of the outlet. A five to one ratio of outlet size to particle diameter appears to be the upper maximum. In these situations the particles assembled into an arch over the outlet like the stones in a stone bridge. When 3 microm particles were packed into a tapered column with an 8 microm outlet, two particles...

  5. Directed Formation of DNA Nanoarrays through Orthogonal Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Stulz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of terpyridine modified DNA strands which selectively form DNA nanotubes through orthogonal hydrogen bonding and metal complexation interactions. The short DNA strands are designed to self-assemble into long duplexes through a sticky-end approach. Addition of weakly binding metals such as Zn(II and Ni(II induces the formation of tubular arrays consisting of DNA bundles which are 50-200 nm wide and 2-50 nm high. TEM shows additional long distance ordering of the terpy-DNA complexes into fibers.

  6. Self-assembly of silk fibroin under osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sungkyun

    The supramolecular self-assembly behavior of silk fibroin was investigated using osmotic stress technique. In Chapter 2, a ternary phase diagram of water-silk-LiBr was constructed based on X-ray results on the osmotically stressed regenerated silk fibroin of Bombyx mori silkworm. Microscopic data indicated that silk I is a hydrated structure and a rough estimate of the number of water molecules lost by the structure upon converting from silk I to silk II has been made, and found to be about 2.2 per [GAGAGS] hexapeptide. In Chapter 3, wet-spinning of osmotically stressed, regenerated silk fibroin was performed, based on the prediction that the enhanced control over structure and phase behavior using osmotic stress method helps improve the physical properties of wet-spun regenerated silk fibroin fibers. The osmotic stress was applied in order to pre-structure the regenerated silk fibroin molecule from its original random coil state to more oriented state, manipulating the phase of the silk solution in the phase diagram before the start of spinning. Monofilament fiber with a diameter of 20 microm was produced. In Chapter 4, we investigated if there is a noticeable synergistic osmotic pressure increase between co-existing polymeric osmolyte and salt when extremely highly concentrated salt molecules are present both at sample subphase and stressing subphase, as is the case of silk fibroin self-assembly. The equilibration method that measures osmotic pressure relative to a reference with known osmotic pressure was introduced. Osmotic pressure of aqueous LiBr solution up to 2.75M was measured and it was found that the synergistic effect was insignificant up to this salt concentration. Solution parameters of stressing solutions and Arrhenius kinetics based on time-temperature relationship for the equilibration process were derived as well. In Chapter 5, self-assembly behavior of natural silk fibroin within the gland of Bombyx mori silkworm was investigated using osmotic

  7. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  8. Light-assisted templated self assembly using photonic crystal slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Camilo A; Dutt, Avik; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-06-06

    We explore a technique which we term light-assisted templated self-assembly. We calculate the optical forces on colloidal particles over a photonic crystal slab. We show that exciting a guided resonance mode of the slab yields a resonantly-enhanced, attractive optical force. We calculate the lateral optical forces above the slab and predict that stably trapped periodic patterns of particles are dependent on wavelength and polarization. Tuning the wavelength or polarization of the light source may thus allow the formation and reconfiguration of patterns. We expect that this technique may be used to design all-optically reconfigurable photonic devices.

  9. Nanoporous network channels from self-assembled triblock copolymer supramolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Sart, Gerrit Gobius; Vukovic, Ivana; Vukovic, Zorica; Polushkin, Evgeny; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Loos, Katja; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2011-02-16

    Supramolecular complexes of a poly(tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock copolymers and less than stoichiometric amounts of pentadecylphenol (PDP) are shown to self-assemble into a core-shell gyroid morphology with the core channels formed by the hydrogen-bonded P4VP(PDP)complexes. After structure formation, PDP was removed using a simple washing procedure, resulting in well-ordered nanoporous films that were used as templates for nickel plating. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architectures Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Garti, Nissim

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe fundamentals and recent developments in the area of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architecture and their relevance to the  understanding of the functionality of  membranes  as delivery systems for active ingredients. As the heirarchial architectures determine their performance capabilities, attention will be paid to theoretical and design aspects related to the construction of lyotropic liquid crystals: mesophases such as lamellar, hexagonal, cubic, sponge phase micellosomes. The book will bring to the reader mechanistic aspects, compositional c

  11. Exploring the properties and possibilities of self-assembling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Castillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    structures ranging from piezo electricity over semi conductance to fluorescence. If such peptide nanotubes could be controlled and incorporated in sensors such as a biological field effect transistor it would greatly reduce the fabrication costs while at the same time providing researchers with new...... and exciting possibilities. The major driving forces supporting the interest in the peptide nanotubes is the fast and simple assembly process combined with their remarkable stability towards alcohols, organic solvents, and biological analytes that was presented shortly after the self-assembling properties...... and illustrated their potential use as sensitive temperature sensor....

  12. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Surfactant self-assembly in alcohol-rich solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouguerra, N.; Jebari, M.M.; Gomati, R.; Gharbi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements are achieved along alcohol dilution lines of a single-isotropic phase domain, which extends from the alcohol corner to sponge phase domain to brine corner, of an alcohol-surfactant-brine phase diagram. The results are discussed in terms of amphiphilic self-assembly which leads to stable mixtures of the slightly miscible alcohol and brine used. We show the formation of reverse micelles, whose cores are either dry or charged of brine according to the samples composition, and whose sizes remain small near the sponge phase structure

  15. Biomimetic engineering: towards a self-assembled nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braach-Maksvytis, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nanoscience and Systems program was set up within CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics three years ago with an emphasis on biomimetic engineering, with the aim of developing new cross-disciplinary research in traditional physics areas. By combining expertise in experimental and theoretical physics with biology and chemistry, new approaches towards understanding and using nanoscale systems and devices are being explored. Research in the program ranges from using self-assembled lipid membranes for surface passivation of GaAs transistors to the electrical properties of nanoparticle films and devices. An overview of the research will be given, highlighting the diversity of nanotechnology applications

  16. Electronic structure of GaAs with InAs (001) monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Peressi, M.

    1995-04-01

    The effect on the electronic structure of an InAs monomolecular plane inserted in bulk GaAs is investigated theoretically. The (InAs) 1 (GaAs) n (001) strained superlattice is studied via ab-initio self-consistent pseudopotential calculations. Both electrons and holes are localized nearby the inserted InAs monolayer, which therefore acts as a quantum well for all the charge carriers. The small thickness of the inserted InAs slab is responsible of high confinement energies for the charge carriers, and therefore the interband electron-heavy-hole transition energy is close to the energy gap of the bulk GaAs, in agreement with recent experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  17. Self-assembly of silica microparticles in magnetic multiphase flows: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Xiao-Dong; Li, You; Chen, Mu-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic self-assembly, especially self-assembly under magnetic field, is vital not only for its marvelous phenomenon but also for its mechanisms. Revealing the underlying mechanisms is crucial for a deeper understanding of self-assembly. In this paper, several magnetic induced self-assembly experiments by using the mixed magnetic multiphase fluids comprised of silica microspheres were carried out. The relations of the strength of external magnetic field, the inverse magnetorheological effect, and the structures of self-assembled particles were investigated. In addition, a momentum-exchanged immersed boundary-based lattice Boltzmann method (MEIB-LBM) for modeling multi-physical coupling multiphase flows was employed to numerically study the magnetic induced self-assembly process in detail. The present work showed that the external magnetic field can be used to control the form of self-assembly of nonmagnetic microparticles in a chain-like structure, and the self-assembly process can be classified into four stages with magnetic hysteresis, magnetization of nonmagnetic microparticles, self-assembly in chain-like structures, and the stable chain state. The combination of experimental and numerical results could offer a method to control the self-assembled nonmagnetic microparticles, which can provide the technical and theoretical support for the design and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials.

  18. Tuning peptide self-assembly by an in-tether chiral center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kuan; Xiong, Wei; Li, Hu; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Yin, Feng; Zhang, Qianling; Jiang, Fan; Li, Zigang

    2018-01-01

    The self-assembly of peptides into ordered nanostructures is important for understanding both peptide molecular interactions and nanotechnological applications. However, because of the complexity and various self-assembling pathways of peptide molecules, design of self-assembling helical peptides with high controllability and tunability is challenging. We report a new self-assembling mode that uses in-tether chiral center-induced helical peptides as a platform for tunable peptide self-assembly with good controllability. It was found that self-assembling behavior was governed by in-tether substitutional groups, where chirality determined the formation of helical structures and aromaticity provided the driving force for self-assembly. Both factors were essential for peptide self-assembly to occur. Experiments and theoretical calculations indicate long-range crystal-like packing in the self-assembly, which was stabilized by a synergy of interpeptide π-π and π-sulfur interactions and hydrogen bond networks. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nanomaterials were demonstrated to be promising candidate materials for applications in biocompatible electrochemical supercapacitors.

  19. Formation of mixed and patterned self-assembled films of alkylphosphonates on commercially pure titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudzka, Katarzyna; Sanchez Treviño, Alda Y.; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A., E-mail: marodri@ugr.es; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Chemically-tailored titanium surfaces were prepared by self-assembly of alkylphosphonates. • Mixed self-assembled films were prepared with aqueous mixtures of two alkylphosphonates. • Single self-assembled films were altered by laser abrasion. • Mixed and patterned self-assembled films on titanium may guide the bone-like formation. - Abstract: Titanium is extensively employed in biomedical devices, in particular as implant. The self-assembly of alkylphosphonates on titanium surfaces enable the specific adsorption of biomolecules to adapt the implant response against external stimuli. In this work, chemically-tailored cpTi surfaces were prepared by self-assembly of alkylphosphonate molecules. By bringing together attributes of two grafting molecules, aqueous mixtures of two alkylphosphonates were used to obtain mixed self-assembled films. Single self-assembled films were also altered by laser abrasion to produce chemically patterned cpTi surfaces. Both mixed and patterned self-assembled films were confirmed by AFM, ESEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Water contact angle measurements also revealed the composition of the self-assembly films. Chemical functionalization with two grafting phosphonate molecules and laser surface engineering may be combined to guide the bone-like formation on cpTi, and the future biological response in the host.

  20. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Thomas C T; Liu, Lucie X; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes. (topical review)

  1. Self-assembling layers created by membrane proteins on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D S; Thomas, M B; Phillips, S; Cisneros, D A; Le Brun, A P; Holt, S A; Lakey, J H

    2007-06-01

    Membrane systems are based on several types of organization. First, amphiphilic lipids are able to create monolayer and bilayer structures which may be flat, vesicular or micellar. Into these structures membrane proteins can be inserted which use the membrane to provide signals for lateral and orientational organization. Furthermore, the proteins are the product of highly specific self-assembly otherwise known as folding, which mostly places individual atoms at precise places in three dimensions. These structures all have dimensions in the nanoscale, except for the size of membrane planes which may extend for millimetres in large liposomes or centimetres on planar surfaces such as monolayers at the air/water interface. Membrane systems can be assembled on to surfaces to create supported bilayers and these have uses in biosensors and in electrical measurements using modified ion channels. The supported systems also allow for measurements using spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy. By combining the roles of lipids and proteins, highly ordered and specific structures can be self-assembled in aqueous solution at the nanoscale.

  2. Self-assembled Nano-layering at the Adhesive interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Hayakawa, S; Torii, Y; Ogawa, T; Osaka, A; Meerbeek, B Van

    2012-04-01

    According to the 'Adhesion-Decalcification' concept, specific functional monomers within dental adhesives can ionically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Such ionic bonding has been demonstrated for 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) to manifest in the form of self-assembled 'nano-layering'. However, it remained to be explored if such nano-layering also occurs on tooth tissue when commercial MDP-containing adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) were applied following common clinical application protocols. We therefore characterized adhesive-dentin interfaces chemically, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and ultrastructurally, using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM). Both adhesives revealed nano-layering at the adhesive interface, not only within the hybrid layer but also, particularly for Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), extending into the adhesive layer. Since such self-assembled nano-layering of two 10-MDP molecules, joined by stable MDP-Ca salt formation, must make the adhesive interface more resistant to biodegradation, it may well explain the documented favorable clinical longevity of bonds produced by 10-MDP-based adhesives.

  3. New self-assembly strategies for next generation lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Evan L.; Bosworth, Joan K.; Paik, Marvin Y.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2010-04-01

    Future demands of the semiconductor industry call for robust patterning strategies for critical dimensions below twenty nanometers. The self assembly of block copolymers stands out as a promising, potentially lower cost alternative to other technologies such as e-beam or nanoimprint lithography. One approach is to use block copolymers that can be lithographically patterned by incorporating a negative-tone photoresist as the majority (matrix) phase of the block copolymer, paired with photoacid generator and a crosslinker moiety. In this system, poly(α-methylstyrene-block-hydroxystyrene)(PαMS-b-PHOST), the block copolymer is spin-coated as a thin film, processed to a desired microdomain orientation with long-range order, and then photopatterned. Therefore, selfassembly of the block copolymer only occurs in select areas due to the crosslinking of the matrix phase, and the minority phase polymer can be removed to produce a nanoporous template. Using bulk TEM analysis, we demonstrate how the critical dimension of this block copolymer is shown to scale with polymer molecular weight using a simple power law relation. Enthalpic interactions such as hydrogen bonding are used to blend inorganic additives in order to enhance the etch resistance of the PHOST block. We demonstrate how lithographically patternable block copolymers might fit in to future processing strategies to produce etch-resistant self-assembled features at length scales impossible with conventional lithography.

  4. Self-assembled rosette nanotubes encapsulate and slowly release dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yupeng Chen1,2, Shang Song2, Zhimin Yan3, Hicham Fenniri3, Thomas J Webster2,41Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNTs are novel, self-assembled, biomimetic, synthetic drug delivery materials suitable for numerous medical applications. Because of their amphiphilic character and hollow architecture, RNTs can be used to encapsulate and deliver hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver in biological systems. Another advantage of using RNTs for drug delivery is their biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and their ability to engender a favorable, biologically-inspired environment for cell adhesion and growth. In this study, a method to incorporate dexamethasone (DEX, an inflammatory and a bone growth promoting steroid into RNTs was developed. The drug-loaded RNTs were characterized using diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results showed for the first time that DEX can be easily and quickly encapsulated into RNTs and released to promote osteoblast (bone-forming cell functions over long periods of time. As a result, RNTs are presented as a novel material for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver.Keywords: nanotubes, drug delivery, self-assembly, physiological conditions

  5. Silver nanoprisms self-assembly on differently functionalized silica surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipavicius, J; Chodosovskaja, A; Beganskiene, A; Kareiva, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work colloidal silica/silver nanoprisms (NPRs) composite coatings were made. Firstly colloidal silica sols were synthesized by sol-gel method and produced coatings on glass by dip-coating technique. Next coatings were silanized by (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (AEAPTMS), (3- Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Silver NPRs where synthesized via seed-mediated method and high yield of 94±15 nm average edge length silver NPRs were obtained with surface plasmon resonance peak at 921 nm. Silica-Silver NPRs composite coatings obtained by selfassembly on silica coated-functionalized surface. In order to find the most appropriate silanization way for Silver NPRs self-assembly, the composite coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), water contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) methods. Results have showed that surface functionalization is necessary to achieve self-assembled Ag NPRs layer. MPTMS silanized coatings resulted sparse distribution of Ag NPRs. Most homogeneous, even distribution composite coatings obtained on APTES functionalized silica coatings, while AEAPTMS induced strong aggregation of Silver NPRs

  6. Stochastic lag time in nucleated linear self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Nitin S. [Group Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schoot, Paul van der [Group Theory of Polymers and Soft Matter, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-21

    Protein aggregation is of great importance in biology, e.g., in amyloid fibrillation. The aggregation processes that occur at the cellular scale must be highly stochastic in nature because of the statistical number fluctuations that arise on account of the small system size at the cellular scale. We study the nucleated reversible self-assembly of monomeric building blocks into polymer-like aggregates using the method of kinetic Monte Carlo. Kinetic Monte Carlo, being inherently stochastic, allows us to study the impact of fluctuations on the polymerization reactions. One of the most important characteristic features in this kind of problem is the existence of a lag phase before self-assembly takes off, which is what we focus attention on. We study the associated lag time as a function of system size and kinetic pathway. We find that the leading order stochastic contribution to the lag time before polymerization commences is inversely proportional to the system volume for large-enough system size for all nine reaction pathways tested. Finite-size corrections to this do depend on the kinetic pathway.

  7. Probabilistic Performance Guarantees for Distributed Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    In distributed self-assembly, a multitude of agents seek to form copies of a particular structure, modeled here as a labeled graph. In the model, agents encounter each other in spontaneous pairwise interactions and decide whether or not to form or sever edges based on their two labels and a fixed set of local interaction rules described by a graph grammar. The objective is to converge on a graph with a maximum number of copies of a given target graph. Our main result is the introduction of a simple algorithm that achieves an asymptotically maximum yield in a probabilistic sense. Notably, agents do not need to update their labels except when forming or severing edges. This contrasts with certain existing approaches that exploit information propagating rules, effectively addressing the decision problem at the level of subgraphs as opposed to individual vertices. We are able to obey more stringent locality requirements while also providing smaller rule sets. The results can be improved upon if certain requirements on the labels are relaxed. We discuss limits of performance in self-assembly in terms of rule set characteristics and achievable maximum yield.

  8. Self-Assembling Multifunctional Peptide Dimers for Gene Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitae Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling multifunctional peptide was designed for gene delivery systems. The multifunctional peptide (MP consists of cellular penetrating peptide moiety (R8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 specific sequence (GPLGV, pH-responsive moiety (H5, and hydrophobic moiety (palmitic acid (CR8GPLGVH5-Pal. MP was oxidized to form multifunctional peptide dimer (MPD by DMSO oxidation of thiols in terminal cysteine residues. MPD could condense pDNA successfully at a weight ratio of 5. MPD itself could self-assemble into submicron micelle particles via hydrophobic interaction, of which critical micelle concentration is about 0.01 mM. MPD showed concentration-dependent but low cytotoxicity in comparison with PEI25k. MPD polyplexes showed low transfection efficiency in HEK293 cells expressing low level of MMP-2 but high transfection efficiency in A549 and C2C12 cells expressing high level of MMP-2, meaning the enhanced transfection efficiency probably due to MMP-induced structural change of polyplexes. Bafilomycin A1-treated transfection results suggest that the transfection of MPD is mediated via endosomal escape by endosome buffering ability. These results show the potential of MPD for MMP-2 targeted gene delivery systems due to its multifunctionality.

  9. Self-assembly of colloids with magnetic caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, E.V., E-mail: ekaterina.novak@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kantorovich, S.S. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    In our earlier work (Steinbach et al., 2016 ) we investigated a homogeneous system of magnetically capped colloidal particles that self-assembled via two structural patterns of different symmetry. The particles could form a compact, equilateral triangle with a three-fold rotational symmetry and zero dipole moment and a staggered chain with mirror symmetry with a net magnetisation perpendicular to the chain. The system exhibited a bistability already in clusters of three particles. Based on observations of a real magnetic particles system, analytical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, it has been shown that the bistability is a result of an anisotropic magnetisation distribution with rotational symmetry inside the particles. The present study is a logical extension of the above research and forms a preparatory stage for the study of a self-assembly of such magnetic particles under the influence of an external magnetic field. Since the magnetic field is only an additive contribution to the total ground state energy, we can study the interparticle interaction energies of candidate ground state structures based on the field-free terms. - Highlights: • Analytical calculations of the energies of ground state candidates for colloids with magnetic caps. • Computer simulations confirmed the theoretical model. • The structural transition between ground states was found.

  10. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Liu, Lucie X.; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2017-04-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes.

  11. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  12. Structural Diversity of Self-Assembled Iridescent Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Prum, Richard O.

    2015-03-01

    Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, we lack precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and mechanisms controlling their development, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multi-functional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 iridescent integumentary scales and setae from 127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply-periodic bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered sponge-like morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.

  13. Managing lifelike behavior in a dynamic self-assembled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropp, Chad; Bachelard, Nicolas; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Self-organization can arise outside of thermodynamic equilibrium in a process of dynamic self-assembly. This is observed in nature, for example in flocking birds, but can also be created artificially with non-living entities. Such dynamic systems often display lifelike properties, including the ability to self-heal and adapt to environmental changes, which arise due to the collective and often complex interactions between the many individual elements. Such interactions are inherently difficult to predict and control, and limit the development of artificial systems. Here, we report a fundamentally new method to manage dynamic self-assembly through the direct external control of collective phenomena. Our system consists of a waveguide filled with mobile scattering particles. These particles spontaneously self-organize when driven by a coherent field, self-heal when mechanically perturbed, and adapt to changes in the drive wavelength. This behavior is governed by particle interactions that are completely mediated by coherent wave scattering. Compared to hydrodynamic interactions which lead to compact ordered structures, our system displays sinusoidal degeneracy and many different steady-state geometries that can be adjusted using the external field.

  14. Synthesis and self-assembly of complex hollow materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hua Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hollow materials with interiors or voids and pores are a class of lightweight nanostructured matters that promise many future technological applications, and they have received significant research attention in recent years. On the basis of well-known physicochemical phenomena and principles, for example, several solution-based protocols have been developed for the general preparation of these complex materials under mild reaction conditions. This article is thus a short introductory review on the synthetic aspects of this field of development. The synthetic methodologies can be broadly divided into three major categories: (i) template-assisted synthesis, (ii) self-assembly with primary building blocks, and (iii) induced matter relocations. In most cases, both synthesis and self-assembly are involved in the above processes. Further combinations of these methodologies appear to be very important, as they will allow one to prepare functional materials at a higher level of complexity and precision. The synthetic strategies are introduced through some simple case studies with schematic illustrations. Salient features of the methods developed have been summarized, and some urgent issues of this field have also been indicated. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Self-assembled cellulose materials for biomedicine: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jisheng; Li, Jinfeng

    2018-02-01

    Cellulose-based materials have reached a growing interest for the improvement of biomedicine, due to their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity. Self-assembly is a spontaneous process by which organized structures with particular functions and properties could be obtained without additional complicated processing steps. This article describes the modifications, properties and applications of cellulose and its derivatives, which including a detailed review of representative types of solvents such as NMMO, DMAc/LiCl, some molten salt hydrates, some aqueous solutions of metal complexes, ionic liquids and NaOH-water system etc. The modifications were frequently performed by esterification, etherification, ATRP, RAFT, ROP and other novel methods. Stimuli-responsive cellulose-based materials, such as temperature-, pH-, light- and redox-responsive, were synthesized for their superior performance. Additionally, the applications of cellulose-based materials which can self-assemble into micelles, vesicles and other aggregates, for drug/gene delivery, bioimaging, biosensor, are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  17. Proteins evolve on the edge of supramolecular self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Seisdedos, Hector; Empereur-Mot, Charly; Elad, Nadav; Levy, Emmanuel D.

    2017-08-01

    The self-association of proteins into symmetric complexes is ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life. Symmetric complexes possess unique geometric and functional properties, but their internal symmetry can pose a risk. In sickle-cell disease, the symmetry of haemoglobin exacerbates the effect of a mutation, triggering assembly into harmful fibrils. Here we examine the universality of this mechanism and its relation to protein structure geometry. We introduced point mutations solely designed to increase surface hydrophobicity among 12 distinct symmetric complexes from Escherichia coli. Notably, all responded by forming supramolecular assemblies in vitro, as well as in vivo upon heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Remarkably, in four cases, micrometre-long fibrils formed in vivo in response to a single point mutation. Biophysical measurements and electron microscopy revealed that mutants self-assembled in their folded states and so were not amyloid-like. Structural examination of 73 mutants identified supramolecular assembly hot spots predictable by geometry. A subsequent structural analysis of 7,471 symmetric complexes showed that geometric hot spots were buffered chemically by hydrophilic residues, suggesting a mechanism preventing mis-assembly of these regions. Thus, point mutations can frequently trigger folded proteins to self-assemble into higher-order structures. This potential is counterbalanced by negative selection and can be exploited to design nanomaterials in living cells.

  18. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  19. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dengguang; Yang Junhe; Wang Xia; Tian Feng

    2012-01-01

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 ± 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to ‘like prefers like’ and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way. (paper)

  20. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Adem; Sohrabnia, Nima; Yilmaz, Ayşen; Danışman, M. Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.