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Sample records for self-administered 3-day physical

  1. Self-administered physical activity questionnaires for the elderly: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén, Lisa; Loland, Nina Waaler; Vuillemin, Anne; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Mokkink, Lidwine B; van Mechelen, Willem; Terwee, Caroline B

    2010-07-01

    To systematically review and appraise studies examining self-administered physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) for the elderly. This article is one of a group of four articles in Sports Medicine on the content and measurement properties of PAQs. LITERATURE SEARCH METHODOLOGY: Searches in PubMed, EMBASE and SportDiscu (until May 2009) on self-administered PAQ. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) the study examined (at least one of) the measurement properties of a self-administered PAQ; (ii) the questionnaire aimed to measure physical activity (PA) in older people; (iii) the average age of the study population was >55 years; (iv) the article was written in English. We excluded PA interviews, diaries and studies that evaluated the measurement properties of a self-administered PAQ in a specific population, such as patients. We used a standard checklist (qualitative attributes and measurement properties of PA questionnaires [QAPAQ]) for appraising the measurement properties of PAQs. Eighteen articles on 13 PAQs were reviewed, including 16 reliability analyses and 25 validity analyses (of which 15 were on construct validity, seven on health/functioning associations, two on known-groups validity and one on responsiveness). Many studies suffered from methodological flaws, e.g. too small sample size or inadequate time interval between test and retest. Three PAQs received a positive rating on reliability: IPAQ-C (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Chinese), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > or = 0.81; WHI-PAQ (Women's Health Initiative-PAQ), ICC = 0.76; and PASE (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), Pearson correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84. However, PASE was negatively rated on reliability in another study (ICC = 0.65). One PAQ received a positive rating on construct validity: PASE against Mini-Logger (r > 0.52), but PASE was negatively rated in another study against accelerometer and another PAQ, Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.17 and 0

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of written self-administered psychosocial interventions among adults with a physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Beatty, Lisa; McElduff, Patrick; Levesque, Janelle V; Lawsin, Catalina; Jacobsen, Paul; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf

    2017-12-01

    The cost of implementing professionally-led psychosocial interventions has limited their integration into routine care. To enhance the translation of effective psychosocial interventions in routine care, a self-administered format is sometimes used. The meta-analysis examined the efficacy of written self-administered, psychosocial interventions to improve outcomes among individuals with a physical illness. Studies comparing a written self-administered intervention to a control group were identified through electronic databases searching. Pooled effect sizes were calculated across follow-up time points using random-effects models. Studies were also categorised according to three levels of guidance (self-administered, minimal contact, or guided) to examine the effect of this variable on outcomes. Forty manuscripts were retained for the descriptive review and 28 for the meta-analysis. Findings were significant for anxiety, depression, distress, and self-efficacy. Results were not significant for quality of life and related domains as well as coping. Purely self-administered interventions were efficacious for depression, distress, and self-efficacy; only guided interventions had an impact on anxiety. Findings showed that written self-administered interventions show promise across a number of outcomes. Self-administered interventions are a potentially efficacious and cost-effective approach to address some of the most common needs of patients with a physical illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and validity of two frequently used self-administered physical activity questionnaires in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtze Nanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To create and find accurate and reliable instruments for the measurement of physical activity has been a challenge in epidemiological studies. We investigated the reliability and validity of two different physical activity questionnaires in 71 adolescents aged 13–18 years; the WHO, Health Behaviour in Schoolchildren (HBSC questionnaire, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short version. Methods The questionnaires were administered twice (8–12 days apart to measure reliability. Validity was assessed by comparing answers from the questionnaires with a cardiorespiratory fitness test (VO2peak and seven days activity monitoring with the ActiReg, an instrument measuring physical activity level (PAL and total energy expenditure (TEE. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability for the WHO HBSC questionnaire were 0.71 for frequency and 0.73 for duration. For the frequency question, there was a significant difference between genders; 0.87 for girls and 0.59 for boys (p 2peak were fair, ranging between 0.29 – 0.39. The WHO HBSC questionnaire measured against VO2peak for girls were acceptable, ranging between 0.30 – 0.55. Both questionnaires, except the walking question in IPAQ, showed a low correlation with PAL and TEE, ranging between 0.01 and 0.29. Conclusion These data indicate that the WHO HBSC questionnaire had substantial reliability and were acceptable instrument for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, especially among girls. None of the questionnaires however seemed to be a valid instrument for measuring physical activity compared to TEE and PAL in adolescents.

  4. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic

  5. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  6. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  7. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  8. Detrimental Effects of a Self-reward Contracting Program on Subjects' Involvement in Self-administered Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel Jr.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    1977-01-01

    Assesses a self-reward contracting procedure intended to facilitate completion of self-administered desensitization. Self-referred snake phobics received either (a) self-administered desensitization; (b) self-administered desensitization with self-reward contracting; or (c) a self-administered placebo with self-reward contracting. Results show the…

  9. ASA24 enables multiple automatically coded self-administered 24-hour recalls and food records

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    A freely available web-based tool for epidemiologic, interventional, behavioral, or clinical research from NCI that enables multiple automatically coded self-administered 24-hour recalls and food records.

  10. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  11. Validity and reliability of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q).

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    Niki, Hisateru; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Haraguchi, Naoki; Aoki, Takafumi; Okuda, Ryuzo; Suda, Yasunori; Takao, Masato; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-03-01

    The Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) is developing a QOL questionnaire instrument for use in pathological conditions related to the foot and ankle. The main body of the outcome instrument (the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire, SAFE-Q version 2) consists of 34 questionnaire items, which provide five subscale scores (1: Pain and Pain-Related; 2: Physical Functioning and Daily Living; 3: Social Functioning; 4: Shoe-Related; and 5: General Health and Well-Being). In addition, the instrument has nine optional questionnaire items that provide a Sports Activity subscale score. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SAFE-Q. Version 2 of the SAFE-Q was administered to 876 patients and 491 non-patients, and the test-retest reliability was evaluated for 131 patients. In addition, the SF-36 questionnaire and the JSSF Scale scoring form were administered to all of the participants. Subscale scores were scaled such that the final sum of scores ranged between zero (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). The intraclass correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7 for all of the scores. The means of the five subscale scores were between 60 and 75. The five subscales easily separated patients from non-patients. The coefficients for the correlations of the subscale scores with the scores on the JSSF Scale and the SF-36 subscales were all highly statistically significantly greater than zero (p valid and reliable. In the future, it will be beneficial to test the responsiveness of the SAFE-Q.

  12. Self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires: patterns, predictors, and interpretation of omitted items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B.; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Food items on a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be left blank because the food was not consumed, because of difficulties remembering the frequency or amount of intake, or due to an oversight. Methods We explored the predictors and frequency of consumption of omitted food items on an FFQ used in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Of 87,676 women who returned a mailed 147-item FFQ in 1999, 34% completed the entire questionnaire, whereas 66% left at least 1 food item blank. Ten or more foods were omitted by 5% of participants. Foods were more likely omitted by women who were older, more physically active, and had more children. We resurveyed 2876 participants who had left between 1 and 70 food items blank and asked them to fill in the blanks. Overall, 2485 participants provided complete responses. Results In the resurvey, 64% of the formerly omitted foods were marked as consumed never or less than once per month, 20% as 1–3 times per month, 8% as once per week, and 9% as more than once per week. Commonly consumed foods and beverages were less likely omitted because they were not consumed than rarely consumed foods. The best estimate for the true intake value of an omitted food was 0.82 times the average population intake. Conclusions When calculating nutrient intake, the assumption that items missing represent zero intake is reasonable. However, foods consumed more often in the population at large are less likely than rarely consumed foods to be left blank because they were not consumed. PMID:19106799

  13. Open-label, multicenter study of self-administered icatibant for attacks of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Reshef, A

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self-administered ica...

  14. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  15. Development and validation of a self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form

  16. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Hourihane, Jonathan O.'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Form (FAQLQ-TF) in the

  17. Development and validation of a self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire--Child Form

  18. Treatment of enuresis risoria in children by self-administered electric and imaginary shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga-Plomp, A.; Boemers, T. M.; Messer, A. P.; Vijverberg, M. A.; de Jong, T. P.; van Gool, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    To treat enuresis risoria (giggle micturition) by a self-administered electric and imaginary shock and to evaluate the outcome after behavioural therapy. Six boys and three girls with enuresis risoria were evaluated and treated. The mean age at referral was 10.4 years (range 5.7-14.2). All children

  19. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager

  20. Effects of Information Feedback and Self-Administered Consequences on Self-Monitoring Study Behavior

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    Richards, C. Steven; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The hypotheses tested among college students (N=87) concerned about study habits were: (a) self-monitoring changes study behavior; (b) information feedback accounts for some of this change; and (c) this change can be enhanced by manipulating the quantity and quality of information feedback and self-administered consequences associated with…

  1. Feasibility of online self-administered cognitive training in moderate-severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanu; Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Dawson, Deirdre; Turner, Gary R; Colella, Brenda; Green, Robin E A

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive environmental enrichment (C-EE) offers promise for offsetting neural decline that is observed in chronic moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Brain games are a delivery modality for C-EE that can be self-administered over the Internet without therapist oversight. To date, only one study has examined the feasibility of self-administered brain games in TBI, and the study focused predominantly on mild TBI. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to examine the feasibility of self-administered brain games in moderate-severe TBI. A secondary and related purpose was to examine the feasibility of remote monitoring of any C-EE-induced adverse symptoms with a self-administered evaluation tool. Ten patients with moderate-severe TBI were asked to complete 12 weeks (60 min/day, five days/week) of online brain games with bi-weekly self-evaluation, intended to measure any adverse consequences of cognitive training (e.g., fatigue, eye strain). There was modest weekly adherence (42.6% ± 4.4%, averaged across patients and weeks) and 70% patient retention; of the seven retained patients, six completed the self-evaluation questionnaire at least once/week for each week of the study. Even patients with moderate-severe TBI can complete a demanding, online C-EE intervention and a self-administered symptom evaluation tool with limited therapist oversight, though at daily rate closer to 30 than 60 min per day. Further self-administered C-EE research is underway in our lab, with more extensive environmental support. Implications for Rehabilitation Online brain games (which may serve as a rehabilitation paradigm that can help offset the neurodegeneration observed in chronic TBI) can be feasibly self-administered by moderate-to-severe TBI patients. Brain games are a promising therapy modality, as they can be accessed by all moderate-to-severe TBI patients irrespective of geographic location, clinic and/or therapist availability, or impairments that

  2. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  3. Variability of selected indicators of physical activity in a randomized sample of the Czech population between the years 2003–2006: Results from the short and long self administered format of the IPAQ questionnaire [Variabilita vybraných indikátorů pohybové aktivity u randomizovaných souborů české populace v letech 2003–2006: Výsledky z krátké a dlouhé administrativní verze IPAQ dotazníku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Sigmund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effort to gain worldwide data on the levels of physical activity (PA of different populations, which would be comparable, led to the creation and standardization of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study is to determine the variability of PA indicators of two equivalent forms of the Czech self administered format of the IPAQ questionnaire applied in a randomized sample of the Czech population between the years 2003–2006. METHODS: A randomized sample of 11277 (5683 females and 5594 males of the Czech population aged 15–69 took part in the study. The short self administered format of the IPAQ was applied in 2066 women and 1976 men in Fall 2003 and Spring 2004. The long self administered format of the IPAQ (or as a part of the ANEWS questionnaire was applied to 1688 women and 1689 men in Fall 2004 and Spring 2005 (or in 1929 women and 1929 men in Fall 2005 and Spring 2006. Individual samples of respondents were randomized according to sex, age, and size of the location of residence in compliance with the data from the Czech Statistical Office (www.czso.cz. RESULTS: There are no significant differences found between men and women in MET–minutes/week in total PA, transportation PA, job related PA and walking as shown by the separately applied long self administered format of the IPAQ and the ANEWS questionnaire (inc. long format of IPAQ. In the self administered format of the IPAQ, we have found both in men and women lower values of total PA (p < 0.0001 than in the long self administered format of the IPAQ or the ANEWS questionnaire. No differences between the values of MET–minutes/week for walking and sitting both in men and women on working days were found in the different forms of the IPAQ questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Having used the equivalent forms of the short or long Czech self administered format of the IPAQ questionnaire, we have not found any differences between

  4. Self-administered foot reflexology for the management of chronic health conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Choi, Sun Mi; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Heeyoung; Son, Heejeong; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-02-01

    To systematically review the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in patients with chronic health conditions. Electronic databases were searched for literature published from 1948 to January 2014. The databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CNKI, J-STAGE, Koreamed, Kmbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS. Key search terms were "exp/relaxation therapy," "foot," "reflexology," "zone therapy," and "self." All study designs were included. Two raters independently extracted data and assessed study quality by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (for randomized controlled trials) and the risk of bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies (for nonrandomized and before-and-after studies). A qualitative and descriptive analysis was performed because of the clinical diversity associated with chronic health conditions. Of the 224 records assessed, 4 trials met the inclusion criteria: 3 nonrandomized controlled trials and 1 before-and-after study without comparison. Self-administered foot reflexology might have a positive effect in type 2 diabetes, but the low quality of the included study and the lack of adequately reported clinical outcomes obscure the results. Two studies of hypertensive patients and 1 study of patients with urinary incontinence showed that self-performed foot reflexology may exert a beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure and urinary incontinence; however, given the small sample size and the lack of any description of medications and other cointerventions, there was insufficient evidence to conclusively determine whether foot reflexology had any effect. The included studies on self-administered foot reflexology in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or urinary incontinence provided insufficient evidence to determine a treatment effect. Therefore, a well-designed, large-scale, and randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm the effect of self-administered foot reflexology for chronic conditions.

  5. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  6. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Roos, H P; Lohmander, L S

    1998-01-01

    There is broad consensus that good outcome measures are needed to distinguish interventions that are effective from those that are not. This task requires standardized, patient-centered measures that can be administered at a low cost. We developed a questionnaire to assess short- and long......-term patient-relevant outcomes following knee injury, based on the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, a literature review, an expert panel, and a pilot study. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport...

  8. A Population-Level Data Analytics Portal for Self-Administered Lifestyle and Mental Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xindi; Warren, Jim; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development of a prototype data analytics portal for analysis of accumulated screening results from eCHAT (electronic Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool). eCHAT allows individuals to conduct a self-administered lifestyle and mental health screening assessment, with usage to date chiefly in the context of primary care waiting rooms. The intention is for wide roll-out to primary care clinics, including secondary school based clinics, resulting in the accumulation of population-level data. Data from a field trial of eCHAT with sexual health questions tailored to youth were used to support design of a data analytics portal for population-level data. The design process included user personas and scenarios, screen prototyping and a simulator for generating large-scale data sets. The prototype demonstrates the promise of wide-scale self-administered screening data to support a range of users including practice managers, clinical directors and health policy analysts.

  9. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An internet-based self-administered intervention for promoting healthy habits and weight loss in hypertensive people who are overweight or obese: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Rosa M; Mensorio, Marinna S; Cebolla, Ausias; Rodilla, Enrique; Palomar, Gonzalo; Lisón, JuanFrancisco; Botella, Cristina

    2015-08-04

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise worldwide with severe physical and psychosocial consequences. One of the most dangerous is hypertension. Lifestyle changes related to eating behaviour and physical activity are the critical components in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and obesity. Data indicates that the usual procedures to promote these healthy habits in health services are either insufficient or not efficient enough. Internet has been shown to be an effective tool for the implementation of lifestyle interventions based on this type of problem. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a totally self-administered online intervention programme versus the usual medical care for obese and overweight participants with hypertension (from the Spanish public health care system) to promote healthy lifestyles (eating behaviour and physical activity). A randomized controlled trial will be conducted with 100 patients recruited from the hypertension unit of a public hospital. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a) SII: a self-administered Internet-based intervention protocol; and b) MUC-medical usual care. The online intervention is an Internet-delivered, multimedia, interactive, self-administered programme, composed of nine modules designed to promote healthy eating habits and increase physical activity. The first five modules will be activated at a rate of one per week, and access for modules 5 to 9 will open every two weeks. Patients will be assessed at four points: before the intervention, after the intervention (3 months), and at 6 and 12 months (follow-up). The outcome variables will include blood pressure, and Body Mass Index, as primary outcome measures, and quality of life and other lifestyle and anthropometrical variables as secondary outcome measures. The literature highlights the need for more studies on the benefits of using the Internet to promote lifestyle interventions. This study aims to

  11. Disclosure of sensitive behaviors across self-administered survey modes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Kaspar, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors that are in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey experiments reporting 460 effect sizes (total N =125,672). Self-reported prevalence rates of several sensitive behaviors for which motivated misreporting has been frequently observed were compared across self-administered paper-and-pencil versus computerized surveys. The results revealed that computerized surveys led to significantly more reporting of socially undesirable behaviors than comparable surveys administered on paper. This effect was strongest for highly sensitive behaviors and surveys administered individually to respondents. Moderator analyses did not identify interviewer effects or benefits of audio-enhanced computer surveys. The meta-analysis highlighted the advantages of computerized survey modes for the assessment of sensitive topics.

  12. Dose and elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment tested whether the elasticity of demand for self-administered cocaine in rats is dose-dependent. Subjects lever pressed for three different doses of intravenous cocaine - 0.11, 0.33, and 1.0 mg/kg/infusion - on a demand procedure where the number of lever presses required per infusion increased within a session. The main finding was that demand for the 0.11 mg/kg dose was more elastic than it was for the two larger doses. There was no difference in demand elasticity between the 0.33 and 1.0 mg/kg doses. These results parallel findings previously reported in monkeys. The present study also demonstrated that a within-session procedure can be used to generate reliable demand curves.

  13. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackatz Lori E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100 between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD] to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were Conclusions Our large study provides evidence that administration formats do not have a meaningful effect on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes. As a consequence, longitudinal studies may not need to consider the effect of

  14. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Persons

    Full Text Available The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  15. Colon dysregulation in methamphetamine self-administering HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Amanda L; Bradaric, Brinda D; Dodiya, Hemraj B; Ohene-Nyako, Michael; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shaikh, Maliha; Napier, T Celeste

    2018-01-01

    The integrity and function of the gut is impaired in HIV-infected individuals, and gut pathogenesis may play a role in several HIV-associated disorders. Methamphetamine is a popular illicit drug abused by HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of methamphetamine on the gut and its potential to exacerbate HIV-associated gut pathology is not known. To shed light on this scenario, we evaluated colon barrier pathology in a rat model of the human comorbid condition. Intestinal barrier integrity and permeability were assessed in drug-naïve Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg rats, and in Tg and non-Tg rats instrumented with jugular cannulae trained to self-administer methamphetamine or serving as saline-yoked controls. Intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the urine content of orally gavaged sugars. Intestinal barrier integrity was evaluated by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence of colon claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two major tight junction proteins that regulate gut epithelial paracellular permeability. Both non-Tg and Tg rats self-administered moderate amounts of methamphetamine. These amounts were sufficient to increase colon permeability, reduce protein level of claudin-1, and reduce claudin-1 and ZO-1 immunofluorescence in Tg rats relative to non-Tg rats. Methamphetamine decreased tight junction immunofluorescence in non-Tg rats, with a similar, but non-significant trend observed in Tg rats. However, the effect of methamphetamine on tight junction proteins was subthreshold to gut leakiness. These findings reveal that both HIV-1 proteins and methamphetamine alter colon barrier integrity, and indicate that the gut may be a pathogenic site for these insults.

  16. Self-administered acupressure for symptom management among Chinese family caregivers with caregiver stress: a randomized, wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Lao, Lixing; Wang, Amy Xiao-Min; Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; So, Mike Ka Pui; Yu, Doris Sau Fung; Lum, Terry Yat Sang; Yuk Fung, Helina Yin King; Yeung, Jerry Wing Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-10-28

    Caregiving can be stressful, potentially creating physical and psychological strain. Substantial evidence has shown that family caregivers suffer from significant health problems arising from the demands of caregiving. Although there are programs supporting caregivers, there is little evidence regarding their effectiveness. Acupressure is an ancient Chinese healing method designed to restore the flow of Qi (vital energy) by applying external pressure to acupoints. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-administered acupressure intervention on caregiver stress (primary objective) and stress-related symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, depression, and health-related quality of life (secondary objectives) in Chinese caregivers of older family members. Two hundred Chinese participants, aged ≥ 21 years, who are the primary caregivers of an older family member and screen positive for caregiver stress and symptoms of fatigue/insomnia/depression will be recruited from a community setting in Hong Kong. Subjects will be randomized to receive either an immediate treatment condition (self-administered acupressure intervention) or a wait-list control condition. The self-administered acupressure intervention will include (i) an individual learning and practice session twice a week for 2 weeks, (ii) a home follow-up visit once a week for 2 weeks, and (iii) 15-min self-practice twice a day for 6 weeks. The wait-list control group will receive the same acupressure training after the intervention group has completed the intervention. We hypothesize that Chinese family caregivers in the intervention group will have lower levels of caregiver stress, fatigue, insomnia, depression, and higher health-related quality of life after completion of the intervention than participants in the wait-list control group. This study will provide evidence for the effectiveness of self-administered acupressure in reducing stress and improving

  17. Impact of self-administered relaxation and guided imagery techniques during final trimester and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedde-Dahl, Merete; Fors, Egil A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test if and how self-administered practice of relaxation techniques, positive affirmation and guided imagery, in the final part of pregnancy had an impact on giving birth. Further to see if the use of a simple method, a CD with a booklet, with no previous training or specific support of the participants (neither required nor delivered), affected the birth experience. Outcome measures were monitored both during and after delivery: During delivery, pain and anxiety were measured at different stages of birth. Post-delivery Wellbeing (Edmonton Scale 0-10, where 10 is the worst possible feeling of Wellbeing), pain, anxiety, Apgar score, duration of birth, complications and anesthesia/analgesic were recorded. Those in the CD-intervention group also reported how many times they had practiced the techniques. The study employed a randomized controlled trial. Results show that the CD-intervention group had a significantly better score on total Wellbeing, as measured by the ESAS (0-10) Edmonton Scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Jamsek, Jan; Huckvale, Kit; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily P; Car, Josip

    2015-07-27

    Self-administered survey questionnaires are an important data collection tool in clinical practice, public health research and epidemiology. They are ideal for achieving a wide geographic coverage of the target population, dealing with sensitive topics and are less resource-intensive than other data collection methods. These survey questionnaires can be delivered electronically, which can maximise the scalability and speed of data collection while reducing cost. In recent years, the use of apps running on consumer smart devices (i.e., smartphones and tablets) for this purpose has received considerable attention. However, variation in the mode of delivering a survey questionnaire could affect the quality of the responses collected. To assess the impact that smartphone and tablet apps as a delivery mode have on the quality of survey questionnaire responses compared to any other alternative delivery mode: paper, laptop computer, tablet computer (manufactured before 2007), short message service (SMS) and plastic objects. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, IEEEXplore, Web of Science, CABI: CAB Abstracts, Current Contents Connect, ACM Digital, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Health Management Information Consortium, the Campbell Library and CENTRAL. We also searched registers of current and ongoing clinical trials such as ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We also searched the grey literature in OpenGrey, Mobile Active and ProQuest Dissertation & Theses. Lastly, we searched Google Scholar and the reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. We performed all searches up to 12 and 13 April 2015. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs), crossover trials and paired repeated measures studies that compared the electronic delivery of self-administered survey questionnaires via a smartphone or tablet app with any other delivery mode. We included data obtained from

  19. Validity and responsiveness of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Koichiro; Ikari, Katsunori; Ochi, Kensuke; Ishida, Osamu; Sakuma, Yu; Yoshida, Shinji; Koyama, Takuma; Koenuma, Naoko; Momohara, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    A self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q) was developed by the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of the SAFE-Q in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 180 patients with RA answered the SAFE-Q. Of 180 patients, 34 answered the SAFE-Q twice, preoperatively and postoperatively, to assess responsiveness. Construct validity was tested by comparing the 5 SAFE-Q subscales and the JSSF standard rating system for the RA foot and ankle scale (JSSF-RA), a Japanese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (JHAQ), disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI). Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) 3 months after surgery. There were moderate correlations between the SAFE-Q and the JSSF-RA and JHAQ. Conversely, a low correlation was observed between the SAFE-Q and DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI. The responsiveness was high, with an SRM of 0.9 and ES of 0.7 for pain subscales. SAFE-Q is a useful tool for assessing the foot and ankle in RA patients.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The open-quotes 3-Day Training Courseclose quotes is an intensive course in criticality safety consisting of lectures and laboratory sessions, including active student participation in actual critical experiments, a visit to a plutonium processing facility, and in-depth discussions on safety philosophy. The program is directed toward personnel who currently have criticality safety responsibilities in the capacity of supervisory staff and/or line management. This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. It should be noted that when chapters were extracted, an attempt was made to maintain footnotes and references as originally written. Photographs and illustrations are numbered sequentially

  1. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  2. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Vermeulen, I. E.; Kieffer, J.M.; Schagen, S.B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  3. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E.M.; Murre, Jaap M.J.; Vermeulen, Ivar E.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  4. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re...

  5. Personal hygiene among military personnel: developing and testing a self-administered scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Pakpour, Amir H; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Jahan, Hojat Rshidi; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal

    2014-03-01

    Good personal hygiene (PH) behavior is recommended to prevent contagious diseases, and members of military forces may be at high risk for contracting contagious diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and test a new questionnaire on PH for soldiers. Participants were all male and from different military settings throughout Iran. Using a five-stage guideline, a panel of experts in the Persian language (Farsi) developed a 21-item self-administered questionnaire. Face and content validity of the first-draft items were assessed. The questionnaire was then translated and subsequently back-translated into English, and both the Farsi and English versions were tested in pilot studies. The consistency and stability of the questionnaire were tested using Cronbach's alpha and the test-retest strategy. The final scale was administered to a sample of 502 military personnel. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses evaluated the structure of the scale. Both the convergent and discriminative validity of the scale were also determined. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were >0.85. Principal component analysis demonstrated a uni-dimensional structure that explained 59 % of the variance in PH behaviors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.902; comparative fitness index = 0.923; root mean square error of approximation = 0.0085). The results show that this new PH scale has solid psychometric properties for testing PH behaviors among an Iranian sample of military personnel. We conclude that this scale can be a useful tool for assessing PH behaviors in military personnel. Further research is needed to determine the scale's value in other countries and cultures.

  6. Screening for cognitive impairment in SLE using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, A; Davidson, N; Steigelman, H; Zhao, S; Brock, G; Jarjour, W N; Rovin, B H; Madhoun, H; Parikh, S; Hebert, L; Ayoub, I; Ardoin, S P

    2018-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system in multiple ways, including causing cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction is a common complaint of SLE patients yet diagnosis is challenging, time consuming, and costly. This study evaluated the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Exam (SAGE) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in a cohort of SLE patients. Methods A total of 118 SLE patients completed the SAGE. Providers completed the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (SLICC-DI). SAGE scores were grouped into normal (>16) and abnormal (≤16) categories. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of the 118 participants, 21(18%) scored ≤16 on the SAGE instrument. In univariate analysis, race, ethnicity, household income, and SLICC-DI scores were associated with the SAGE ( p SAGE score was independently associated with higher SLICC-DI score (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.99, p = 0.03)), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 43.4, 95% CI 3.1-601, p = 0.005), and lower household income (OR = 11.9 for ≤$15,000 vs >$50,000, 95% CI 2.45-57, p = 0.002). Conclusions In SLE patients, this study demonstrates an independent relationship between neurocognitive impairment (as measured by the SAGE) and higher lupus-related damage, as measured by the SLICC-DI, and lower household income. Abnormal SAGE scores were also associated with Hispanic ethnicity. A language barrier could explain this because the SAGE instrument was conducted in English only. The SAGE was feasible to measure in the clinic setting.

  7. Effect of self-administered foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Son, Heejeong; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-02-01

    Self-administered foot reflexology is unrestricted by time and space, economical, and practical because it is easy to learn and apply. This study estimated the effectiveness of self-foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The participants were healthy persons not diagnosed with a specific disease. The intervention was foot reflexology administered by participants, not by practitioners or healthcare providers. The comparative studies either between groups or within group comparison were included. Our search utilized core databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL). We also searched Chinese (CNKI), Japanese (J-STAGE), and Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS). The search was used MeSH terminology and key words (foot reflexology, foot massage, and self). Analysis of three non-randomized trials and three before-and-after studies showed that self-administered foot reflexology resulted in significant improvement in subjective outcomes such as perceived stress, fatigue, and depression. However, there was no significant improvement in objective outcomes such as cortisol levels, blood pressure, and pulse rate. We did not find any randomized controlled trial. This study presents the effectiveness of self-administered foot reflexology for healthy persons' psychological and physiological symptoms. While objective outcomes showed limited results, significant improvements were found in subjective outcomes. However, owing to the small number of studies and methodological flaws, there was insufficient evidence supporting the use of self-performed foot reflexology. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in healthy people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and validation of a self-administered questionnaire as an aid to detection of occupational exposure to lung carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, C; Dutertre, V; Fournel, P; Gendre, I; Michel Vergnon, J; Kalecinski, J; Tinquaut, F; Fontana, L; Chauvin, F

    2017-02-01

    Ten to thirty percent of lung cancer is thought to be of occupational origin. Lung cancer is under-declared as an occupational disease in Europe, and most declarations of occupational disease concern asbestos. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a short, sensitive self-administered questionnaire, as an aid for physicians in detecting occupational exposure to asbestos and other lung carcinogens in order to remedy occupational lung cancer under-declaration. Cross-sectional study. A short (30-question) self-administered questionnaire was drawn up by oncologist-pneumologists and occupational physicians, covering situations of exposure to proven and probable lung carcinogens. Understanding and acceptability were assessed on 15 lung cancer patients. Validity and reliability were assessed on 70 lung cancer patients by comparison against a semi-directive questionnaire considered as gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by comparing responses to items on the two questionnaires. Reliability was assessed by analysing the kappa concordance coefficient for items on the two questionnaires. Sensitivity was 0.85 and specificity 0.875. Concordance between responses on the two questionnaires was 85.7%, with a kappa coefficient of 0.695 [0.52-0.87]. Mean self-administration time was 3.1 min (versus 8.12 min to administer the gold-standard questionnaire). In 16 patients, the self-administered questionnaire detected lung carcinogen exposure meeting the criteria for occupational disease. The present short, easy-to-use self-administered questionnaire should facilitate detection of occupational exposure to lung carcinogens. It could be used in occupational lung cancer screening and increase the presently low rate of application for recognition of lung cancer as an occupational disease. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): a brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using computer-assisted survey instruments instead of paper and pencil increased completeness of self-administered sexual behavior questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, Simone; Lewis, Dyani; Vaisey, Alaina; Smyth, Eris; Wood, Anna; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Lorch, Rebecca; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane

    2015-01-01

    To compare the data quality, logistics, and cost of a self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire administered either using a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI) or by paper and pencil in a primary care clinic. A self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire was administered to 16-29 year olds attending general practice. Questionnaires were administered by either paper and pencil (paper) or CASI. A personal digital assistant was used to self-administer the CASI. A total of 4,491 people completed the questionnaire, with 46.9% responses via CASI and 53.2% by paper. Completion of questions was greater for CASI than for paper for sexual behavior questions: number of sexual partners [odds ratio (OR), 6.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.32, 14.11] and ever having had sex with a person of the same gender (OR, 2.89; 95% CI: 1.52, 5.49). The median number of questions answered was higher for CASI than for paper (17.6 vs. 17.2; P questionnaire compared with $11.83 for paper. Electronic devices using CASI are a tool that can increase participants' questionnaire responses and deliver more complete data for a sexual behavior questionnaire in primary care clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Administered Computer Therapy for Apraxia of Speech: Two-Period Randomized Control Trial With Crossover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Rosemary; Cowell, Patricia E; Dyson, Lucy; Inglis, Lesley; Roper, Abigail; Whiteside, Sandra P

    2016-03-01

    There is currently little evidence on effective interventions for poststroke apraxia of speech. We report outcomes of a trial of self-administered computer therapy for apraxia of speech. Effects of speech intervention on naming and repetition of treated and untreated words were compared with those of a visuospatial sham program. The study used a parallel-group, 2-period, crossover design, with participants receiving 2 interventions. Fifty participants with chronic and stable apraxia of speech were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 order conditions: speech-first condition versus sham-first condition. Period 1 design was equivalent to a randomized controlled trial. We report results for this period and profile the effect of the period 2 crossover. Period 1 results revealed significant improvement in naming and repetition only in the speech-first group. The sham-first group displayed improvement in speech production after speech intervention in period 2. Significant improvement of treated words was found in both naming and repetition, with little generalization to structurally similar and dissimilar untreated words. Speech gains were largely maintained after withdrawal of intervention. There was a significant relationship between treatment dose and response. However, average self-administered dose was modest for both groups. Future software design would benefit from incorporation of social and gaming components to boost motivation. Single-word production can be improved in chronic apraxia of speech with behavioral intervention. Self-administered computerized therapy is a promising method for delivering high-intensity speech/language rehabilitation. URL: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1278-0601. Unique identifier: ISRCTN88245643. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  15. The development of a self-administered dementia checklist: the examination of concurrent validity and discriminant validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Fumiko; Ura, Chiaki; Sakuma, Naoko; Niikawa, Hirotoshi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Ijuin, Mutsuo; Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Mika; Awata, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a self-administered dementia checklist to enable community-residing older adults to realize their declining functions and start using necessary services. A previous study confirmed the factorial validity and internal reliability of the checklist. The present study examined its concurrent validity and discriminant validity. The authors conducted a 3-step study (a self-administered survey including the checklist, interviews by nurses, and interviews by doctors and psychologists) of 7,682 community-residing individuals who were over 65 years of age. The authors calculated Spearman's correlation coefficients between the scores of the checklist and the results of a psychological test to examine the concurrent validity. They also compared the average total scores of the checklist between groups with different Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores to examine discriminant validity and conducted a receiver operating characteristic analysis to examine the discriminative power for dementia. The authors analyzed the data of 131 respondents who completed all 3 steps. The checklist scores were significantly correlated with the respondents' Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery scores. The checklist also significantly discriminated the patients with dementia (CDR = 1+) from those without dementia (CDR = 0 or 0.5). The optimal cut-off point for the two groups was 17/18 (sensitivity, 72.0%; specificity, 69.2%; positive predictive value, 69.2%; negative predictive value, 72.0%). This study confirmed the concurrent validity and discriminant validity of the self-administered dementia checklist. However, due to its insufficient discriminative power as a screening tool for older people with declining cognitive functions, the checklist is only recommended as an educational and public awareness tool.

  16. Feasibility study into self-administered training at home using an arm and hand device with motivational gaming environment in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Sale, Patrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Nasr, Nasrin; Mountain, Gail; Hermens, Hermie J; Stienen, Arno H A; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-09

    Assistive and robotic training devices are increasingly used for rehabilitation of the hemiparetic arm after stroke, although applications for the wrist and hand are trailing behind. Furthermore, applying a training device in domestic settings may enable an increased training dose of functional arm and hand training. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential clinical changes associated with a technology-supported arm and hand training system at home for patients with chronic stroke. A dynamic wrist and hand orthosis was combined with a remotely monitored user interface with motivational gaming environment for self-administered training at home. Twenty-four chronic stroke patients with impaired arm/hand function were recruited to use the training system at home for six weeks. Evaluation of feasibility involved training duration, usability and motivation. Clinical outcomes on arm/hand function, activity and participation were assessed before and after six weeks of training and at two-month follow-up. Mean System Usability Scale score was 69 % (SD 17 %), mean Intrinsic Motivation Inventory score was 5.2 (SD 0.9) points, and mean training duration per week was 105 (SD 66) minutes. Median Fugl-Meyer score improved from 37 (IQR 30) pre-training to 41 (IQR 32) post-training and was sustained at two-month follow-up (40 (IQR 32)). The Stroke Impact Scale improved from 56.3 (SD 13.2) pre-training to 60.0 (SD 13.9) post-training, with a trend at follow-up (59.8 (SD 15.2)). No significant improvements were found on the Action Research Arm Test and Motor Activity Log. Remotely monitored post-stroke training at home applying gaming exercises while physically supporting the wrist and hand showed to be feasible: participants were able and motivated to use the training system independently at home. Usability shows potential, although several usability issues need further attention. Upper extremity function and quality of life improved after training

  17. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Nappe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels.

  18. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappe, Thomas M; Pacelli, Anthony M; Katz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG) with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels.

  19. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  20. Self-administered structured food record for measuring individual energy and nutrient intake in large cohorts: Design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Silvia M; González, Claudio; Rucci, Enzo; Ambrosino, Cintia; Vidal, Julia; Fantuzzi, Gabriel; Prestes, Mariana; Kronsbein, Peter

    2018-06-05

    Several instruments developed to assess dietary intake of groups or populations have strengths and weaknesses that affect their specific application. No self-administered, closed-ended dietary survey was previously used in Argentina to assess current food and nutrient intake on a daily basis. To design and validate a self-administered, structured food record (NutriQuid, NQ) representative of the adult Argentine population's food consumption pattern to measure individual energy and nutrient intake. Records were loaded onto a database using software that checks a regional nutrition information system (SARA program), automatically quantifying energy and nutrient intake. NQ validation included two phases: (1) NQ construct validity comparing records kept simultaneously by healthy volunteers (45-75 years) and a nutritionist who provided meals (reference), and (2) verification of whether NQ reflected target population consumption (calories and nutrients), week consumption differences, respondent acceptability, and ease of data entry/analysis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient, nonparametric regression, and cross-classification into quintiles. The first validation (study group vs. reference) showed an underestimation (10%) of carbohydrate, fat, and energy intake. Second validation: 109 volunteers (91% response) completed the NQ for seven consecutive days. Record completion took about 9min/day, and data entry 3-6min. Mean calorie intake was 2240±119kcal/day (42% carbohydrates, 17% protein, and 41% fat). Intake significantly increased in the weekend. NQ is a simple and efficient tool to assess dietary intake in large samples. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Usefulness of a simple self-administered joint condition assessment sheet to predict the need for orthopaedic intervention in the management of haemophilic arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, T; Amano, K; Takedani, H; Suzuki, T; Otaki, M; Seita, I; Tateiwa, T; Shishido, T; Yamamoto, K; Fukutake, K

    2017-03-01

    Detecting signs of joint deterioration is important for early effective orthopaedic intervention in managing haemophilic arthropathy. We developed a simple, patient self-administered sheet to evaluate the joint condition, and assessed the predictive ability of this assessment sheet for the need for an orthopaedic intervention. This was a single-centre, cross-sectional study. The association between the score of each of the four items of the assessment sheet (bleeding, swelling, pain and physical impairment) and the results of radiological findings and physical examinations based on Haemophilia Joint Health Score 2.1 was assessed. An optimal scoring system was explored by the area under the curve (AUC). The cut-off value for the need for surgery or physiotherapy was determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve procedure. Forty-two patients were included. The 'physical impairment' item showed the highest correlation coefficient with the results of radiographic and physical examinations (range: 0.57-0.76). The AUC of finally adjusted scoring indicates good ability to discriminate between patients with and without a need for orthopaedic intervention. The positive predictive value was the highest at a cut-off value of 4 points for knees (63.0%) and ankles (70.0%), at 5 points for elbows (66.7%) and the highest predictive accuracy at the cut-off value of 4 points for all the joints. The linear trend of the need for an orthopaedic intervention was observed with an increasing score. The joint condition assessment sheet can help clinicians assess the need for orthopaedic intervention for haemophilic arthropathy in Japanese patients with haemophilia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty......-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p 

  3. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    ) and upper neck extensors (UNE). Secondary outcome: Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for cervical extension/flexion and shoulder elevation. Training compliance was self-reported and categorized as regular if performed ≥ 1 times a week. Results: Neck pain at baseline was 1.9±1.7 (mean±SD) in ETG and 2......Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...

  4. [Assessment of the outcome of anorexia nervosa: construction of a self-administered questionnaire based on the patients' perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronze, M; Mamelle, N; Combe, C; Pugeat, M

    2010-02-01

    Our working hypothesis is that a better insight into the outcome of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa should contribute to preventing relapses and further complications and assessing treatment efficiency. Through anorexia nervosa, the patients express the difficulty they have to view themselves as specific subjects. The current classic outcome evaluation is based on the study of objective events, which only partially reflect the reality of the patients' outcome at a subjective level. The objective of this study was to set up a new assessing instrument of the outcome of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, essentially based on the patients' perception of their experience. The methodology used has been based on: (1) the conduct by the main investigator of unstructured interviews using "free association", with the help of an interview guide. The anorexia nervosa patients were recruited among those who were hospitalized on an isolation contract, or among outpatients under a psychiatrist/psychoanalyst's supervision, aged over 25 years old so that they may have started their reproductive life. The study included 30 patients; (2) the analysis of the interview contents backed by preexisting hypotheses and by new ones suggested by the expression of the patients' perception, so as to set up an inventory of new themes; (3) the construction of a self-administered questionnaire starting from the development of each theme into several questions taking up the patients' own words and offering 4 possible answers (disagree completely, disagree, agree, quite agree). The analysis of the interviews contents has led to the development of 11 themes. The self-administered questionnaire includes a total of 124 items stemming from the development of each theme into between 9 and 16 items that were mixed in the version submitted to patients. This original interpretation of the outcome of the patients through their experience provides a better understanding of their relation to

  5. Self-administered Versus Directly Observed Once-Weekly Isoniazid and Rifapentine Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Robert; Holland, David; Feng, Pei-Jean; Millet, Joan-Pau; Caylà, Joan A.; Martinson, Neil A.; Wright, Alicia; Chen, Michael P.; Moro, Ruth N.; Scott, Nigel A.; Arevalo, Bert; Miró, José M.; Villarino, Margarita E.; Weiner, Marc; Borisov, Andrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Expanding latent tuberculosis treatment is important to decrease active disease globally. Once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 doses is effective but limited by requiring direct observation. Objective To compare treatment completion and safety of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by self-administration versus direct observation. Design An open-label, phase 4 randomized clinical trial designed as a noninferiority study with a 15% margin. Seventy-five percent or more of study patients were enrolled from the United States for a prespecified subgroup analysis. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01582711) Setting Outpatient tuberculosis clinics in the United States, Spain, Hong Kong, and South Africa. Participants 1002 adults (aged ≥18 years) recommended for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Intervention Participants received once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by direct observation, self-administration with monthly monitoring, or self-administration with weekly text message reminders and monthly monitoring. Measurements The primary outcome was treatment completion, defined as 11 or more doses within 16 weeks and measured using clinical documentation and pill counts for direct observation, and self-reports, pill counts, and medication event–monitoring devices for self-administration. The main secondary outcome was adverse events. Results Median age was 36 years, 48% of participants were women, and 77% were enrolled at the U.S. sites. Treatment completion was 87.2% (95% CI, 83.1% to 90.5%) in the direct-observation group, 74.0% (CI, 68.9% to 78.6%) in the self-administration group, and 76.4% (CI, 71.3% to 80.8%) in the self-administration–with–reminders group. In the United States, treatment completion was 85.4% (CI, 80.4% to 89.4%), 77.9% (CI, 72.7% to 82.6%), and 76.7% (CI, 70.9% to 81.7%), respectively. Self-administered therapy without reminders was noninferior to direct observation in the United States; no other comparisons met

  6. Validation of the MedUseQ: A Self-Administered Screener for Older Adults to Assess Medication Use Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Rebecca L; Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Robinson, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Older adults taking multiple prescription and nonprescription drugs are at risk for medication use problems, yet there are few brief, self-administered screening tools designed specifically for them. The study objective was to develop and validate a patient-centered screener for community-dwelling older adults. In phase 1, a convenience sample of 57 stakeholders (older adults, pharmacists, nurses, and physicians) participated in concept mapping, using Concept System® Global MAX TM , to identify items for a questionnaire. In phase 2, a 40-item questionnaire was tested with a convenience sample of 377 adults and a 24-item version was tested with 306 older adults, aged 55 and older, using Rasch methodology. In phase 3, stakeholder focus groups provided feedback on the format of questionnaire materials and recommended strategies for addressing problems. The concept map contained 72 statements organized into 6 conceptual clusters or domains. The 24-item screener was unidimensional. Cronbach's alpha was .87, person reliability was acceptable (.74), and item reliability was high (.96). The MedUseQ is a validated, patient-centered tool targeting older adults that can be used to assess a wide range of medication use problems in clinical and community settings and to identify areas for education, intervention, or further assessment.

  7. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, María Luisa; Sanromán, Luciano; Martín, Alicia; Figueira, Montserrat; Martínez, Noemi; Hernández, Vicent; Del Campo, Victor; Pineda, Juan R; Martínez-Cadilla, Jesús; Pereira, Santos; Rodríguez Prada, José Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ). Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01). The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  8. Feasibility and validity of the self-administered computerized assessment of mild cognitive impairment with older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Naglie, Gary; Upshur, Ross; Moineddin, Rahim; Charles, Jocelyn; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether a validated computerized cognitive test, the Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), could be independently completed by older primary care patients. We also determined the optimal cut-off for the CAMCI global risk score for mild cognitive impairment against an independent neuropsychological reference standard. All eligible patients aged 65 years and older, seen consecutively over 2 months by 1 family practice of 13 primary care physicians, were invited to participate. Patients with a diagnosis or previous work-up for dementia were excluded. Primary care physicians indicated whether they, the patient, or family had concerns about each patient's cognition. A total of 130 patients with cognitive concerns and a matched sample of 133 without cognitive concerns were enrolled. The CAMCI was individually administered after instructions to work independently. Comments were recorded verbatim. A total of 259 (98.5%) completed the entire CAMCI. Two hundred and forty-one (91.6%) completed it without any questions or after simple acknowledgment of their question. Lack of computer experience was the only patient characteristic that decreased the odds of independent CAMCI completion. These results support the feasibility of using self-administered computerized cognitive tests with older primary care patients, given the increasing reliance on computers by people of all ages. The optimal cut-off score had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74%.

  9. Prescription pattern of antibiotic and analgesic in endodontic treatment in Kuwaiti population: A self-administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal J Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment of involved teeth can necessitate prescription of analgesics and antimicrobials. The literature suggests confusion amongst practitioners regarding the need for adjunctive medication, mainly during non-surgical endodontic treatment, often leading to over-prescription. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the current clinical practice of dentists participated in this study with respect to antibiotic and analgesic prescription patterns in their endodontic treatment management in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Prescription patterns for antibiotics and analgesics were analyzed based on the responses to self-administered questionnaire (n = 169. Information was collected based on different clinical endodontic diagnostic scenarios. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 17.0 to determine relationships between prescription patterns, age, gender, and dental qualification (specialists and general dentists. Results: Ninety-two percent of dentists prescribed analgesics for the management of endodontic pain. While 16% prescribed antibiotics for severe dental pain; 62% prescribed antibiotics for acute apical abscesses. Significantly more male dentists prescribed antibiotics for dental pain than female dentists. No significant difference was found between general dental practitioners′ and specialists′ attitude toward drug prescriptions. Amoxicillin and ibuprofen were the most commonly prescribed medications. Conclusion: While the majority of dentists appeared to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics appropriately, some did not. This research confirmed previous studies and established a need for imparting information of evidence-based prescriptions protocols for the dentists surveyed in this study in Kuwait.

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Infant's Unexplained Breast Preference for Nursing One Breast: A Self-Administered Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdi, Sameer Yaseen; Al Omran, Sadek Abdullah; Al-Aamri, Maryam Ali; Al Nasser, Mohammad Hasan; Al Omran, Abbas Moosa

    2015-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended by international bodies as the only source of infant nutrition during the first 6 months of life. Sometimes infants prefer to nurse on one breast for no obvious reason (hereafter called infant's unexplained breast preference [IUBP]). IUBP might reduce the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. The prevalence of IUBP is unknown because most of the literature on IUBP so far has been anecdotal. This study's objective was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IUBP among healthy infants in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study between March and August 2013 in the Al-Ahsa area, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Healthy infants who had been born at full term (≥37 weeks of gestation) and were 2-24 months of age were included. We distributed 600 self-administered surveys to mothers who attended vaccination clinics in nine primary healthcare centers. Of 478 mothers who responded to the survey, 121 (25.3%) reported unilateral breastfeeding. IUBP was the most common reason for unilateral breastfeeding, with a prevalence of 13.6% (65/478). IUBP developed at a median age of 1 month (range, 1 day-9 months) and was familial in 42.9% of cases. It was the only reason for formula feeding during the first 6 months of life in 18.5% of cases. IUBP is common, develops very early in life, and can be familial and a reason for formula feeding. However, these findings need to be confirmed in other studies of other populations.

  11. Offering self-administered oral HIV testing to truck drivers in Kenya to increase testing: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; George, Gavin; Mwai, Eva; Nyaga, Eston; Mantell, Joanne E; Romo, Matthew L; Odhiambo, Jacob O; Starbuck, Lila; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 305 truck drivers from two North Star Alliance roadside wellness clinics in Kenya to see if offering HIV testing choices would increase HIV testing uptake. Participants were randomized to be offered (1) a provider-administered rapid blood (finger-prick) HIV test (i.e., standard of care [SOC]) or (2) a Choice between SOC or a self-administered oral rapid HIV test with provider supervision in the clinic. Participants in the Choice arm who refused HIV testing in the clinic were offered a test kit for home use with phone-based posttest counseling. We compared HIV test uptake using the Mantel Haenszel odds ratio (OR) adjusting for clinic. Those in the Choice arm had higher odds of HIV test uptake than those in the SOC arm (OR = 1.5), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.189). When adding the option to take an HIV test kit for home use, the Choice arm had significantly greater odds of testing uptake (OR = 2.8, p = 0.002). Of those in the Choice arm who tested, 26.9% selected the SOC test, 64.6% chose supervised self-testing in the clinic, and 8.5% took a test kit for home use. Participants varied in the HIV test they selected when given choices. Importantly, when participants who refused HIV testing in the clinic were offered a test kit for home use, an additional 8.5% tested. Offering truck drivers a variety of HIV testing choices may increase HIV testing uptake in this key population.

  12. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases: a comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa de-Castro

    Full Text Available Background: Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Methods: Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores < 6 or MPR < 0.8. Results: Two-hundred and three patients were enrolled (60% ulcerative colitis, 40% Crohn's disease; 51% were men, and the mean age was 46.3 (14 years. Seventy-four per cent of patients were on monotherapy and 26% on combination therapy; altogether, 65% received mesalazine, 46% thiopurines and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa. Non-adherence rate assessed by MPR was 37% and 22.4% by MMAS-8. Receiver operator curve analysis using a MMAS-8 cut-off of six gave an area under the curve of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.001. This score had an 85% sensitivity and 34% specificity to predict medication non-adherence, with negative and positive predictive values of 57% and 70% respectively. High scores in the BMQ potential for harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01. Conclusion: The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  13. Development of the IBD Disk: A Visual Self-administered Tool for Assessing Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Louis, Edouard; Beaugerie, Laurent; Bossuyt, Peter; Bouguen, Guillaume; Bourreille, Arnaud; Ferrante, Marc; Franchimont, Denis; Frost, Karen; Hebuterne, Xavier; Marshall, John K; OʼShea, Ciara; Rosenfeld, Greg; Williams, Chadwick; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Disability Index is a validated tool that evaluates functional status; however, it is used mainly in the clinical trial setting. We describe the use of an iterative Delphi consensus process to develop the IBD Disk-a shortened, self-administered adaption of the validated IBD Disability Index-to give immediate visual representation of patient-reported IBD-related disability. In the preparatory phase, the IBD CONNECT group (30 health care professionals) ranked IBD Disability Index items in the perceived order of importance. The Steering Committee then selected 10 items from the IBD Disability Index to take forward for inclusion in the IBD Disk. In the consensus phase, the items were refined and agreed by the IBD Disk Working Group (14 gastroenterologists) using an online iterative Delphi consensus process. Members could also suggest new element(s) or recommend changes to included elements. The final items for the IBD Disk were agreed in February 2016. After 4 rounds of voting, the following 10 items were agreed for inclusion in the IBD Disk: abdominal pain, body image, education and work, emotions, energy, interpersonal interactions, joint pain, regulating defecation, sexual functions, and sleep. All elements, except sexual functions, were included in the validated IBD Disability Index. The IBD Disk has the potential to be a valuable tool for use at a clinical visit. It can facilitate assessment of inflammatory bowel disease-related disability relevant to both patients and physicians, discussion on specific disability-related issues, and tracking changes in disease burden over time.

  14. Design of a self-administered online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary intake among university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carrascosa, R; Bayo Montó, J L; Meneu Barreira, T; García Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2011-01-01

    To introduce and describe a new tool called UPV-FFQ to evaluate dietary intake of the university population. The new tool consists principally in a self-administered online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The tool UPV-FFQ has been developed by means of web pages applying the technology ASP.NET 2.0 and using the database SQL Server 2005 as support. To develop the FFQ has been used as model the paper and pencil FFQ called "Dieta, salud y antropometría en la población universitaria". The tool has three parts: (1) a homepage, (2) a general questionnaire and (3) a FFQ. The FFQ has a closed list of 84 food items commonly consumed in Valencia region. The respondents has to indicate the food items that they consume (2 possible options), the frequency of consumption (9 response options) and the quantity consumed (7 response options). The UPV-FFQ has approximately 250 color photographs that represents to three portion sizes. The photographs are useful to help the respondents to choose the portion sizes that more adjusts to their habitual portions. The new tool provides quantitative information of the habitual intake of 31 nutritional parameters and provides qualitative information of the general questionnaire. A pilot study was done for a total of 57 respondents. The media time spend to fill in was 15 minutes. The pilot study concluded that the questionnaire was ease-of-use, low cost and time-effectiveness questionnaire. The format and the sequence of the questions were easily understood.

  15. Influence of intravenous self-administered psychomotor stimulants on performance of rhesus monkeys in a multiple schedule paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, F

    1980-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained to complete three multiple schedules. The schedules consisted of three components: a fixed interval (component 1), a variable interval (component 2), and a fixed ratio (component 3). During components 1 and 2, pressing lever 1 was always reinforced by food delivery. During component 3, pressing lever 2 resulted in either food delivery or intravenous infusions of saline solution, solutions of cocaine, of d-amphetamine, of phenmetrazine, or fenetylline. In schedule I, animals were presented with all three components independent of key-pressing behavior during components 1 and 2. In schedule II the availability of component 2 was dependent on completion of component 1. Component 3 was made available only on completion of component 2. Noncompletion of components 1 or 2 resulted in time-out of 15 and 10 min, respectively. Schedule III was identical with schedule II, except that in schedule III the completion of components was indicated only by a change in the lever lights. The influence of self-administered drugs on behavior in all three components was evaluated. Self-administration of psychomotor stimulants impaired the performance of animals and delayed completion of components 1 and 2 of schedules I, II, and III. The effects on behavior were similar with low drug intake in schedule III, moderate intake in schedule II, and high drug intake in schedule I. These effects were strong with self-administration of phenmetrazine, moderate with self-administration of cocaine and d-amphetamine, and weak with self-administration of fenetylline.

  16. A self-administered method of acute pressure block of sciatic nerves for short-term relief of dental pain: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-08-01

    While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. This was a randomized, single-blind study. Hospital patients. Patients aged 16-60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. © 2014 The Authors. Pain Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  17. Paper and pencil vs online self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) applied to university population: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carrascosa, R; García Segovia, P; Martínez Monzó, J

    2011-01-01

    To test the reliability of dietary intake data measured with an online food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) applied to a university population by comparing the results with those from a paper and pencil version. A total of 50 students were recruited from the second-year Food Technology course at the Universitat Politècnica de València (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) in the academic year 2008-2009. The students were between the ages of 20-32. The participants completed both presentation modes of the FFQ (paper and pencil and online) in a cross-over study with a time interval of 3-week. To study the effect of ordering of the questionnaires, participants were randomly assigned to group A (paper and pencil FFQ first) and group B (online FFQ first). Both self-administered semi-quantitative presentations of the FFQ included 84 food items divided into six groups (dairy products; eggs, meat and fish; vegetables, legumes and fruits; bread, cereals and similar; oils, fats and sweets; beverages and pre-cooked). Participants were asked how frequently and how much each food item they had consumed in the previous year. The response rate was 78% (39 students, 23% men and 77% women). For the total sample, the median dietary intakes were higher for the paper and pencil FFQ than the online version for energy (2,077 vs. 1,635 kcal/day), proteins (96 vs. 88 g/day), carbohydrates (272 vs. 211 g/day), and fat (70 vs. 58 g/day), respectively. These differences were statistically significant. However, there were not significant differences between the two presentations when the consumption by groups of food was calculated, except for "beverages and pre-cooked" group. The pilot testing showed that this online FFQ is a useful tool for estimating the intake of food groups in this university population. On the other hand, the differences found in the results of the absolute quantities of energy and nutrients intakes were not clear. These differences could be due to the problems that the

  18. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Hyvärinen

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA or sham stimulation (0.3 mA for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study

  19. Financial risk relationships and adoption of management strategies in physician groups for self-administered injectable drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Jonathan D; Stebbins, Marilyn R; Hickman, David E; Lipton, Helene Levins

    2003-01-01

    To consider the extent, nature, and range of risk arrangements between physician groups and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) for self-administered injectable (SAI) drugs; to examine types and frequencies of SAI drug-use management strategies adopted by physician groups; and to explore the relationship between locus and level of financial risk for SAIs and physician group strategy adoption. We used a multiple case-study design to select physician groups and their health maintenance organization (HMO) contractual partners in 4 markets in the United States (Northwest, Northeast, Midwest, Southwest). Physician groups in these markets were chosen based on size (e50 physicians) and experience with drug risk (e1 year). Physician groups were asked to identify their 3 major HMO contractual partners in each market. Telephone interviews were conducted from January 2000 to June 2001, with the resulting purposive sample of 37 individuals representing 20 physician groups. We found that the level and locus of SAI financial risk were related to the adoption of management strategies. Physician groups with higher financial risk for SAIs adopted more strategies than lower-risk groups. Groups with SAI financial risk in the medical services capitation (MSC) adopted 9.2 strategies per group. In contrast, groups with SAI financial risk in the pharmacy-risk budget (PRB) averaged 1.5 strategies per group. Groups with SAI financial risk in both the MSC and PRB fell in-between, averaging 4.5 strategies per group. The most frequently adopted strategy was designing evidenced-based therapeutic guidelines, i.e., protocols based on evidence from the peer-reviewed literature used to guide physicians in the treatment of typically chronic conditions (9 groups, 45% of sample). The second most common strategy involved adapting the existing utilization management system to process SAIs (7 groups, 35%) and the establishment of office procedures for internal authorization (5 groups, 25%). The

  20. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-01-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m 3 . However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m 3 . Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m 3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 with a size range of 15–710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 when the reactor was stopped.

  1. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. [Construction and validation of an evaluation tool of sexual health using self-administered questionnaires for an application to metabolic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F; Hubert-Buron, A; Mollet-Boudjemline, A; Sechepine, A; Milcent, K; Guyonnet, C; Labrune, P

    2013-03-01

    To elaborate and validate in general population a survey built with self-administered questionnaires in French about evaluation of sexual health for an application to men and women with metabolic disease. Study built with four questionnaires (socio-familial environment [MSPSS scale], self-esteem [Rosenberg scale], anxiety and depression scale [Sigmund and Snaith scale], and male [BISF-M] or female [BISF-W] sexuality) translated in French and distributed to 232 men and 260 women. Hundred and eleven men aged 18 to 56 years and 142 women aged 20 to 60 years answered the self-administered questionnaire. Analysis showed several links between self-esteem, anxiety and depression and the different domains of male sexuality, justifying their association. Comparison between men and women confirmed the differences of sexual approach between the two sexes. Results in our population were concordant with those already reported in literature, indicating the validity and the reliability of our questionnaire and its multiparametric approach. Data obtained in this population will allow to use this multiparametric tool with patients affected by a metabolic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Methods Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland–Altman plots. Results The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p food consumption in the general adult population of NL. This tool can be used to classify individual energy and nutrient intakes into quartiles, which is useful in examining relationships between diet and chronic disease. PMID:23590645

  4. Does packaging with a calendar feature improve adherence to self-administered medication for long-term use? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedler, Barbara K; Kakad, Priyanka; Colilla, Susan; Murrelle, Lenn; Shah, Nirav R

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic benefit of self-administered medications for long-term use is limited by an average 50% nonadherence rate. Patient forgetfulness is a common factor in unintentional nonadherence. Unit-of-use packaging that incorporates a simple day-and-date feature (calendar packaging) is designed to improve adherence by prompting patients to maintain the prescribed dosing schedule. To review systematically, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, randomized controlled trial evidence of the adherence benefits and harms of calendar blister packaging (CBP) and calendar pill organizers (CPO) for self-administered, long-term medication use. Data sources included the MEDLINE and Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases from their inception to September 2010 and communication with researchers in the field. Key search terms included blister-calendar pack, blister pack, drug packaging, medication adherence, medication compliance, medication compliance devices, medication containers, medication organizers, multicompartment compliance aid, persistence, pill-box organizers, prescription refill, randomized controlled trials, and refill compliance. Selected studies had an English-language title; a randomized controlled design; medication packaged in CBP or CPO; a requirement of solid, oral medication self-administered daily for longer than 1 month in community-dwelling adults; and at least 1 quantitative outcome measure of adherence. Two reviewers extracted data independently on study design, sample size, type of intervention and control, and outcomes. Ten trials with a total of 1045 subjects met the inclusion criteria, and 9 also examined clinical outcomes (seizures, blood pressure, psychiatric symptoms) or health care resource utilization. Substantial heterogeneity among trials precluded meta-analysis. In 3 studies, calendar packaging was part of a multicomponent adherence intervention. Six of 10 trials

  5. A Validation Study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 Version, at School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Caroline F; DuPaul, George J; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining valid and reliable estimates of usual dietary intake at a reasonable cost is a challenge in school-based nutrition research. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 version (ASA24 Kids-2014), a self-administered, computerized 24-hour dietary recall, offers improved feasibility over traditional interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. This mixed-methods study examined ASA24 Kids-2014's validity for measuring dietary intake from National School Lunch Program lunches. After 24% attrition, 96 middle-school students from three urban schools in eastern Pennsylvania participated in the study. A subsample of 27 participants completed qualitative interviews. Data were collected in the spring of 2014. Self-reported ASA24 Kids-2014 data were compared to direct observations of school lunch, which served as the criterion measure. Dependent variables included eight meal components selected from the National School Lunch Program guidelines (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, dairy, oils, solid fats, and added sugars). A supplemental interview collected qualitative data regarding students' perceptions of content and substantive validity. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman's ρ examined criterion-related validity; qualitative content analysis examined content and substantive validity. Participants inaccurately recalled food items eaten at lunch, as 58% of foods were reported in error. However, among foods recalled correctly, no statistically significant differences emerged for estimates of portions consumed for six meal components (fruit, vegetables, grains, protein-rich foods, oils, and added sugars). In addition, statistically significant positive correlations emerged between ASA24 Kids-2014 and direct observation for all estimates. Qualitative data identified students' interest and motivation, comprehension, memory, and English-language fluency as relevant sources of error. Middle school students have difficulty

  6. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  7. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  8. Challenges in converting an interviewer-administered food probe database to self-administration in the National Cancer Institute Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Hull, Stephen G; McNutt, Suzanne; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi; Guenther, Patricia M; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy A; Subar, Amy F

    2009-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an automated, self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) application to collect and code dietary intake data. The goal of the ASA24 development is to create a web-based dietary interview based on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) instrument currently used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The ASA24 food list, detail probes, and portion probes were drawn from the AMPM instrument; portion-size pictures from Baylor College of Medicine's Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) were added; and the food code/portion code assignments were linked to the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). The requirements that the interview be self-administered and fully auto-coded presented several challenges as the AMPM probes and responses were linked with the FNDDS food codes and portion pictures. This linking was accomplished through a "food pathway," or the sequence of steps that leads from a respondent's initial food selection, through the AMPM probes and portion pictures, to the point at which a food code and gram weight portion size are assigned. The ASA24 interview database that accomplishes this contains more than 1,100 food probes and more than 2 million food pathways and will include about 10,000 pictures of individual foods depicting up to 8 portion sizes per food. The ASA24 will make the administration of multiple days of recalls in large-scale studies economical and feasible.

  9. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. For the DHQ (n = 115), the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112), corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (r s  = 0.307 and r s  = 0.342, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58) and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54) ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Shiraishi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. Methods: The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. Results: For the DHQ (n = 115, the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112, corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (rs = 0.307 and rs = 0.342, respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58 and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54 ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Conclusions: Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women.

  11. Self-administered Vitamin D Status Predictor: Older adults are able to use a self-questionnaire for evaluating their vitamin D status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Annweiler

    Full Text Available The 16-item Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP questionnaire helps to identify, without resorting to a blood test, older adults with low vitamin D concentrations. Our objective was to determine whether a self-administered VDSP was concordant with the VDSP administered by a physician, and to examine the concordance of every single item of the VDSP.A total of 349 older in- and outpatients (mean, 83.2±7.2years; 59% female were consecutively recruited in the geriatric ward of the University Hospital of Angers, France. All participants completed a self-administered VDSP questionnaire (self-VDSP in paper format composed of 17 items exploring age, gender, general condition, nutrition, vision, mood, cognition, gait and falls, and osteoporosis. All participants underwent subsequently a full clinical examination by a physician exploring the same areas (rater-VDSP.The agreement between the self-VDSP and the rater-VDSP was almost perfect for the probability of having low vitamin D concentrations, regardless of the definition used (i.e., ≤25, ≤50 or ≤75 nmol/L. The agreements between physicians' and patients' responses were significant for every single VDSP item. The agreement was fair to perfect for all items, except for cognitive disorders, undernutrition and polymorbidity (poor agreement.Older adults are able to evaluate their own probabilities of severe vitamin D deficiency, deficiency and insufficiency. A self-questionnaire may promote the use of the VDSP tool in this population, and help clinicians in decisions to supplement their patients in a reasoned way.

  12. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  13. Development of a Comprehensive Assessment of Food Parenting Practices: The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet Family Food Practices Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Tabak, Rachel G; Bryant, Maria; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-02-01

    Parents' food parenting practices influence children's dietary intake and risk for obesity and chronic disease. Understanding the influence and interactions between parents' practices and children's behavior is limited by a lack of development and psychometric testing and/or limited scope of current measures. The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet (HomeSTEAD) was created to address this gap. This article describes development and psychometric testing of the HomeSTEAD family food practices survey. Between August 2010 and May 2011, a convenience sample of 129 parents of children aged 3 to 12 years were recruited from central North Carolina and completed the self-administered HomeSTEAD survey on three occasions during a 12- to 18-day window. Demographic characteristics and child diet were assessed at Time 1. Child height and weight were measured during the in-home observations (following Time 1 survey). Exploratory factor analysis with Time 1 data was used to identify potential scales. Scales with more than three items were examined for scale reduction. Following this, mean scores were calculated at each time point. Construct validity was assessed by examining Spearman rank correlations between mean scores (Time 1) and children's diet (fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, sweets) and body mass index (BMI) z scores. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in mean scores between time points, and single-measure intraclass correlations were calculated to examine test-retest reliability between time points. Exploratory factor analysis identified 24 factors and retained 124 items; however, scale reduction narrowed items to 86. The final instrument captures five coercive control practices (16 items), seven autonomy support practices (24 items), and 12 structure practices (46 items). All scales demonstrated good internal reliability (α>.62), 18 factors demonstrated construct

  14. Improved Balance Confidence and Stability for Elderly After 6 Weeks of a Multimodal Self-Administered Balance-Enhancing Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafström, Anna; Malmström, Eva-Maj; Terdèn, Josefine; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess the efficacy of a multimodal balance-enhancing exercise program (BEEP) designed to be regularly self-administered by community-dwelling elderly. The program aims to promote sensory reweighting, facilitate motor control, improve gaze stabilization, and stimulate continuous improvement by being constantly challenging. Method: Forty participants aged 60 to 80 years performed 6 weeks of BEEP training, on average for 16 min four times weekly, in a randomized one-arm crossover design. Results: One-leg standing time improved 32% with eyes open (EO), 206% with eyes closed (EC) on solid surface, and 54% EO on compliant surface (p balance improvements when perturbed on solid and compliant surfaces with EO and EC (p ≤ .033). Walking, step stool, and Timed Up and Go speeds increased (p ≤ .001), as did scores in Berg Balance and balance confidence scales (p ≤ .018). Discussion: Multimodal balance exercises offer an efficient, cost-effective way to improve balance control and confidence in elderly. PMID:28138495

  15. Improved Balance Confidence and Stability for Elderly After 6 Weeks of a Multimodal Self-Administered Balance-Enhancing Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hafström MD, PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and assess the efficacy of a multimodal balance-enhancing exercise program (BEEP designed to be regularly self-administered by community-dwelling elderly. The program aims to promote sensory reweighting, facilitate motor control, improve gaze stabilization, and stimulate continuous improvement by being constantly challenging. Method: Forty participants aged 60 to 80 years performed 6 weeks of BEEP training, on average for 16 min four times weekly, in a randomized one-arm crossover design. Results: One-leg standing time improved 32% with eyes open (EO, 206% with eyes closed (EC on solid surface, and 54% EO on compliant surface ( p < .001. Posturography confirmed balance improvements when perturbed on solid and compliant surfaces with EO and EC ( p  ≤ .033. Walking, step stool, and Timed Up and Go speeds increased ( p  ≤ .001, as did scores in Berg Balance and balance confidence scales ( p  ≤ .018. Discussion: Multimodal balance exercises offer an efficient, cost-effective way to improve balance control and confidence in elderly.

  16. Strategic Resource Use for Learning: A Self-Administered Intervention That Guides Self-Reflection on Effective Resource Use Enhances Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patricia; Chavez, Omar; Ong, Desmond C; Gunderson, Brenda

    2017-06-01

    Many educational policies provide learners with more resources (e.g., new learning activities, study materials, or technologies), but less often do they address whether students are using these resources effectively. We hypothesized that making students more self-reflective about how they should approach their learning with the resources available to them would improve their class performance. We designed a novel Strategic Resource Use intervention that students could self-administer online and tested its effects in two cohorts of a college-level introductory statistics class. Before each exam, students randomly assigned to the treatment condition strategized about which academic resources they would use for studying, why each resource would be useful, and how they would use their resources. Students randomly assigned to the treatment condition reported being more self-reflective about their learning throughout the class, used their resources more effectively, and outperformed students in the control condition by an average of one third of a letter grade in the class.

  17. Evaluation of measurement properties of self-administered PROMs aimed at patients with non-specific shoulder pain and "activity limitations": a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, M; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; Schellingerhout, J M; Bourne, A M; Buchbinder, R; Koehorst, M; Terwee, C B; Verhagen, A P

    2016-09-01

    To critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of self-administered patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) focussing on the shoulder, assessing "activity limitations." Systematic review. The study population had to consist of patients with shoulder pain. We excluded postoperative patients or patients with generic diseases. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist. Out of a total of 3427 unique hits, 31 articles, evaluating 7 different questionnaires, were included. The SPADI is the most frequently evaluated PROM and its measurement properties seem adequate apart from a lack of information regarding its measurement error and content validity. For English, Norwegian and Turkish users, we recommend to use the SPADI. Dutch users could use either the SDQ or the SST. In German, we recommend the DASH. In Tamil, Slovene, Spanish and the Danish languages, the evaluated PROMs were not yet of acceptable validity. None of these PROMs showed strong positive evidence for all measurement properties. We propose to develop a new shoulder PROM focused on activity limitations, taking new knowledge and techniques into account.

  18. @selfhealthtech: Using self-administered health monitoring technologies to support the self-management of long-term conditions: what about behaviour change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather May Morgan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions This evidence synthesis adds to emerging research concerning digital technologies, contributing to the literature where there is a knowledge gap around SSM and self-administered health monitoring technologies. It highlights a need to better understand the delivery and quality of care when technologies are used for SSM. It would be beneficial to re-characterise or reconceptualise these technologies and their implementation. More rigorous description of interventions, e.g. using the TIDIER template for intervention description and replication checklist10, or linking systems with BCT taxonomy v.19 through the smartphone app11, as well as a requirement to attend to behaviour change theory and techniques in the design, use and description is also required. Future research should address these concerns to inform developments in SSM for chronic conditions involving technologies, as well as in policy and practices more generally where digital technologies are implicated. In addition, the results of this review suggest that detailed primary research should be undertaken to explore the personal, social and ethical considerations of users in everyday life.

  19. Validity and reliability of the Spanish-language version of the self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) pain scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, I; Gil-Martínez, A; Candelas-Fernández, P; de Andrés-Ares, J; Beltrán-Alacreu, H; La Touche, R

    2016-12-08

    The self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) scale is a tool designed to identify patients with pain with neuropathic features. To assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish-language version of the S-LANSS scale. Our study included a total of 182 patients with chronic pain to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the S-LANSS; the sample was increased to 321 patients to evaluate construct validity and reliability. The validated Spanish-language version of the ID-Pain questionnaire was used as the criterion variable. All participants completed the ID-Pain, the S-LANSS, and the Numerical Rating Scale for pain. Discriminant validity was evaluated by analysing sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Construct validity was assessed with factor analysis and by comparing the odds ratio of each S-LANSS item to the total score. Convergent validity and reliability were evaluated with Pearson's r and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for S-LANSS was ≥12 points (AUC=.89; sensitivity=88.7; specificity=76.6). Factor analysis yielded one factor; furthermore, all items contributed significantly to the positive total score on the S-LANSS (P<.05). The S-LANSS showed a significant correlation with ID-Pain (r=.734, α=.71). The Spanish-language version of the S-LANSS is valid and reliable for identifying patients with chronic pain with neuropathic features. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. StaySafe: A self-administered android tablet application for helping individuals on probation make better decisions pertaining to health risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E.K. Lehman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and protocol for feasibility and efficacy testing of a risk reduction intervention designed to improve behavioral health outcomes among drug offenders on probation under community supervision or in residential substance abuse treatment centers. StaySafe is a self-administered tablet-based intervention for teaching better decision-making skills regarding health risk behaviors, especially those involving HIV risks. We are using pre/post, experimental/control group randomized clinical trial (RCT in both community and residential probation settings with goals to 1 assess the feasibility and acceptance of StaySafe by examining participation rates and satisfaction measures, and 2 examine the impact of StaySafe on decision-making skills, confidence and motivation to avoid sex and drug risks, willingness to discuss health risks and concerns with helpful others, and engagement in health risk behaviors.StaySafe consists of 12 brief sessions and utilizes an evidence-based decision-making schema, called WORKIT, which guides participants through steps for identifying the problem and options, evaluating the options and making a decision about which option to carry out. Multiple sessions of StaySafe provide a practice effect so that the WORKIT steps become easily accessible to participants when making decisions. Three of the sessions provide participants a choice of activities designed to provide additional information about HIV and reinforce lessons learned during the WORKIT sessions. Preliminary data demonstrate feasibility and high levels of satisfaction with StaySafe. Keywords: Clinical trial, HIV, Probation, Tablet-based intervention, Decision-making

  1. Distinct Neurochemical Adaptations Within the Nucleus Accumbens Produced by a History of Self-Administered vs Non-Contingently Administered Intravenous Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lominac, Kevin D; Sacramento, Arianne D; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kippin, Tod E

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychomotor stimulant yet the neurobiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration remain under-characterized. Thus, we employed microdialysis in rats trained to self-administer intravenous (IV) infusions of methamphetamine (METH-SA) or saline (SAL) and a group of rats receiving non-contingent IV infusions of methamphetamine (METH-NC) at 1 or 21 days withdrawal to determine the dopamine and glutamate responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) to a 2 mg/kg methamphetamine intraperitoneal challenge. Furthermore, basal NAC extracellular glutamate content was assessed employing no net-flux procedures in these three groups at both time points. At both 1- and 21-day withdrawal points, methamphetamine elicited a rise in extracellular dopamine in SAL animals and this effect was sensitized in METH-NC rats. However, METH-SA animals showed a much greater sensitized dopamine response to the drug challenge compared with the other groups. Additionally, acute methamphetamine decreased extracellular glutamate in both SAL and METH-NC animals at both time-points. In contrast, METH-SA rats exhibited a modest and delayed rise in glutamate at 1-day withdrawal and this rise was sensitized at 21 days withdrawal. Finally, no net-flux microdialysis revealed elevated basal glutamate and increased extraction fraction at both withdrawal time-points in METH-SA rats. Although METH-NC rats exhibited no change in the glutamate extraction fraction, they exhibited a time-dependent elevation in basal glutamate levels. These data illustrate for the first time that a history of methamphetamine self-administration produces enduring changes in NAC neurotransmission and that non-pharmacological factors have a critical role in the expression of these methamphetamine-induced neurochemical adaptations. PMID:22030712

  2. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subar, Amy F; Crafts, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Wilson, Michael; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi G; McNutt, Suzanne; Potischman, Nancy; Buday, Richard; Hull, Stephen G; Baranowski, Tom; Guenther, Patricia M; Willis, Gordon; Tapia, Ramsey; Thompson, Frances E

    2010-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, serving themselves portions of nine foods representing five forms (eg, amorphous, pieces). Serving containers were weighed unobtrusively before and after selection as was plate waste. The next day, participants used a computer software program to select photographs representing portion sizes of foods consumed the previous day. Preference information was also collected. In Study 1 (n=29), participants were presented with four different types of images (aerial photographs, angled photographs, images of mounds, and household measures) and two types of screen presentations (simultaneous images vs an empty plate that filled with images of food portions when clicked). In Study 2 (n=20), images were presented in two ways that varied by size (large vs small) and number (4 vs 8). Convenience sample of volunteers of varying background in an office setting. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of absolute differences between actual and reported portions sizes by presentation methods. Accuracy results were largely not statistically significant, indicating that no one image type was most accurate. Accuracy results indicated the use of eight vs four images was more accurate. Strong participant preferences supported presenting simultaneous vs sequential images. These findings support the use of aerial photographs in the automated self-administered 24-hour recall. For some food forms, images of mounds or household measures are as accurate as images of food and, therefore, are a cost-effective alternative to photographs of foods. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Semra; Akyuz, Aygul; Tunay, Servet

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy. A randomised clinical trial design. The sample consisted of patients (n = 96) who were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis. During the application stage, patients were designated to the hot and cold application groups and administered hot and cold application twice a day for 3 weeks together with standard osteoarthritis treatment. The control group only used standard osteoarthritis treatment. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, a Pain Scale, the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and a Patient Satisfaction Evaluation Form. Outcome measures included pain intensity, functional status and quality of life. We found decreased primary measurement pain scores and improved functional status scores and quality of life scores after the application programme compared to the pre-application stage in both the hot and cold application groups. Once the application was completed, the pain scores, functional status scores and quality-of-life scores on the second measurements were found to be still statistically lower than the pre-application scores but higher than the first measurement ([p  .05). It was found that both hot and cold application resulted in a mild improvement in pain, functional status and quality of life, but this improvement was not sufficient to create a significant difference between the groups. This study contributes to the literature on hot and cold application methods as self-management strategies for patients with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 John Wiley

  4. English-language videos on YouTube as a source of information on self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor agent injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Sena; Yurdakul, Ozan Volkan; Basaran, Betul; Rezvani, Aylin

    2018-05-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, content, and quality of videos for patients available on YouTube for learning how to self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) injections. We searched for the terms Humira injection, Enbrel injection, Simponi injection, and Cimzia injection. Videos were categorised as useful information, misleading information, useful patient opinion, and misleading patient opinion by two physicians. Videos were rated for quality on a 5-point global quality scale (GQS; 1 = poor quality, 5 = excellent quality) and reliability and content using the 5-point DISCERN scale (higher scores represent greater reliability and more comprehensive videos). Of the 142 English videos, 24 (16.9%) videos were classified as useful information, 6 (4.2%) as misleading information, 47 (33.1%) as useful patient opinion, and 65 (45.8%) as misleading patient opinion. Useful videos were the most comprehensive and had the highest reliability and quality scores. The useful information and useful patient opinion videos had the highest numbers of views per day (median 8.32, IQR: 3.40-14.28 and 5.46, IQR: 3.06-14.44), as compared with 2.32, IQR: 1.63-6.26 for misleading information videos and 2.15, IQR: 1.17-7.43 for misleading patient opinion videos (p = 0.001). Almost all (91.5%) misleading videos were uploaded by individual users. There are a substantial number of English-language YouTube videos, with high quality, and rich content and reliability that can be sources of information on proper technique of anti-TNF self-injections. Physicians should direct patients to the reliable resources of information and educate them in online resource assessment, thereby improving treatment outcomes.

  5. SINGLE-DOSE VERSUS 3-DAY PROPHYLAXIS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN IN TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY - A CLINICAL-TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJL, W; JANKNEGT, RA

    1993-01-01

    in 235 patients who underwent transurethral surgery, perioperative oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was given as a single dose 500 mg versus a 3-day regimen. Out of 180 evaluable patients, 84 received a single dose and 96 received a 3-day course. In the single dose prophylaxis group there were 5

  6. Adherence to self-administered tuberculosis treatment in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a cross-sectional survey in Homa Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Nackers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good adherence to treatment is crucial to control tuberculosis (TB. Efficiency and feasibility of directly observed therapy (DOT under routine program conditions have been questioned. As an alternative, Médecins sans Frontières introduced self-administered therapy (SAT in several TB programs. We aimed to measure adherence to TB treatment among patients receiving TB chemotherapy with fixed dose combination (FDC under SAT at the Homa Bay district hospital (Kenya. A second objective was to compare the adherence agreement between different assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey amongst a series of new TB patients receiving 6 months of standard TB chemotherapy with FDC under SAT. Adherence was assessed at home with urine testing for Isoniazid (INH, pill count, interviewer-administered questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS. RESULTS: In November 2008 and in June 2009, 212 of 279 eligible patients were assessed for adherence. Overall, 95.2% [95%CI: 91.3-97.7] of the patients reported not having missed a tablet in the last 4 days. On the VAS, complete adherence was estimated at 92.5% [95%CI: 88.0-95.6]. INH urine test was positive for 97.6% [95%CI: 94.6-99.2] of the patients. Pill count could be assessed among only 70% of the interviewed patients. Among them, it was complete for 82.3% [95%CI: 75.1-88.1]. Among the 212 surveyed patients, 193 (91.0% were successfully treated (cured or treatment completed. The data suggest a fair agreement between the questionnaire and the INH urine test (k = 0.43 and between the questionnaire and the VAS (k = 0.40. Agreement was poor between the other adherence tools. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SAT, together with the FDC, allows achieving appropriate adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a high TB and HIV burden area. The use of a combination of a VAS and a questionnaire can be an adequate approach to monitor adherence to TB treatment in routine program

  7. Comparison of self-reported dietary intakes from the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall, 4-d food records, and food-frequency questionnaires against recovery biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Dodd, Kevin W; Kipnis, Victor; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Schoeller, Dale A; Baer, David J; Midthune, Douglas; Troiano, Richard P; Bowles, Heather; Subar, Amy F

    2018-01-01

    A limited number of studies have evaluated self-reported dietary intakes against objective recovery biomarkers. The aim was to compare dietary intakes of multiple Automated Self-Administered 24-h recalls (ASA24s), 4-d food records (4DFRs), and food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) against recovery biomarkers and to estimate the prevalence of under- and overreporting. Over 12 mo, 530 men and 545 women, aged 50-74 y, were asked to complete 6 ASA24s (2011 version), 2 unweighed 4DFRs, 2 FFQs, two 24-h urine collections (biomarkers for protein, potassium, and sodium intakes), and 1 administration of doubly labeled water (biomarker for energy intake). Absolute and density-based energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were calculated. The prevalence of under- and overreporting of self-report against biomarkers was estimated. Ninety-two percent of men and 87% of women completed ≥3 ASA24s (mean ASA24s completed: 5.4 and 5.1 for men and women, respectively). Absolute intakes of energy, protein, potassium, and sodium assessed by all self-reported instruments were systematically lower than those from recovery biomarkers, with underreporting greater for energy than for other nutrients. On average, compared with the energy biomarker, intake was underestimated by 15-17% on ASA24s, 18-21% on 4DFRs, and 29-34% on FFQs. Underreporting was more prevalent on FFQs than on ASA24s and 4DFRs and among obese individuals. Mean protein and sodium densities on ASA24s, 4DFRs, and FFQs were similar to biomarker values, but potassium density on FFQs was 26-40% higher, leading to a substantial increase in the prevalence of overreporting compared with absolute potassium intake. Although misreporting is present in all self-report dietary assessment tools, multiple ASA24s and a 4DFR provided the best estimates of absolute dietary intakes for these few nutrients and outperformed FFQs. Energy adjustment improved estimates from FFQs for protein and sodium but not for potassium. The ASA24, which now can be

  8. Community Practice Implementation of a Self-administered Version of PREMM1,2,6 to Assess Risk for Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luba, Daniel G; DiSario, James A; Rock, Colleen; Saraiya, Devki; Moyes, Kelsey; Brown, Krystal; Rushton, Kristen; Ogara, Maydeen M; Raphael, Mona; Zimmerman, Dayna; Garrido, Kimmie; Silguero, Evelyn; Nelson, Jonathan; Yurgelun, Matthew B; Kastrinos, Fay; Wenstrup, Richard J; Syngal, Sapna

    2018-01-01

    incorporation of PREMM 1,2,6 into their clinical practice, and that they would continue using it to assess risk for Lynch syndrome. A patient self-administered version of the PREMM 1,2,6 Lynch syndrome risk assessment model can be used systematically in community-based gastroenterology and endoscopy practices. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-System Deconditioning in 3-Day Dry Immersion without Daily Raise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven De Abreu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry immersion (DI is a Russian-developed, ground-based model to study the physiological effects of microgravity. It accurately reproduces environmental conditions of weightlessness, such as enhanced physical inactivity, suppression of hydrostatic pressure and supportlessness. We aimed to study the integrative physiological responses to a 3-day strict DI protocol in 12 healthy men, and to assess the extent of multi-system deconditioning. We recorded general clinical data, biological data and evaluated body fluid changes. Cardiovascular deconditioning was evaluated using orthostatic tolerance tests (Lower Body Negative Pressure + tilt and progressive tilt. Metabolic state was tested with oral glucose tolerance test. Muscular deconditioning was assessed via muscle tone measurement.Results: Orthostatic tolerance time dropped from 27 ± 1 to 9 ± 2 min after DI. Significant impairment in glucose tolerance was observed. Net insulin response increased by 72 ± 23% on the third day of DI compared to baseline. Global leg muscle tone was approximately 10% reduced under immersion. Day-night changes in temperature, heart rate and blood pressure were preserved on the third day of DI. Day-night variations of urinary K+ diminished, beginning at the second day of immersion, while 24-h K+ excretion remained stable throughout. Urinary cortisol and melatonin metabolite increased with DI, although within normal limits. A positive correlation was observed between lumbar pain intensity, estimated on the second day of DI, and mean 24-h urinary cortisol under DI. In conclusion, DI represents an accurate and rapid model of gravitational deconditioning. The extent of glucose tolerance impairment may be linked to constant enhanced muscle inactivity. Muscle tone reduction may reflect the reaction of postural muscles to withdrawal of support. Relatively modest increases in cortisol suggest that DI induces a moderate stress effect. In prospect, this advanced ground

  10. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  11. Validation of the 3-day rule for stool bacterial tests in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Sako, Akahito; Ogami, Toshiko; Nishimura, So; Asayama, Naoki; Yada, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Yanase, Mikio; Masaki, Naohiko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Stool cultures are expensive and time consuming, and the positive rate of enteric pathogens in cases of nosocomial diarrhea is low. The 3-day rule, whereby clinicians order a Clostridium difficile (CD) toxin test rather than a stool culture for inpatients developing diarrhea >3 days after admission, has been well studied in Western countries. The present study sought to validate the 3-day rule in an acute care hospital setting in Japan. Stool bacterial and CD toxin test results for adult patients hospitalized in an acute care hospital in 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Specimens collected after an initial positive test were excluded. The positive rate and cost-effectiveness of the tests were compared among three patient groups. The adult patients were divided into three groups for comparison: outpatients, patients hospitalized for ≤3 days and patients hospitalized for ≥4 days. Over the 12-month period, 1,597 stool cultures were obtained from 992 patients, and 880 CD toxin tests were performed in 529 patients. In the outpatient, inpatient ≤3 days and inpatient ≥4 days groups, the rate of positive stool cultures was 14.2%, 3.6% and 1.3% and that of positive CD toxin tests was 1.9%, 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively. The medical costs required to obtain one positive result were 9,181, 36,075 and 103,600 JPY and 43,200, 11,333 and 9,410 JPY, respectively. The 3-day rule was validated for the first time in a setting other than a Western country. Our results revealed that the "3-day rule" is also useful and cost-effective in Japan.

  12. Chlorine dioxide and chlorhexidine mouthrinses compared in a 3-day plaque accumulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevas, S.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Versteeg, P.; van der Velden, U.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibiting effect of a chlorine dioxide mouthrinse as opposed to a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine (0.20%) during 3 days of plaque accumulation. Methods: At baseline, all participants (N = 77) received a professional prophylaxis and were

  13. Comparison of the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index and a self-report format of the self-administered Lequesne-Algofunctional index in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Sangha, O; Stucki, S; Michel, B A; Tyndall, A; Dick, W; Theiler, R

    1998-03-01

    To compare the metric properties and validity of German versions of the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) and a self-administered questionnaire-format of the Lequesne-Algofunctional-Index in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower extremities. Cross-sectional analysis of the instruments' internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alpha) and construct validity (correlation with radiological OA-severity and limitation in range-of-motion) in ambulatory patients and patients before hip arthroplasty. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a subsample after 10 days. Data from 51 patients out of 91 contacted could be analyzed. Twenty-nine patients had knee and 22 patients had hip OA. Both the WOMAC and Lequesne OA-indices and their scales or sections had a satisfactory test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient 0.43-0.96). All scales of the WOMAC were internally consistent (Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.81-0.96) and associated with radiological OA-severity and joint range of motion. However, only the function but not the symptom sections (Cronbach's coefficient alpha knee: 0.55; hip: 0.63) of the self-administered Lequesne OA index were internally consistent for both, patients with knee and hip OA. Also, the symptom components were not or only weakly associated with radiological OA-severity and joint range of motion. Although our results are based on a German version using a self-report format we may caution using the self-administered Lequesne OA index without prior testing of its metric properties and validity.

  14. Assessment of female prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Barcelona using a self-administered screening questionnaire: the Cuestionario de Autoevaluación del Control de la Vejiga (CACV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Salcedo, Félix; Sánchez Borrego, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common urological condition, usually underdiagnosed and difficult to identify. The screening of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through patient self-administered questionnaires can be useful not only for timely identification of these patients but to implement early interventions for symptoms and their implication in a patients' quality of life (QOL). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of OAB symptoms in patients attending general gynecology units in Barcelona, Spain, through a self-administered screening questionnaire. A cross-sectional, multicenter, observational, epidemiological study was carried out at general gynecology units of ten primary health centers in Barcelona, Spain. The study was conducted during a patient's single visit through self-administered forms. Patients recorded sociodemographic data, medical history and comorbidities, and scored the presence and bother related to specific urological symptoms using the Cuestionario de Autoevaluación del Control de la Vejiga (CACV), the validated Spanish version of the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ). A score ≥6 on the symptoms scale of the CACV was taken as an indicator of suspected OAB. One thousand and four women aged between 18 and 82 participated in the study. The overall prevalence of OAB was 11.8 %. A patient being >50 years was significantly associated with suspected OAB in comparison with the younger group [odds ratio (OR) 3.1 (2.1-4.7); p bladder showed significant association with factors other than age, menopause, and previous urogynecological history, such as high body mass index (BMI) and parity. The estimated prevalence of suspected OAB in patients attending general gynecological services in Barcelona is 11.8 %. Overweight or obese patients and those with three or more children were found to be at elevated risk for developing OAB.

  15. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings...... of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness...

  16. [Prevalence and characterization of overactive bladder detected in a population in Madrid with self-administered OAB-V3 questionnaire in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Calderín, María P; Fernández, Yolanda; González, Miriam; Gómez, Esther; Herreros, Maria B; Peñasco, Purificación; Zapatero, Manuela; Dorado, Juan F

    2018-02-01

    Determining the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Spanish population and evaluate the impact of these symptoms on well-being and labour productivity in this population. Transversal study. Primary health care, Madrid, Spain. Males and females >30 years. Classification by primary care physicians with the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool abbreviated version (OAB-V3). Subjects with score ≥3 and a similarly balanced control population with score <3 were clinically investigated. History, physical examination, urinalysis, sonography, general well-being scale and the questionnaires PPBC, OAB-q y WPAI-SHP. A total 923 subjects were screened, of which 209 (22.6%), 35% males and 65% females, had probable OAB. Age distribution increased from 11.1% in 4th decade to 44.4% in 9th decade. Kappa coefficient between suspected OAB and definite diagnosis was .83. The area under ROC curve for diagnosis based on OAB-V3 questionnaire and the presence of perceived bother and coping strategies was 92%. Subjects classified by score ≥3 had worse well-being, higher PPBC score and worse parameters on total OAB-q and transformed scores for each OAB-q subscale (P<.0001). In these subjects labour productivity was not affected (P=.14) but the capacity to perform regular activities was (P<.0001). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire to screen OAB with good predictive accuracy in a primary care setting and reveals important implications on health related quality of life issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Tribute to: Self-administered nicotine activates the mesolimbic dopamine system through the ventral tegmental area [William Corrigall, Kathleen Coen and Laurel Adamson, Brain Res. 653 (1994) 278-284].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Francesco; Vaccarino, Franco J

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, Dr. Corrigall and collaborators described elegant experiments designed to elucidate the neurobiology of nicotine reinforcement. The nicotinic receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) was infused in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats trained to self-administer nicotine intravenously. Additionally, DHβE was infused in the VTA of rats trained to self-administer food or cocaine, and nicotine self-administration was assessed in rats with lesions to the peduculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT). A number of key themes emerged from this fundamental study that remain relevant today. The primary finding was that infusions of DHβE in the VTA, but not in the NAC, lowered nicotine self-administration, suggesting that nicotinic receptors in VTA are involved in the reinforcing action of nicotine. This conclusion has been confirmed by subsequent findings, and the nature of the nicotinic receptors has also been elucidated. The authors also reported that DHβE in the VTA had no effect on food or cocaine self-administration, and that lesions to the PPT did not alter nicotine self-administration. Since this initial investigation, the question of whether nicotinic receptors in the VTA are necessary for the reinforcing action of other stimuli, and by which mechanisms, has been extensively explored. Similarly, many groups have further investigated the role of mesopontine cholinergic nuclei in reinforcement. This paper not only contributed in important ways to our understanding of the neurochemical basis of nicotine reinforcement, but was also a key catalyst that gave rise to several research themes central to the neuropharmacology of substance abuse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-administered versus provider-directed sampling in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS): a qualitative investigation with Canadian First Nations women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wakewich, Pamela; King, Amy-Dee; Morrisseau, Kyla; Tuck, Candace

    2017-09-01

    While (Pap)anicolaou screening has helped to decrease cervical cancer incidence in Canada, First Nations women continue to have a higher burden and mortality relative to mainstream populations. Many First Nations women may feel uncomfortable with the invasiveness of this test, contributing to this statistic. Implemented from 2009 to 2015 in 10 Northwest Ontario First Nations communities, the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS) uniquely addressed this Indigenous health inequity through a mixed methods approach. Our goal was to offer an alternative test which the women could do themselves: human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on self-sampling. We investigated whether First Nations women preferred HPV self-sampling over healthcare provider (HCP)-administered Pap screening. Participatory action researchinformed by the ethical space concept has guided all stages of the ACCSS. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 HCPs and 8 focus group discussions with 69 female community members followed by a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT). Here, we draw on the qualitative field data and an end-of-study community update gathering to disseminate and contextualise research findings. Informant data were evaluated using thematic analysis. We discuss factors influencing participants' strong preference for HPV self-sampling over physician-conducted Pap screening. Key arguments included enhanced accessibility and more personal control, less physical and emotional discomfort and fewer concerns regarding privacy of test results. For future implementation of HPV self-sampling, study participants emphasised the need for more culturally sensitive education addressed to community members of all genders, starting at school, clarifying that HPV causes cervical cancer. Further, HPV infection should be de-stigmatised by accentuating that it affects men and women alike. Here we show that self-sampling in conjunction with community engagement and culturally sensitive

  19. Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumugi Anne Kurosawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD. A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.

  20. Activation and odor conditioning of suckling behavior in 3-day-old albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P E; Williams, C L; Blass, E M

    1982-10-01

    The circumstances under which a novel odor could elicit nipple attachment behavior in 3-day-old albino rats were investigated. In Experiment 1, rats suckled washed nipples scented with citral (a lemon odor) only if they either had received tactile stimulation (by stroking with a soft artist's brush) or had been administered amphetamine in the presence of citral prior to the suckling test. Pups stimulated in citral's absence or simply exposed to citral without stimulation failed to suckle such nipples. In Experiment 2, rats stimulated in a benzaldehyde (an almond odor) ambience suckled washed nipples scented with benzaldehyde but not those with citral scent. The opposite held for rats stimulated in a citral-rich environment. The stimulus conditions that support this conditioning were investigated in Experiment 3. Simultaneously increasing citral concentration and raising ambient temperature markedly attenuated the phenomenon. Experiment 4 demonstrated that not all classes of stimulation produced conditioning. Caffeine, in a wide range of doses, did not allow citral to elicit suckling on washed nipples. These findings are discussed within a framework of higher order conditioning. They may provide a mechanism by which naturally occurring stimuli come to elicit the species- and age-typical behavior of suckling.

  1. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. A Test of Concept Study of At-Home, Self-Administered HIV Testing With Web-Based Peer Counseling Via Video Chat for Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert

    2016-12-14

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly MSM who identify as African-American or Black (BMSM), are the sociodemographic group that is most heavily burdened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. To meet national HIV testing goals, there must be a greater emphasis on novel ways to promote and deliver HIV testing to MSM. Obstacles to standard, clinic-based HIV testing include concerns about stigmatization or recognition at in-person testing sites, as well as the inability to access a testing site due to logistical barriers. This study examined the feasibility of self-administered, at-home HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling to MSM by using an interactive video chatting method. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether individuals would participate in at-home HIV testing with video chat-based test counseling with a peer counselor, (2) address logistical barriers to HIV testing that individuals who report risk for HIV transmission may experience, and (3) reduce anticipated HIV stigma, a primary psychosocial barrier to HIV testing. In response to the gap in HIV testing, a pilot study was developed and implemented via mailed, at-home HIV test kits, accompanied by HIV counseling with a peer counselor via video chat. A total of 20 MSM were enrolled in this test of concept study, 80% of whom identified as BMSM. All participants reported that at-home HIV testing with a peer counseling via video chat was a satisfying experience. The majority of participants (13/18, 72%) said they would prefer for their next HIV testing and counseling experience to be at home with Web-based video chat peer counseling, as opposed to testing in an office or clinic setting. Participants were less likely to report logistical and emotional barriers to HIV testing at the 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. The results of this study suggest that self-administered HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling is feasible and that MSM find it to be a

  3. Evaluating measurement invariance across assessment modes of phone interview and computer self-administered survey for the PROMIS measures in a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Chen, Ronald C; Usinger, Deborah S; Reeve, Bryce B

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate measurement invariance (phone interview vs computer self-administered survey) of 15 PROMIS measures responded by a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors. Participants were part of the North Carolina Prostate Cancer Comparative Effectiveness and Survivorship Study. Out of the 952 men who took the phone interview at 24 months post-treatment, 401 of them also completed the same survey online using a home computer. Unidimensionality of the PROMIS measures was examined using single-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Measurement invariance testing was conducted using longitudinal CFA via a model comparison approach. For strongly or partially strongly invariant measures, changes in the latent factors and factor autocorrelations were also estimated and tested. Six measures (sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, diarrhea, illness impact-negative, illness impact-positive, and global satisfaction with sex life) had locally dependent items, and therefore model modifications had to be made on these domains prior to measurement invariance testing. Overall, seven measures achieved strong invariance (all items had equal loadings and thresholds), and four measures achieved partial strong invariance (each measure had one item with unequal loadings and thresholds). Three measures (pain interference, interest in sexual activity, and global satisfaction with sex life) failed to establish configural invariance due to between-mode differences in factor patterns. This study supports the use of phone-based live interviewers in lieu of PC-based assessment (when needed) for many of the PROMIS measures.

  4. Self-administered, inhaled methoxyflurane improves patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation for computed tomography enteroclysis for suspected small bowel disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A., E-mail: dralanmoss@hotmail.co [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, Monash University, Box Hill Campus, Melbourne (Australia); Parrish, F.J.; Naidoo, P.; Upton, A. [Department of Radiology, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Prime, H.; Leaney, B. [Department of Radiology, Epworth Eastern Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gibson, P.R. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, Monash University, Box Hill Campus, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: To determine the efficacy and safety of self-administered, inhaled analgesic, methoxyflurane, used to improve patient comfort during computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE). Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed at two Australian hospitals (one tertiary referral public hospital and one private hospital). Patients were randomized to 3 ml methoxyflurane or saline (scented to maintain blindness) via hand-held inhaler. The main outcome measures were patient comfort during each stage of CTE and an overall rating as recorded by patients 1 h post-procedure on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Patient willingness to undergo repeat CTE, radiologist-rated ease of nasoduodenal intubation, and patient-rated ease of use of the inhaler were also assessed. Results: Sixty patients (mean age 45 years; 41 women) were enrolled; 30 received methoxyflurane and were well matched to 30 receiving placebo. Procedural success was 98%. The mean dose of methoxyflurane consumed was 0.9 ml (SD 0.5). Patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation was better with methoxyflurane {l_brace}5.0 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.0-6.0]{r_brace} than with placebo [2.7 (95% CI 1.8-3.7); p = 0.002, t-test), but there were no significant differences for comfort levels at other times or overall. The inhaler was easy to use, was well tolerated, and there were no episodes of oxygen desaturation, aspiration, or anaphylaxis. Conclusions: Inhalational methoxyflurane safely improves patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation, but does not improve overall procedure comfort.

  5. Self-administered, inhaled methoxyflurane improves patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation for computed tomography enteroclysis for suspected small bowel disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.; Parrish, F.J.; Naidoo, P.; Upton, A.; Prime, H.; Leaney, B.; Gibson, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy and safety of self-administered, inhaled analgesic, methoxyflurane, used to improve patient comfort during computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE). Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed at two Australian hospitals (one tertiary referral public hospital and one private hospital). Patients were randomized to 3 ml methoxyflurane or saline (scented to maintain blindness) via hand-held inhaler. The main outcome measures were patient comfort during each stage of CTE and an overall rating as recorded by patients 1 h post-procedure on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Patient willingness to undergo repeat CTE, radiologist-rated ease of nasoduodenal intubation, and patient-rated ease of use of the inhaler were also assessed. Results: Sixty patients (mean age 45 years; 41 women) were enrolled; 30 received methoxyflurane and were well matched to 30 receiving placebo. Procedural success was 98%. The mean dose of methoxyflurane consumed was 0.9 ml (SD 0.5). Patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation was better with methoxyflurane {5.0 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.0-6.0]} than with placebo [2.7 (95% CI 1.8-3.7); p = 0.002, t-test), but there were no significant differences for comfort levels at other times or overall. The inhaler was easy to use, was well tolerated, and there were no episodes of oxygen desaturation, aspiration, or anaphylaxis. Conclusions: Inhalational methoxyflurane safely improves patient comfort during nasoduodenal intubation, but does not improve overall procedure comfort.

  6. Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Harville, Cedric; Sears, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the study were to identify the barriers and motivators for physical activity (PA) and to assess whether these factors vary by weight status. A self-administered survey was completed by 413 African American women. Each woman provided verbal informed consent and was weighed and measured by a research team member. The participants' mean…

  7. Physical activity, fitness level and health problems of healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical activity of healthcare workers using the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a framework and to identify barriers to exercise. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 200 randomly selected hospital staff members in South Africa. The weight and height of the ...

  8. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F10 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  10. Outcome of radioiodine therapy without, on or 3 days off carbimazole: a prospective interventional three-group comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Martin A. [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat [University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Carbimazole ameliorates hyperthyroidism but reduces radioiodine uptake and adversely affects the outcome of simultaneous radioiodine therapy. We explored whether withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days can restore the outcome of radioiodine treatment without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. By generating three groups with comparable radioiodine uptake, we also investigated whether the effect of carbimazole depends on the radioiodine uptake. Stratified by a radioiodine uptake >30%, 227 consecutive adult patients were prospectively assigned to radioiodine therapy (target dose 200 Gy) without, on or 3 days off carbimazole. Patients were clinically (Crooks-Wayne score) and biochemically (T{sub 3}, fT{sub 4}, TSH) followed up after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint was outcome 12 months after radioiodine therapy. A total of 207 patients completed follow-up (toxic nodular goitre, n=117; Graves' disease, n=90). The overall success rate was 71.5%. Patients without and 3 days off carbimazole had similar biochemical (81.4% and 83.3%, respectively; p=0.82) and clinical outcomes [median (range) Crooks-Wayne score 0 (0-16) and 1 (0-10), respectively; p=0.73], which were both higher than in patients on carbimazole [42.6%, p<0.001; Crooks-Wayne score 3 (0-30), p<0.03]. Time to achieve cure was delayed on carbimazole. No changes in thyroid hormone levels occurred after 3 days' discontinuation of carbimazole. Logistic regression revealed that all observed cure rates were independent of entity, sex, age, thyroid volume, radioiodine uptake, radioiodine half-life, fT{sub 4}, T{sub 3} and TSH. (orig.)

  11. Outcome of radioiodine therapy without, on or 3 days off carbimazole: a prospective interventional three-group comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Martin A.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Mueller-Brand, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Carbimazole ameliorates hyperthyroidism but reduces radioiodine uptake and adversely affects the outcome of simultaneous radioiodine therapy. We explored whether withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days can restore the outcome of radioiodine treatment without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. By generating three groups with comparable radioiodine uptake, we also investigated whether the effect of carbimazole depends on the radioiodine uptake. Stratified by a radioiodine uptake >30%, 227 consecutive adult patients were prospectively assigned to radioiodine therapy (target dose 200 Gy) without, on or 3 days off carbimazole. Patients were clinically (Crooks-Wayne score) and biochemically (T 3 , fT 4 , TSH) followed up after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint was outcome 12 months after radioiodine therapy. A total of 207 patients completed follow-up (toxic nodular goitre, n=117; Graves' disease, n=90). The overall success rate was 71.5%. Patients without and 3 days off carbimazole had similar biochemical (81.4% and 83.3%, respectively; p=0.82) and clinical outcomes [median (range) Crooks-Wayne score 0 (0-16) and 1 (0-10), respectively; p=0.73], which were both higher than in patients on carbimazole [42.6%, p 4 , T 3 and TSH. (orig.)

  12. Objective Assessment of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease Using a Body-Fixed Sensor Worn for 3 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. Methods and Materials 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. Results The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78±0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71±0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall

  13. Objective assessment of fall risk in Parkinson's disease using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78 ± 0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71 ± 0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall risk and may in the future, help reduce high costs associated with falls.

  14. Validity and reproducibility of a physical activity questionnaire for older adults: questionnaire versus accelerometer for assessing physical activity in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebeling, Lara; Wiebers, Sarah; Beem, Leo; Puhan, Milo A.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is important in older adults for the maintenance of functional ability. Assessing PA may be difficult. Few PA questionnaires have been compared to activity monitors. We examined reproducibility and validity of the self-administered Longitudinal Ageing Study

  15. Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Hjort-Jakobsen, Dorthe; Christiansen, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initial programmes of fast-track open colonic surgery with a planned 2-day postoperative hospital stay have had a high readmission rate (about 20 per cent). The aim of this large, consecutive series was to compare readmission rates after a fast-track open colonic surgery programme...... from August 2004. All patients were examined 8 and 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Readmission rates fell from 20.1 per cent in 408 patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay (period 1) to 11.3 per cent in 133 patients with a planned 3-day hospital stay (period 2) (P ... hospital stay was 2 and 3 days, median stay after readmission was 5 and 5.5 days, and median (mean) total stay was 3 (5.6) and 3 (5.7) days in periods 1 and 2 respectively. The readmission rate in period 2 was lower because there were fewer readmissions for short-term observation or social reasons...

  16. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3 days healing in rabbit Achilles tendon rupture model after early kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialili, Ainuer; Jielile, Jiasharete; Abudoureyimu, Shajidan; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Redati, Darebai; Bai, Jing-Ping; Bin, Liang; Duisabai, Sailike; Aishan, Jiangaguli; Kasimu, Haxiaobieke

    2011-04-01

    Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT) rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n equal to 16) received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n equal to 16) received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C). The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, pro-alpha-1 type 1 collagen

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  18. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  19. Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Hjort-Jakobsen, Dorthe; Christiansen, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initial programmes of fast-track open colonic surgery with a planned 2-day postoperative hospital stay have had a high readmission rate (about 20 per cent). The aim of this large, consecutive series was to compare readmission rates after a fast-track open colonic surgery programme....... There was no difference in type and incidence of morbidity between the two periods. CONCLUSION: Readmission after fast-track open colonic resection was reduced by planning discharge 3 instead of 2 days after surgery, with the same discharge criteria. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published...... from August 2004. All patients were examined 8 and 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Readmission rates fell from 20.1 per cent in 408 patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay (period 1) to 11.3 per cent in 133 patients with a planned 3-day hospital stay (period 2) (P

  20. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old...... were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1...... and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were...

  1. Evaluation and limitations of 34-35 degree 3 day cooling hypothermia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Takasato, Yoshio; Hayakawa, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, we adopted mild hypothermia of the present cooling protocol for 3 days at 34-35 degrees to improve outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this protocol retrospectively. Between 2000 and 2008, a total of 35 patients with severe TBI, 16 to 69 years of age, were enrolled. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores (GCS) of all patients ranged from 3 to 13, but many patients' GCS fell down immediately to under 5. All patients had intracranial mass lesions and brain swelling with significant midline shift and underwent hematoma removal operations and craniectomies (subdural hematoma (SDH) 22 cases, contusion 6 and bilateral brain swelling 7). Mild hypothermia was induced by surface cooling and continued 3 days at 34-35degC. Then, the patients were rewarmed at a rate 0.5degC/day. The Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge indicated that 20 cases had a favorable outcome (57%) and the mortality rate was 20% in all patients. No patient had severe septic complication during the therapy. We found that this protocol did not improve the prognoses of patients aged 51 years and above, those with higher intracranial pressure (ICP) than 30 mmHg immediately after surgery and those with large contusion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) findings on CT. Also subdural hematomas thicker than 18 mm and midline shift of greater than 16 mm on CT were predictive of a poor outcome. The GCS on admission, the presence of pupillary abnormalities were not predictable factors of outcome. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) values measured immediately after operations by Xenon-CT, predicted accurately unfavorable outcome. Based on these findings, hypothermia therapy of the present protocol are safe and effective and the age, initial ICP, findings of initial damage and thickness of subdural hematomas or midline shift on CT are predictive factors of outcomes. (author)

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  3. The development of the `P.E.T.¿ Scale for the measurement of Physical and Emotional Tormenting against animals in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Physical and Emotional Tormenting Against Animals Scale (P.E.T) is a new self-administered scale to measure physical and emotional abuse against animals among adolescents. This study is a first attempt to establish the reliability and validity of this newly developed scale with a non-clinical

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  6. Association between subclinical hypocalcemia in the first 3 days of lactation and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subclinical hypocalcemia on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In a prospective cohort study, 97 cows on 2 dairy farms with automatic milking systems were monitored for subclinical hypocalcemia. Animals were enrolled 7 ± 3 days prior to estimated calving date and three parity groups were defined based on the lactation that the animals were going to start: lactation = 1, lactation = 2, and lactation ≥3. Serum calcium concentration (Ca) was measured in all animals in the first 3 DIM and subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) was defined as Ca ≤ 8.6 mg/dL; animals that presented a low Ca level during all 3 days were classified as chronic SCH (cSCH). Return to cyclicity during the voluntary waiting period was analyzed based on weekly progesterone concentrations measured in serum. Information on reproductive outcomes (i.e., number of breedings, pregnancy status, days open, etc.), were collected from on-farm software after all study cows had completed their study period. Chronic SCH was present in all parity groups with higher incidence in multiparous animals (20% of parity = 1, 32% of parity = 2; and 46% of parity ≥ 3 animals). The cSCH animals took longer to show active ovaries when compared to eucalcemic and SCH animals. In a multivariable Cox's Proportional Hazard model animals with normal Ca were 1.8 times more likely to return to cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period when compared to cSCH animals. Animals with cSCH also had 0.27 odds of being pregnant at first service compared to eucalcemic cows when analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Subclinical hypocalcemia had a negative effect on return of ovarian function during the voluntary waiting period and decreased the odds of pregnancy at first service. Those cows with cSCH had an even more pronounced impaired reproductive function than those with one subclinical measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  8. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (psedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (pwork intensity after than before BR (p<0.05).

  9. A feasibility study of a 3-day basal-bolus insulin delivery device in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julia K; Lilly, Leslie C; Aberer, Felix; Korsatko, Stefan; Strock, Ellie; Mazze, Roger S; Damsbo, Peter; Pieber, Thomas R

    2014-05-01

    This study tested the feasibility of transition from multiple daily injections (MDI) to a 3-day, basal-bolus insulin delivery device (PaQ) for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty MDI-treated individuals with T2D with HbA(1c) ≤9% (75 mmol/mol) were enrolled in a single-center, single-arm pilot study, lasting three 2-week periods: baseline (MDI), transition to PaQ, and PaQ therapy. Feasibility of use, glycemic control, safety, and patient satisfaction were assessed. Nineteen participants transitioned to PaQ treatment and demonstrated competency in assembling, placing, and using the device. Self-monitored blood glucose and blinded continuous glucose-monitoring data showed glycemic control similar to MDI. Study participants reported high satisfaction and device acceptance. PaQ treatment is both feasible and acceptable in individuals with T2D. Transition from MDI is easy and safe. PaQ treatment might lead to better therapy adherence and improvements in glycemic control and clinical outcomes.

  10. Effects of TLR agonists on maturation and function of 3-day dendritic cells from AML patients in complete remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merk Martina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active dendritic cell (DC immunization protocols are rapidly gaining interest as therapeutic options in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Here we present for the first time a GMP-compliant 3-day protocol for generation of monocyte-derived DCs using different synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists in intensively pretreated patients with AML. Methods Four different maturation cocktails were compared for their impact on cell recovery, phenotype, cytokine secretion, migration, and lymphocyte activation in 20 AML patients and 25 healthy controls. Results Maturation cocktails containing the TLR7/8 agonists R848 or CL075, with and without the addition of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C, induced DCs that had a positive costimulatory profile, secreted high levels of IL-12(p70, showed chemotaxis to CCR7 ligands, had the ability to activate NK cells, and efficiently stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this approach translates into biologically improved DCs, not only in healthy controls but also in AML patients. This data supports the clinical application of TLR-matured DCs in patients with AML for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  11. Association of Lifestyle with Physical and Mental Health in Japanese Radiological Technologists

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Ueya, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of low-dose radiation exposure and lifestyle on physical health and mental health, we evaluated the relationship of age, cumulative radiation dose, and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and physical exercise) to physical and mental health in Japanese radiological technologists. The study subjects were 932 Japanese radiological technologists who participated in a health study from 1981 to 1985. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to each subject t...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  14. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  15. A 3-day-old neonate with severe hypertriglyceridemia from novel mutations of the GPIHBP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; Bartuli, Andrea; Rabacchi, Claudio; Bertolini, Stefano; Calandra, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Familial chylomicronemia is a genetic defect of the intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Intravascular lipolysis involves the TG-hydrolase lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as well as other factors such as apolipoprotein CII and apolipoprotein AV (activators of LPL), GPIHBP1 (the molecular platform required for LPL activity on endothelial surface), and LMF1 (a factor required for intracellular formation of active LPL). We sequenced the familial chylomicronemia candidate genes in a neonate with chylomicronemia. A 3-day-old newborn was found to have chylomicronemia (plasma TG 18.8 mmol/L, 1.667 mg/dL). The discontinuation of breastfeeding for 24 hours reduced plasma TG to 2.3 mmol/L (201 mg/dL), whereas its resumption induced a sharp TG increase (7.9 mmol/L, 690 mg/dL). The child was switched to a low-fat diet, which was effective in maintaining TG level below 3.5 mmol/L (294 mg/dL) during the first months of life. The child was found to be a compound heterozygous for 2 novel mutations in GPIHBP1 gene. The first mutation was a 9-bp deletion and 4-bp insertion in exon 2, causing a frameshift that abolished the canonical termination codon TGA. The predicted translation product of the mutant messenger RNA is a peptide that contains 51 amino acids of the N-terminal end of the wild-type protein followed by 252 novel amino acids. The second mutation was a nucleotide change (c.319T>C), causing an amino acid substitution p.(Ser107Pro) predicted in silico to be damaging. GPIHBP1 mutations should be considered in neonates with chylomicronemia negative for mutations in LPL gene. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  18. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  2. Microneedle physical contact as a therapeutic for abnormal scars

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, David C.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-01-01

    Background Abnormal (keloid and hypertrophic) scars are a significant affliction with no satisfactory single modality therapy to-date. Available options are often ineffective, painful, potentially hazardous, and require healthcare personnel involvement. Herein a self-administered microneedle device based on drug-free physical contact for inhibiting abnormal scars is reported. Its therapeutic activity through microneedle contact eliminates hazards associated with toxic anti-scarring drugs whil...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  9. Transtornos alimentares em universitárias: estudo de confiabilidade da versão brasileira de questionários autopreenchíveis Eating disorders in undergraduate students: tudy of the reliability of the Portuguese version of self-administered questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Cristina Magalhães

    2005-09-01

    . A variety of behaviors may be related to eating problems: minor psychiatric disorders; self-perception of body weight, frequency of reading diet magazines; frequency of restrictive diets, family influence and physical activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Portuguese version of the Eating Attitude Test, the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, the General Health Questionnaire and other issues related to eating disorders, as part of a multidimensional self-administered health and eating behavior questionnaire. A test-retest design was used as part of a pilot test conducted in a sample of 60 female undergraduate students from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analyses were conducted using the Kappa Coefficient (K. The mean female age was 20.2 years. The main results showed that the reliability of the Eating Attitude Test, Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, practice of physical activity, and the question on self-perception of body weight was "almost perfect", respectively, K=0.81 (95%CI, 0.59-1.0; K=0.85 (95%CI, 0.70-0.99; K=0.83 (95%CI, 0.70-0.93, and Kw=0.84 (95%CI, 0.70-0.95. Reliability of parents' influence, frequency of reading diet articles, the GHQ's and frequency of use of restrictive diets was "substantial", respectively, K=0.76 (95%CI, 0.57-0.95; Kw=0.71 (95%CI, 0.52-0.91, K=0.70 (95%CI, 0.54-0.93, and Kw=0.92 (95%CI 0.85-0.98. Results suggest that these questionnaires are tools with good reproducibility for undergraduate students, as well as for other issues.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  14. Perception and use of balance measures for stroke patients among physical therapists in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ho Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study looked into physical therapists? perception and use of balance measures for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred eighty two physical therapists who understood the purpose of this study, agreed on their participation in this study, were treating or treated stroke patients. A Cross-sectional study based on self-administered questionnaire that had a total of 41 questions was performed in South Korea. 382 questionnaires were used for analysis. ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  16. Crayfish Self-Administer Amphetamine in a Spatially Contingent Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udita Datta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural reward is an essential element of any organism’s ability to adapt to environmental variation. Its underlying circuits and mechanisms guide the learning process as they help associate an event, or cue, with the perception of an outcome’s value. More generally, natural reward serves as the fundamental generator of all motivated behavior. Addictive plant alkaloids are able to activate this circuitry in taxa ranging from planaria to humans. With modularly organized nervous systems and confirmed vulnerabilities to human drugs of abuse, crayfish have recently emerged as a compelling model for the study of the addiction cycle, including psychostimulant effects, sensitization, withdrawal, reinstatement, and drug reward in conditioned place preference paradigms. Here we extend this work with the demonstration of a spatially contingent, operant drug self-administration paradigm for amphetamine. When the animal enters a quadrant of the arena with a particular textured substrate, a computer-based control system delivers amphetamine through an indwelling fine-bore cannula. Resulting reward strength, dose-response, and the time course of operant conditioning were assessed. Individuals experiencing the drug contingent on their behavior, displayed enhanced rates of operant responses compared to that of their yoked (non-contingent counterparts. Application of amphetamine near the supra-esophageal ganglion elicited stronger and more robust increases in operant responding than did systemic infusions. This work demonstrates automated implementation of a spatially contingent self-administration paradigm in crayfish, which provides a powerful tool to explore comparative perspectives in drug-sensitive reward, the mechanisms of learning underlying the addictive cycle, and phylogenetically conserved vulnerabilities to psychostimulant compounds.

  17. Use and ease of self-administered International Prostate Symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was created to collect data on socio-demographics, literacy, visual impairment and the time needed to complete the IPSS and VPSS questionnaires. The data were collated, and Pearson's chi-square test was performed using a contingency table. Spearman's rank correlation test was done for ...

  18. [A self administered survey to assess bullying in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecannelier, Felipe; Varela, Jorge; Rodríguez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Marianela; Flores, Fernanda; Ascanio, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    Bullying is common in schools and has negative consequences. It can be assessed using a self-reported instrument. To validate a Spanish self-reporting tool called "Survey of High School Bullying Abuse of Power" (MIAP). The instrument has 13 questions, of which 7 are multiple choice, rendering a total of 49 items. It was applied to 2.341 children of seventh and eighth grade attending private, subsidized and municipal schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Expert judge analysis and estimated reliability using the Cronbach Alpha were used to validate the survey. The instrument obtained a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.8892, classified as good. This analysis generated four scales that explained 30.9% of the variance. They were called "Witness Bullying" with 18 items, accounting for 11.4% of the variance, "Bullying Victim" with 12 items, accounting for 7.5% of the variance, "Bullying Perpetrator and Severe bullying Victim", with 10 items explaining 6.4% of the variance and "Aggressor Bullying" with 6 items accounting for 5.7% of the variance. The MIAP can recognize four basic factors that facilitate the analysis and understanding of bullying, with good levels of reliability and validity. The remaining questions also deliver valuable information.

  19. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  20. Use and ease of self-administered International Prostate Symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Abiola

    2016-01-12

    Jan 12, 2016 ... Patients and methods: This cross-sectional survey of men with LUTS was carried out at ... Knowledge of the severity of these symptoms assists in devising an ... meaning during translation of the questions and possibly due to.

  1. The relationships among child's ability of mastication, dietary behaviour and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, M

    2011-05-01

      To investigate the relationships between the ability of mastication and physical fitness, and between the ability of mastication and dietary behaviour in children, I examined these parameters using the data of sugar elution rate, physical fitness and athletic ability survey and self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour on 171 sixth grade children (88 boys and 83 girls). The sugar elution rate was the index of the ability of mastication and was evaluated by the chewing gum method. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour were used as an index of dietary behaviour. Physical fitness was evaluated by the physical fitness and athletic ability survey of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Regression analysis revealed that the sugar elution rate had significantly positive correlations with the mean grip strength, sit-up, sit-and-reach, repetition side steps and ball throw. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour revealed that the sugar elution rate was significantly higher in children, who had high expectation of food intake and high frequency of vegetable intake, than those with lower parameters. These results suggest that the ability of mastication correlates with physical fitness and dietary behaviour in children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  4. Reliability and validity of Web-SPAN, a web-based method for assessing weight status, diet and physical activity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, K E; McCargar, L J

    2012-02-01

    Web-based surveys are becoming increasing popular. The present study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition (Web-SPAN) for self-report of height and weight, diet and physical activity by youth. School children aged 11-15years (grades 7-9; n=459) participated in the school-based research (boys, n=225; girls, n=233; mean age, 12.8years). Students completed Web-SPAN (self-administered) twice and participated in on-site school assessments [height, weight, 3-day food/pedometer record, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), shuttle run]. Intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients and paired samples t-tests were used to assess the test-retest reliability of Web-SPAN and to compare Web-SPAN with the on-site assessments. Test-retest reliability for height (ICC=0.90), weight (ICC=0.98) and the PAQ-C (ICC=0.79) were highly correlated, whereas correlations for nutrients were not as strong (ICC=0.37-0.64). There were no differences between Web-SPAN times 1 and 2 for height and weight, although there were differences for the PAQ-C and most nutrients. Web-SPAN was strongly correlated with the on-site assessments, including height (ICC=0.88), weight (ICC=0.93) and the PAQ-C (ICC=0.70). Mean differences for height and the PAQ-C were not significant, whereas mean differences for weight were significant resulting in an underestimation of being overweight/obesity prevalence (84% agreement). Correlations for nutrients were in the range 0.24-0.40; mean differences were small but generally significantly different. Correlations were weak between the web-based PAQ-C and 3-day pedometer record (r=0.28) and 20-m shuttle run (r=0.28). Web-SPAN is a time- and cost-effective method that can be used to assess the diet and physical activity status of youth in large cross-sectional studies and to assess group trends (weight status). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The

  5. Rocuronium and sugammadex in a 3 days old neonate for draining an ovarian cyst. Neuromuscular management and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90 s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed.

  6. Does the Association between Depressive Symptomatology and Physical Activity Depend on Body Image Perception? A Survey of Students from Seven Universities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the association between depression and PA in university students of both genders and the role of body image perception as a potential effect modifier. Undergraduate students (N = 3706 from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic information; a range of health, health behaviour and health awareness related factors; the modified version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (M-BDI; educational achievement, and different levels of physical activity (PA, such as moderate PA (at least 5 days per week moderate exercise of at least 30 minutes, and vigorous PA (at least 3 days per week vigorous exercise of at least 20 minutes. Only 12.4% of the sample achieved the international recommended level for moderate PA, and 33.1% achieved the recommendations for vigorous PA. Both moderate and vigorous PA were inversely related to the M-BDI score. Physically active students, regardless of the type of PA, were significantly more likely to perceive their health as good, to have higher health awareness, to perform strengthening exercises, and to be males. The stratified analyses indicated that the association between depression and PA differed by body image. In students perceiving their body image as ‘just right’, moderate (>4th percentile and high (>5th percentile M-BDI scores were inversely related to vigorous PA. However, in students who perceived their body image as ‘overweight’, the inverse association was only significant in those with high M-BDI scores. We conclude that the positive effect of PA on depression could be down modulated by the negative impact of a ‘distorted’ body image on depression. The practical implications of these findings are that PA programmes targeting persons with depressive symptoms should include effective components to enhance body image perception.

  7. Double oral esomeprazole after a 3-day intravenous esomeprazole infusion reduces recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wu, Chung-Tai; Chang, Wei-Lun; Cheng, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2014-12-01

    Patients with high Rockall scores have increased risk of ulcer rebleeding after 3-day esomeprazole infusions. To investigate whether double oral esomeprazole given after a 3-day esomeprazole infusion decreases ulcer rebleeding for patients with high Rockall scores. We prospectively enrolled 293 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who had achieved endoscopic haemostasis. After a 3-day esomeprazole infusion, patients with Rockall scores ≥6 were randomised into the oral double-dose group (n=93) or the oral standard-dose group (n=94) to receive 11 days of oral esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily or once daily, respectively. The patients with Rockall scores peptic ulcer rebleeding. Among patients with Rockall scores ≥6, the oral double-dose group had a higher cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the oral standard-dose group (p=0.02, log-rank test). The proportion of patients free from recurrent bleeding during the 4th-28th day in the oral double-dose group remained lower than that of the group with Rockall scores peptic ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with Rockall scores ≥6. NCT01591083. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The impact of work-related physical assaults on mental health among Japanese employees with different socioeconomic status: The Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study (JSTRESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational s...

  9. Sequential Oxygenation Index and Organ Dysfunction Assessment within the First 3 Days of Mechanical Ventilation Predict the Outcome of Adult Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Ching Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method. 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw, and oxygenation index (OI on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results. 38 out of 100 (38% patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48% failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI ( and SOFA ( score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA ( was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, . Conclusion. Early OI (within 3 days and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.

  10. Dadih bamboo ampel (bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo gombong (gigantochloa verticilata) 2 and 3 days fermented : effect on salad dressing hedonic quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah

    2018-03-01

    The study aims to find time of fermentation of dadih and hedonic quality of dadih salad dressing. Goat milk was fermented in two kinds of bamboo: bamboo Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo Gombong (Gigantochloa verticilata) with different days; i.e. 2 and 3 days which will then became dadih while the dadih then were used as a raw material for making salad dressing. In Indonesia today there is an increasing on vegetable salad demand due to understanding of the benefits of consuming vegetables. One form of vegetable preparation is vegetable salad that is generally used as non local dressings. This research was conducted from April to May 2017 using Factorial Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors; i.e factor 1 (2 and 3 days fermented dadih) and factor 2 (bamboo types : bamboo Ampel and bamboo Gombong) with 4 replications. The parameters were flavor, color, aroma and texture (hedonic evaluation) where there were 25 panelists in doing evaluation. The results showed that 2 days fermented in bamboo ampel significantly (P <0.05) were preferred.

  11. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  12. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  13. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short...... length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4–5 hr. In this study, we used high...... interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies...

  14. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  15. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking).

  16. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  17. Effects of 3-Day Serial Sodium Bicarbonate Loading on Performance and Physiological Parameters During a Simulated Basketball Test in Female University Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; MacKessy, Sinead; Arceo-Rendon, Luis; Scanlan, Aaron; Ramsbottom, Roger; Calleja-González, Julio

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-day serial sodium bicarbonate ingestion on repeated sprint and jump performance. Fifteen female university basketball players (23.3±3.4 years; 173.1±5.8 cm; 65.8±6.3 kg; 23.6±4.9% body fat) ingested 0.4 g·kg -1 of body mass of sodium bicarbonate or placebo for 3 days (split in 3 equal daily doses), before completing a simulated basketball exercise. Sprint and circuit times, jump heights, performance decrements and gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were recorded during the test and blood lactate concentration was measured pre- and post-test. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation led to significant decreases in mean sprint times (1.34±0.23 vs. 1.70±0.41 s, p=0.008, 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.10 s) and mean circuit times (30.6±2.0 vs. 31.3±2.0 s, p=0.044) and significantly greater mean jump height (26.8 (range 25.2-34.2) vs. 26.0 (range 25.6-33.6) cm, p=0.013) compared to placebo. Performance decrement was significantly less for sprints with sodium bicarbonate compared to placebo (9.9 (range 3.4-37.0) vs. 24.7 (range 4.1-61.3) %, p=0.013), but not different for jumps (13.1±4.5 vs. 12.5±.3.1%, p=0.321) between conditions. No differences in GI side effects were noted between conditions. Significantly greater post-exercise blood lactate concentrations were measured in the sodium bicarbonate condition compared to the placebo condition (8.2±2.8 vs. 6.6±2.4 mmol.L -1 , p=0.010). This study is the first to show that serial loading of sodium bicarbonate is effective for basketball players to improve repeated sprint and jump performance during competition, or withstand greater training load during practice sessions without any GI side effects.

  18. Rocuronium and sugammadex in a 3 days old neonate for draining an ovarian cyst. Neuromuscular management and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90 s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed. Resumo: Relato do caso de uma criança recém-nascida de 3 dias de idade com um cisto ovariano gigante programada para a cirurgia. A paciente recebeu uma dose de sugamadex para reverter o bloqueio neuromuscular induzido por rocurônio. Uma recuperação rápida e eficiente do bloqueio neuromuscular foi obtida dentro de 90 segundos. Não foram observados efeitos adversos ou outros problemas de segurança. Além disso, uma revisão da literatura sobre o uso de sugamadex em recém-nascidos foi realizada. Keywords: Neonates, Ovarian cyst, Sugammadex, Rocuronium, Reversal agent, Palavras-chave: Recém-nascidos, Cisto ovariano, Sugammadex, Rocurônio, Agente de reversão

  19. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  20. Can shielded brackets reduce mucosa alteration and increase comfort perception in orthodontic patients in the first 3 days of treatment? A single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Lívia Pereira Brocos; de Oliveira, Augusto Henrique Alves; da Silva, Hillionne Ferreira; de Oliveira, Patrícia Teixeira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra; Pinheiro, Fabio Henrique de Sá Leitão

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic patients can experience pain and discomfort on the oral mucosa from trauma caused by friction with the brackets and the wires. In this split-mouth design, single-blind randomized controlled trial, we aimed to investigate whether brackets with a self-snapping customized plastic shield would induce less mucosa alteration and discomfort than those without the shield. The overall sample comprised 42 patients (22 female, 20 male) from a government-funded orthodontic practice, with a mean age of 16.7 years. Eligibility criteria included, among others, no history of mouth ulcers or systemic diseases. Customized shields for the maxillary and mandibular brackets were fabricated and inserted on one side of the mouth. The null hypothesis was that bracket shielding would have no advantage. The primary outcomes were mucosal and discomfort assessments. As the secondary outcome, the numbers of spontaneous detachments of the shields were reported. Treatment allocation was mainly implemented using a random number table for selection of the intervention side. Only the raters in charge of assessing the oral mucosa were blinded to the side of the mouth where the shields had been placed. The mucosa was assessed by 3 calibrated raters at the following time points: immediately before bracket placement (baseline assessment, T0), 3 days after delivering the shields (direct assessment of intervention, T1), and 4 days after removal of the shields (indirect assessment of intervention, T2). The raters used a newly devised yardstick in which the higher the score, the more severe the alteration. Discomfort was assessed at T1 and T2 using a visual analog scale. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed at the 5% level of significance. Of 60 patients, 42 were eligible, and 35 were randomly selected to have one side of the mouth receive the intervention. Two patients discontinued the intervention at T1, and 5 stopped at T2. Seven additional patients were recruited and completed all time

  1. 'The year of first aid': effectiveness of a 3-day first aid programme for 7-14-year-old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfai, Balint; Pek, Emese; Pandur, Attila; Csonka, Henrietta; Betlehem, Jozsef

    2017-08-01

    Bystanders can play an important role in the event of sudden injury or illness. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a 3-day first aid course for all primary school age groups (7-14 years old). 582 school children were involved in the study. Training consisted of three sessions with transfer of theoretical knowledge and practical skills about first aid. The following most urgent situations were addressed in our study: adult basic life support (BLS), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), handling an unconscious patient, managing bleeding and calling the ambulance. Data collection was made with a questionnaire developed for the study and observation. Students were tested before, immediately after and 4 months after training. Results were considered significant in case of pfirst aid training was associated with knowledge of the correct ambulance number (p=0.015) and management of bleeding (p=0.041). Prior to training, age was associated with pre-test knowledge and skills of all topics (p<0.01); after training, it was only associated with AED use (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the depth of chest compression and children's age, weight, height and body mass index (p<0.001). Ventilation depended on the same factors (p<0.001). Children aged 7-14 years are able to perform basic life-saving skills. Knowledge retention after 4 months is good for skills, but thinking in algorithms is difficult for these children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (Pexercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  4. Physical Activity and Risk of Alcohol Use Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Kristiansen; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2015-01-01

    .5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29-2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01-2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level. However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric......AIMS: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohort study with focus on leisure-time physical activity. METHODS: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), performed in 1976-1978, 1981......-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003. Information on physical activity (classified as Moderate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol use disorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric...

  5. Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every 3 days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Claire M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral intravenous device (IVD complications were traditionally thought to be reduced by limiting dwell time. Current recommendations are to resite IVDs by 96 hours with the exception of children and patients with poor veins. Recent evidence suggests routine resite is unnecessary, at least if devices are inserted by a specialised IV team. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of peripheral IVD 'routine resite' with 'removal on clinical indication' on IVD complications in a general hospital without an IV team. Methods A randomised, controlled trial was conducted in a regional teaching hospital. After ethics approval, 362 patients (603 IVDs were randomised to have IVDs replaced on clinical indication (185 patients or routine change every 3 days (177 patients. IVDs were inserted and managed by the general hospital medical and nursing staff; there was no IV team. The primary endpoint was a composite of IVD complications: phlebitis, infiltration, occlusion, accidental removal, local infection, and device-related bloodstream infection. Results IVD complication rates were 68 per 1,000 IVD days (clinically indicated and 66 per 1,000 IVD days (routine replacement (P = 0.86; HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43. Time to first complication per patient did not differ between groups (KM with log rank, P = 0.53. There were no local infections or IVD-related bloodstream infections in either group. IV therapy duration did not differ between groups (P = 0.22, but more (P = 0.004 IVDs were placed per patient in the routine replacement (mean, 1.8 than the clinical indication group (mean, 1.5, with significantly higher hospital costs per patient (P Conclusions Resite on clinical indication would allow one in two patients to have a single cannula per course of IV treatment, as opposed to one in five patients managed with routine resite; overall complication rates appear similar. Clinically indicated resite would achieve savings in equipment

  6. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  7. Prospective open randomized study comparing efficacies and safeties of a 3-day course of azithromycin and a 10-day course of erythromycin in children with community-acquired acute lower respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roord, JJ; Goossens, MMHT; Kimpen, JLL; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    The efficacies and safeties of a 3-day, 3-dose course of azithromycin (10 mg/kg of body weight per day) and a 10-day, 30-dose course of erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day) for the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children were compared in an open randomized multicenter study.

  8. Addition of 3-day aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma receiving 5-day cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Abdel-Malek

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This triple anti-emetic regimen showed efficacy in controlling the multi-day cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to compare between 3-day and 7-day aprepitant for multi-day cisplatin regimens.

  9. Validation of the Spanish version of the physical activity questionnaire used in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; López-Fontana, Constanza; Varo, José Javier; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this analysis was to test the validity of the estimates of energy expenditure and sedentary lifestyle obtained through a self-administered questionnaire of physical activity for Spanish-speaking people adapted from US questionnaires (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study) using a triaxial accelerometer (RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker) as the reference. Validation study, calculating the non-parametric correlation coefficients between the level of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle collected by the self-administered questionnaire and the triaxial accelerometer measurements. Percentage of misclassification and kappa coefficients were also calculated. The study population consisted of a sample of 40 obese women who were participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project (a prospective cohort study among Spanish university alumni). They were selected because of their peculiar metabolic characteristics, in the search for a sub-optimal scenario for validity. Physical activity during leisure time (estimated as MET-h week(-1)) derived from the self-administered questionnaire moderately correlated with kcal day(-1) assessed through the accelerometer (Spearman's rho = 0.507, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.232, 0.707). The Spearman correlation between the ratio of sedentary lifestyle to physical activity obtained through the questionnaire and the direct estimation (RT3) was -0.578 (95% CI -0.754, -0.325). The kappa index was 0.25 (P = 0.002) when assessing the cross-classification into quintiles and 0.41 for the dichotomous estimation of a sedentary lifestyle. Only 2.5% of participants were misclassified by the questionnaire more than two quintiles apart from the estimates of the RT3. The moderate values obtained for correlation in a sub-optimal scenario for validity and the low percentage of extreme misclassification suggest the validity of the questionnaire to assess physical activity in Spanish-speaking women

  10. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4......% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school......, and smoking habits. The proportion of women who took part in competitive sports, and moderate-to-heavy activities decreased over the three trimesters of pregnancy. The proportion of women with light physical activity was stable during pregnancy while the proportion of women with sedentary activity increased...

  11. Quality of sleep, physical activity and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    a rheumatology outpatient clinic were recruited consecutively to participate in an observational cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaire covered the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and fatigue, Physical Activity Scale (PAS), Multidimensional Fatigue...... to Physical Activity (PA) and fatigue. Understanding PA, fatigue and the impact on sleep disturbances could illuminate ways to promote sufficient sleep in RA patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between sleep disturbance, PA, and fatigue. Methods A total of 500 RA patients from...... of 58 years), and 80% were women. The mean disease duration was 14 years and mean DAS score was 2.7. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 %. Higher level of general fatigue, mental fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity and reduced motivation was reported in patients with poor sleep quality...

  12. Validation of physical activity instruments: Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.

  13. Microneedle physical contact as a therapeutic for abnormal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, David C; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-08-14

    Abnormal (keloid and hypertrophic) scars are a significant affliction with no satisfactory single modality therapy to-date. Available options are often ineffective, painful, potentially hazardous, and require healthcare personnel involvement. Herein a self-administered microneedle device based on drug-free physical contact for inhibiting abnormal scars is reported. Its therapeutic activity through microneedle contact eliminates hazards associated with toxic anti-scarring drugs while self-treatment enables administration flexibility. The microneedle patch was fabricated with FDA-approved liquid crystalline polymer under good manufacturing practice. It was first tested to ascertain its ability to inhibit (keloid) fibroblast proliferation. Later the microneedle patch was examined on the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model to explore its potential in inhibiting the generation of abnormal scars post-injury. Finally, the microneedle patch was applied to the caudal region of a hypertrophic scar located on a female patient's dorsum to verify clinical efficacy. On untreated control cultures, barely any non-viable fibroblasts could be seen. After 12-h treatment with the microneedle patch, the non-viable proportion increased to 83.8 ± 11.96%. In rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model, 100% of the control wounds without the presence of patches on rabbit ears generated regions of raised dermis originating from the wound site (3/3), whereas microneedle treatment prevented dermis tissue thickening in 83.33% of the wounds (15/18). In the clinical test, the microneedle patch was well tolerated by the patient. Compared to the untreated region, microneedle treatment decreased the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, with less disrupted dermis tissue architecture and more flattened appearance. A self-administered, drug-free microneedle patch appears highly promising in reducing abnormal scarring as observed from in vitro, in vivo and clinical experiments. Larger cohort clinical

  14. Wheel running exercise attenuates vulnerability to self-administer nicotine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Lycas, Matthew D; Lynch, Wendy J; Brunzell, Darlene H

    2015-11-01

    Preventing or postponing tobacco use initiation could greatly reduce the number of tobacco-related deaths. While evidence suggests that exercise is a promising treatment for tobacco addiction, it is not clear whether exercise could prevent initial vulnerability to tobacco use. Thus, using an animal model, we examined whether exercise attenuates vulnerability to the use and reinforcing effects of nicotine, the primary addictive chemical in tobacco. Initial vulnerability was assessed using an acquisition procedure wherein exercising (unlocked running wheel, n=10) and sedentary (locked or no wheel, n=12) male adolescent rats had access to nicotine infusions (0.01-mg/kg) during daily 21.5-h sessions beginning on postnatal day 30. Exercise/sedentary sessions (2-h/day) were conducted prior to each of the acquisition sessions. The effects of exercise on nicotine's reinforcing effects were further assessed in separate groups of exercising (unlocked wheel, n=7) and sedentary (no wheel, n=5) rats responding for nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule with exercise/sedentary sessions (2-h/day) conducted before the daily progressive-ratio sessions. While high rates of acquisition of nicotine self-administration were observed among both groups of sedentary controls, acquisition was robustly attenuated in the exercise group with only 20% of exercising rats meeting the acquisition criterion within the 16-day testing period as compared to 67% of the sedentary controls. Exercise also decreased progressive-ratio responding for nicotine as compared to baseline and to sedentary controls. Exercise may effectively prevent the initiation of nicotine use in adolescents by reducing the reinforcing effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fujita, Shoichiro

    1977-01-01

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  16. Comprehensive Comparison of Self-Administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masako; Adachi, Katsunori; Sumi, Satoshi; Okada, Kensuke; Kishino, Hirohisa; Sakai, Saeko; Kamio, Yoko; Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Sadao; Kanne, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype…

  17. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  18. Diet Measurement in Vietnamese Youth: Concurrent Reliability of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, John M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Vietnamese high school students completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and completed daily diet reports for seven weeks. Data from the FFQ were compared to the food reports. The results indicated a few simple FFQ items, particularly for indicator foods such as rice, were reliable for dietary assessment for that population. (SM)

  19. Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Alan R; Kolar, Ann S; Fisher, James L; Plascak, Jesse J; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-04-01

    Computer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can address limitations inherent in paper questionnaires by allowing very complex skip patterns, portion size estimation based on food pictures, and real-time error checking. We evaluated a web-based FFQ, the Graphical Food Frequency System (GraFFS). Participants completed the GraFFS, six telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls over the next 12 weeks, followed by a second GraFFS. Participants were 40 men and 34 women, aged 18 to 69 years, living in the Columbus, OH, area. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 17 micronutrients/food components were estimated from the GraFFS and the mean of all recalls. Bias (second GraFFS minus recalls) was -9%, -5%, +4%, and -4% for energy and percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. De-attenuated, energy-adjusted correlations (intermethod reliability) between the recalls and the second GraFFS for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.82, 0.79, 0.67, and 0.90, respectively; for micronutrients/food components the median was 0.61 and ranged from 0.40 for zinc to 0.92 for beta carotene. The correlations between the two administrations of the GraFFS (test-retest reliability) for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.60, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.87, respectively; among micronutrients/food components the median was 0.67 and ranged from 0.49 for vitamin B-12 to 0.82 for fiber. The measurement characteristics of the GraFFS were at least as good as those reported for most paper FFQs, and its high intermethod reliability suggests that further development of computer-administered FFQs is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review of patient medication error on self-administering medication at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Lorenzo, Susana; Guilabert, Mercedes; Navarro, Isabel; Pérez-Jover, Virtudes

    2015-06-01

    Medication errors have been analyzed as a health professionals' responsibility (due to mistakes in prescription, preparation or dispensing). However, sometimes, patients themselves (or their caregivers) make mistakes in the administration of the medication. The epidemiology of patient medication errors (PEs) has been scarcely reviewed in spite of its impact on people, on therapeutic effectiveness and on incremental cost for the health systems. This study reviews and describes the methodological approaches and results of published studies on the frequency, causes and consequences of medication errors committed by patients at home. A review of research articles published between 1990 and 2014 was carried out using MEDLINE, Web-of-Knowledge, Scopus, Tripdatabase and Index Medicus. The frequency of PE was situated between 19 and 59%. The elderly and the preschooler population constituted a higher number of mistakes than others. The most common were: incorrect dosage, forgetting, mixing up medications, failing to recall indications and taking out-of-date or inappropriately stored drugs. The majority of these mistakes have no negative consequences. Health literacy, information and communication and complexity of use of dispensing devices were identified as causes of PEs. Apps and other new technologies offer several opportunities for improving drug safety.

  1. Visual Design, Order Effects, and Respondent Characteristics in a Self-Administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent survey design research has shown that small changes in the structure and visual layout of questions can affect respondents' answers. While the findings have provided strong evidence of such effects, they are limited by the homogeneity of their samples, in that many of these studies have used random samples of college students. In this paper, we examine the effects of seven experimental alterations in question format and visual design using data from a general population survey that allows us to examine the effects of demographic differences among respondents. Results from a 2005 random sample mail survey of 1,315 households in a small metropolitan region of the United States suggest that the visual layout of survey questions affects different demographic groups in similar ways.

  2. Handheld computers for self-administered sensitive data collection: A comparative study in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes James P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-cost handheld computers (PDA potentially represent an efficient tool for collecting sensitive data in surveys. The goal of this study is to evaluate the quality of sexual behavior data collected with handheld computers in comparison with paper-based questionnaires. Methods A PDA-based program for data collection was developed using Open-Source tools. In two cross-sectional studies, we compared data concerning sexual behavior collected with paper forms to data collected with PDA-based forms in Ancon (Lima. Results The first study enrolled 200 participants (18–29 years. General agreement between data collected with paper format and handheld computers was 86%. Categorical variables agreement was between 70.5% and 98.5% (Kappa: 0.43–0.86 while numeric variables agreement was between 57.1% and 79.8% (Spearman: 0.76–0.95. Agreement and correlation were higher in those who had completed at least high school than those with less education. The second study enrolled 198 participants. Rates of responses to sensitive questions were similar between both kinds of questionnaires. However, the number of inconsistencies (p = 0.0001 and missing values (p = 0.001 were significantly higher in paper questionnaires. Conclusion This study showed the value of the use of handheld computers for collecting sensitive data, since a high level of agreement between paper and PDA responses was reached. In addition, a lower number of inconsistencies and missing values were found with the PDA-based system. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a low-cost application for handheld computers, and that PDAs are feasible alternatives for collecting field data in a developing country.

  3. Self-administered hearing loss screening using an interactive, tablet play audiometer with ear bud headphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jeffrey C; Heley, Sophie; Beauregard, Yves; Champagne, Sandra; Bromwich, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    The timely diagnosis and treatment of acquired hearing loss in the pediatric population has significant implications for a child's development. Audiological assessment in children, however, carries both technological and logistical challenges. Typically, specialized methods (such as play audiometry) are required to maintain the child's attention and can be resource intensive. These challenges were previously addressed by a novel, calibrated, interactive play audiometer for Apple(®) iOS(®) called "ShoeBOX Audiometry". This device has potential applications for deployment in environments where traditional clinical audiometry is either unavailable or impractical. The objective of this study was to assess the screening capability of the tablet audiometer in an uncontrolled environment using consumer ear-bud headphones. Consecutive patients presenting to the Audiology Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (ages 4 and older) were recruited. Participants' hearing was evaluted using the tablet audiometer calibrated to Apple(®) In-Ear headphones. The warble tone thresholds obtained were compared to gold standard measurements taken with a traditional clinical audiometer inside a soundbooth. 80 patients were enrolled. The majority of participants were capable of completing an audiologic assessment using the tablet computer. Due to ambient noise levels outside a soundbooth, thresholds obtained at 500Hz were not consistent with traditional audiometry. Excluding 500Hz threholds, the tablet audiometer demonstrated strong negative predictive value (89.7%) as well as strong sensitivity (91.2%) for hearing loss. Thresholds obtained in an uncontrolled setting are not reflective of diagnostic thresholds due to the uncalibrated nature of the headphones and variability of the setting without a booth. Nevertheless, the tablet audiometer proved to be both a valid and sensitive instrument for unsupervised screening of warble-tone thresholds in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self administered cognitive screening test (TYM) for detection of Alzheimer’s disease: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengas, George; Dawson, Kate; Clatworthy, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a cognitive test, the TYM (“test your memory”), in the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Outpatient departments in three hospitals, including a memory clinic. Participants 540 control participants aged 18-95 and 139 patients attending a memory clinic with dementia/amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Intervention Cognitive test designed to use minimal operator time and to be suitable for non-specialist use. Main outcome measures Performance of normal controls on the TYM. Performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease on the TYM compared with age matched controls. Validation of the TYM with two standard tests (the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised (ACE-R)). Sensitivity and specificity of the TYM in the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Results Control participants completed the TYM with an average score of 47/50. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease scored an average of 33/50. The TYM score shows excellent correlation with the two standard tests. A score of ≤42/50 had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 86% in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The TYM was more sensitive in detection of Alzheimer’s disease than the mini-mental examination, detecting 93% of patients compared with 52% for the mini-mental state exxamination. The negative and positive predictive values of the TYM with the cut off of ≤42 were 99% and 42% with a prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease of 10%. Thirty one patients with non-Alzheimer dementias scored an average of 39/50. Conclusions The TYM can be completed quickly and accurately by normal controls. It is a powerful and valid screening test for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19509424

  5. The development of an enabling self-administered questionnaire for enhancing reading teachers' professional pedagogical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Condy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available I explore the development and refinement, validation and implementation of a questionnaire to define teachers' perceived professional competencies in teaching reading skills and strategies in Grades 1-7 classes in developing countries. Using the Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE programme, implemented and expanded annually between 2001 and 2005 in 4 900 new classrooms in schools in South Africa, I gathered and analysed theoretically coherent feedback data from more than 1 000 qualified, active reading teachers to establish a set of competencies describing teachers' professional understandings of their pedagogical reading tasks. The study was grounded in the social constructivist, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic theories originating from the works of Piaget, Vygotsky, Cambourne, and Goodman. Their foundational principles, together with the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement were defined and applied to the derivation of all items in the questionnaire. The questionnaire evolved through three phases of validation. Throughout phases two and three, several cautious varimax normalized factor analyses and scree plots were engaged to refine and develop the questionnaire, within the context of teaching reading in South African schools. The emerging teaching reading themes can be fed back to teachers to improve aspects of their teaching reading.

  6. Aripiprazole blocks acute self-administration of cocaine and is not self-administered in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Sager, Thomas N; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: The novel antipsychotic aripiprazole in use for treatment of schizophrenia is a partial agonist at dopamine D(2) receptors with actions at a variety of other receptors as well. Cocaine is believed to exert an important part of its rewarding effect by increasing extracellular levels...

  7. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  8. Wireless data collection of self-administered surveys using tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Kyle W; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A T

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention.

  9. Leisure time physical activity in a 22-year follow-up among Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, Katja; Mäkinen, Tomi E; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Tammelin, Tuija H; Heliövaara, Markku; Martelin, Tuija; Kestilä, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva

    2012-10-02

    The aim of this study was to explore long-term predictors of leisure time physical activity in the general population. This study comprised 718 men and women who participated in the national Mini-Finland Health Survey from 1978-1980 and were re-examined in 2001. Participants were aged 30-80 at baseline. Measurements included interviews, health examinations, and self-administered questionnaires, with information on socioeconomic position, occupational and leisure time physical activity, physical fitness, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical functional capacity. Analyses included persons who were working and had no limitations in functional capacity at baseline. The strongest predictor of being physically active at the follow-up was participation in physical activity at baseline, with an OR 13.82 (95%CI 5.50-34.70) for 3 or more types of regular activity, OR 2.33 (95%CI 1.22-4.47) for 1-2 types of regular activity, and OR 3.26 (95%CI 2.07-5.15) for irregular activity, as compared to no activity. Other determinants for being physically active were moving upwards in occupational status, a high level of baseline occupational physical activity and remaining healthy weight during the follow-up. To prevent physical inactivity among older adults, it is important to promote physical activity already in young adulthood and in middle age and to emphasize the importance of participating in many types of physical activity.

  10. Transversal stiffness and beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 content of the M. soleus fibers in the conditions of a 3-day reloading after 14-day gravitational unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions.

  11. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic variations in leisure time physical activity in a sample of Hungarian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F; Keresztes, Noémi

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to detect the relationship between youth's leisure time physical activity and a set of sociodemographic (age, gender, family stucture) and socioeconomic variables (SES and parental schooling). Data were collected among Hungarian youth (middle and high school students, N = 1662) aged between 10-20 years using a self-administered questionnaire. Our findings did not indicate gender differences during the years of middle school, whereas gender differences became significant during the years of high school. In multivariate analyses, parental schooling played a decisive role in youth's physical activity, wheres SES self-assessment did not remain significant. These findings provide some useful information on characteristics of the target groups for health education programs.

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Self- and Interviewer-Administered Versions of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Ng, Sheryl H. X.; Koh, David; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was originally designed to be interviewer-administered by the World Health Organization in assessing physical activity. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of a self-administered GPAQ with the original interviewer-administered approach. Additionally, this study explored whether using different accelerometry-based physical activity bout definitions might affect the questionnaire’s validity. Methods A total of 110 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an interviewer- (n = 56) or a self-administered (n = 54) group for test-retest reliability, of which 108 participants who met the wear time criteria were included in the validity study. Reliability was assessed by administration of questionnaires twice with a one-week interval. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing against seven-day accelerometer measures. Two definitions for accelerometry-data scoring were employed: (1) total-min of activity, and (2) 10-min bout. Results Participants had similar baseline characteristics in both administration groups and no significant difference was found between the two formats in terms of validity (correlations between the GPAQ and accelerometer). For validity, the GPAQ demonstrated fair-to-moderate correlations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for self-administration (r s = 0.30) and interviewer-administration (r s = 0.46). Findings were similar when considering 10-min activity bouts in the accelerometer analysis for MVPA (r s = 0.29 vs. 0.42 for self vs. interviewer). Within each mode of administration, the strongest correlations were observed for vigorous-intensity activity. However, Bland-Altman plots illustrated bias toward overestimation for higher levels of MVPA, vigorous- and moderate-intensity activities, and underestimation for lower levels of these measures. Reliability for MVPA revealed moderate correlations (r s = 0.61 vs. 0.63 for self

  13. Measuring presenteeism: which questionnaire to use in physical activity research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Burton, Nicola; Gilson, Nicholas David; Brown, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research. Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles. Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4-44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30-59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity. Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

  14. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  15. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  16. Factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in outdoor, noncompetitive physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T

    2014-12-01

    Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.

  17. Oxycodone physical dependence and its oral self-administration in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enga, Rachel M; Jackson, Asti; Damaj, M Imad; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-10-15

    Abuse of prescription opioids, such as oxycodone, has markedly increased in recent decades. While oxycodone's antinociceptive effects have been detailed in several preclinical reports, surprisingly few preclinical reports have elaborated its abuse-related effects. This is particularly surprising given that oxycodone has been in clinical use since 1917. In a novel oral operant self-administration procedure, C57BL/6J mice were trained to self-administer water before introducing increasing concentrations of oxycodone (0.056-1.0mg/ml) under post-prandial conditions during daily, 3-h test sessions. As the concentration of oxycodone increased, the numbers of deliveries first increased, then decreased in an inverted U-shape fashion characteristic of the patterns of other drugs self-administered during limited access conditions. After post-prandial conditions were removed, self-administration at the highest concentration was maintained suggesting oral oxycodone served as a positive reinforcer. In other mice, using a novel regimen of physical dependence, mice were administered increasing doses of oxycodone (9.0-33.0mg/kg, s.c.) over 9 days, challenged with naloxone (0.1-10.0mg/kg, s.c.), and then observed for 30min. Naloxone dose-dependently increased the observed number of somatic signs of withdrawal, suggesting physical dependence of oxycodone was induced under this regimen. This is the first report demonstrating induction of oral operant self-administration of oxycodone and dose-dependent precipitations of oxycodone withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. The use of oral operant self-administration as well as the novel physical dependence regimen provides useful approaches to further examine the abuse- and dependence-related effects of this highly abused prescription opioid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Al-Tannir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. Methods: This study was conducted at 2 hospitals selected randomly from tertiary hospitals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon in 2014. The study included nurses with at least one year of nursing experience. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into 2 sections, one covering the respondents’ demographics, and the other one assessing the prevalence and the characteristics of physical exercise. Results: A total of 412 participants responded, of whom 248 (60.2% are engaged in physical exercise. On multivariate analysis, normal weight and smoking were independently associated with physical exercise. Most 66.1% of respondents reported practicing walking as the most common type of physical activity. One hundred eighty (72.6% respondents relied on their own motivation to perform physical activity and 64.6% reported the lack of availability of physical activity facilities. Conclusion: Smoking and obesity were the significant predictors associated with physical inactivity. Encouraging nurses to adopt a healthy lifestyle for their role modeling to patients as health promoters is recommended.

  19. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  20. Short, frequent, 5-days-per-week, in-center hemodialysis versus 3-days-per week treatment: a randomized crossover pilot trial through the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Benjamin L; Huang, Guixia; King, Eileen; Geary, Denis F; Licht, Christoph; Metlay, Joshua P; Furth, Susan L; Kimball, Tom; Mitsnefes, Mark

    2017-08-01

    No controlled trials in children with end-stage kidney disease have assessed the benefits of more frequently administered hemodialysis (HD). We conducted a multicenter, crossover pilot trial to determine if short, more frequent (5 days per week) in-center HD was feasible and associated with improvements in blood pressure compared with three conventional HD treatments per week. Because adult studies have not controlled for the weekly duration of dialysis, we fixed the total treatment time at 12 h a week of dialysis during two 3-month study periods; only frequency varied from 5 to 3 days per week between study periods. Eight children (median age 16.7 years) consented at three children's hospitals. The prespecified primary composite outcome was a sustained 10% decrease in systolic blood pressure and/or a decrease in antihypertensive medications relative to each study period's baseline. Among the six patients completing both study periods, five (83.3%) experienced the primary outcome during HD performed 5 days per week but not 3 days per week; one of the six (16.7%) achieved that outcome during 3-day but not 5-day (p = 0.22) per week HD. During 5-day HD, all patients had significantly more treatments during which their pre-HD systolic (p = 0.01) or diastolic (p = 0.01) blood pressure was 10% lower than baseline. We observed that more frequent HD sessions per week was feasible and associated with improved blood pressure control, but barriers to changing thrice-weekly standard of care include financial reimbursement and the time demands associated with more frequent treatments.

  1. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: physical, psychological, and chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes.

  2. Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2004-07-01

    We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W

    2016-01-01

    cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who...... fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher......Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory...

  4. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-fen Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  5. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  6. A 3-day regimen with azithromycin 1.5% eyedrops for the treatment of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis in children: efficacy on clinical signs and impact on the burden of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremond-Gignac D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Bremond-Gignac,1,2 Riadh Messaoud,3 Sihem Lazreg,4 Claude Speeg-Schatz,5 Didier Renault,6 Frédéric Chiambaretta7,8 On behalf of the Azithromycin Pediatric Study Group 1Ophthalmology Department, Centre St Victor, University Hospital of Amiens, Picardie Jules Verne University, Amiens, France; 2CNRS FR3636, Paris V University, France; 3Ophthalmology Department, Tahar Sfar University Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia; 4Dar El Beida, Blida, Algeria; 5Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 6Laboratoires THÉA, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 7Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Gabriel Montpied Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 8EA 7281 R2D2, Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France Purpose: To compare the efficacy of azithromycin 1.5% versus tobramycin 0.3% eyedrops on clinical ocular signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis in children and to assess the parents’ satisfaction regarding the dosing regimen.Patients and methods: An international, multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted in children (1 day to 18 years old with bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and purulent discharge. Azithromycin 1.5% was administered as 1 drop twice daily for 3 days, and tobramycin 0.3% as 1 drop every 2 hours for 2 days, then 4 times daily for 5 days.Results: A total of 286 patients (mean age: 3.2 years were enrolled. In children with bacteriologically positive cultures (N=203, azithromycin produced a significantly greater improvement in conjunctival discharge (P<0.01 and a trend (P=0.054 toward improvement in conjunctival hyperemia at day 7 than did tobramycin. Complete resolution of conjunctival discharge was significantly more frequent at day 3 on azithromycin than tobramycin (P=0.005. More parents found azithromycin easier to use (in terms of treatment duration, total number of instillations, instilling drops during the day, and difficulty in

  7. Selection of appropriate Chinese terms to represent intensity and types of physical activity terms for use in the Taiwan version of IPAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Jwo, Clark J C; Yao, Kaiping Grace; Chiang, Li-Chi; Huang, Lian-Hua

    2008-12-01

    In order to analyze the health risks of insufficient activity by international comparisons, the first author obtained the permission to translate and develop a Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The objective was to determine culturally sensitive Chinese translations for the terms "moderate", "vigorous" and "physical activity" as well as to identify representative types of physical activity for Taiwanese. This study used discussions by 12 expert focus groups, 6 expert audits, a scale survey, field study, Cognitive Aspect Survey Methodology (CASM), dual independent translation and back-translation to establish a consensus on physical activity-related concepts, terminologies and types that define the intensity of common activities of Taiwanese by integrating both local and foreign studies. The Chinese terms "fei li", "zhong deng fei li" and "shen ti huo dong", respectively, were identified as suitable and adequate translations for the English terms "vigorous", "moderate" and "physical activity". The common Taiwanese activities were accurately categorized and listed in questionnaires, forming culturally sensitive scales. Taiwan versions of IPAQ's self-administered long version (SL), self-administered short version (SS), and telephone interview short version (TS) were developed. Their content validity indices were .992, .994, and .980, as well as .994, .992, and .994 for language equivalence and meaning similarity between the English and Chinese versions of the IPAQ-LS, IPAQ-SS, and IPAQ-TS, respectively. Consistency values for the English and Chinese versions in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients were .945, .704, and .894, respectively. The IPAQ-Taiwan is not only a sensitive and precise tool, but also shows the effectiveness of the methodology (CASM) used in tool development. Subjects who did not regularly exercise and had an education less than a junior high school level underestimated the moderate

  8. Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Blane, David; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals’ health at older ages. Method We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position. Results In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men’s quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health. Conclusion Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals’ quality of life over the long term. PMID:23560563

  9. Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta G; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Blane, David; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages, we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals' health at older ages. We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position. In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men's quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health. Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals' quality of life over the long term.

  10. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  11. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  12. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  14. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  15. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  16. Tracking of leisure time physical activity during 28 yr in adults: the Tromsø study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morseth, Bente; Jørgensen, Lone; Emaus, Nina; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2011-07-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of many serious diseases. To develop targeted strategies that encourage physical activity, knowledge of stability of physical activity levels over time is essential. The aim of this study was to examine tracking of leisure time physical activity in adults in Northern Norway during three decades. We followed 5432 women and men who attended the Tromsø Study in 1979-1980, as well as repeated examinations after 7 and 28 yr. Baseline age was 20-54 yr (mean age=35.8 yr). Physical activity was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Tracking of physical activity, defined as maintenance of relative rank of physical activity level, was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficient and by weighted κ statistics. Tracking in terms of predictability of later values from earlier measurements was analyzed by generalized estimating equations. A higher-than-expected proportion of subjects maintained their physical activity level from examination 1 to 2 (58%) and 3 (53%). κ statistics showed agreement of 0.41 and 0.29, respectively. Belonging to a specific physical activity level at baseline increased the odds of belonging to the same category at later examinations (sedentary odds ratio (OR)=3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-4.4), moderately active OR=2.2 (95% CI=2.0-2.4), active OR=2.9 (95% CI=2.6-3.3), and highly active OR=14.0 (95% CI=8.7-22.5)). Being physically active in young adulthood increased the odds of being physically active later in life (moderately active OR=3.4 (95% CI=3.0-3.9), active OR=5.4 (95% CI=4.6-6.4), and highly active OR=13.0 (95% CI=7.4-22.8)). This study showed tracking of leisure time physical activity during 28 yr in a cohort of adults.

  17. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  18. [Pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in a sample of French adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potard, C; Courtois, R; Clarisse, R; Le Floc'h, N; Thomine, M; Réveillère, C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Pubertal maturation was associated with higher scores on "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" and "Going out with someone", and a drop in overall and physical self-esteem, mainly in socially valued domains, namely "Body fat" for girls, and "Strength" and "Health" for boys. Overall physical self-esteem was associated with "Going out with someone" and "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" in boys. Physical changes at puberty induce two distinct trends in adolescents: sexual exploration and discovery (genitalized body), and self-depreciation (social body). Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in school adolescents in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Chavez, Rosemary Cosme; Nam, Eun Woo

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in adolescents in Peru. METHODS We used a self-administered questionnaire developed from Global school-based Student Health Survey to collect information from secondary school students in North Lima and Callao in 2015. We carried out Poisson regression with robust variance using generalized linear models to estimate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of insufficient physical activity for its correlates. RESULTS We have found that 78% of the adolescents did not meet the global recommendation of the World Health Organization on physical activity in the last week before the survey. Female respondents (APR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.21), respondents who perceived themselves as overweight (APR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.03-1.18), and respondents who consumed insufficient vegetables and fruits [no vegetables (APR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.06-1.59), no fruits (APR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.00-1.31) as compared to those who consumed ≥ 2 servings every day in the last seven days] were more likely to report insufficient physical activity. Adolescents who worked after school (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.84-0.99), had physical education classes five times per week (APR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.88-0.99), and had parental supervision (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98) were less likely to report insufficient physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Sex, work after school, perceived body weight, physical education class, parental support, and healthy dietary behaviors were associated with insufficient physical activity. Attempts to improve physical activity should look for ways to enhance leisure-time physical activity, parental support, physical education classes, healthy dietary behaviors, and normal body weight maintenance in adolescents with integrated efforts from the family and school.

  20. Determinants of physical activity in primary school students using the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ar-Yuwat, Sireewat; Clark, Mary Jo; Hunter, Anita; James, Kathy S

    2013-01-01

    Thailand is a middle-income country in which two-thirds of children demonstrate an insufficient level of physical activity. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity and many other health-related consequences in children. Thus, it is important to understand how primary school children perceive things in their daily life as determinants of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cues, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers on the level of physical activity among primary school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, in 2011. Multistage sampling selected a total of 123 primary school students. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and the Cues, Perceived Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to assess the student levels of physical activity, as well as the perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action. The association between these factors and the level of physical activity was determined by correlation statistics and confirmed by robust regression. Multivariate analysis of variance compared health belief model determinants: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action on physical activity between male and female students. Self-administered questionnaires were validated and tested in a pilot study. The level of activity among primary school children was significantly influenced by perceived barriers, such as fear of strangers when playing outdoors, bad weather, and too much homework. However, activity was not influenced by cues to action or perceived benefits. Perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to physical activity did not differ by gender. A safe environment and fewer barriers, such as amount of homework, could enhance physical activity in primary school children.

  1. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  3. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.

  4. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  5. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, pphysical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on helping parents and children to be physically active together. PMID:22456036

  6. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  7. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  8. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  9. Physical activity and mental disorders: a case-control study on attitudes, preferences and perceived barriers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Primavera, Diego; Pilu, Alessandra; Vaccargiu, Nicola; Pinna, Federica

    2013-12-01

    Mentally ill people experience greater difficulty than the general population in exercising regularly. We aimed to evaluate attitudes displayed and barriers perceived towards physical activity in a sample of psychiatric patients. A total of 138 (M = 48, F = 90) patients attending a community mental health centre were compared with a control group made up of 138 subjects not affected by mental disorders matched for gender, mean age and education. Both groups underwent a self-administered questionnaire. Patients reported a more sedentary lifestyle in terms of weekly physical activities and daily hours of exercise; their body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher compared with the BMI of controls (p barriers to physical activity; moreover, stating how feeling sad or "distressed" reduced their propensity to physical exercise (p = 0.002). A higher number of patients (p physical activity, and the experiencing of scarce enjoyment (p barriers may limit regular physical activity in subjects affected by mental disorders; these barriers should be taken into account and appropriately addressed.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice in emergency management of dental injury among physical education teachers: a survey in Bangalore urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, U; Chandan, G D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher's background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher's attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (Pteachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented.

  11. Urban physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture

  12. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  13. Physical literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Roučka, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Topic: Physical literacy Goals: The aproximation of physical literacy, collection and evaluation questionnaires of physical literacy knowledge and students anamnesis. Description of applicants progress in the specific movement skills. Method: Unified questionnaires was used for obtaining informations. We make video for movement analysis. Results: The results didn't obtain our expectation that students are able to express precisely the content of physical literacy by specific skills. However, ...

  14. Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; J. Carr

    2001-01-01

    The lectures will introduce the emerging field of Astroparticle Physics which links particle physics and astrophysics. Starting from the Big Bang, the course will describe how particle physics explains certain features of the natural world and the features remainning to be understood. The subjects covered will include dark matter, gamma and neutrino astronomy, cosmic rays and gravity waves.

  15. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we

  16. Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is ...

  17. Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringing Physics Presentations to Students for Presenters Remember why you became a scientist help students develop a deeper understanding of the concepts of force and motion. Physics of Sports Grades 4-12 Fermilab scientists guide a discussion and exploration of the impact physics has in a variety

  18. Game physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eberly, David H

    2010-01-01

    ""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa

  19. Cosmoparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, M Yu

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1980s the cross-disciplinary, multidimensional field of links between cosmology and particle physics has been widely recognised by theorists, studying cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, gravity, as well as by astrophysicists, astronomers, space physicists, experimental particle and nuclear physicists, mathematicians and engineers.The relationship between cosmology and particle physics is now one of the important topics of discussion at any scientific meeting both on astrophysics and high energy physics.Cosmoparticle physics is the result of the mutual relationship between cosmo

  20. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  1. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  2. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Differences in physical activity, eating habits and risk of obesity among Kuwaiti adolescent boys and girls: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hanan E; Lakha, S Fatima; Pennefather, Peter

    2017-06-17

    The study aimed to assess gender differences among Kuwaiti adolescents in healthy living choices that impact the risk of obesity. A cross-sectional multistage cluster design was employed with a representative sample of 2672 students aged 13-15 years who completed a self-administered Global School-based Student Health (GSHS) survey. The study found that around 48.0% of adolescents were overweight and obese. More boys than girls were obese (28.2% vs. 22.3%, p gender, skipping breakfast and physical inactivity were significantly correlated with the risk of overweight and obesity among adolescents. These results suggest that lifestyle education for promoting healthy body masses targeting adolescents should take gender into account.

  4. Social Physique Anxiety and Intention to Be Physically Active: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390 students in secondary school (218 boys, 172 girls; M age  = 15.10 years, SD = 1.94 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire during physical education class that assessed the target variables. Preliminary analyses included means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations among the target variables. Next, a path analysis was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with the bootstrapping procedure in the statistical package AMOS 19. Analysis revealed that social physique anxiety negatively predicted intention to be physically active through mediation of the basic psychological needs and the 3 autonomous forms of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, and identified regulation). The results suggest that social physique anxiety is an internal source of controlling influence that hinders basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in exercise, and interventions aimed at reducing social physique anxiety could promote future exercise.

  5. Compensation for Adolescents' School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudláček, Michal; Frömel, Karel; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota

    2016-03-09

    Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA) on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed-self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire), objective measurements-pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers). They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants' mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  6. Manual hyperinflation and the role of physical therapy in intensive care and emergency units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vinícius Santos Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Although manual hyperinflation (MHI is a physical therapy technique commonly used in intensive care and emergency units, there is little consensus about its use. Objective: To investigate the knowledge of physical therapists working in intensive care and emergency units about manual hyperinflation. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on manual hyperinflation. Data collection took place between September 2014 and January 2015, in Itabuna and Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. Results: The study sample was composed of 32 physical therapists who had between 4 months and 10 years working experience. All respondents affirmed that they used the technique in their professional practice. However, only 34.4% reported it to be a routine practice. 90.6% stated that the most common patient position during manual hyperinflation is “supine”. Participants were almost unanimous (93.8% in citing secretion removal and cough stimulation as perceived benefits of MHI. High peak airway pressure was identified as being a precaution to treatment with MHI by 84.4% of participants, whilst 100% of the sample agreed that an undrained pneumothorax was a contraindication to MHI. Conclusion: The most common answers to the questionnaire were: supine position during MHI; secretion removal and cough stimulation as perceived benefits; high peak airway pressure as a precaution; and an undrained pneumothorax as a contraindication.

  7. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  8. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. University physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  10. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  11. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  12. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  13. Investigating Parental Acceptability of the Incredible Years Self-Administered Parent Training Program for Children Presenting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…

  14. Supporting Accurate Interpretation of Self-Administered Medical Test Results for Mobile Health: Assessment of Design, Demographics, and Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess C; Baumer, Eric Ps; Reynolds, Lindsay; Murnane, Elizabeth L; O'Dell, Dakota; Lee, Seoho; Guha, Shion; Qi, Yu; Rieger, Erin; Gay, Geri

    2018-02-28

    Technological advances in personal informatics allow people to track their own health in a variety of ways, representing a dramatic change in individuals' control of their own wellness. However, research regarding patient interpretation of traditional medical tests highlights the risks in making complex medical data available to a general audience. This study aimed to explore how people interpret medical test results, examined in the context of a mobile blood testing system developed to enable self-care and health management. In a preliminary investigation and main study, we presented 27 and 303 adults, respectively, with hypothetical results from several blood tests via one of the several mobile interface designs: a number representing the raw measurement of the tested biomarker, natural language text indicating whether the biomarker's level was low or high, or a one-dimensional chart illustrating this level along a low-healthy axis. We measured respondents' correctness in evaluating these results and their confidence in their interpretations. Participants also told us about any follow-up actions they would take based on the result and how they envisioned, generally, using our proposed personal health system. We find that a majority of participants (242/328, 73.8%) were accurate in their interpretations of their diagnostic results. However, 135 of 328 participants (41.1%) expressed uncertainty and confusion about their ability to correctly interpret these results. We also find that demographics and interface design can impact interpretation accuracy, including false confidence, which we define as a respondent having above average confidence despite interpreting a result inaccurately. Specifically, participants who saw a natural language design were the least likely (421.47 times, P=.02) to exhibit false confidence, and women who saw a graph design were less likely (8.67 times, P=.04) to have false confidence. On the other hand, false confidence was more likely among participants who self-identified as Asian (25.30 times, P=.02), white (13.99 times, P=.01), and Hispanic (6.19 times, P=.04). Finally, with the natural language design, participants who were more educated were, for each one-unit increase in education level, more likely (3.06 times, P=.02) to have false confidence. Our findings illustrate both promises and challenges of interpreting medical data outside of a clinical setting and suggest instances where personal informatics may be inappropriate. In surfacing these tensions, we outline concrete interface design strategies that are more sensitive to users' capabilities and conditions. ©Jess C Hohenstein, Eric PS Baumer, Lindsay Reynolds, Elizabeth L Murnane, Dakota O'Dell, Seoho Lee, Shion Guha, Yu Qi, Erin Rieger, Geri Gay. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  15. Therapist-Assisted, Self-Administered Bibliotherapy to Enhance Parental Competence: Short- and Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Feldmann, Marit

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of bibliotherapy has primarily been investigated in anxiety disorders, depression, or substance dependence. The efficacy of self-help books to increase parenting competence was only investigated in a few studies despite their broad dissemination in public. The aims of the study were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy of…

  16. Self-administered outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a report of three years experience in the Irish healthcare setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, J

    2012-02-01

    Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) was first reported in 1972. OPAT programmes are not well established in Ireland, with no reported outcomes in the literature. An OPAT programme was established at St. James Hospital in 2006. Demographics, diagnoses and outcomes of the first 60 courses are reported. A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed on patients treated from March 2006 to February 2009. The data was analysed using SPSS v.17. Sixty OPAT courses were administered to 56 patients, 57 percent of which were male. The median age was 50 years, the median inpatient stay was 19 days, the median duration of OPAT was 16 days and 1,289 inpatient bed days were saved. The additional cost per day of OPAT was 167.60 euros. Vancomycin was the most prescribed antimicrobial, administered to 35%. Musculoskeletal infection was the indication for treatment in 50%. Confirmatory microbiological diagnosis was identified in 72%, most frequently due to Staphylococcus aureus (68%). Only minor adverse events were recorded. Clinical cure was achieved in 92.8%. A patient satisfaction survey showed high satisfaction. OPAT is a safe and effective way of providing parenteral antibiotic therapy in the Irish healthcare system. Better integration of funding and the appointment of Infectious Diseases specialists will facilitate its expansion.

  17. Analysis of sexual function of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis through self-administered questionnaires: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Carlos de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: To date, there are no descriptions in the literature on gynecologic and sexual function evaluation in female patients with dermatomyositis (DM and polymyositis (PM. Objective: To assess sexual function in female patients with DM/PM. Patients and methods: This is a monocentric, cross-sectional study in which 23 patients (16 DM and 7 PM, with ages between 18 and 40 years, were compared to 23 healthy women of the same age group. Characteristics on sexual function were obtained by applying the questionnaires Female Sexual Quotient (FSQ and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI validated for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Results: The mean age of patients was comparable to controls (32.7 ± 5.3 vs. 31.7 ± 6.7 years, as well as the distribution of ethnicity and socioeconomic class. As for gynecological characteristics, patients and healthy controls did not differ with respect to age at menarche and percentages of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, premenstrual syndrome, pain at mid-cycle, mucocervical secretion, and vaginal discharge. The FSQ score, as well as all domains of the FSFI questionnaire (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction, were significantly decreased in patients vs. controls, with 60.9% of patients showing some degree of sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: This was the first study to identify sexual dysfunction in patients with DM/PM. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is essential for patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, in order to provide prevention and care for their sexual life, providing a better quality of life, both for patients and their partners.

  18. Individual differences in discount rate are associated with demand for self-administered cocaine, but not sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Woods, James H

    2013-01-01

    Substance abusers, including cocaine abusers, discount delayed rewards to a greater extent than do matched controls. In the current experiment, individual differences in discounting of delayed rewards in rats (choice of one immediate over three delayed sucrose pellets) were assessed for associations with demand for either sucrose pellets or an intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were split into three groups based on sensitivity to delay to reinforcement. Then, demand for sucrose pellets and cocaine was determined across a range of fixed-ratio values. Delay discounting was then reassessed to determine the stability of this measure over the course of the experiment. Individual differences in impulsive choice were positively associated with elasticity of demand for cocaine, a measure of reinforcer value, indicating that rats having higher discount rates also valued cocaine more. Impulsive choice was not associated with the level of cocaine consumption as price approached 0 or with any parameter associated with demand for sucrose. Individual sensitivity to delay was correlated with the initial assessment when reassessed at the end of the experiment, although impulsive choice increased for this cohort of rats as a whole. These findings suggest that impulsive choice in rats is positively associated with valuation of cocaine, but not sucrose. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Implementation fidelity of self-administered transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic back pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Edward J; Rentowl, Patricia; Johnson, Mark I; Watson, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief has not been reliably established. Inconclusive findings could be due to inadequate TENS delivery and inappropriate outcome assessment. Electronic monitoring devices were used to determine patient compliance with a TENS intervention and outcome assessment protocol, to record pain scores before, during, and after TENS, and measure electrical output settings. Patients with chronic back pain consented to use TENS daily for 2 weeks and to report pain scores before, during, and after 1-hour treatments. A ≥ 30% reduction in pain scores was used to classify participants as TENS responders. Electronic monitoring devices "TLOG" and "TSCORE" recorded time and duration of TENS use, electrical settings, and pain scores. Forty-two patients consented to participate. One of 35 (3%) patients adhered completely to the TENS use and pain score reporting protocol. Fourteen of 33 (42%) were TENS responders according to electronic pain score data. Analgesia onset occurred within 30 to 60 minutes for 13/14 (93%) responders. It was not possible to correlate TENS amplitude, frequency, or pulse width measurements with therapeutic response. Findings from TENS research studies depend on the timing of outcome assessment; pain should be recorded during stimulation. TENS device sophistication might be an issue and parameter restriction should be considered. Careful protocol design is required to improve adherence and monitoring is necessary to evaluate the validity of findings. This observational study provides objective evidence to support concerns about poor implementation fidelity in TENS research.

  20. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Self-Administered Questionnaire to Assess Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms and Related Parenting Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy B; White, Marney A

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms Survey (PATFS), a self-report measure of parental attitudes about firearms and parenting behavior. The initial item pool was generated based on a literature review and discussion with experts in violence reduction, psychometrics, and public health. Data were collected online from 362 volunteers and subjected to exploratory factor analysis which revealed a 13-item, 3-factor solution accounting for 59.7% of the variance. The 3 conceptual factors (subscales) were interpreted as Firearms Exposure, Parental Control, and Violent Play. The PATFS demonstrated good internal consistency and content and construct validity. The PATFS can be used to investigate parenting attitudes and behaviors specific to firearms and violent play.

  1. Health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, a self-administered questionnaire, was validated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, Gordon; Weaver, Bruce; Cronin, Lisa; Dooley, Julie Ann; Azziz, Ricardo

    2004-12-01

    We examined the measurement properties of a questionnaire (PCOSQ) measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This multicenter prospective randomized placebo-controlled blinded study enrolled 393 patients with PCOS at tertiary care sites. Participants were randomized to placebo or troglitazone (150 mg/d, 300 mg/d, or 600 mg/d). At baseline (n=393) and after 44 weeks of treatment (n=284) the proportion of normal menstrual cycles, the free testosterone (T) level, four objective measures of facial hair growth (hair density and hair growth rate by photography, and hair diameter and hair growth rate using plucked hairs), and a subjective assessment of the degree of hirsutism, the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (F-G) score, were determined. At both visits, patients also completed the PCOSQ. Since the trial was conducted, troglitazone has been removed from the market because of toxic effects. The PCOSQ includes 26 questions (items) that address five areas of concern (domains), including emotions, body hair, body weight, fertility, and menstruation rated on a seven-point scales in which lower scores denote higher degrees of patient concern and a lower HRQOL. Cronbach's alpha was >0.7 for four of five domains. Factor analysis provided moderate to strong support for the five-domain structure of the PCOSQ. Cross-sectional correlations were weak with all measures but the F-G score and hair growth (r=-.46, P PCOSQ hair growth (r=-.22), weight (r=-.17), infertility (r=-.20), and menstruation (r=-.20). Changes in the proportion of normal menstrual cycles correlated with change in the infertility domain (r=.14, P PCOSQ proved as responsive as the F-G, and more responsive than the objective measures of hair growth, to effects of troglitazone. Our data provides some support for the discriminative and longitudinal validity, and appreciable support for the responsiveness, of the PCOSQ.

  2. A new self-administered questionnaire to determine patient experience with voice prostheses (Blom-singer valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To obtain information about valved speech and related issues in patients who have undergone total laryngectomy with the help of a new structured questionnaire on voice prosthesis. Settings and Design: A questionnaire-based pilot study set at a tertiary referral head and neck cancer unit. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients using voice prostheses, who showed no signs of recurrence after having undergone total laryngectomy were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire that assessed issues such as voice quality, valve maintenance, leakage, quality of life, humidification and hands-free system over the preceding seven days. The data was analyzed using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Spearman rank. Results: Twenty-five patients (16 males with a median age of 65 years (IQ range: 59-70 years had been using the prosthesis for a median of 6 years (IQ range: 5-10 years. The majority of the patients (n=20 were fully informed about their valve size and diameter and most were able to remove and replace their own prosthesis. Fourteen patients (60% had leakage-related issues. Women were less satisfied with their voice quality as compared to men. Overall, there appeared to be an improvement in quality of life with the use of the voice prosthesis. Conclusions: The subjects were fairly well informed about their valve and experienced a high level of satisfaction with their voice. This questionnaire serves as a valuable tool for monitoring voice rehabilitation in patients who have undergone laryngectomy.

  3. Individual Differences in Discount Rate Are Associated With Demand for Self-Administered Cocaine, But Not Sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Woods, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abusers, including cocaine abusers, discount delayed rewards to a greater extent than do matched controls. In the current experiment, individual differences in discounting of delayed rewards in rats (choice of one immediate over three delayed sucrose pellets) were assessed for associations with demand for either sucrose pellets or an i.v. dose of 0.1 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were split into three groups based on sensitivity to delay to reinforceme...

  4. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  5. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  6. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  7. Radiotherapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Lyman, J.T.; Pitluck, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Physics Group works on the physical and biophysical aspects of charged particle radiotherapy. Our activities include the development of isosurvival beams (beams of uniform biological effect), computerized treatment planning development for charged particle radiotherapy, design of compensation to shape dose distributions, and development of dosimetry techniques to verify planned irradiations in both phantoms and patients

  8. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  9. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  10. Imagined Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nørgaard, M.; Laursen, C.

    2015-01-01

    to this book focuses on the human responses to objects that change shape in response to input from users, environment, or other circumstances. In this chapter we discuss the term "imagined physics", meaning how actuated devices are in one sense tied to their physical form, yet through the use of actuators...

  11. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  12. Physical and psychological determinants of injury in Ontario forest firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H; Larivière, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest firefighters are faced with multiple physical and psychological challenges as a result of their duties. Little is known about the determinants of injury among these workers. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) Aviation, Forest Fire and Emergency Services (AFFES) records detailed information on two mutually exclusive types of workplace injury: First aid (self-reported) and Workplace Safety Insurance Board (WSIB, i.e. received medical attention). To identify the contributions of physical and psychological factors on the likelihood of injury among forest firefighters. Participants were male and female forest firefighters aged between 18 and 65. Data were collected using two self-administered instruments: The NEO Personality Inventory and the Job Stress Survey. Secondary data were collected from the OMNR AFFES and data were analysed by way of multivariate statistical procedures. There were 252 participants. Those who were older, had a history of injury, had high scores for the personality construct of Neuroticism or low scores for the Openness construct were significantly more likely to incur a first aid injury, while those with high experience levels were significantly less likely to incur injury (P First aid and WSIB injuries in the OMNR AFFES were quite distinct phenomena and different factors need consideration in their prediction. It is recommended that managers and decision-makers in this field consider factors such as job stress, personality and the prior occurrence of injuries in their assessment of risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children--results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idler, Nadja; Teuner, Christina M; Hunger, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Ortlieb, Sandra; Schulz, Holger; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lehmann, Irina; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schaaf, Beate; Heinrich, Joachim; Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2015-04-29

    Physical inactivity in children is an important risk factor for the development of various morbidities and mortality in adulthood, physical activity already has preventive effects during childhood. The objective of this study is to estimate the association between physical activity, healthcare utilization and costs in children. Cross-sectional data of 3356 children aged 9 to 12 years were taken from the 10-year follow-up of the birth cohort studies GINIplus and LISAplus, including information on healthcare utilization and physical activity given by parents via self-administered questionnaires. Using a bottom-up approach, direct costs due to healthcare utilization and indirect costs resulting from parental work absence were estimated for the base year 2007. A two-step regression model compared effects on healthcare utilization and costs for a higher (≥ 7 h/week) versus a lower (physical activity (MVPA) adjusted for age, gender, BMI, education and income of parents, single parenthood and study region. Recycled predictions estimated adjusted mean costs per child and activity group. The analyses for the association between physical activity, healthcare utilization and costs showed no statistically significant results. Different directions of estimates were noticeable throughout cost components in the first step as well as the second step of the regression model. For higher MVPA (≥ 7 h/week) compared with lower MVPA (physical activity on healthcare utilization and costs, as diseases attributable to lacking physical activity might first occur later in life. This underpins the importance of clarifying the long-term effects of physical activity as it may strengthen the promotion of physical activity in children from a health economic perspective.

  14. TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Phil

    2000-09-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.

  15. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  16. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  17. Computational physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-15

    Computers have for many years played a vital role in the acquisition and treatment of experimental data, but they have more recently taken up a much more extended role in physics research. The numerical and algebraic calculations now performed on modern computers make it possible to explore consequences of basic theories in a way which goes beyond the limits of both analytic insight and experimental investigation. This was brought out clearly at the Conference on Perspectives in Computational Physics, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from 29-31 October.

  18. Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The cause of the screening of the weak interactions at long distances puzzled the high-energy community for more nearly half a century. With the discovery of the Higgs boson a new era started with direct experimental information on the physics behind the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This breaking plays a fundamental role in our understanding of particle physics and sits at the high-energy frontier beyond which we expect new physics that supersedes the Standard Model. The Higgs boson (inclusive and differential) production and decay rates offer a new way to probe this frontier.

  19. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  20. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  1. Computational physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Computers have for many years played a vital role in the acquisition and treatment of experimental data, but they have more recently taken up a much more extended role in physics research. The numerical and algebraic calculations now performed on modern computers make it possible to explore consequences of basic theories in a way which goes beyond the limits of both analytic insight and experimental investigation. This was brought out clearly at the Conference on Perspectives in Computational Physics, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from 29-31 October

  2. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  3. Laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Create physically realistic 3D Graphics environments with this introduction to the ideas and techniques behind the process. Author David H. Eberly includes simulations to introduce the key problems involved and then gradually reveals the mathematical and physical concepts needed to solve them. He then describes all the algorithmic foundations and uses code examples and working source code to show how they are implemented, culminating in a large collection of physical simulations. The book tackles the complex, challenging issues that other books avoid, including Lagrangian dynamics, rigid body

  4. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  5. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  6. Factors related to coping strategies during Japanese physical therapy students' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Daisuke; Echigo, Ayumi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify social skills and support that are related to the coping strategies Janpanese physical therapy students use during their clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Third-year students who were finished with their clinical practice participated. Self-administered questionnaires were used, including the daily life skill scale, social support scale, and tri-axial coping scale. Spearman's partial correlation coefficients were calculated between social skills, support of daily living, and coping strategies used during the clinical practice, while controlling for gender. [Results] A total of 56 completed questionnaires (median of age: 21 years; 27 males). Social skills during personal situations-knowledge summarization, self-esteem, and positive thinking-were significantly, positively correlated with planning and affirmative interpreting strategies to approach stressors regarding clinical practice, and negatively related to giving up strategies to avoid stressors. Intimacy, leadership, and empathy (social skills during interpersonal situations) were significantly, positively correlated with the following responses to approach stressors: catharsis, information gathering, and affirmative interpreting. Moreover, emotional/companionship social support was significantly, positively correlated with all avoidant coping strategies. [Conclusion] Japanese physical therapy students who had low personal and interpersonal social skills and excess emotional/companionship support in daily life tend to select avoidance, not approach, coping strategies during clinical practice.

  7. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2011-03-01

    The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.

  9. Supercollider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1985-03-01

    The physics that can be explored with multi-TeV supercolliders is reviewed, including parton distributions, hadron jet production, the standard electroweak theory and minimal extensions to it, technicolor, supersymmetry, and compositeness. 19 refs., 11 figs

  10. LHC physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binoth, T

    2012-01-01

    ... collisions.Covering the topics in a pedagogical manner, the book introduces the theoretical and phenomenological framework of hadron collisions and presents the current theoretical models of frontier physics...

  11. [Physical urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, M; Grabbe, J

    2004-04-01

    The different types of physical urticaria are triggered by mechanical and thermal stimuli, as well as electromagnetic waves. Localized forms restricted to the skin and mucous membranes are most common, but generalized urticaria with variable extracutaneous manifestations can also occur. Physical urticaria is usually sporadic but may rarely have a familial form; it is often associated with chronic urticaria. In most instances, the short time interval between the physical stimulus and reaction points to a causal relationship, but in delayed types the exact diagnosis may be missed without provocation tests. The clinical implication of physical urticaria is demonstrated by investigations showing a greater degree of disability in affected patients as compared to other types of urticaria. There is still an incomplete understanding of the crucial pathophysiological aspects; most likely inflammatory reactions involving leukocytes, endothelial cells and nerves stimulated by various mediators play an important role in this form of urticaria.

  12. Magic Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  13. LHC physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binoth, T

    2012-01-01

    "Exploring the phenomenology of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, LHC Physics focuses on the first years of data collected at the LHC as well as the experimental and theoretical tools involved...

  14. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  15. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  16. Contest Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  17. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  18. Physical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.

  19. Physical oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    The chapter on physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean is written keeping in mind the graduate students and researchers. It starts with a brief introduction (citing latest expeditions) followed by the coastal and near processes (wave climate...

  20. Astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    The book describes the branch of astrophysics in which processes in the universe are investigated with experimental methods known from particle physics experiments. After a historical introduction to the basics of elementary particles, their interactions and the relevant detection techniques are described. The main body of the book concerns cosmic rays. The modern aspects of astroparticle physics are described in a chapter on cosmology. The book provides an orientation in the field of astroparticle physics that many beginners might look for. The physics issues are presented with little mathematics, and the results are illustrated by many diagrams. The reader has a chance to enter this field of astrophysics with a book that closes the gap between expert and popular level.

  1. Physical activity and risk of alcohol use disorders: results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejsing, Louise Kristiansen; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne S; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2015-03-01

    To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohort study with focus on leisure-time physical activity. Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), performed in 1976-1978, 1981-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003. Information on physical activity (classified as Moderate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol use disorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Winalco database. In total, 18,359 people participated in the study, a mean follow-up time of 20.9 years. Cox proportional hazards model with delayed entry was used. Models were adjusted for available covariates (age, smoking habits, alcohol intake, education, income and cohabitation status) including updated time-dependent variables whenever possible. A low or moderate/high leisure-time physical activity was associated with almost half the risk of developing alcohol use disorder compared with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity. This translates into a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29-2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01-2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level. However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric disorders, no association was observed in women with psychiatric comorbidity. Residual confounding may have been present in this study, especially according to rough measures of income and education. In both men and women, being sedentary in leisure time was a risk factor for developing an alcohol use disorder. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Ottesen, Bent; Dykes, Anna-Karin; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-08-01

    To describe patterns of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in relation to pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity, socio-demographic characteristics, fertility history, and lifestyle factors. 4,718 nulliparous with singleton pregnancy and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery were included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school, and smoking habits. The proportion of women who took part in competitive sports, and moderate-to-heavy activities decreased over the three trimesters of pregnancy. The proportion of women with light physical activity was stable during pregnancy while the proportion of women with sedentary activity increased from 6% to 29%. During the third trimester women performing competitive sports or moderate-to-heavy activities before pregnancy continued to have a higher level of physical activity than women with light activities or sedentary activities before pregnancy. In general the intensity and time spent on exercise decreased during pregnancy. Women with the highest level of exercise prior to pregnancy continued to be the most active during pregnancy. Among women with sedentary activities before pregnancy one-fourth changed to light activity during pregnancy.

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  5. Attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Kawachi, Yousuke; Abe, Chihiro; Otomo, Yuki; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-04-04

    Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health. These previous studies suggest that physical activity and social problem-solving ability can interact by helping to sustain mental health. The present study aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. Information on physical activity and social problem-solving was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed data from 185 students who participated in the questionnaire surveys and psychological tests. Social problem-solving as measured by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) (median score 10.85) was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for higher SPSI-R according to physical activity categories. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the ORs (95% CI) in reference to participants who said they never considered exercising were 2.08 (0.69-6.93), 1.62 (0.55-5.26), 2.78 (0.86-9.77), and 6.23 (1.81-23.97) for participants who did not exercise but intended to start, tried to exercise but did not, exercised but not regularly, and exercised regularly, respectively. This finding suggested that positive linear association between physical activity and social problem-solving ability (p value for linear trend social problem-solving ability.

  6. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  7. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  8. Football Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Timothy

    2006-05-01

    This talk discusses a series of one-minute physics lectures given to the ˜ 8 x 10^4 fans that attend the University of Nebraska home football games. The lecture topics range from gyroscopic motion to ionizing collisions between linebackers and I-backs. The problem of simultaneous edification and amusement of the fan in the stands is considered. Several physics tips for the Vols will be proffered.

  9. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  10. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dydak, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  11. TOTEM Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, K; Anelli, G; Aurola, A; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Ciocci, M A; Cuneo, S; Da Vià, C

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the physics programme of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. A new special beam optics with beta* = 90 m, enabling the measurements of the total cross-section, elastic pp scattering and diffractive phenomena already at early LHC runs, is explained. For this and the various other TOTEM running scenarios, the acceptances of the leading proton detectors and of the forward tracking stations for some physics processes are described.

  12. TOTEM physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anelli, G.; Aurola, A.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Calicchio, M.; Capurro, F.; Catanesi, M.G.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cuneo, S.; Da Vi' a, C.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Eggert, K.; Eraluoto, M.; Ferro, F.; Giachero, A.; Hasi, J.; Haug, F.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Jarron, P.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kaspar, J.; Kok, A.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Lamsa, J.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajfeek, M.; LoVetere, M.; Macina, D.; Macri, M.; Meucci, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Ojala, J.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Paoletti, R.; Perrot, A.L.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Rummel, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Saramad, S.; Sauli, F.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Smotlacha, J.; Snoeys, W.; Taylor, C.; Toppinen, A.; Trummal, A.; Turini, N.; Van Remortel, N.; Verardo, L.; Verdier, A.; Watts, S.; Whitmore, J

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses the physics programme of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider in CERN). A new special beam optics with {beta}{sup *} 90 m (betatron value), enabling the measurements of the total cross-section, elastic pp scattering and diffractive phenomena already at early LHC runs, is explained. For this and the various other TOTEM running scenarios, the acceptances of the leading proton detectors and of the forward tracking stations for some physics processes are described. (authors)

  13. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  14. Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bellac, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

  15. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  16. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  17. Learning Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The issue of Teaching physics vs Learning physics in our institutions of higher learning will be discussed. Physics is taught mainly by frontal lectures an old (and proven) method. The great advancements of the Information Age are introduced by exposing the students to vast amounts of computerized information and directing them to numerical problem solving by interacting with the computer. These modern methods have several drawbacks: 1. Students get the impression of easy material acquisition while in fact it becomes superficial. 2. There is little integration of topics that are taught in different courses. 3. Insufficient interest is built among undergraduate students to pursue studies that involve deeper thinking and independent research (namely, studies towards a doctoral degree). Learning physics is a formative process in the education of physicists, natural scientists and engineers. It must be based on discussions and exchange of ideas among the students, since understanding the studied material means being able to explain it to a colleague. Some universities in the US initiated programs of learning physics by creating an environment in which small groups of students are engaged in discussing material, jointly solving problems and jointly conducting simulated experiments. This is done under the supervision of a mentor. Suggestions for implementing this method in Israel will be discussed

  18. Physics revelations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Erice must be not only one of the most picturesque settings for a conference on history, but also one of the most appropriate, founded so the legends say more than 3000 years ago. Particle physics, by contrast, is strikingly modern, but the Ettore Majorana Centre at Erice was a fitting location for physicists to gather and discuss their subject in the International Conference on the History of Original Ideas and Basic Discoveries in Particle Physics, from 29 July to 3 August. Particle physics can probably be said to have begun during the 1930s, a decade that saw Pauli's invention of the neutrino and Fermi's theory of beta-decay, as well as the discovery of the neutron, antimatter (the positron) and the first heavy lepton (the muon). In the relatively short time since then the subject has grown enormously, with many more disoveries, many new theoretical concepts, and many new experimental techniques

  19. Tokamak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical conditions required for breakeven in thermonuclear fusion are derived, and the early conceptual ideas of magnetic confinement and subsequent development are followed, leading to present-day large scale tokamak experiments. Confinement and diffusion are developed in terms of particle orbits, whilst magnetohydrodynamic stability is discussed from energy considerations. From these ideas are derived the scaling laws that determine the physical size and parameters of this fusion configuration. It becomes clear that additional heating is required. However there are currently several major gaps in our understanding of experiments; the causes of anomalous electron energy loss and the major current disruption, the absence of the 'bootstrap' current and what physics determines the maximum plasma pressure consistent with stability. The understanding of these phenomena is a major challenge to plasma physicists. (author)

  20. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  1. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  2. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ahmad

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies, and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015. However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans. In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003 and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025 variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  3. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  4. Use of Oral Contraceptives to Manipulate Menstruation in Young, Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Mia A; Emmerton, Lynne M; Jenkins, David G; Burton, Nicola W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K; Skinner, Tina L

    2018-01-01

    Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral-contraceptive (OC) regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual-manipulation practices in young physically active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with OCs in recreationally and competitively active women. One hundred ninety-one recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity 150-300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), 160 subelite recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity >300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), and 108 competitive (state-, national- or international-level) female athletes (age 23 ± 4 y) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing OC-regimen habits and reasons for manipulation of menstruation. The majority (74%) of OC users reported having deliberately manipulated menstruation at least once during the previous year, with 29% reporting having done so at least 4 times. Prevalence of menstrual manipulation (at least once in the previous year) was not different between competitive athletes, subelite recreationally active women, and recreationally active women (77% vs 74% vs 72%; P > .05). The most cited reasons for manipulating menstruation were special events or holidays (rated by 75% as important/very important), convenience (54%), and sport competition (54%). Menstrual manipulation through extended OC regimens is common practice in recreationally and competitively active young women, for a range of reasons relating to convenience that are not limited to physical activity. This strategy may help reduce hormone-related barriers to exercise participation, thereby positively affecting participation and performance.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Fatigue and Physical Activity in Canadian Thyroid Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhashemi, Ahmad; Jones, Jennifer M; Goldstein, David P; Mina, Daniel Santa; Thabane, Lehana; Sabiston, Catherine M; Chang, Eugene K; Brierley, James D; Sawka, Anna M

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue is common among cancer survivors, but fatigue in thyroid cancer (TC) survivors may be under-appreciated. This study investigated the severity and prevalence of moderate and severe fatigue in TC survivors. Potential predictive factors, including physical activity, were explored. A cross-sectional, written, self-administered TC patient survey and retrospective chart review were performed in an outpatient academic Endocrinology clinic in Toronto, Canada. The primary outcome measure was the global fatigue score measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-7 day (IPAQ-7). Predictors of BFI global fatigue score were explored in univariate analyses and a multivariable linear regression model. The response rate was 63.1% (205/325). Three-quarters of the respondents were women (152/205). The mean age was 52.5 years, and the mean time since first TC surgery was 6.8 years. The mean global BFI score was 3.5 (standard deviation 2.4) out of 10 (10 is worst). The prevalence of moderate-severe fatigue (global BFI score 4.1-10 out of 10) was 41.4% (84/203). Individuals who were unemployed or unable to work due to disability reported significantly higher levels of fatigue compared to the rest of the study population, in uni-and multivariable analyses. Furthermore, increased physical activity was associated with reduced fatigue in uni- and multivariable analyses. Other socio-demographic, disease, or biochemical variables were not significantly associated with fatigue in the multivariable model. Moderate or severe fatigue was reported in about 4/10 TC survivors. Independent predictors of worse fatigue included unemployment and reduced physical activity.

  6. Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2016-01-01

    With the discovery of the Higgs, we have access to a plethora of new physical processes that allow us to further test the SM and beyond. We show a convenient way to parametrize these physics using an effective theory for Higgs couplings, discussing the importance of the basis selection, predictions from a SM effective field theory, and possible ways to measure these couplings with special attention to the high-energy regime. Predictions from the MSSM and MCHM, with the comparison with data, are also provided.

  7. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  8. Mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Geroch, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle

  9. LEP physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Various aspects of the physics made at LEP 1 and LEP 2 (precision measurements and searches for new physics will be discussed, from the fundamental motivations to the publication of the results. The techniques and tools developed and applied to reach the a priori goals of LEP (beam energy measurement, luminosity determination, event selection,...) will be described with a few meaningful examples. The high level techniques & bright ideas which allowed LEP to exceed by a large amount its design performance, and the consequences outcome will also be presented.

  10. Determinants of physical activity in primary school students using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ar-yuwat S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sireewat Ar-yuwat,1,2 Mary Jo Clark,2 Anita Hunter,3 Kathy S James2 1Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA, 3Department of Nursing, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, CA, USA Background: Thailand is a middle-income country in which two-thirds of children demonstrate an insufficient level of physical activity. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity and many other health-related consequences in children. Thus, it is important to understand how primary school children perceive things in their daily life as determinants of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cues, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers on the level of physical activity among primary school students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, in 2011. Multistage sampling selected a total of 123 primary school students. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and the Cues, Perceived Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to assess the student levels of physical activity, as well as the perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action. The association between these factors and the level of physical activity was determined by correlation statistics and confirmed by robust regression. Multivariate analysis of variance compared health belief model determinants: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action on physical activity between male and female students. Self-administered questionnaires were validated and tested in a pilot study. Results: The level of activity among primary school children was significantly influenced by perceived barriers, such as fear of strangers when playing outdoors, bad weather, and too much homework. However, activity was not influenced by cues to action or perceived

  11. Health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    In a series of eight lectures the following topics are dealt with: 1) interaction of radiation with matter; 2) radiation quantities and units; 3) the physical basis of radiation dosimetry; 4) detection and measurement of radiation; 5) mixed radiation dosimetry; 6) special methods in radiation dosimetry; 7) dose from electrons and beta rays; and 8) introduction to radiation biology

  12. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  13. Motorcycle Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Chuck; Girard, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    At the end of a secondary school science study of mechanics, a summary lab uses a motorcycle to provide students with the chance to apply some of the concepts they have studied. Exercises from this motorcycle physics lab are discussed. (Author/JN)

  14. Physical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Appleby, M.C.; Waran, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical environment of an animal is sometimes altered if it is found to cause problems for animal welfare. These changes are commonly quite specific (making changes to space, food, water, aspects of housing design such as flooring, or to other environmental factors such as air quality) and may...

  15. Zombie physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    What makes for a fun student project that provides useful results, a journal publication and a high-profile conference talk? Stephen Ornes describes how Alex Alemi and Matt Bierbaum spiced up their learning by mixing statistical physics with their love of zombie tales.

  16. Physics News

    CERN Multimedia

    Gianotti, F.

    In spite of the fact that real data will only come in the year 2006, this is a very busy and interesting time for Physics-related activities. A very short overview of these activities is given in this issue of the ATLAS News Letter, while the various topics will be described in more detail in the next issues. The Physics and Combined Performance groups are working in four main areas: 1) Assess the ATLAS potential for physics, with emphasis on new channels and ideas. Recent examples are Extra-dimensions, invisible Higgs decays, heavy ion physics, the expected potential of a "Super-LHC" running at a luminosity of 10^35, etc.. 2) Improve the understanding of the detector performance and optimise the reconstruction algorithms. Examples of issues in the pipeline are: can we tag charm-jet ? What can we gain in the jet energy resolution by combining the calorimeter and tracker information to reconstruct the jet energy ? 3) Follow detector changes and detector-related issues and monitor the impact on the perform...

  17. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1969-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  18. Unifying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  19. Astroparticle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    In this astro-particle lecture course I shall try to emphasize evidence of the new physics which we have in cosmological and astrophysical data. This includes support of the inflationary model, necessity of dark energy and of non-baryonic dark matter, the Grizen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin puzzle of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  20. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  1. Physics 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A historical review about the physical research in the years 1687, 1887, and 1987 is given. In this connection the confirmation of Newton's Principia by Halley, the Michelson experiment, the discovery of radiowaves by Hertz, and the recent observation of a supernova are mentioned. (HSI).

  2. Physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities into the physical properties of metals and ceramics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are reported. Topics covered include: high field superconductivity; microstructure and mechanical behavior of ceramics, glass-metal, and ceramic-metal systems; high temperature reactions; relation of microstructure to properties in ceramics; and structure and properties of carbon materials and composite materials

  3. "Explosive" Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzynski, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration in which two-liter plastic bottles can be used to show how force relates to pressure and area. Identical drinking straws are launched out of similar plastic bottles with different-sized openings. This demonstration proves qualitatively that pressure is inversely proportional to the area exposed to an object when a…

  4. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  5. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    A brief historical review of radioactivity, nuclear physics, atomic nucleus, nuclear models,nuclear instability, mass defect, nuclear transmutations, radioactivity phenomenon, Batemand equations, decay constants, half life, mean life, des integration rates,units.Alpha, Beta and gamma decay, other less probably encountered decay modes.Bibliography

  6. Higgs physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theoretical aspects of the physics of Higgs bosons are reviewed focussing on the elements that are relevant for the production and detection at present hadron colliders. After briefly summarizing the basics of electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model, the Higgs production at the LHC and at the Tevatron is ...

  7. After physics

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, David Z

    2015-01-01

    After Physics presents ambitious new essays about some of the deepest questions at the foundations of physics, by the physicist and philosopher David Albert. The book’s title alludes to the close connections between physics and metaphysics, much in evidence throughout these essays. It also alludes to the work of imagining what it would be like for the project of physical science—considered as an investigation into the fundamental laws of nature—to be complete. Albert argues that the difference between the past and the future—traditionally regarded as a matter for metaphysical or conceptual or linguistic or phenomenological analysis—can be understood as a mechanical phenomenon of nature. In another essay he contends that all versions of quantum mechanics that are compatible with the special theory of relativity make it impossible, even in principle, to present the entirety of what can be said about the world as a narrative sequence of “befores” and “afters.” Any sensible and realistic way of...

  8. Flipped Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines flipped learning and then examines its practical implementation in AS and A2 level physics classes, that is, classes for 16-18 year olds. The effect of this teaching style on student learning behaviour and its impact on test results are evaluated. The paper recounts the difficulties of implementing it and evaluates student…

  9. 'KAON' physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1989-07-01

    Plans and prospects are described for KAON, a proposal by TRIUMF to build an advanced hadron facility or kaon factory. The machine would be a 30 GeV high intensity proton machine producing intense beams of kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, and neutrinos. Some of the interesting physics which could be done with such a machine is described. (Author) 11 refs., 2 figs., tab

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  11. Pomeron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Our discussion is primarily confined to the asymptopia. From the phenomenological point of view, diffraction at presently available high energies can be reasonably well described in terms of the bare simplepole pomeron with the intercept at t=O slightly above unity. From the theoretical point of view, however, the self-consistent explanation of diffraction at the asymptopia inevitably necessitates the clothed physical pomeron with the unit intercept at t=O. The bare pomeron is built up from the normal reggeon through dual topological unitarization. Comparitively, the clothed physical pomeron is generated by multidiffractive unitarization of the bare pomeron. The clothed pomeron is often referred to as the geometrical pomeron (GP). The GP is universal in the sense that the asymptotic behaviour of the clothed pomeron is independent of the fine details of dynamics building up and unitarizing the bare pomeron. All unusual features of the physical pomeron are commonly inherent in universality of the GP which plays the role of the most typical guiding principle in pomeron physics. If the GP parmeterization is continued in t to beyond the lowest threshold, however, t-channel unitarity is seriously violated because of the hard branching nature. It is then of importance to investigate whether or not the GP universality is self-consistently guaranteed not only from the s-channel point of view but also from the t-channel point of view, and how the universal GP dynamically affects normal reggeons through the repeated pomeron exchange. Solutions to these key questions are summarized after geometrodynamical parts of a series of our works on pomeron physics is discussed

  12. A 3d Regional Scale Photochemical Air Quality Model. Application to a 3 Day Summertime Episode over Paris Un modèle photochimique 3D de qualité de l'air à l'échelle régionale. Application à un épisode de 3 jours à Paris en été

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissimo B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AZUR, a 3D Eulerian photochemical air quality model for the simulation of air pollution in urban and semi-urban areas. The model tracks gas pollutant species emitted into the atmosphere by transportation and industrial sources, it computes the chemical reactions of these species under varying meteorological conditions (photolysis, pressure, temperature, humidity, their transport by wind and their turbulent diffusion as a function of air stability. It has a modular software structure which includes several components dedicated to specific processes :-MERCURE, a meso-scale meteorological model to compute the wind field, turbulent diffusion coefficients, and other meteorological parameters. It is a 3D regional scale model accounting for different ground types and urban densities. It includes a complete set of physical parameterizations in clear sky. -MIEL, an emission inventory model describing the pollutant fluxes from automotive transportation, domestic and industrial activities. This model includes a mobile source inventory based on road vehicle countings together with global information on transportation fluxes extracted from statistical population data. It uses specific emission factors representative of the vehicle fleet and real driving patterns. -MoCA a photochemical gas phase model describing the chemistry of ozone, NOx, and hydrocarbon compounds. This model, with 83 species and 191 reactions, is a reduced mechanism well adapted to various air quality conditions (ranging from urban to rural conditions. For interpretative reasons, the identity of primary hydrocarbons is preserved. -AIRQUAL, a 3D Eulerian model describing the transport by mean wind flux and air turbulent diffusion of species in the atmosphere, associated with a Gear type chemical equation solver. The model has been applied to a 3-day summertime episode over Paris area. Simulation results are compared to ground level concentration measurements performed by

  13. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  14. Physical exercise: does it help in relieving pain and increasing mobility among older adults with chronic pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Ho, Suki S K

    2011-03-01

    To provide a physical exercise programme for older adults living in nursing homes. Pain is common among older persons and for those already in long-term care and having difficulty in coping with pain will be at risk of further reducing their optimal independent function. A quasi-experimental single group pretest-posttest design. Older persons from a nursing home were invited to join an eight-week physical exercise programme. Each session lasted an hour and sessions were conducted once a week by physiotherapist and nurses. Physical exercise programme consisted of stretching, strengthening, balancing, towel dancing and self-administered massage to various acupressure points. On completion of each session, older persons were given a pamphlet with pictures to illustrate the exercise of the day and they were encouraged to practise these exercises by themselves. Outcome measures including pain intensity, range of movement, activities of daily living and mobility were collected before and after the physical exercise programme. There were 75 older adult participants (57 female and 18 male, mean age 85.14 SD 5.30). Seventy-three percent (n = 55) of them had pain in the previous three months and were referred as pain group, while 25% (n = 20) were no pain group. Pain scores of 4.89 (on a 10-point scale) indicated medium pain intensity before the intervention for the pain group; the location of pain was mainly in the knee, back and shoulder. On completion of the physical exercise programme, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity to 2.89 (SD 2.14) (p daily living remained unchanged. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a physical exercise programme in relieving pain and enhancing functional mobility for older persons. Relevance to clinical practice.  It is important to educate older persons, especially those living in nursing homes, on the importance of engaging in regular physical exercise and maintaining mobility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  16. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  17. Mastering physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN hosts a series of videoconference masterclasses for high-school students. A screen shot of part of the masterclasses videoconference. For two weeks in the middle of March CERN played host to a series of videoconferences as part of the European Particle Physics Masterclasses 2006. The masterclasses were organized for the second consecutive year by ATLAS physicist Michael Kobel from the Technical University of Dresden and colleagues from the European Particle Physics Outreach Group (EPPOG), and more than 3100 high-school students from the United States and 17 countries in Europe participated. On each of the 14 days, between four and six universities hosted groups of students, providing introductory lectures, institute tours and hands-on exercises including the popular 'Hands on CERN' package for analyzing LEP data. To support these events, a CD containing material in 16 languages was distributed to every student. As a grand finale of the day, the groups of students connected to CERN for a videoconference,...

  18. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  19. Physical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  20. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  1. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  2. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  3. Exotic Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sigamani, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A selection of results for searches for exotic physics at the LHC are presented. These include a search for massive resonances, dark matter with a high energy jet in association with large missing transverse momentum, long-lived neutral particles, and narrow dijet resonances. The results are based on 20/fb of LHC proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV taken with the CMS detector.

  4. Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppenfeld, D.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are intended as a pedagogical introduction to physics at $e^+e^-$ and hadron colliders. A selection of processes is used to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of the different machines. The discussion includes $W$ pair production and chargino searches at $e^+e^-$ colliders, Drell-Yan events and the top quark search at the Tevatron, and Higgs searches at the LHC.

  5. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  6. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  7. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.

  8. Understanding the psychosocial and physical work environment in a Singapore medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G C T; Koh, D

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to understand the physical and psychosocial work environment, expectations and the perceived levels of stress encountered of medical students in Singapore. A cross-sectional study employing a self-administered work environment questionnaire was applied over a one-week period to the entire 2003/2004 medical school cohort (1,069 students, response rate 85 percent) from the first to fifth (final) years at the National University of Singapore. 3.3 percent had at least one needlestick injury within the academic year. The majority (especially the clinical students) also had musculoskeletal complaints (neck and back mainly) within the last three months. Using the General Health Questionnaire, it was found that 49.6 percent encountered significant stress and 64.6 percent reported that more than 60 percent of their total life stress was due to medical school. The most important psychosocial stressors were: too much work and difficulty in coping. The clinical students were particularly concerned about being good medical students and doctors. The reasons for choosing Medicine as a career and social health (health, study and sleep habits) were also studied. The health risks of a medical student are primarily psychosocial in nature. The biggest challenges are work demands, maintaining a work-life balance and managing the psychosocial work environment.

  9. Perception of Physical Child Abuse Among Parents and Professionals in a French Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailhache, Marion; Alioum, Ahmadou; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2017-04-01

    France has not prohibited all forms of corporal punishment, and the point at which an act is regarded as physical abuse is not clearly determined. The aim of our study was to compare perception of a caregiver's violent behavior toward his child by professionals and parents in an emergency department and determine characteristics associated with that perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to October 2014 in the emergency department of the pediatric university hospital in Bordeaux, France. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including vignettes describing hypothetical situations of violent interaction between a parent and child, and items related to sociodemographic and family characteristics, was administered to professionals and parents. Vignettes included varying child's age and behavior, frequency of caregiver's behavior, hitting with/without an object, and targeted child's body part. Violent behavior was restricted to hitting for reasons of feasibility. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of situations on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Analyses were multivariate mixed Poisson regressions. A total of 1,001 participants assessed the vignettes. Participants were predominantly females (64%), married or living with a partner (87%), with a median age of 34 years. Professionals assessed vignettes as acceptable significantly more than parents (mean rating 2.8 times higher; p children were less tolerant. Such findings indicate the need for additional research to better appreciate consequences and severity of violent behavior toward children, and the need to educate parents and professionals.

  10. Quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.

    1997-01-01

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)

  11. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  12. Validity of a physical activity questionnaire among African-American Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P N; Fraser, G E; Knutsen, S F; Lindsted, K D; Bennett, H W

    2001-03-01

    Physical activity has been identified as an important predictor of chronic disease risk in numerous studies in which activity levels were measured by questionnaire. Although the validity of physical activity questionnaires has been documented in a number of studies of U.S. adults, few have included a validation analysis among blacks. We have examined the validity and reliability of a physical activity questionnaire that was administered to 165 black Seventh-day Adventists from Southern California. Subjects completed a self-administered physical activity questionnaire and then "reference" measures of activity (7-d activity recalls, pedometer readings) and fitness (treadmill test) were completed in subsets of this population. The authors found that 7-d recall activity levels correlated well with the corresponding questionnaire indices among women (total activity, r = 0.65; vigorous, r = 0.85; moderate, r = 0.44; inactivity, r = 0.59; sleep duration, r = 0.52) and men (total activity, r = 0.51; vigorous, r = 0.65; moderate, r = 0.53; inactivity, r = 0.69; sleep duration, r = 0.39). Vigorous activity from 7-d recalls was best measured by gender-specific indices that included only recreational activities among men and emphasized nonrecreational activities among women. Correlations between questionnaire data and the other "reference" measures were lower. Test-retest correlations of questionnaire items over a 6-wk interval were high (r = 0.4-0.9). Simple questions can measure activities of different intensity with good validity and reliability among black Adventist men and women.

  13. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Ramjee; Bastola, Ramesh; Niroula, Rakshya; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-06-22

    Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Banke district, Nepal in 2013 among higher secondary school students using self-administered questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A sample of 405 students, 178 females and 227 males, of the age-group 15 to 20 years from seven schools were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with participation in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Engagement of female in leisure time physical activity was lower but mean time spent on sitting per day was higher. Students who walked to school and have playground/parks near home, younger females (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.18-8.08), females living in nuclear families (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.01-4.62) and males who cycled to school (OR: 8.09, 95% CI: 2.35-27.80) and have provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.04-5.97) were more likely to be engaged in leisure time physical activity. On the other hand, students who did not have playground in school and lived in rural areas were more likely to sit for more than 6 hours a day. Likewise, male students of private school (OR: 6.41, 95% CI: 2.89-14.21), who used vehicle to reach school (OR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.26-27.75) and have no provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.09-8.07) had longer sitting time. Difference in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour was found among male and female school adolescents. Interventions

  14. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Pietinen, Pirjo; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2002-05-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity worldwide are suggested to be caused largely by an environment that promotes sedentariness and excessive food intake. We investigated associations of body mass index (BMI) and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol consumption, and smoking history. In addition, we examined the consistency of these associations over time, with the aim of assessing whether the significance of lifestyle variables as correlates of obesity increased over a 15-y period. Independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Altogether, 24604 randomly selected men and women (aged 25-64 y) participated in these surveys. The subjects' weights and heights were measured, and data on lifestyle were collected with self-administered questionnaires. In men and women, perceived general health, leisure-time physical activity, and daily vegetable consumption were inversely associated with obesity, as were bread consumption in women and activity at work in men. Consumption of sausages, milk, and sour milk and heavy work (in women only) were positively associated with obesity. Obesity was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking history. Most associations were constant over the 15-y period. However, the inverse associations of BMI with physical activity in women and with perceived health in men seemed to strengthen over time. A physically active lifestyle with abstention from smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, and consumption of healthy foods maximizes the chances of having a normal weight. The significance of avoiding sedentariness increases over time as a factor associated with normal weight.

  15. Physical domains in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboff, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Do the plasma in the sun's core and the electron-conduction plasma in a semiconductor behave in the same way? This question is both fundamental and practical, for plasma physics plays a role in a vast area of natural phenomena and in many engineering devices. Understanding the cosmos, or designing a computer chip or a thermonuclear fusion reactor, requires first of all a realization of equations of motion that are appropriate to the particular problem. Similar physical differences occur in engineered structures. The plasmas in most thermonuclear fusion devices are basically like the plasma in the core of the sun: weakly coupled and classical - that is, obeying Newton's laws and Maxwell's equations. The conduction electrons in a semiconductor, on the other hand, obey the laws of quantum mechanics

  16. Fermentation of maize (Zea mays L.) meal or mawe production in Benin : physical, chemical and microbiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mawè is a sour dough made from partially dehulled maize meal, which has undergone natural fermentation for 1 to 3 days.

    In this thesis, the processing methods, the characteristics of the products and the physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of

  17. Growth requirement for N as a criterion to assess the effects of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake fluxes in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Kuiper, PJC; Clarkson, DT

    The effects of physical manipulation of hydroponically grown plants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cvs Subito and Glares) on nitrate uptake fluxes were studied in a long-term experiment (3 days), and in short-term label experiments (2 h) with N-13-nitrate and N-15-nitrate. In the long-term

  18. Impaired Physical Performance and Clinical Responses after a Recreational Bodybuilder's Self-Administration of Steroids: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Katherine; Silva-Junior, Fernando Lopes; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; De-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We reported clinical and physical responses to 7 weeks of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) self-administration in a male recreational bodybuilder. He was self-administrating a total of 3,250 mg of testosterone when his previous and current clinical and physical trials records were revisited. Body shape, performance, and biochemistry results were clustered into three phases labeled PRE (before the self-use), POST I (immediately at the cessation of the 7-week administration), and POST II (12 weeks after the cessation). Elevated testosterone and estradiol levels were observed in the POST I phase, while hepatic and renal functions remained altered in the POST II phase. Body mass and body fat percentages increased throughout the three phases. When adjusted according to body mass, drops in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity (2.1% to 12.9%) were observed across the phases. This case report shows that overall performance decreased when a bodybuilding practitioner self-administered AAS. PMID:26770942

  19. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  20. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  1. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  2. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  3. Throughout physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This book is aimed at the whole Community of Physicists: researchers, teachers, students. It is concerned with current progress in research. The articles are grouped in chapters. Heavy ion inertial fusion is presented; a paper on light ion beams is also given. At the very high temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion, matter is highly ionized. Thus it is essential to study ions. Ion sources and multicharged ion studies are presented. Fundamental nuclear physics near new generation accelerators is reviewed. Astrophysics is not forgotten. Mass transfer in chemical engineering and in geophysics is evoqued [fr

  4. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  5. Theorectial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the 14th annual seminar on theoretical physics held at Golden Gate. The following topics were discussed: natural quark field confinement; boson expansions; model calculations for three particles outside a closed shell by means of Green functions and the Dyson boson expansion; the topology of nuclear manifolds; localised orbitals in the description of molecular structure; enery and entropy principles in plasma stability theory; the Vlasov model of small amplitude waves in a plasma in an uniform magnetic field and the influence of spin fluctuations on the spin-phonon-interaction in a ferromagnetic crystal

  6. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation physics program is directed toward understanding the basic mechanism by which charged particles lose energy in traversing matter, and presenting this information in a way meaningful to the study of radiation dosimetry and biological damage. Measurements of the absolute cross sections for the ejection of electrons from ionization by fast charged particles, measurements of optical fluorescence from liquid systems, preliminary analyses of electron emission cross sections for proton bombardment of carbon foils, and nonexponential decay of fluorescence in both polar and nonpolar solutions are covered

  7. Hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.

    1984-01-01

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain

  8. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myre, W.C.; DeMontmollin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Serious concern about physical protection of nuclear facilities began around 1972. R and D was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories which had developed techniques to protect weapons for many years. Special vehicles, convoy procedures, and a communications system previously developed for weapons shipments were improved and extended for shipments of other sensitive materials. Barriers, perimeter alarms, portal and internal control systems were developed, tested, and published in handbooks and presented at symposia. Training programs were initiated for U.S. and foreign personnel. Containment and surveillance techniques were developed for the IAEA. Presently emphasis is on computer security, active barriers, and techniques to prevent theft or sabotage by ''insiders''

  9. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 2 3 Po, 2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 2 3 Po level of helium-like krypton

  10. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  12. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  13. Prevalence and Attitude of Women to Spousal Physical Abuse in Pregnancy in a Niger Delta Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736

  14. Traditional foods and physical activity patterns and associations with cultural factors in a diverse Alaska Native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtough, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p < 0.05). The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes.

  15. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  16. Physical Functioning, Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Chronic Heart Failure in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Boo, Sunjoo; Yu, Jihyoung; Suh, Soon-Rim; Chun, Kook Jin; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Both the beneficial relationship between exercise and quality of life and the important role played by exercise self-efficacy in maintaining an exercise regimen among individuals with chronic heart failure are well known. However, most nursing interventions for Korean patients with chronic heart failure focus only on providing education related to risk factors and symptoms. Little information is available regarding the influence of physical functions, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life. This study was conducted to examine the impact of physical functioning, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life among individuals with chronic heart failure. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data were collected from 116 outpatients with chronic heart failure in Korea. Left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classifications were chart reviewed. Information pertaining to levels of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions. About 60% of participants were physically inactive, and most showed relatively low exercise self-efficacy. The mean quality-of-life score was 80.09. The significant correlates for quality of life were poverty, functional status, physical inactivity, and exercise self-efficacy. Collectively, these four variables accounted for 50% of the observed total variance in quality of life. Approaches that focus on enhancing exercise self-efficacy may improve patient-centered outcomes in those with chronic heart failure. In light of the low level of exercise self-efficacy reported and the demonstrated ability of this factor to predict quality of life, the development of effective strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy offers a novel and effective approach to improving

  17. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacre, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  19. Continuum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.   The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...

  20. Supercollider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.; Hinchliffe, I.; Lane, K.; Quigg, C.

    1984-01-01

    Eichten et al. summarize the motivation for exploring the 1-TeV ( = 10 12 eV) energy scale in elementary particle interactions and explore the capabilities of proton-(anti)proton colliders with beam energies between 1 and 50 TeV. The authors calculate the production rates and characteristics for a number of conventional processes, and discuss their intrinsic physics interest as well as their role as backgrounds to more exotic phenomena. The authors review the theoretical motivation and expected signatures for several new phenomena which may occur on the 1-TeV scale. Their results provide a reference point for the choice of machine parameters and for experiment design

  1. LHC Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From quarks to yet unknown particles, CERN continues to explore new frontiers in physics. Thanks to some of the most complex instruments ever made in a laboratory, Nature can reveal its inner secrets to the scientists.   Mass is the amount of material in an object. Newton showed us that weight is proportional to mass, and Einstein showed that energy is related to mass through the famous equation E = mc2. When it comes to elementary particles, physicists are dealing with a very fundamental question: where does the mass come from?  Why do particles with no known structure have mass? The answer may lie in the so-called Higgs mechanism. According to this theory, a medium - called the Higgs field - spreads through all the Universe at all times. Particles acquire their mass by interacting with this field, such that those that interact strongly are heavier than those having a weaker interaction. The Higgs boson is th...

  2. HERA physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.

    1994-02-01

    The HERA project (HERA 1981, Wiik 1982, 1992, Voss 1988) was approved in 1984. Operation of HERA for physics started in 1992 with the two large general purpose detectors H1 (1986) and ZEUS (1986) taking data. A third experiment, HERMES (1990), which has been approved recently for the measurement of the nucleon spin structure by colliding the polarized electron beam with a gas jet of polarized nucleons, is under construction. A fourth experiment, HERA-B (HERA-B 1992), which aims at measuring CP violation in the b anti b system by scattering beam protons on a fixed target, is under discussion. These lectures are intended for the newcomer to the field and focus on results obtained by H1 and ZEUS. (orig.)

  3. DUNE Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, James [Fermilab

    2015-08-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is a worldwide effort to build a next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiment with a neutrino beam and near detector at Fermilab and a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility 1,300 km from Fermilab. It is a merger of previous efforts and other interested parties to build, operate and exploit a staged 40-kt liquid argon detector and a high precision near detector exposed to a high-power, broad-band neutrino beam. The goals of the experiment are precision oscillation measurements, including CP violation and neutrino mass hierarchy determination, search for nucleon decay, and neutrino astrophysics, as well as precision neutrino physics at the near site.

  4. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stefanie; Garland, Suzanne; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure-the SenseWear Armband (SWA)-to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and SWA data. A total of 58

  5. [Associations among physical condition, life hour, and dietary intake male Japanese shift workers: physical condition and lifestyle survey of male Japanese shift workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Tomoe; Yoshita, Katsushi; Tabata, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the actual state of life hours (working time, sleep time, and time of meal intake) and dietary habits of male shift work employees, and to elucidate the impact of working arrangements and dietary habits on their physical condition and health problems. The subjects were 187 male employees (aged 18-64 years) working for an industrial company in Toyama prefecture. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess dietary habit, lifestyle habits, and life hours at the time of a periodic health examination in April 2013. The subjects were grouped based on their working condition (i.e., day shift, late shift, and late-night shift) into two groups of day shift (n = 107) and shiftwork (n = 80). The proportion of time spent sleeping and feeding was determined in half hour increments, and the incidences of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and midnight snack intake were calculated for each working condition. We also examined the association between the frequency of eating and physical condition for each working condition. The state of life hours of the shiftwork group during the day was similar to that of the day shift group. However, the workers' state of life hours, incidences of skipping meals, and midnight snack intake varied considerably when working at the other shift times. In the shiftwork group, regardless of the working patterns, the BMI and % body fat of the group that ate more than three times a day were significantly lower than those of the group that ate less than twice a day. The results of the present study suggest that it is difficult to ensure the time and opportunity for meals for shift workers. We consider that it is necessary to prevent them skipping of meals, and to support a proper dietary intake during the night.

  6. Safety in numbers: does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)(1) and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of work-related physical assaults on mental health among Japanese employees with different socioeconomic status: The Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study (JSTRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-12-01

    Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees' mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status), violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%). The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2-3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females) than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females) after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8). Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES.

  8. The impact of work-related physical assaults on mental health among Japanese employees with different socioeconomic status: The Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study (JSTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Tsuno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status, violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%. The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2–3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8. Conclusions: Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES. Keywords: Depression, Employment, Japan, Mental health, Social class, Worker, Violence, Workplace

  9. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  10. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Stampa Matthieu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical functional limitations (PFL have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%; the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%. Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women.

  11. American Physical Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do APTA represents more than 100,000 members: physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports ...

  12. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  13. International Physics Conference at the Anatolian Peak (IPCAP2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the International Physics Conference at the Anatolian Pe ak (IPCAP2016) Erzurum, Turkey, 25-27 February 2016, organized by Atatürk University Physics Department that were peer-reviewed by 40 expert referees to the best professional and scientific standards. The conference aims; to share the experiences and research results of academicians, researchers, and students (scientists) studying physics and related fields, to exchange information about the latest developments in physical science, to discuss the collaboration facilities and finally to provide scientific communication between scientists from different countries. The Conference venue was the Atatürk University Nenehatun Cultural Center in Erzurum. IPCAP 2016 conference covers a wide spectrum of important topics on physics with 12 different issues; 1. Atomic, Molecular and Plasma Physics; 2. Solid State and Nanophysics; 3. Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Energy; 4. Particle Physics; 5. Optic and Lasers; 6. Statistic Physics; 7. Mathematical Physics, 8. Applied Physics; 9. Biophysics and Medical Physics; 10. Physics Education; 11. Astronomy and Astrophysics and 12. Other topics. Even though we have organized the first IPCAP 2016 conference this year, about 300 papers will be presented in 4 separated halls and in 8 oral and 2 poster sessions during 3 days. I would like to thank the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to the conference. I would also like to thank the members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committee, the members of the Organizing, conference secretary and sponsors. I hope the reader will enjoy this special issue and will find ideas for new bright achievements. (paper)

  14. Antineutron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bressani, Tullio

    2003-01-01

    Antineutrons ($\\overline{n}$'s) have been used only in the last few years as projectiles for nuclear and particle physics experiments, mainly in the low momentum region. The reason is that, in spite of some undoubted advantages (absence of Coulomb corrections, pure I=1 state for the ($\\overline{n}p$) system), the difficulties in obtaining beams of $\\overline{n}$'s of suitable intensity and energy definition were overwhelming. The setting-up of suitable beams at BNL and mainly at CERN LEAR (with momentum lower than 400 MeV/c) allowed a first round of interesting experiments. In this review a summary of the most important experimental issues obtained in this field will be presented. They range from studies on the antineutron annihilation dynamics, intended to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the particles production as well as for the possible formation of quasinuclear nucleon-antinucleon bound states, to meson spectroscopy researches, aiming to identify the existence of new, possibly exotic, resona...

  15. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  16. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Beyer, H.; Bosch, F.; Dohmann, H.D.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator UNILAC is well suited to experiments in the field of atomic physics because, with the aid of high-energy heavy ions atoms can be produced in exotic states - that is, heavy atoms with only a few electrons. Also, in close collisions of heavy ions (atomic number Z 1 ) and heavy target atoms (Z 2 ) short-lived quasi-atomic 'superheavy' systems will be formed - huge 'atoms', where the inner electrons are bound in the field of the combined charge Z 1 + Z 2 , which exceeds by far the charge of the known elements (Z <= 109). Those exotic or transient superheavy atoms delivered from the heavy ion accelerator make it possible to study for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory exotic, but fundamental, processes, which occur only inside stars. Some of the basic research carried out with the UNILAC is discussed. This includes investigation of highly charged heavy atoms with the beam-foil method, the spectroscopy of highly charged slow-recoil ions, atomic collision studies with highly ionised, decelerated ions and investigations of super-heavy quasi-atoms. (U.K.)

  17. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  18. A 3 D regional scale photochemical air quality model application to a 3 day summertime episode over Paris; Un modele photochimique 3D de qualite de l`air a l`echelle regionale. Application a un episode de 3 jours a Paris en ete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaecker-Voirol, A.; Lipphardt, M.; Martin, B.; Quandalle, Ph.; Salles, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Carissimo, B.; Dupont, P.M.; Musson-Genon, L.; Riboud, P.M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Aumont, B.; Bergametti, G.; Bey, I.; Toupanse, G. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire interuniversitaire des systemes atmospheriques]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents AZUR, a 3D Eulerian photochemical air quality model for the simulation of air pollution in urban and semi-urban areas. The model tracks gas pollutant species emitted into the atmosphere by transportation and industrial sources, it computes the chemical reactions of these species under varying meteorological conditions (photolysis, pressure, temperature, humidity), their transport by wind and their turbulent diffusion as a function of air stability. It has a modular software structure which includes several components dedicated to specific processes: MERCURE, a meso-scale meteorological model to compute the wind field, turbulent diffusion coefficients, and other meteorological parameters; MIEL, an emission inventory model describing the pollutant fluxes from automotive transportation, domestic and industrial activities; MoCA a photochemical gas phase model describing the chemistry of ozone, NO{sub x}, an hydrocarbon compounds; AIRQUAL, a 3D Eulerian model describing the transport by mean wind flux and air turbulent diffusion of species in the atmosphere, associated with a Gear type chemical equation solver. The model has been applied to a 3-day summertime episode over Paris area. Simulation results are compared to ground level concentration measurements performed by the local monitoring network (Airparif). (authors) 22 refs.

  19. Methyl Parathion Masks Withdrawal from Physical Dependence on Morphine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong; Ho, Ing K.; Kramer, Robert E.; Baker, Rodney C.; Rockhold, Robin W.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The cholinergic system has been proposed to participate in the development of dependence on opioids. The present study examined effects of dermal pretreatment with methyl parathion (MP), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the development of physical dependence on morphine. Opioid dependence was induced by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of morphine (26 nmol/μl/h) for 3 days in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two doses of MP, 12.5 mg/kg, d...

  20. Higgs physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2002-07-01

    Higgs physics is at present poised at an interesting juncture, when a light Higgs boson of the standard model (henceforth to be referred to as SM), a spin-zero particle which would signal spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the simplest form, has not been seen until the conclusion of experiments at LEP and LEP2 electron-positron collider at CERN, Geneva. From a theoretical point of view, the developments until the present time are complex and interesting. While some of the basic principles underlying spontaneous symmetry breaking of gauge symmetry and the Higgs mechanism are now commonly known, the actual realization of this mechanism in nature is still a subject of investigation. The mass of the SM Higgs boson is an unknown parameter and the phenomenology is sensitively dependent on the mass. Thus the properties and discovery strategies for the Higgs vary greatly depending on the supposed mass, and the phenomenology rapidly gets complex as the range of the Higgs mass is increased. Branching rations for various channels and the total decay width are shown as a function of the Higgs mass. We can get the total width of the Higgs by adding up all the decay channels. Up to masses of about 140 GeV, the Higgs is very narrow, Γ(H) H ∼ 200 GeV. The width cannot be measured directly in the intermediate mass region at LHC or e + e - colliders. However, it could be measured at μ + μ - colliders. Above a mass of about 250 GeV, the state is wide enough to be observable, in general. Above the two-vector-boson threshold, the width is Γ(H) ∼ 1/2m H 3 (TeV). For m H ∼ 1 TeV, Γ H ∼ 1/2 TeV. (author)

  1. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  2. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  3. National Physics Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oancea, Margareta; Sandu, Doina; Calboreanu, Rodica

    2000-01-01

    The National Physics Conference organized annually by the Romanian Physical Society has been held in Constanta, Romania on September 21-23, 2000. It covered the following 12 sections: - 1. Astrophysics and High Energy (9 reports); - 2. Atomic and Molecular Physics (20 reports); - 3. Nuclear Physics (18 reports); - 4. Technical and Engineering Physics (34 reports); - 5. Condensed Matter Physics (67 reports); - 6. Optics and Quantum Electronics (12 reports); - 7. Plasma Physics (27 reports); - 8. Biophysics (30 reports); - 9. Physics for Energy (17 reports); - 10. Mathematical and Computational Physics (20 reports); -11. Physics and Education (8 reports); - 12. Earth and Environmental Physics (16 reports). The proceedings contains mainly short communications

  4. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical...... activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...... for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (...

  6. The Transition of Medical Students Through Residency: Effects on Physical Activity and Other Lifestyle-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alba; Mitjans, Anna; Baranda, Lucía; Salamero, Manel; McKenna, James; Arteman, Antoni; Violán, Mariona

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare-seeking behaviors during the transition from medical school graduation to residency training, a period characterized by increased rates of stress and lack of free time due to demanding working conditions. All of these issues are likely to affect physical activity (PA) level. This study explored the evolution of PA and other lifestyle behaviors during this transition. A cross-sectional study and a cohort study were conducted with medical students (2010) and physicians before and after the first year of residency (2013 and 2014). A self-administered questionnaire assessed PA, health and lifestyle behaviors. From a sample of 420 medical students and 478 residents, 74% comply with current PA guidelines. PA decreased by 16% during residency. Low levels of PA were found among (i) females and in respondents who reported (ii) poor self-perceived health and (iii) unhealthy body weight (P mental health in first-year residents. The transition has a negative effect on physicians' PA level that may affect physicians' own health and patient care. Medical programs should encourage residents to engage in PA to assure physicians' personal and mental health.

  7. A cluster-analytical approach towards physical activity and eating habits among 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Legiest, E; Maes, L

    2008-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters-based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits-can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index (weekly consumption of sugar and/or fat) and the daily diversity index. Chi-squares tested gender differences in clusters and associations with socio-economic status (SES), overweight, controlling for gender. Following distribution was reliable: Sporty Healthy Eaters (n=242; high vigorous PA, average moderate PA, low excess, higher diversity), Sporty Mixed Eaters (n=288; high overall PA, very high excess, high diversity), Moderate Active Healthy Eaters (n=221; average vigorous PA, highest moderate PA, lower excess, higher diversity), Unsporting Unhealthy Eaters (n=276; below average on all indexes, diversity extremely low) and Sedentary Healthy Eaters (n=318; lowest overall PA, higher excess, highest diversity). The Sporty Healthy Eaters and Sporty Mixed Eaters comprised more males, Sedentary Healthy Eaters more females. No associations with SES or overweight were found for the clusters. Co-occurrence of healthy and unhealthy behaviour exists. Only Sporty Healthy Eaters combine high levels of PA with low excess index and higher dietary diversity index. Effective ways of directing children to selective, individual relevant recommendations should be developed.

  8. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  9. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  10. Physical dating violence among adolescents and young adults with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Chermack, Stephen T; Walton, Maureen A

    2015-08-01

    This study determined prevalence and correlates of physical dating violence (victimization or aggression) among male and female youth with alcohol misuse and seeking emergency department (ED) care. Patients age 14-20 seeking care at a single large university-based ED completed a computerized, self-administered, cross-sectional survey. Measures included demographics, alcohol and substance use, mental health problems, health service use, peer influences, parent support, and community involvement. Bivariate and multivariate regression assessed physical dating violence correlates. Among 842 male and female youth seeking ED care who screened positive for alcohol misuse, 22.3% (n=188) reported dating violence in the past year. Multivariate analyses showed variables associated with dating violence were female gender (AOR 2.17, CI 1.46-3.22), Caucasian race (AOR 0.59, CI 0.37-0.93), receipt of public assistance (AOR 1.82, CI 1.16-2.87), AUDIT Score (AOR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10), older age of drinking onset (AOR 0.86, CI 0.77-0.96), suicidal ideation or attempt (AOR 1.95, CI 1.13-3.37), frequency of ED visits (AOR 1.22, CI 1.05-1.46), negative peer influences (AOR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.10), and positive peer influences (AOR 0.86, CI 0.80-0.93). Nearly 1 in 4 youth with alcohol misuse seeking ED care report dating violence. Key correlates of dating violence included alcohol use severity, suicidal ideation, ED services, and peer influences. Evidence-based dating violence interventions addressing these correlates are needed for youth with alcohol misuse seeking ED care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between physical maltreatment and substance use among adolescents: a survey of 95,788 adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Jean H; Tsui, Hi-Yi; Cheung, Albert; Lau, Mason; Yu, Aaron

    2005-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment and the infliction of injuries from a beating occurring without provocation in the previous 6 months among secondary school children in Hong Kong, and to examine the associations between these two forms of physical maltreatment with substance-use-related behaviors and attitudes. Using secondary data, a cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey of 95,788 secondary school students was conducted in Hong Kong. The prevalence of physical maltreatment showed statistically significant associations with younger age, attendance in Chinese-speaking day schools, temporary housing, residence with only one parent, poorer parental relationship, greater peer influence, perceptions of excessive academic pressure, and feelings of being blamed for poor academic performance. Adolescents who had experienced corporal punishment were more likely to be current users of alcohol (OR = 1.11), tobacco (OR = 1.31), psychoactive substances (OR = 1.60), or heroin (OR = 1.90). Those who had been beaten to injury by a family member without provocation within the past 6 months also were more likely to be current users of alcohol (OR = 1.35), tobacco (OR = 1.65), psychoactive substances (OR = 2.39), and heroin (OR = 3.07). Additionally, students who experienced physical maltreatment were more likely to be acquainted with habitual substance users, have better access to psychoactive substances, to have engaged in sex after abusing drugs, have obtained money from illegal sources to purchase drugs, and believe that psychoactive substances are not harmful or addictive. Physical maltreatment showed strong associations with drug-related behaviors and attitudes, after adjusting for potential confounders. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the causal direction of the relationship.

  12. Changes in Objectively-Determined Walkability and Physical Activity in Adults: A Quasi-Longitudinal Residential Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; McLaren, Lindsay; Salvo, Grazia; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2017-05-22

    Causal evidence for the built environment's role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data ( n = 915). Participants, some of whom moved neighbourhood during the past 12 months ( n = 95), reported their perceived change in transportation walking and cycling, and overall physical activity during that period. The questionnaire also captured residential self-selection, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Walk Scores ® were linked to each participant's current and previous neighbourhood and three groups identified: walkability "improvers" ( n = 48); "decliners" ( n = 47), and; "maintainers" ( n = 820). Perceived change in physical activity was compared between the three groups using propensity score covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression (odds ratios: OR). Compared with walkability maintainers, walkability decliners (OR 4.37) and improvers (OR 4.14) were more likely ( p walkability decliners were also more likely (OR 3.17) to report decreasing their transportation walking since moving. Walkability improvers were more likely than maintainers to increase their transportation cycling since moving neighbourhood (OR 4.22). Temporal changes in neighbourhood walkability resulting from residential relocation appear to be associated with reported temporal changes in transportation walking and cycling in adults.

  13. Can we determine whether physical limitations are more prevalent in the US than in countries with comparable life expectancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D; Weinstein, Maxine

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate the variability in estimates of self-reported physical limitations by age across four nationally representative surveys in the US. We consider its implications for determining whether, as previous literature suggests, the US estimates reveal limitations at an earlier age than in three countries with similar life expectancy: England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Based on cross-sectional data from seven population-based surveys, we use local mean smoothing to plot self-reported limitations by age for each of four physical tasks for each survey, stratified by sex. We find substantial variation in the estimates in the US across four nationally-representative surveys. For example, one US survey suggests that American women experience a walking limitation 15 years earlier than their Costa Rican counterparts, while another US survey implies that Americans have a 4-year advantage. Differences in mode of survey may account for higher prevalence of limitations in the one survey that used a self-administered mail-in questionnaire than in the other surveys that used in-person or telephone interviews. Yet, even among US surveys that used the same mode, there is still so much variability in estimates that we cannot conclude whether Americans have better or worse function than their counterparts in the other countries. Seemingly minor differences in question wording and response categories may account for the remaining inconsistency. If minor differences in question wording can result in such extensive variation in the estimates within a given population, then lack of comparability is likely to be an even greater problem when examining results across countries that do not share the same language or culture. Despite the potential utility of self-reported physical function within a survey sample, our findings imply that absolute estimates of population-level prevalence of self-reported physical limitations are unlikely to be strictly comparable across countries-or even

  14. A comparison of physical health status, self-esteem, family support and health-promoting behaviours between aged living alone and living with family in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Yun, Eun K

    2011-06-01

    This study examined and compared the physical health status, self-esteem, family support and health-promoting behaviours between aged living alone and the aged living with family. As the Korean population ages, the number of older people living alone is steadily rising. Previous studies have been conducted to define the factors affecting the health of older people. However, research studies focused on the impact of family support, which potentially affects the overall health of older people, have been rarely conducted. This was a comparative descriptive design. The survey included a set of four questionnaires. All measures were self-administered. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demographic characteristics. The Chi-square test and independent t-test were used to examine the differences between the aged living alone and the aged living with family. The physical health status (t=-40·85, pself-esteem (t=-26·75, pexercise (t=-15·86, pself-esteem and health-promoting behaviours than the aged living alone. Clinical practice should be focused on emotional support with family or society for Korean aged, especially the aged living alone. Also, the practice should be adjusted to encourage the health-promoting behaviour for them as well. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Bullying, its effects on attitude towards class attendance and the contribution of physical and dentofacial features among adolescents in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaodi, Oguchi; Abdulmanan, Yahaya; Emmanuel, Adeyemi Tope; Muhammad, Jibril; Mohammed, Modu Adam; Izegboya, Akpasa; Donald, Otuyemi Olayinka; Balarabe, Sani

    2017-07-21

    Background Bullying is a worldwide problem with varying consequences. Victims of school bullying may be targeted for many reasons including their appearance. They may also fear school and have difficulties in concentration. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of bullying amongst adolescents in Kano, Northern Nigeria, the contribution of physical features and the perceived effect of bullying on their academic performance and school attendance. Subjects and methods Eight hundred and thirty-five students aged between 12 years and 17 years from eight randomly selected secondary schools in Kano, Nigeria took part in this study. Data collection was by self-administered questionnaires and analysis was by SPSS version 17. Results The pupils' mean age and standard deviation was 14.79 + 1.53 years. There were more male and private school pupils with 55.1% and 62%, respectively. About 43% of respondents reported being victims of bullying while about 32% had bullied someone else. There was more bullying in public schools than in private schools (p-value = 0.003). However, there was no significant gender difference (p > 0.05). More bullied pupils hated being in or outside the classroom (p bullied pupils played truant than non-bullied (p bullying felt it had consequences on their academic performance. Bullies frequently targeted general physical and dento-facial appearance. Conclusion The prevalence of bullying was high among the sampled population especially within public schools. This also had a significant negative effect on the students' academic performance.

  16. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the report of the Panel on Nuclear Physics of the Physics Survey Committee, established by the National Research Council in 1983. The report presents many of the major advances in nuclear physics during the past decade, sketches the impacts of nuclear physics on other sciences and on society, and describes the current frontiers of the field. It concludes with a chapter on the recommended priorities for this discipline

  17. Physics News in 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Phillip F., Ed.

    Information is provided on some of the interesting and newsworthy developments in physics and its related fields during 1983. Areas considered include: (1) acoustics; (2) astrophysics; (3) condensed matter physics; (4) crystallography; (5) physics education; (6) electron and atomic physics; (7) elementary particle physics; (8) fluid dynamics; (9)…

  18. Large facilities in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.; Schopper, H.

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference dealt with the following topics: particle physics, computing and data transmission, nuclear and atomic physics and their new facets, condensed matter physics, fusion and plasma physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics. The proceedings include the review talks, a report on the OECD Megascience Forum and summaries of the round-table discussions. figs., tabs., refs

  19. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  20. [Burnout syndrome among generalist medical doctors of Douala region (Cameroon): Can physical activities be a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandengue, S H; Owona Manga, L J; Lobè-Tanga, M Y; Assomo-Ndemba, P B; Nsongan-Bahebege, S; Bika-Lélé, C; Ngo Sack, F; Njamnshi, A K; Etoundi-Ngoa, S L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and document the importance of Burnout syndrome among generalist medical doctors (GMD) since no investigation have been carried in Cameroon. Cross-sectional study including 85 GMD using a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, socioprofessional conditions, Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) to evaluate burnout, and Ricci-Gagnon physical activities level metrics. 77 GMD (90.6 %) reported having never heard about burnout. Mean age was 29 years (range 24-42 years). The MBI-HSS revealed that 36 GMD (42.4 %) were victims of burnout, with 27 (31.8 %) at a low level, 8 (9.4 %) moderate and one (1.2 %) severe. Burnout was associated with distance from home to job place (p ⟨ 0.05), strenuous job (p = 0.04), number of children in charge (p = 0.007), number of hospital attended (p = 0.003), number of hours of labor per day (p = 0.0001), conflicts with the hierarchy (p = 0.01), number of guards per month (p = 0.01). Physical activities practice did not showed significant preventive effect on burnout (p = 0.3) (Odds-ratio = 1.45, IC 95 % 0.6, 3.45). Burnout syndrome is not well known among GMD in Douala, though having a high prevalence. Various socio-demographic and socio-professional factors are associated and contribute to increase the level of affect. Burnout seems to be a vicious somato-psycho-somatic disorder. This study did not found a protective or preventive effect of physical activities on burnout.

  1. Role of Leisure Time Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention: Awareness and Practice among Medical Students at Cairo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Mohamed Abdelmoaty, Alshaimaa; Fouad Abd El Badei, Alaa; Obaid, Hamzah Ahmed; Mohamed, Esraa Mowafy; abosheab, Alaa; Abdulkarim, Ali; Abdelsadek, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is accountable for a sizable proportion of breast and colorectal cancers and other non-communicable diseases. The higher the individual’s awareness about the protective role of physical activity (PA) in reducing chronic disease, the greater the adoption of PA will be. Objectives: To determine the level of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and awareness towards the role of LTPA in cancer prevention among a sample of Medical students at Cairo University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with multistage sampling (a total of 519 students from second to six year students) and a self administered questionnaire covering the study objectives. Results: A significant decrease in the actual?? level of LTPA was noted with students’ year of enrollment at the medical school. However, their knowledge about roles of PA in preventing coronary heart, elevated blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol exceeded 80%, with steady increase in relation to the year of enrolment from the second to 6th years. Their knowledge about PA preventive influence for cancer was low irrespective of the year enrolment (32.2% for prevention of colon and 16.2% for breast cancers). The main sources of knowledge about the role of PA in cancer prevention were the internet and media (77%). Conclusion: The students demonstrated a decline in their LTPA coupled with poor knowledge about the role of LTPA in cancer prevention. Revision of the current curricula should be considered with inclusion of more information on the role of LTPA in cancer prevention to facilitate better awareness of medical students and through them their future patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  3. Vol. 2: Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to nuclear physics

  4. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  8. Vol. 6: Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to plasma physics

  9. Spin in hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The following topics were ealt with: Hadron physics with proton and deuteron probes, physics projects with Georgian participation, spin physics with antiprotons and leptons, spin filtering experiments, ISTC projects, technical issues for FAIR. (HSI)

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  13. Mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yu I

    1981-01-01

    A bird's eye view of mathematics ; physical quantities, dimensions and constants : the source of numbers in physics ; a drop of milk : observer, observation, observable and unobservable ; space-time as a physical system ; action and symmetry.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  15. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  16. Physical properties and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.

    The physical aspects influencing the different stages of behaviour of the marine fish can be divided into two categories (1) the physical properties of the ocean like temperature, salinity, oxygen, high penetration etc.; and (2) the physical...

  17. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  18. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  19. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  20. Fermilab | Particle Physics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Science Science Particle Physics Neutrinos Scientific Computing Research & Development Key Discoveries Benefits of Particle Physics Particle Superconducting Test Accelerator LHC and Future Accelerators Accelerators for Science and Society Particle Physics