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Sample records for self medication

  1. Self-Medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-19

    Sep 19, 2012 ... Key words: Self-medication, hazards, pregnant women, Nigeria ... these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing ... is common among pregnant women in our environment. .... Although earlier studies have association self-medication with factors such as self-employment, ...

  2. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  3. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom ... Results: Self-medication practice was highly prevalent among the medical students, with 87 % ... as part of self-care to improve the health care ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  4. Self-medication practices and predictors for self-medication with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Self-medication with antimalarials and antibiotics is highly practiced worldwide particularly in developing countries including Tanzania. This study was carried out to determine self-medication practices with antimalarials and antibiotics, and as well as predictors for self-medication among urban communities of ...

  5. Acute liver failure and self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, André Vitorio Câmara de; ROCHA, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; ABREU, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. AIM: To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. METHOD: Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute l...

  6. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  7. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  8. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  9. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  10. Malaria self-medication among students of a Nigerian Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    67%) practice self medication. One hundred and fifty students (60%) believe self medication should be discouraged and most of them 98(55.4%) believe it encourages drug abuse. Conclusion: The students treat themselves when they believe ...

  11. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication.The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%, cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%, analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%, and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%. Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%, using excessive dosages (21.6%, and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy (30.3%. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication.Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.

  12. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucieer, Susanna M.; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Content: Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn

  13. Self medication amongst general outpatients in a nigerian community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolase, C O; Adeleke, O E; Afolabi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the proportion of general out patients who practice self medication, the drugs employed and the reasons for resorting to self medication. This study was conducted between June and December, 2007 at the General Outpatient Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred consenting respondents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed with the aid of semi structured questionnaire by the authors with three assistants. Information regarding their bio-data, history of self medication, drugs used and the reasons for resorting to self medication were obtained. Majority of the respondents (85%) admitted to self medication while the remaining proportion (15%) did not practice it. Drugs utilized could be single, usually analgesics (26.5%) and anti-malaria (15.9%) or in combinations, usually antimalaria-analgesics (22.4%), antimalariaanalgesic- antibiotic (15.3%) and antibiotic-analgesic (10.0%). The reasons cited by respondents for self medication were their perception of their complaints been minor enough to be amenable to self medication (54.7%) and financial constraint (22.4%). Majority of the respondents practiced self medication using an array of drugs like analgesics, anti-malaria and antibiotics used either singly or in combination. The main reasons identified for self medication were that the ailments were minor and financial constraint.

  14. [Factors associated with self-directed learning among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann R, Camila; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bastías V, Nancy; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Self-directed learning is a skill that must be taught and evaluated in future physicians. To analyze the association between self-directed learning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment among medical students. The self-directed learning, Rosemberg self-esteem, general self- efficacy, time management and Utrecht work engagement scales were applied to 297 first year medical students. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment with self-directed learning. Self-esteem and satisfaction with studies did not enter in the model. self-esteem, academic commitment and a good time management were associated with self-directed learning in these students.

  15. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Biset Ayalew Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded.Results: The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends

  16. Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...

  17. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  18. Knowledge and Practice of Self-medication among Undergraduate Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishma Karmacharya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is an important aspect of self-care. It is a common practice in society and medical students are no exception. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of self-medication among students of a medical school in Western Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among basic science and clinical students after obtaining prior consent from those willing to participate. Respondents’ degree of agreement with a set of 25 statements was noted using Likert scale to assess their knowledge. The practice of self-medication was studied by asking about the use of selected groups of medicines during the past one-year period and noting the pattern of use. Results: Three hundred and thirty of the 356 students (92.6% participated in the study. Mean knowledge score was 93.2 (SD = 8.1. Self-medication was practiced by 83.3% (n = 275 of respondents. Knowledge about self-medication differed among respondents according to gender (p = 0.03 and nationality (p = 0.04 but not other variables. Practice of self-medication was associated with father’s profession (p = 0.03 and nationality of the respondents (p = 0.04. Conclusions: Students’ knowledge about self-medication was good and they commonly practiced self-medication. Pain-killers were the most commonly used drug.

  19. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN KERALA

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    Messaline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & RATIONALE Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognised illness or symptoms. Practice of self-medication, especially by medical students can cause wastage of resources, bacterial resistance, drug addiction and serious adverse drug reactions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of selfmedication among medical college students in Kerala. METHODS AND MATERIAL MBBS students of a private medical college were included in the study. The students filled a structured pretested questionnaire and descriptive statistics was applied to the data with SPSS version 20. RESULTS Out of 300, 264 (88% students had taken self-medication over the past 1 year. Past exposure with the same drug was the significant source of information for the drugs (49.2% and the drugs frequently self-medicated were analgesics 34.4% (91 and antipyretics 30.3% (80. More than half of the students, 66% (198 students had expressed positive and 34% (102 students had expressed negative attitude towards self-medication. Around 66% students declared that they were not aware of the dose, frequency and adverse effects of the drugs. CONCLUSION The pattern of self-medication practice from our study was similar to other studies done in various parts of India. Similar studies in future will provide adequate information to regulatory authorities to implement these results on strict drug dispensing and drug advertising policies. KEYWORDS Self-medication, Medical College Students, Kerala.

  20. Prevalence of Self-Medication of Psychoactive Stimulants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students of Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students was conducted with a structured and validated ...

  1. Self-medication with antibiotics in Europe and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    A postal survey was conducted to determine and compare the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in 19 European countries. Face to face interviews were conducted with the respondents of the postal survey to study the determinants of self-medication.

  2. Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Burgerhof, JGM; Mechtler, R; Deschepper, R; Tambic-Andrasevic, A; Andrajati, R; Monnet, DL; Cunney, R; Di Matteo, A; Edelstein, H; Valinteliene, R; Alkerwi, A; Scicluna, EA; Grzesiowski, P; Bara, AC; Tesar, T; Cizman, M; Campos, J; Lundborg, CS; Birkin, J

    We surveyed the populations of 19 European countries to compare the prevalence of antimicrobial drug self-medication in the previous 12 months and intended self-medication and storage and to identify the associated demographic characteristics. By using a multistage sampling design, 1,000-3,000

  3. High prevalence of self-medication practices among medical and pharmacy students: a study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Alefan, Qais; Alqudah, Mohammad A Y

    2016-05-01

    To assess self-medication practices and to evaluate the impact of obtaining medical knowledge on self-medication among medical and pharmacy students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. This was a cross-sectional study. A well-validated questionnaire that included 3 sections about self-medication was administered to the subjects after introducing the term "self-medication" verbally. 1,317 students had participated in the study and were subgrouped according to their academic level into seniors and juniors. Compared to the general population rate of 42.5%, self-medication practice was reported by (1,034, 78.5%) of the students and most common amongst pharmacy students (n = 369, 82.9%) compared to Pharm.D. (n = 357, 77.9%) and medical students (n = 308, 74.4%) (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between juniors and seniors (557, 79.1% vs. 477, 77.8%, p = 0.59, respectively). Headache (71.2%) and common cold (56.5%) were frequent ailments that provoked self-medication. Analgesics (79.9%) and antibiotics (59.8%) were frequently used to self-treat these aliments. Reasons for self-medication included previous disease experience (55.7%); minor aliments (55.3%); and having enough medical knowledge (32.1%). Medicines were used according to instructions obtained mainly from the leaflet (28.8%); pharmacist (20.7%); and university courses (19.7%). Senior students were more aware of the risk of self-medication than junior students. The majority of students frequently advise other people about self-medication (83.6%). Self-medication was common among students irrespective to their level of medical knowledge. Obtaining medical knowledge increased the students' awareness of the risk of self-medication which may result in practicing responsible self-medication. However, medical teaching institutions need to educate students about the proper use of medicines as a therapeutic tool.

  4. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

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    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information

  5. SelfMED: Self-Administration of Medication in Hospital: A Prevalence Study in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesemael, Toke; Van Rompaey, Bart; Petrovic, Mirko; Boussery, Koen; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-05-01

    Self-management is a key element in regaining and maintaining health. However, during hospitalization it becomes less obvious. Patient self-administration of medication during hospitalization is suggested to be beneficial to patient satisfaction, adherence to pharmacotherapy, and self-care competence. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-administration of medication during hospitalization, and possible contributing factors. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 12 Belgian hospitals from February 2015 until June 2015. Data were collected on all hospitalized patients at 57 wards, based in 12 hospitals. A structured questionnaire at ward level and patient level on medication management, self-administration of medication, and rationale for prohibiting or allowing patients to self-administer their medication was conducted in consultation with the head nurse. Of the 1,269 patients participating in this study, 22% self-administered at least one medicine during hospitalization and 13.8% self-administered at least 50% of their total amount of medication. In the opinion of the head nurse, 40.9% of the hospitalized patients would have been able to self-administer their medication during hospitalization. Only a few wards had an available procedure and screening tool to assess the competence of the patients to self-administer their medication. This did not affect the prevalence of self-administration. Self-administration occurred significantly more at surgical short-stay wards, compared to other wards. The self-administering patients were on average younger and female and had a lower number of different medications per day before and during hospitalization. These patients had a good health status and were independent to mildly dependent on nurses on the ward. Related factors were used to provide a multivariate logistic regression model. Sometimes self-administration of medication was allowed. According to the surveyed nurses, however, more

  6. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Susanna M; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M J P; Themmen, Axel P N

    2016-06-01

    Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn more effectively, it is of interest to investigate whether these skills are related to academic performance. In a cross-sectional design, the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) was used to investigate the change in students' self-regulated learning skills. First and third-year students (N = 949, 81.7%) SRL-SRS scores were compared with ANOVA. The relation with academic performance was investigated with multinomial regression analysis. Only one of the six skills, reflection, significantly, but positively, changed during medical school. In addition, a small, but positive relation of monitoring, reflection, and effort with first-year GPA was found, while only effort was related to third-year GPA. The change in self-regulated learning skills is minor as only the level of reflection differs between the first and third year. In addition, the relation between self-regulated learning skills and academic performance is limited. Medical schools are therefore encouraged to re-examine the curriculum and methods they use to enhance their students' self-regulated learning skills. Future research is required to understand the limited impact on performance.

  7. Perspectives on medical malpractice self-insurance financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Kitchen, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Financial reporting of medical malpractice self-insurance is evolving. The Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Section 954-450-25 provides guidance for accounting and financial reporting for medical malpractice. Discounting of medical malpractice liabilities has been reassessed in recent years. Malpractice litigation reform efforts continue in several states. Accountable care organizations could increase the frequency of medical malpractice claims because of patients' heightened expectations regarding quality of care.

  8. The Role of Self-Concept in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of research…

  9. Determinants of academic stress and stress-related self- medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self-medication was 31.58 and 29.20 % among pharmacy and medical students, ... Conclusion: Academic stress in undergraduate students in health disciplines is ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical .... students stayed with family (N = 136, 63.8 %). ..... Conflict of interest.

  10. Self-medication in three Orange Free State communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lates of non-compliance were explored, but self- medication was not found to be a substitute for formal medical care. S Air Med J 1993; 83: 345·346. Medicines. None. 1-3 types ... availability and accessibility of professional health care;. (iv) the perceived health .... tent manner in which cultural differences, education, health ...

  11. Self-medication for infants with colic in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Oshikoya Kazeem A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a self-limiting condition that is distributed worldwide. It is often misdiagnosed as an organic disease for which an infant is admitted to the hospital. Many studies have described the aetiopathogenesis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of colic but none has evaluated self-medication for infants with colic. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the knowledge of Nigerian mothers about colic, their home-based management, extent of self-medication for the infants with colic and the types of medicines involved. Methods It is a prospective study conducted at the vaccination clinics of 20 primary health care centres, each from different Local Government Areas in Lagos, Nigeria. Eight hundred mothers that brought their infants for vaccination between April and September, 2006 were interviewed with open-and close-ended questionnaire. Results Six hundred and eighty three (85.4% mothers claimed they had a good knowledge of colic. Incessant and excessive cry was the main clinical feature of colic identified by 430(62.9% mothers. Three hundred and seventy eight (67.7% infants were treated by self-medication, 157 (28.1% sought medical intervention and 17 (3.1% were treated at a traditional birth attendant home. Herbal medicines constituted 51.8% of the self-medicated medicines, of which 48 (26.2% were "Ororo Ogiri". Nospamin® (49.5% and Gripe water® (43.0% were the two frequently prescribed and self-medicated medicines for infants with colic. Conclusion Nigerian mothers are deficient in their knowledge of colic. Self-medication was the most frequently used home-based intervention. Health education would appear necessary to improve parental management of this self-limiting condition.

  12. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda.

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    Moses Ocan

    Full Text Available Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7% of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%. The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%, amoxicillin (21.7%, metronidazole (12.3%, and cotrimoxazole (11.6%. Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5% and drug shop attendants (57.6%. On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8 tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5. Over half (68.2% of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76% of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%, drug resistance (33.2%, and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%. Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite

  13. Pattern of medication selling and self-medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Majid; Masood, Imran; Yousaf, Mahreen; Saleem, Hammad; Ye, Dan; Fang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Access to medicines without prescription is a major contributing factor for self-medication practices. This study was designed to examine the ratio of non-prescribed medicines sales and self-medication practices in Punjab, Pakistan. This study also evaluates the reasons for self-medication within its communities. An observational study was conducted in 272 systemically selected pharmacies to analyze medicines-related sales, with or without prescription. A cross-sectional survey was performed between June 2015 and November 2016. Consumers were interviewed about their self-medication practices. Of the pharmacies surveyed, 65.3% participated in the study. A total of 4348 medicines were purchased for self-medication by 3037 consumers (15.2% of all study participants), of which 873 (28.7%) participated in an interview. Majority (81.2%) medicine purchaser, (90.9%) interview participants, and (59.4%) drug users were male. On average, each community pharmacy sold 7.9 medicines without prescription each day, to an average of 5.5 customers. Many participants (28.9%) had matriculation in their formal education. The medicines most often sold for self-medication were analgesics and antipyretics(39.4%). More than 25% of participants reported fever symptoms and 47.8% assumed their illness was too trivial to consult a doctor. Media advertisements were the most common source of information for participants (46.7%). Many types of medicines were often sold without prescription from community pharmacies. Self-medication was common practice for a wide range of illnesses. Pakistan also needs effective implementation of policies to monitor medication sales. Public education about rational medication and limits to advertising medicine are very necessary.

  14. Phytotherapy in Germany : Its Role in Self-Medication and in Medical Prescribing

    OpenAIRE

    LUTZ, HEIDE; Pharmaceutical Biology, Pharmaceutical Institute, University of Tuebingen

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the present state of herbal medicine in Germany. Phytotherapeutic drugs (herbal remedies) are of considerable importance in Germany, both in self-medication and in medical prescriptions. They represent approx. 5.4% of the prescriptions by medical doctors, and 10% of the entire domestic drug market. The Federal Health Office of the German Ministry of Health has officially evaluated the efficacy and safety of approx. 300 medicinal plants used in Germany; their evalu...

  15. The value of self-medication: summary of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Joshua; Blanchette, Christopher M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the international evidence that is currently available on the economic value of self-care through responsible self-medication, in terms of the measures related to access to treatment, time, and productivity. A targeted literature search was conducted for 1990-2016, including data gathered from members of the World Self-Medication Industry and searches on PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Google Scholar. Specific searches of individual drug classes known to be switched to non-prescription status in this period were also conducted. A total of 71 articles were identified, of which 17 (11 modeling studies, six retrospective analyses) were included in the review. Evidence from modeling studies and retrospective analyses of grouped data across a range of common conditions for which non-prescription medications are available in different countries/regions showed that the use of non-prescription products for the treatment of common conditions or for symptom management (e.g. allergies, chronic pain, migraine, vaginitis, gastrointestinal symptoms, or common cold symptoms) had considerable value to patients, payers, and employers alike in terms of cost savings and improved productivity. Potential benefits of self-medication were also identified in preventative healthcare strategies, such as those for cardiovascular health and osteoporosis. This review was limited by a targeted, but non-systematic approach to literature retrieval, as well as the inclusion of unpublished reports/white papers and patient self-reported data. The evidence identified in this literature review shows that responsible, appropriate self-medication with non-prescription products can provide significant economic benefits for patients, employers, and healthcare systems worldwide.

  16. Indigenous Healing Practices and Self-Medication amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Healing Practices and Self-Medication amongst Pregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa. Naeemah Abrahams, Rachel Jewkes, Zodumo Mvo. Abstract. This study was conducted in and around Cape Town, South Africa, at two primary obstetric facilities and in the antenatal clinics of two secondary hospitals.

  17. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  18. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  20. A social media self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin J; Huiskes, Florian; Korevaar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of medical practitioners and medical students are using online social and business-related networking websites such as Facebook, Doc2doc and LinkedIn. These rapidly evolving and growing social media have potential to promote public health by providing powerful instruments for communication and education. However, evidence is emerging from studies, legal cases, and media reports that the use of these new technologies is creating several ethical problems for medical practitioners as well as medical students. Improper online activities may harm not only individual reputations and careers, but also the medical profession as a whole, for example by breach of patient confidentiality, defamation of colleagues and employers, undisclosed conflict of interests that bias the medical practitioner's medical advice, posting of advice/information without an evidence base, and infringement of copyright. We developed a self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners using social media. The checklist addresses three key elements in the use of social media: personal information and accessibility, connections, and postings. It contains questions specifically formulated to evaluate a medical practitioner's social media profile, to prevent unintended, improper online activities and to promote professional online behaviour.

  1. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-12-01

    Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers' scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran's scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research.

  2. Self-Medication in University Students from the City of Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, R M; Abou-ElWafa, H S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Self-medication is a common practice in developed and developing countries. Objectives . To explore the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students, probable reasons, symptoms requiring self-medication, and sources of advice. Methods . A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura University, Egypt, and included 1st and last year students of both medical and nonmedical faculties. Results . Prevalence of self-medication was 62.9%. Younger age, female, medical, and ever-married students and those having home pharmacy tended to self-medicate more than their peers with significant difference between them. Being medical student, being from urban area, having good current health condition, being careless about health, and having drugs stored at home pharmacy were independently associated with the likelihood of self-medicating. Conclusion . Prevalence of self-medication among university students is high which constitutes a health problem that needs intervention.

  3. Self-Access Learning in Medical English (ME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anişoara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual learning is a pre-requisite of formal ME credit allocation in higher education (HE, albeit this may be hard to document and quantify. Edmodo-enhanced self-access learning can be customized to accommodate different learning styles, form basic learning skills and field-specific subskills, extend and expand the students’ medical language use, while also meeting the desiderata of independent curriculum-stipulated learning that can thus be exploited and demonstrated. The paper will reflect on the design of ME multimedia assignments as well as the quantitative and qualitative results, motivation and attitude of a group of medical students working on Edmodo self-access ME learning as part of a class research project for two years.

  4. Diabetes: Christian Worldview, Medical Distrust & Self-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  5. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Al Flaiti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication among university students was very high. There is a need for intensive education and comprehensive awareness campaign to advocate for reduction in the prevalence of self-medication practices among students.

  6. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  7. [Motivation and self-directed learning among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Márquez U, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Bastías V, Nancy; Espinoza P, Camila

    2016-05-01

    Motivation is an essential aspect in the training process of medical students. The association that motivation can have with learning self-regulation is of utmost importance for the design of curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation. To describe the motivational aspects of self-directed learning among medical students from a traditional Chilean University. A qualitative, descriptive study based on grounded theory of Strauss and Corbin. Twenty 4th and 5th year medical students were selected using a maximum variation sampling technique. After obtaining an informed consent, semi-structured interviews and field notes were carried out. Data were analyzed to the level of open coding through Atlas-ti 7.5.2. From the student point of view, personal motivational aspects are linked to the search for information, constant updating, the perception of the physician-patient relationship and interest in subject matters. From the scope of teachers, a main issue is related to their ability to motivate students to develop independent study skills. Personal motivational aspects facilitate the development of independent study skills, specifically in the search of information. The role of teachers is crucial in promoting these skills and the perception of medical students from their learning process.

  8. Self-medication practices with antibiotics among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Pan, H; Yang, Z; Cui, B; Zhang, D; Ba-Thein, W

    2016-01-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a serious global health problem. We sought to investigate SMA behaviors and risk factors among Chinese university students, and further explore the association between SMA practices and adverse drug events (ADEs). Cross-sectional study. An online survey was conducted at Jiangsu University (JSU) in eastern China in July 2011 using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 2608 website visitors, 1086 participated in the survey (response rate: 41.6%), 426 respondents were excluded for not being a JSU student or repeat participation, 660 (2.2% of JSU students) were included in analysis, and 316 students (47.9%) had a lifetime history of SMA. Among self-treated students, 43.5% believed that antibiotic was suitable for viral infections, 65.9% had more than one SMA episode in the previous year, 73.5% self-medicated with at least two different antibiotics, 57.1% and 64.4% changed antibiotic dosage and antibiotics during the course, respectively. Female gender, older age, and prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA) were identified as independent risk factors of SMA. There was no difference between students with and without PKA regarding SMA frequency, use of polyantibiotics, and switching antibiotic dosage or antibiotics. ADEs happened to 13.3% of self-medicated students. Frequent change of dosage and simultaneous use of the same antibiotic with different names were independent risk practices associated with an ADE. Our findings substantiate high SMA prevalence among Chinese university students. Older age and PKA are independent SMA risk factors common to Chinese university students and female gender is exclusive SMA risk factor for JSU students. Poor SMA practices are associated with ADEs. Strict regulations on antibiotic sales and public education reinforced by further health care reform are recommended. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of self-medication in Brazil and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Fernandes, Maria Eneida Porto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the prevalence and associated factors regarding the use of medicines by self-medication in Brazil. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using data from the PNAUM (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), collected between September 2013 and February 2014 by interviews at the homes of the respondents. All people who reported using any medicines not prescribed by a doctor or dentist were classified as self-medication practitioners. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (Poisson regression) and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated in order to investigate the factors associated with the use of self-medication by medicines. The independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and access to and use of health services. In addition, the most commonly consumed medicines by self-medication were individually identified. The self-medication prevalence in Brazil was 16.1% (95%CI 15.0-17.5), with it being highest in the Northeast region (23.8%; 95%CI 21.6-26.2). Following the adjusted analysis, self-medication was observed to be associated with females, inhabitants from the North, Northeast and Midwest regions and individuals that have had one, or two or more chronic diseases. Analgesics and muscle relaxants were the therapeutic groups most used for self-medication, with dipyrone being the most consumed medicines. In general, most of the medicines used for self-medication were classified as non-prescriptive (65.5%). Self-medication is common practice in Brazil and mainly involves the use of non-prescription medicines; therefore, the users of such should be made aware of the possible risks. Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à utilização de medicamentos por automedicação no Brasil. Este estudo transversal de base populacional foi realizado com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de medicamentos (PNAUM

  10. Self-medication of mood and anxiety disorders with marijuana: Higher in states with medical marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Olfson, Mark; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314). Weighted logistic regression models predicted the prevalence of self-medication with drugs in U.S. states with and without MML, adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. As a negative control, analyses were repeated for self-medication with alcohol. Overall, self-medication with drugs was 3.73 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-6.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.01). For the subpopulation that only used marijuana, self-medication with drugs was 21.22 percentage points higher (95% CI: 3.91-38.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.02). In contrast, self-medication with alcohol had nearly identical prevalence in MML and non-MML states, overall and for drinkers. Among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, living in a medical marijuana law state is associated with self-medication with marijuana. While additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this association, clinical screening for self-medication with marijuana may be particularly important in states with medical marijuana laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-medication in university students from the city of Rio Grande, Brazil

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    Corrêa da Silva Marília

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication is the use of medication without prescription, orientation, or supervision of a physician or dentist. Self-medication might become a serious health problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication among first and last-year students enrolled in healthcare and non-healthcare programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of 830 students in the sample, 95% answered the questionnaire – 789 students enrolled in 10 undergraduate programs. Mean age was 22 ± 6.17 years. The students answered a questionnaire covering socio-economic and demographic variables, use of medication, and medication knowledge. Information was collected on the conditions treated with medication, the medications used, and attitude towards self-medication. Results Of 789 students, 86.4% self-medicated (88.5% of 446 healthcare students. There were no significant differences in self-medication between healthcare and non-healthcare students, nor between first and last-year students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between self-medication and having children (p = 0.01, having a home pharmacy (p p = 0.01. The most frequently used active ingredients were acetaminophen (paracetamol, dipyrone, aspirin, phytotherapic compounds, and tea. Illicit drug use was significantly associated with self-medication in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion The fact that being a healthcare student was associated with higher medication knowledge, but not with less self-medication, suggests that medication knowledge might contribute to increase self-medication. This should be taken into account when designing educational interventions relating to self-medication.

  12. Self-medication in university students from the city of Rio Grande, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-medication is the use of medication without prescription, orientation, or supervision of a physician or dentist. Self-medication might become a serious health problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication among first and last-year students enrolled in healthcare and non-healthcare programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of 830 students in the sample, 95% answered the questionnaire – 789 students enrolled in 10 undergraduate programs. Mean age was 22 ± 6.17 years. The students answered a questionnaire covering socio-economic and demographic variables, use of medication, and medication knowledge. Information was collected on the conditions treated with medication, the medications used, and attitude towards self-medication. Results Of 789 students, 86.4% self-medicated (88.5% of 446 healthcare students). There were no significant differences in self-medication between healthcare and non-healthcare students, nor between first and last-year students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between self-medication and having children (p = 0.01), having a home pharmacy (p Illicit drug use was significantly associated with self-medication in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion The fact that being a healthcare student was associated with higher medication knowledge, but not with less self-medication, suggests that medication knowledge might contribute to increase self-medication. This should be taken into account when designing educational interventions relating to self-medication. PMID:22568959

  13. Samoleczenie wśród studentów medycyny Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie = Self-medication practice among medical students of Medical University in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sowa

    2015-07-01

    • Due to the high number of medical students using self-medications methods, it should be made attempts to improve education of students on the advantages and disadvantages of using of these forms of therapy.

  14. Self-medication among healthcare and non-healthcare students at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Hladnik, Ziga; Kersnik, Janko

    2010-01-01

    To determine the incidence of self-medication among University of Ljubljana students and the effect of the type of curriculum on the pattern of self-medication. The study included a sample of 1,294 students who freely accessed a self-administered web-based questionnaire in the Slovene language that consisted of a preliminary letter introducing the term 'self-treatment' and 2 sections about self-medication. The preliminary letter asked participants to report the practice of self-treatment during the past year. The main outcome measures were percentages of those reporting self-medication during the past year, which were then used to compare healthcare and non-healthcare students. A majority of students (1,195, 92.3%), both healthcare and non-healthcare, reported the use of some sort of self-medication during the study period. More healthcare students in their senior year (353, 94.1%) than those in their junior year (245, 89.4%) used self-medication (p = 0.04). Healthcare students (p = 0.05) thought that self-medication without improvement of the symptoms should last for 1 week or less. They acquired the drugs for self-medication from pharmacies; thought that previous doctors' advice in a similar situation was a more important reason for self-medication; would seek the advice of a physician or pharmacist for different ways of self-treatment, and quite interestingly thought that self-medication was not very safe. On the other hand, non-healthcare students acquired the drugs from healers and friends. The study showed that self-medication was common among all University of Ljubljana students, but that healthcare-related education in students and young adults led to more responsible use of self-medication. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Self-determining medical leadership needs of occupational health physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Prosenjit; Aylott, Jill; Kilner, Karen

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore which factors motivate doctors to engage in leadership roles and to frame an inquiry of self-assessment within Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to identify the extent to which a group of occupational health physicians (OHPs) was able to self-determine their leadership needs, using a National Health Service (NHS) England competency approach promoted by the NHS England Leadership Academy as a self-assessment leadership diagnostic. Medical leadership is seen as crucial to the transformation of health-care services, yet leadership programmes are often designed with a top-down and centrally commissioned "one-size-fits-all" approach. In the UK, the Smith Review (2015) concluded that more decentralised and locally designed leadership development programmes were needed to meet the health-care challenges of the future. However, there is an absence of empirical research to inform the design of effective strategies that will engage and motivate doctors to take up leadership roles, while at the same time, health-care organisations continue to develop formal leadership roles as a way to secure medical leadership engagement. The problem is further compounded by a lack of validated leadership qualities assessment instruments which support researching this problem. Design/Methodology/approach The analysis draws on a sample of about 25 per cent of the total population size of the Faculty of Occupational Medicine ( n = 1,000). The questionnaire used was the Leadership Qualities Framework tool as a form of online self-assessment ( NHS Leadership Academy, 2012 ). The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and simple inferential methods. Findings OHPs are open about reporting their leadership strengths and leadership development needs and recognise leadership learning as an ongoing development need regardless of their level of personal competence. This study found that the single most important factor to affect a doctor

  16. Prevalence of self-medication practices and its associated factors in Urban Puducherry, India

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    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Self medication is an important concern for health authorities at global level. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self medication for allopathic drugs and associated factors among households of urban community. This study was also aimed at assessing the attitude of respondents who had experienced self-medication. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in field practice area attached to a medical institution in urban Puducherry. A total of 352 subjects from 124 households were selected by random sampling. With pretested interview schedule, information regarding self-medication use in the past three months and associated sociodemographic factors, purpose, source of drug procurement, attitude toward self-medication use were collected. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was found to be 11.9%. Males, age >40 years and involving in moderate level activity of occupation, were found to be significantly associated with higher self-medication usage (P < 0.05. Fever (31%, headache (19%, and abdominal pain (16.7% are most common illnesses where self-medication is being used. Telling the symptoms to pharmacist (38.1% was the commonest method adopted to procure drugs by the users. Majority of the self-medication users expressed that self-medication is harmless (66.6% and they are going to use (90% and advice others also (73.8% to use self-medication drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication is an important health issue in this area. Health education of the public and regulation of pharmacies may help in limiting the self-medication practices.

  17. Self Medication: Predictors and Practices among Rural Population of Nellikuppam Village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu

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    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate self medication is one of the leading causes of growing antibiotic resistance in developing nations which poses a major public health threat worldwide and assessment of self medication practices is essential for better understanding of the problem. Aim and Objectives: To find out the predictors of self medication use among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. To assess the self medication practices among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 335 adult households with six months recall period in Nellikuppam village of Tamil Nadu during May to October, 2014 using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of self medication among adult rural population was 53.43% and only half of the study population opined that it was harmful. Pharmacists (72.06% were the major source of drug information on self medication. Paracetomol (84.91% was the commonest drug used for self medication. Major predictors were perception of illness as minor ailment and unavailability of doctors in their locality. Nearly half of the current self medication users (47.49% were in the idea of practicing self medication in the future. Conclusion: This study results implies the need for proper enforcement of legal measures towards the restriction of over the counter medicine and creating awareness among general population on adverse reaction of self medication.

  18. Self-Medication Practice and Associated Factors among Residents in Wuhan, China

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    Xiaosheng Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to examine the prevalence and predictors associated with self-medication, and related consequences in Wuhan, China. Methods: Two-hundred-sixty residents were interviewed from randomly selected four districts of Wuhan, China. A modified version of Anderson’s health behavioral model was used in the survey to collect information of self-medication behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to measure correlates of the prevalence of self-medication. Results: Nearly half of the respondents would select self-medication, and 39.1% would see a doctor if they felt sick. The most common self-medicated illnesses were cold and cough, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease. The main reasons for self-medication were that the illness was not severe (enough to see the doctor (45%; the patient did not think that the trouble of seeing a doctor was worth the effort (23%; the patient had no time to see the doctor (12%, and the patient did not want to pay high medical costs (15%. Logistic regression results suggested that respondents tended to select self-medication if the illness was minor or short-term (less than seven days. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that more strict regulation on over-the-counter medicines may be required to reduce health risks related to self-medication. Targeted health education on the risks of self-medication should be considered.

  19. STRUCTURE OF READINESS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирило Соцький

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the analysis of the existing approaches to interpretation of the notion of selfdevelopment in psychological and pedagogical literature. It has been determined, that professional and personal self-development is carried out with the help of mechanisms of self-knowledge, self-organization, self-education, self-esteem, self-control. The research also presents the clarified essence and structure of the readiness of medical college students for professional self-development. Value, motivational, cognitive, operating, and volitional components have been singled out. Factors and stages of intending medical employees’ selfdevelopment have been substantiated in the article.

  20. Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direc...

  1. Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Singer

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we frame self-medication in the broader realm of adaptive plasticity, which provides several testable predictions for verifying self-medication and advancing its conceptual significance. First, self-medication behavior should improve the fitness of animals infected by parasites or pathogens. Second, self-medication behavior in the absence of infection should decrease fitness. Third, infection should induce self-medication behavior. The few rigorous studies of self-medication in non-human animals have not used this theoretical framework and thus have not tested fitness costs of self-medication in the absence of disease or parasitism. Here we use manipulative experiments to test these predictions with the foraging behavior of woolly bear caterpillars (Grammia incorrupta; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in response to their lethal endoparasites (tachinid flies. Our experiments show that the ingestion of plant toxins called pyrrolizidine alkaloids improves the survival of parasitized caterpillars by conferring resistance against tachinid flies. Consistent with theoretical prediction, excessive ingestion of these toxins reduces the survival of unparasitized caterpillars. Parasitized caterpillars are more likely than unparasitized caterpillars to specifically ingest large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This case challenges the conventional view that self-medication behavior is restricted to animals with advanced cognitive abilities, such as primates, and empowers the science of self-medication by placing it in the domain of adaptive plasticity theory.

  2. factors influencing the pattern of self-medication in an adult nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    were common means of drug recognition especially among the educated respondents (P < .05). Education of the ... family and community participation in primary health care.7 Poor ..... Schwenkglenks M. Self-treatment and self- medication by ...

  3. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suvadip biswas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in a government medical college of West Bengal, India. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Among the participants 54.2% had self-medicated in the last six months. The antibiotics most commonly used being metronidazole (67.4%, azithromycin (32.6% and norfloxacin (16.8%. Regarding the source of the antibiotics used for self-medication 41.6% participants went for leftover medicines at home, 34.8% participants obtained the drug from community pharmacies or drug stores. Hospital pharmacies and medicine samples were the source of the drugs for 19.2% and 4.4% participants respectively for this purpose. This study has shown that self-medication with antibiotics is common among undergraduate nursing students. There is a need for a rigorous mass enlightenment campaign to educate the population, including the health care professional about the disadvantages and possible complications of antibiotic self-medication

  4. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    suvadip biswas; aritra ghosh; Krishnendu Mondal; Saikat Kumar Dalui; Mithilesh Haldar; Supreeti Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in ...

  5. Self-Medication and Contributing Factors: A Questionnaire Survey Among Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdarzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a serious danger in every health sector which potentially brings harmful side effects for the society. The aim of this research was to investigate self-medication and its contributing factors among residents of Yazd province in Iran in 2014. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 580 families living in Yazd in the time period of study were contributed to fill out the questions organized in two sections of demographic and self-medication factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 through appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Self-medication was reported in 53.4% of the cases. The most frequent self-prescribed medications were related to pain killer drugs (26.6%. There was a significant statistical relation between self-medication and households’ age, occupation and income, level of parents’ education, number of children and place of residence. Among different reasons for self-medication the most important one was reported to be accessibility (3.44+1.3. Conclusion: Due to the considerable prevalence of self-medication and its harmful effects on every society, such an issue should be appropriately controlled through legal regulations particularly in the area of selling dangerous drugs. Furthermore, provision of proper information and warning the population about harmful side effects can be helpful in this regard. 

  6. A Comparison of Self-reported Medication Adherence to Concordance Between Part D Claims and Medication Possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Samuel T; Stearns, Sally C; Zhou, Lei; Thudium, Emily; Alburikan, Khalid A; Tran, Richard; Rodgers, Jo E

    2017-05-01

    Medicare Part D claims indicate medication purchased, but people who are not fully adherent may extend prescription use beyond the interval prescribed. This study assessed concordance between Part D claims and medication possession at a study visit in relation to self-reported medication adherence. We matched Part D claims for 6 common medications to medications brought to a study visit in 2011-2013 for the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. The combined data consisted of 3027 medication events (claims, medications possessed, or both) for 2099 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the association of concordance (visit only, Part D only, or both) with self-reported medication adherence while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, veteran status, and availability under Generic Drug Discount Programs. Relative to participants with high adherence, medication events for participants with low adherence were approximately 25 percentage points less likely to match and more likely to be visit only (PDiscount Programs were 3 percentage points more likely to be visit only. Part D claims were substantially less likely to be concordant with medications possessed at study visit for participants with low self-reported adherence. This result supports the construction of adherence proxies such as proportion days covered using Part D claims.

  7. Evaluation of Self Medication Amongst Nursing Students of Bastar Region: A Questionnaire Based Study

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    Syed Sajid Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  Self-medication provides low cost alternative for expensive medical management but inappropriate use can cause problems. For Nursing undergraduates such practice has special significance since they have medical knowledge but very superficial and also its application is limited.  Hence the present study was planned to evaluate the status of students studying in different years of B.Sc. Nursing.To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication amongst the students of Government Nursing College, Jagdalpur(ChhatisgarhThis questionnaire based study was performed on 142 Nursing students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year aged between17-24 years. Mean age was found to be 20.5 years (±2.5years. A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed amongst the participants after explaining the purpose of the study and taking informed consent. The results obtained from this study showed that out of 142 students 120 (84.50 % students used self medicationCommonest source of information for self medication were seniors and colleagues 40(33.33%, and the most common indication for self medication was common cold 41(34.16 %.D’cold Total 49(40.83% was the most common medication used as self medication .Only 16 (13.33% students were having the knowledge about content, dose, duration of therapy and adverse drug reaction of the medication that they used. The most common source to obtain medicines for self medication was pharmaceutical store 80 (66.67 %.The findings from this study highlights the striking prevalence of self medication among nursing students, the lack of knowledge and the risks associated with them. We recommend that a global approach must be taken to prevent this problem from escalating which would involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self medication, strategies to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription by pharmacies and strict rules regarding pharmaceutical advertising.

  8. A Study of the Prevalence of Self-Medication Practice among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials among university students in southwestern Nigeria and evaluate the factors associated with self-medication. Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 2000 university students using a convenient sampling ...

  9. The willingness and attitude of patients towards self-administration of medication in hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesemael, T. (Toke); K. Boussery (Koen); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia); Dilles, T. (Tinne)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Literature suggests a positive impact of self-administration of medication during hospitalization on medication adherence and safety, and on patient satisfaction. However, self-administration is not a common practice in Belgian hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe

  10. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    2005-01-01

    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  11. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  12. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  13. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  14. Antibiotic Self-Medication among Non-Medical University Students in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan Gillani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat. Scarce knowledge about safe and appropriate antibiotic use is coupled with frequent self-administration, e.g., in China. This repeated self-medication poses potential risk in terms of antibiotic resistance. Low-resource countries are facing an elevated burden of antibiotic self-medication as compared to developed ones. Thus, this study focused on evaluating the pervasiveness of antibiotic self-medication in 3 universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey in three government sector universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out with self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Seven hundred twenty-seven students out of 750 (response rate 97% with a mean age ± SD of 23.0 ± 3.4 years agreed to participate in the study. The proportion of females was slightly greater (52% compared with males (48%, and almost one-third of the respondents (36% were in their 2nd year of university. Out of the total, 58.3% practiced self-medication in the preceding six months, and 326 (45% confirmed the use of antibiotics. Metronidazole was the most frequently self-medicated antibiotic (48%. Out of the total, 72% demonstrated awareness regarding the side effects of antibiotics. Diarrhea was the well-known adverse effect (38%. Forty-three percent affirmed having antibiotic resistance knowledge, and 30% knew that the irregular use of antibiotics would lead to increased antibiotic resistance. Conclusion: Despite having ample awareness of the adverse antibiotic reactions, self-medication among the university students was high and antibiotic resistance was a fairly unknown term.

  15. Antibiotic Self-Medication among Non-Medical University Students in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Ali Hassan; Ji, Wenjing; Hussain, Waqar; Imran, Ali; Chang, Jie; Yang, Caijun; Fang, Yu

    2017-09-29

    Background : Antibiotic resistance is a global threat. Scarce knowledge about safe and appropriate antibiotic use is coupled with frequent self-administration, e.g., in China. This repeated self-medication poses potential risk in terms of antibiotic resistance. Low-resource countries are facing an elevated burden of antibiotic self-medication as compared to developed ones. Thus, this study focused on evaluating the pervasiveness of antibiotic self-medication in 3 universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods : We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey in three government sector universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out with self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). Results : Seven hundred twenty-seven students out of 750 (response rate 97%) with a mean age ± SD of 23.0 ± 3.4 years agreed to participate in the study. The proportion of females was slightly greater (52%) compared with males (48%), and almost one-third of the respondents (36%) were in their 2nd year of university. Out of the total, 58.3% practiced self-medication in the preceding six months, and 326 (45%) confirmed the use of antibiotics. Metronidazole was the most frequently self-medicated antibiotic (48%). Out of the total, 72% demonstrated awareness regarding the side effects of antibiotics. Diarrhea was the well-known adverse effect (38%). Forty-three percent affirmed having antibiotic resistance knowledge, and 30% knew that the irregular use of antibiotics would lead to increased antibiotic resistance. Conclusion : Despite having ample awareness of the adverse antibiotic reactions, self-medication among the university students was high and antibiotic resistance was a fairly unknown term.

  16. Prevalence & Practice of Self-Medication in Ernakulum District, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitha Paul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Self-medication can lead to many problems and has many concerns associated with it including development of drug resistance. The objectives of the current study were to assess the prevalence of self-medication practices among people residing in selected urban and rural areas of Ernakulam district, to assess the pattern of use of self-medications and to determine the differences, if any, between the rural, urban and slum population in the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medications Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted and 539 individuals from urban, rural and urban slums of Ernakulam district, Kerala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was tabulated in MS Excel and analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 15. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage was used to summarize the data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to assess the factors associated with self-medication Results In the study, 21.5% (114/539 reported that they practised self-medication within last three months. Major indications for self-medication were aches and pain (28.9%, fever (22.8% and chronic diseases (13.7%. Among those who practised self-medication, 6.1% (7/114 used antibiotics. In the final logistic regression model, being in urban area [urban areas (OR 5.8, 95% CI 3.2-10.4, urban slums (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.4] and increasing age groups [18-59 years (OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-3.8 and more than 60 years (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.6-6.5] were associated with self-medication practices. Conclusion Holistic approach should be taken to prevent the problem of self-medications, which includes proper awareness and education to public, improving access to care and regulation of pharmacies regarding sale of drugs.

  17. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  18. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  19. [The relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic burnout in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between academic burnout and academic self-efficacy in medical students. The study group comprised 446 students in years 1 to 4 of medical school. They were asked to rate their academic burnout and academic self-efficacy on a scale. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and regression analysis. Academic self-efficacy was correlated negatively with academic burnout explaining 37% of academic burnout. Academic self-efficacy (especially self-confidence) had the greatest effect on academic burnout. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of an evaluation and support system for students.

  20. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka K. Untari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did self-medication on peptic ulcer or its related symptom. This study was conducted in 2010. The result of showed that 67.3% of gastric ulcer self-medication practice was appropriate; 66.3% subject used antacida class to treat the symptom; 6.1% participant however, still used antibiotic; and only 27% subject satisfied with the information given during self-medication process. Although self-medication practice for gastric ulcer was often done, some practice might be harmful. Thus, there is a need to educate the community to ensure its safe practices.

  1. Depression and medication adherence among older Korean patients with hypertension: Mediating role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Won, Mi Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have reported the negative effects of depression on adherence to antihypertensive medication. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship in elderly patients with hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence among older patients with hypertension. The data were collected from October to December 2014. A total of 255 older patients with hypertension were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Depression and self-efficacy were statistically significant predictors of medication adherence in older patients with hypertension. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Interventions targeting self-efficacy could increase the confidence of patients in their ability to actively take their medicines. Moreover, health care providers should be aware of the importance of early detection of depression in older patients with hypertension. Future studies with longitudinal data are warranted to clarify the multidirectional relationships between depression, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. [Psychotropic medication use by French active self-employed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Vinh, Philippe; Régnard, Pierre; Sauze, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    INTERESTS OF THE STUDY: In the self-employed workers population (shop keepers, craft men, industrialists and liberal professions), psychotropic medications use and discrepancies between occupational situations have never been evaluated before. It is nevertheless a prerequisite in preventive actions against addictions, stress and injuries caused by disorders of attentiveness at work. The French Self Employed Workers Health Care Insurance Fund affiliate members data base was analysed for active workers from 18 to 60 years of age living in the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region. From this population the cases were defined as having refunded ambulatory prescription of behind the counter psychotropic treatment during the year 2009 (anxiolytic, antidepressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, lithium, alcoholic or opioid dependance therapy) and the randomised control sample was constituted by drawing the key of the social security number. A case-control multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age and place of abode was used for searching discrepancy between occupational situations. Anxiolytic, antidepressant or hypnotic consumers are the most numerous (906; 557 and 446 consumers per 10 000 persons-year respectively). Antidepressant, neuroleptic and opioid dependance therapy are the three main posts of expense for the health insurance (584 505; 169 947 and 151 201 € per year respectively). When compared to workers of the construction sector, workers of retail trade of clothes had an Odd Ratio of 2,04 [95%CI 1,46-2,85] for anxiolytics consumption and 2,29 [95%CI 1,67-3,14] for antidepressants consumption, workers in the sector of the hotel and catering had an Odd Ratio of 1,62 [95%CI 1,19-2,22] for alcoholic dependance therapy medicines consumption, workers in the accountant, legal and financial sector had an Odd Ratio of 0,05 [95%CI 0,01-0,32] for opioid dependence therapy medicines consumption. Occupations associated with increased psychotropic medicines

  3. Self-transcendence and medication adherence in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nezbile F; Dunn, Karen S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-transcendence and medication adherence among older adults prescribed antihypertensive medication. Descriptive, correlational research design. Forty-six older adults who were prescribed antihypertensive medications from an independent living facility participated in this study. Participants were given a survey that included a demographic questionnaire, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. No significant relationship was found between medication adherence and self-transcendence (r = -.20, p = .18). Ninety percent of the participants however, admitted to cutting back or stopping their medication without notifying their providers. Continued investigation is needed to identify reasons why older adults fail to adhere to taking prescribed hypertension medications in order to improve health outcomes in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Self-Monitoring and Its Relationship to Medical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M.; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J.; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific…

  5. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among university students and evaluate factors associated with the practice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during May, 2012 using a pre-validated questionnaire distributed to 250 students of the 4 years of study at the college of business administration. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc and results are expressed as counts and percentages. Chi-square test was used to evaluate significant association among the study variables and P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The response rate was 80% and all respondents were Arabs with 114 (57% females and 86 (43% males. Self-medication was practiced by 118 (59% students and most (88.1% of them obtained medications from pharmacies. About 21 (11% respondents self-medicated with antibiotics. Only 34 (17% and 16 (8% of respondents were aware of bacterial resistance and rational drug use respectively. The most common reasons for self-medication were seeking quick relief (134, 67%, physician′s advice of self-management (100, 50%, illness is minor (91, 45.5%. Common reasons against self-medication include risk of misdiagnosis of illness (160, 80%, risk of using the wrong medication (154, 77%, risk of adverse effects (140, 70%. Self-medication was practiced for headache or mild pain, eye and ear symptoms, gastric problems, cold, fever and allergy. Conclusion: Self-medication among non-healthcare students is common with high prevalence. Knowledge of students of reasons for and against self-medication was adequate, but awareness of respondents of rational drug use and risk of bacterial resistance in response to misuse was poor. Orientation courses/workshops directed to university students would be beneficial.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported medical conditions among dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhatar A Javali

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study found a high prevalence of medical conditions among patients seeking periodontal treatment, thereby highlighting the need to record patients' medical and dental care history in detail.

  7. Evaluation of self-medication amongst university students in Abbottabad, Pakistan; prevalence, attitude and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hanif; Khan, Shujaat A; Ali, Sayyad; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Chohan, Ossam; Hassan, Syed M F; Khan, Kashif M; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication is a serious issue in most parts of the world. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Abbottabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey study was carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad during December 1 - December 31,2011. A sample of 275 students was selected for the study using convenience method of sampling. Data were managed and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0. Inferences were drawn using Z-test Out of 268 respondents (male = 61.6%, female = 38.6%), 138 were non-health professional students whereas 130 were health professional students. The prevalence of self-medication was 95.5%. Most common factor (45.7%) responsible for self-medication was "low severity of disease". Most common symptom (50.8%) that caused self-medication and stocking of medicines was "storage of medicines for multi purposes". Some respondents (22.7%) got addicted due to self-medication. Most of the students trust in allopathic medicines system. High prevalence of self-medication can be controlled through regulatory authorities, mass education and availability of health facilities.

  8. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 354 male students with an average age of 21.95 (SD ± 3.43 participated in this study. Our study showed that self-medication among male students was high (86.6% compared to results shown in other studies in the same region. Headache (59.9%, cough/cold (41% and fever (24.6% were the most common symptoms associated with self-medication. Congruent with the medical conditions reported, the most widely used medications without prescriptions were paracetamol (34.7%, followed by antibiotics (31.4% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28.7%. Our study shows that antibiotics were sometimes irrationally used for self-treatment of cough and fever. Self-medication was highly frequent among the students. Influence of TV advertisements, high accessibility of pharmacies and convenience stores, as well as good buying power were found to be leading factors for self-medication among male university students.

  9. Reasons for self-medication and perceptions of risk among Mexican migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Stewart, Analisia

    2012-08-01

    Although the frequency of self-medication among Mexican migrants has been well-documented in the public health literature, the multiple reasons for this practice are poorly understood. Most studies point to migrants' cultural preferences for Mexican medications, their prior experiences in countries where antibiotics are loosely regulated, and their lack of access to health care as the primary factors behind their self-medication. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 23 Mexican migrants in a farm working community in the interior of California, we argue that occupational vulnerability is an equally important factor that encourages self-medication. All 23 of our interviewees reported having engaged in some degree of self-medication, notable in this location 8 h from the US-Mexico border. Among interviewees, occupational vulnerability represented an even more important factor influencing self-medication than lack of health insurance or lack of legal documentation. While interviewees did express a preference for Mexican medications as more potent and effective, this did not necessarily translate to a preference for using them without a doctor's supervision. Finally, we show that rather than remaining unaware of the risks of following this custom "transported from Latin America", Mexican migrants devised an elaborate hierarchy of resort of the safest self-medication practices to follow.

  10. Assessing the Perceptions and Practice of Self-Medication among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Omar Reza Seam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016 among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73 while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94 dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%. A significant (p < 0.05 portion of the students (51% male and 43% female perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.

  11. The self-regulated learning of medical students in the clinical environment - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kenneth K; Marjadi, Brahm; Langendyk, Vicki; Hu, Wendy

    2017-07-10

    Self-regulated learning is the individual's ability to effectively use various strategies to reach their learning goals. We conducted this scoping review to explore what has been found regarding self-regulated learning in the clinical environment and how this was measured. Using Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework, we searched three medical and educational databases as well as Google Scholar for literature on the self-regulated learning of medical students in the clinical environment published between 1966 and February 2017. After results were screened and relevant studies were identified, the data was summarised and discursively reported. The search resulted in 911 articles, with 14 articles included in the scoping review after the inclusion criteria was applied. Self-regulated learning was explored in these studies in various ways including qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. Three major findings were found: 1) levels of self-regulated learning change in the clinical environment, 2) self-regulated learning is associated with academic achievement, success in clinical skills and mental health and 3) various factors can support self-regulated learning levels in medical students. Most of articles exploring the self-regulated learning of medical students during the clinical years have been published in the last 5 years, suggesting a growing interest in the area. Future research could explore the self-regulated learning levels of medical students during the clinical years using a longitudinal approach or through the use of novel qualitative approaches.

  12. Study of Self Medication In Patients With Diabetes Using Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a behavior in which one tries to solve his/her health condition or problem without professional help. With regard to mortality and severe complications of diabetes, inappropriate self- medication can have severe consequences but proper planning can control this behavior to improve the patient′s health. In this study, the effect of each factor on self-medication in patients with diabetes is determined using path analysis technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kermanshah diabetes center. The number of patients with diabetes interviewed were 500. Each patient′s score of self-medication were determined according to a questionnaire, with a higher score showing greater self-medication. Demographic information and scores of trust to doctors, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and busy work environment as predictor variables were measured and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Based on the questionnaire scores, two patients (0.4% largely, 191 (38.7% moderately and 300 (60.9% slightly were on self-medication. The variable; mistrust of doctors only directly, variables; age, the duration of diabetes and family history of heart disease only indirectly and variables; busy work environment, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and family history of hypertension directly and indirectly were related to self-medication. The results of this study showed that more than 60% of patients with diabetes had low self-medication, which represents the success of education principles and methods. Extracting causal relationships among the complexity of factors influencing a disease requires powerful statistical tools such as path analysis.

  13. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacy consumers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.

  14. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Olivares, Silvia Lizett; López-Cabrera, Mildred Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 ...

  15. Study the relationship between medical sciences students’ self-esteem and academic achievement of Guilan university of medical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdehi, Maryam Mirzaee; Asgari, Fariba; Tabari, Rasool; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achievement of productivity and improvement of quality in the educational system is the effective, influential factors for countries development. Academic achievement is the main objective of the training program and the most important concerns of teachers, education officials, and university Student's families. Self-esteem is one of the factors affecting student academic achievement. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in Medical Sciences students of in 2014–2015. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive–correlational study. In this study, 537 university students were selected using random stratified sampling method from Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2014–2015. Data were collected using the standard self-esteem questionnaire of Cooper Smith consisting of four elements (general, social, familial, and educational) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 and descriptive statistics such as Spearman correlation and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The results indicated a significant relationship between grade point average and educational self-esteem (P = 0.002, r = 0.135) and global self-esteem (P = 0.02, r = 0.102). There was also a significant relationship between composite Index educational status and general self-esteem (P = 0.019, r = 0.102) and academic achievement (P = 0.007, r = 0.116) and global self-esteem (P = 0.020, r = 0.102). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, the highest mean score of self-esteem was related to the familial element, and the lowest average was in terms of social self-esteem, therefore, given the importance and necessity of self-esteem in academic achievement, strengthening of all aspects of self-esteem is suggested. PMID:29693033

  16. Study the relationship between medical sciences students' self-esteem and academic achievement of Guilan university of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdehi, Maryam Mirzaee; Asgari, Fariba; Tabari, Rasool; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2018-01-01

    Achievement of productivity and improvement of quality in the educational system is the effective, influential factors for countries development. Academic achievement is the main objective of the training program and the most important concerns of teachers, education officials, and university Student's families. Self-esteem is one of the factors affecting student academic achievement. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in Medical Sciences students of in 2014-2015. This is a descriptive-correlational study. In this study, 537 university students were selected using random stratified sampling method from Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2014-2015. Data were collected using the standard self-esteem questionnaire of Cooper Smith consisting of four elements (general, social, familial, and educational) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 and descriptive statistics such as Spearman correlation and Logistic Regression. The results indicated a significant relationship between grade point average and educational self-esteem ( P = 0.002, r = 0.135) and global self-esteem ( P = 0.02, r = 0.102). There was also a significant relationship between composite Index educational status and general self-esteem ( P = 0.019, r = 0.102) and academic achievement ( P = 0.007, r = 0.116) and global self-esteem ( P = 0.020, r = 0.102). According to the results, the highest mean score of self-esteem was related to the familial element, and the lowest average was in terms of social self-esteem, therefore, given the importance and necessity of self-esteem in academic achievement, strengthening of all aspects of self-esteem is suggested.

  17. Social determinants of self-care subsequent to major medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that education, residential status, marital status, and availability and ability to convert social network into social capital constitute major social determinants of self-care. It was recommended among others that the social determinants of self-care identified above should ...

  18. Social Determinants of Self-Care Subsequent to Major Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... determinants, therefore, have a big role in self-care after hospital ... whose profile met the study's objectives purposively chosen to provide the data for the ..... The study also explored how social network features in self-care .... made to run effectively it would ease the pressure on the heavy traffic of people to.

  19. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  20. A social media self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Benjamin J.; Huiskes, Florian; Korevaar, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of medical practitioners and medical students are using online social and business-related networking websites such as Facebook, Doc2doc and LinkedIn. These rapidly evolving and growing social media have potential to promote public health by providing powerful instruments for

  1. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  2. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  3. [Self-Determination in Medical Rehabilitation - Development of a Conceptual Model for Further Theoretical Discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, Tatjana; Meyer, Thorsten

    2018-01-22

    Aim was to gather theoretical knowledge about self-determination and to develop a conceptual model for medical rehabilitation- which serves as a basis for discussion. We performed a literature research in electronic databases. Various theories and research results were adopted and transferred to the context of medical rehabilitation and into a conceptual model. The conceptual model of self-determination reflects on a continuum which forms of self-determination may be present in situations of medical rehabilitation treatments. The location on the continuum depends theoretically on the manifestation of certain internal and external factors that may influence each other. The model provides a first conceptualization of self-determination focusing on medical rehabilitation which should be further refined and tested empirically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Writing, self-reflection, and medical school performance: the Human Context of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Reamy, Brian V; Anderson, Denise; Olsen, Cara; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J; Auster, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Finding ways to improve communication and self-reflection skills is an important element of medical education and continuing professional development. This study examines the relationship between self-reflection and educational outcomes. We correlate performance in a preclinical course that focuses on self-reflection as it relates to contextual elements of patient care (Human Context of Health Care), with educational measures such as overall grade point average, clinical clerkship scores, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. Student performance in Human Context of Health Care correlated with MCAT-Verbal scores, MCAT-writing sample scores, clerkship grades, and overall medical school grade point average (R = 0.3; p self-reflection skills are often neglected in undergraduate medical curricula. Our findings suggest that these skills are important and correlate with recognized long-term educational outcomes.

  5. Assessing medical students' self-regulation as aptitude in computer-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyuksoon S; Kalet, Adina L; Plass, Jan L

    2011-03-01

    We developed a Self-Regulation Measure for Computer-based learning (SRMC) tailored toward medical students, by modifying Zimmerman's Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) for K-12 learners. The SRMC's reliability and validity were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 109 first-year medical students were asked to complete the SRMC. Bivariate correlation analysis results indicated that the SRMC scores had a moderate degree of correlation with student achievement in a teacher-developed test. In Study 2, 58 third-year clerkship students completed the SRMC. Regression analysis results indicated that the frequency of medical students' usage of self-regulation strategies was associated with their general clinical knowledge measured by a nationally standardized licensing exam. These two studies provided evidence for the reliability and concurrent validity of the SRMC to assess medical students' self-regulation as aptitude. Future work should provide evidence to guide and improve instructional design as well as inform educational policy.

  6. Determinants of Increasing Trend of Self-Medication in a Pakistani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. ... self-medication for rapid relief of indications only when health care ... hospitals, and other healthcare units. Data analysis.

  7. Self-regulation theory: applications to medical education: AMEE Guide No. 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Cleary, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation theory, as applied to medical education, describes the cyclical control of academic and clinical performance through several key processes that include goal-directed behaviour, use of specific strategies to attain goals, and the adaptation and modification to behaviours or strategies to optimise learning and performance. Extensive research across a variety of non-medical disciplines has highlighted differences in key self-regulation processes between high- and low-achieving learners and performers. Structured identification of key self-regulation processes can be used to develop specific remediation approaches that can improve performance in academic and complex psycho-motor skills. General teaching approaches that are guided by a self-regulation perspective can also enhance academic performance. Self-regulation theory offers an exciting potential for improving academic and clinical performance in medical education.

  8. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P

    2015-09-19

    To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.

  9. A qualitative study about self-medication in the community among market vendors in Fuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Lieber, Eli; Wan, Dai; Hong, Yuanhao

    2011-09-01

    Despite government efforts to increase healthcare insurance and access in China, many individuals, regardless of insurance status, continue to engage in high levels of self-medication. To understand the factors influencing common self-medication behaviour in a community of food market vendors in Fuzhou China, a total of 30 market vendors were randomly recruited from six food markets in 2007. In-depth interviews were conducted with each participant at their market stalls by trained interviewers using a semi-structured open-ended interview protocol. Participants were asked broad questions about their health-seeking behaviours as well as their past experiences with self-medication and hospital care. ATLAS. ti was used to manage and analyse the interview data. The results showed that hospital-based healthcare services were perceived as better quality. However, self-medication was viewed as more affordable in terms of money and time. Other factors prompting self-medication, included confidence in understanding the health problem, the easy accessibility of local pharmacies and the influences of friends/peers and advertising. Three broad domains, attitude, cost and effectiveness, were all seen to determine past decisions and experiences with self-medication. Interestingly, the effective management of self-medication via pharmacy resources raised particular concern because of perceived variation in quality. In conclusion, self-medication was found to be an important and common health-seeking behaviour driven by multiple factors. A sound and comprehensive public health system should systematically attend to these behaviours and the pharmacies, where much of the behaviour occurs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Self-medication: frequent practice in adolescence? Study on a sample of high school students in Sorocaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo

    2013-06-01

    bjectives: self-medication is a practice that has been widely discussed around the world, becoming the target of several studies, including Brazil. Self-medication can cause harm. Children and adolescents are the group most inclined to irrational use of medications. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of high school students about self-medication. Methods: a cross-sectional sample of 79 high school teenagers, aged 14 - 18 years old of both genders. The questionnaire included the following variables: age, gender, grade, frequency of use of medications, who guided the consumption and self-medication, which were evaluated using dichotomous questions, specifying the(s drug(s used and their purpose. Results: the self-medication occurred in 96.2% of the sample, with no difference between genders (p = 0.19 or age (p = 0.61. Among those who self-medicated on their own, 55.88% based on old prescriptions. The most consumed pharmacological groups were analgesics, followed by medicines for colds or flu. Almost half (48.1% participants reported using nonprescription medicines. There was association between adolescents' self-medication and maternal self-medication (p = 0.02. Conclusion: it is extremely worrying the large percentage of adolescents who engage in self-medication, in view of the potential health risks. The consumption of drugs without medical advice by mothers proved to be an influencing factor in adolescents' self-medication.

  11. Self-perceived readiness of medical interns in performing basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIN Yiga

    frequently performed initial management of open fractures, application of plaster ... dehydration (92.7%) in patients in Paediatrics were the most frequently .... Medical and Dental Professions Board, Health Professions Council of South Africa.

  12. The relationship between assessment methods and self-directed learning readiness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Katherine S

    2016-03-11

    This research explored the assessment of self-directed learning readiness within the comprehensive evaluation of medical students' knowledge and skills and the extent to which several variables predicted participants' self-directed learning readiness prior to their graduation. Five metrics for evaluating medical students were considered in a multiple regression analysis. Fourth-year medical students at a competitive US medical school received an informed consent and an online survey. Participants voluntarily completed a self-directed learning readiness scale that assessed four subsets of self-directed learning readiness and consented to the release of their academic records. The assortment of metrics considered in this study only vaguely captured students' self-directedness. The strongest predictors were faculty evaluations of students' performance on clerkship rotations. Specific clerkship grades were mildly predictive of three subscales. The Pediatrics clerkship modestly predicted critical self-evaluation (r=-.30, p=.01) and the Psychiatry clerkship mildly predicted learning self-efficacy (r =-.30, p=.01), while the Junior Surgery clerkship nominally correlated with participants' effective organization for learning (r=.21, p=.05). Other metrics examined did not contribute to predicting participants' readiness for self-directed learning. Given individual differences among participants for the variables considered, no combination of students' grades and/or test scores overwhelmingly predicted their aptitude for self-directed learning. Considering the importance of fostering medical students' self-directed learning skills, schools need a reliable and pragmatic approach to measure them. This data analysis, however, offered no clear-cut way of documenting students' self-directed learning readiness based on the evaluation metrics included.

  13. Parent induced self-medication among under five children: an observational cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nazir

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study identifies the problem of self-medication in the under-five children and highlights the need for urgent educational measures for general public and drug dispensers in particular, to improve their knowledge and practices related to self-treatment of minor ailments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 81-86

  14. The effect of control and self-medication of chronic gout in a developing country.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmawan, John; Rasker, Johannes J.; Nuralim, Hendri

    2003-01-01

    Objective:: We describe a 10 year observation of the effect of control of hyperuricemia compared with self-medication alone in patients with chronic gout. Methods: We studied 299 consecutively self-referred Malayo-Polynesian men with chronic gout, mean age 35 ± 14.3 SD years. Subjects comprised 228

  15. Perception and practice of self-medication with over-the-counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics increase access to and ease of medication, they are a major contributor to irrational use of medicines worldwide.This study assessed perception and practice of self-medication with OTC analgesics among students of Federal College of Education,Zaria. Method: It ...

  16. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-leased medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H. T.

    Purpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own performances in

  17. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.M. van der Molen

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own

  18. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with heart failure-A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Type D personality is associated with medication non-adherence. Both Type D personality and non-adherence are predictors of poor outcomes. Self-efficacy, which is modifiable, is also associated with medication adherence. To determine the relationships among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in 84 heart failure patients. Self-efficacy, Type D personality, medication adherence, demographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical linear regression was used. Type D patients were more likely to have lower self-efficacy (p = .023) and medication non-adherence (p = .027) than non-Type D patients. Low self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence (p mediation. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence. Developing and applying interventions to enhance self-efficacy may help to sever the link between Type D personality and poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-Referent Constructs and Medical Sociology: In Search of an Integrative Framework*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Howard B.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical framework centering on four classes of self-referent constructs is offered as a device for integrating the diverse areas constituting medical sociology. Guidance by this framework sensitizes the researcher to the occurrence of parallel processes in adjacent disciplines, facilitates recognition of the etiological significance of findings from other disciplines for explaining medical sociological phenomena, and encourages transactions between sociology and medical sociology whereby each informs and is informed by the other. PMID:17583268

  20. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lizett Olivares-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 experts in medical education and applied to 135 registered students on the sixth year of the M.D. Physician Surgeon program at a private medical school. Cronbach’s alpha indicated an internal consistency of 0.751. The findings suggest that selected items have both homogeneity and validity. The factor analysis resulted in components that were associated with three problem-solving subcategories. The students’ perceptions are higher in the pattern recognition and application of general strategies for problem solving subcategories of the Problem solving disposition model.

  1. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Layz Alves Ferreira; Silva,Camila Damázio da; Ferraz,Gisely Carvalho; Sousa,Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira,Lílian Varanda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were...

  2. Comparison of the medical students' perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians' self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment.The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students' perceived self-efficacy...

  3. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Medical students’ self-regulated learning in clinical contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Doctors are expected to be lifelong learners. This means that they should be able to identify their own weaknesses, have effective strategies to improve, and to reflect on this process. The competencies necessary for lifelong learning, are refined through engaging in self-regulated learning.

  5. [Effects of gout web based self-management program on knowledge related to disease, medication adherence, and self-management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Won; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Lim, Mie Jin; Suh, Yeon Ok; Seo, Wha Sook; Park, Jong Suk

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the changing patterns of knowledge related to disease, medication adherence, and self-management and to determine if outcomes were more favorable in the experimental group than in the comparison group through 6 months after providing a web-based self-management intervention. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used and 65 patients with gout, 34 in experimental group and 31 in comparison group, were selected from the rheumatic clinics of two university hospitals. Data were collected four times, at baseline, at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. According to the study results, the changing patterns of knowledge and self-management were more positive in the experimental group than in the control group, whereas difference in the changing pattern of medication adherence between two groups was not significant. The results indicate that the web-based self-management program has significant effect on improving knowledge and self-management for middle aged male patients with gout. However, in order to enhance medication adherence, the web-based intervention might not be sufficient and other strategies need to be added.

  6. Self-efficacy reduces the impact of social isolation on medical student's rural career intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S

    2018-03-20

    Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.

  7. Self-reported medical, medication and laboratory error in eight countries: risk factors for chronically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    To identify risk factors associated with self-reported medical, medication and laboratory error in eight countries. The Commonwealth Fund's 2008 International Health Policy Survey of chronically ill patients in eight countries. None. A multi-country telephone survey was conducted between 3 March and 30 May 2008 with patients in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK and the USA who self-reported being chronically ill. A bivariate analysis was performed to determine significant explanatory variables of medical, medication and laboratory error (P error: age 65 and under, education level of some college or less, presence of two or more chronic conditions, high prescription drug use (four+ drugs), four or more doctors seen within 2 years, a care coordination problem, poor doctor-patient communication and use of an emergency department. Risk factors with the greatest ability to predict experiencing an error encompassed issues with coordination of care and provider knowledge of a patient's medical history. The identification of these risk factors could help policymakers and organizations to proactively reduce the likelihood of error through greater examination of system- and organization-level practices.

  8. Implementation of a web-based tool for patient medication self-management: the Medication Self-titration Evaluation Programme (Med-STEP for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Informatics tools may help support hypertension management.Objective To design, implement and evaluate a web-based system for patient anti-hypertensive medication self-titration.Methods Study stages included: six focus groups (50 patients to identify barriers/facilitators to patient medication self-titration, software design informed by qualitative analysis of focus group responses and a six-month single-arm pilot study (20 patients to assess implementation feasibility.Results Focus groups emphasised patient need to feel confident that their own primary care providers were directly involved and approved of the titration protocol. Physicians required 3.3 ± 2.8 minutes/patient to create individualised six-step medication pathways for once-monthly blood pressure evaluations. Pilot participants (mean age of 51.5 ± 11 years, 45% women, mean baseline blood pressure 139/84 ± 12.2/7.5 mmHg had five medication increases, two non-adherence self-reports, 52months not requiring medication changes, 24 skipped months and 17 months with no evaluations due to technical issues. Four pilot patients dropped out before study completion. From baseline to study completion, blood pressure decreased among the 16 patients remaining in the study (8.0/4.7 mmHg, p = 0.03 for both systolic and diastolic pressures.Conclusions Lessons learned included the benefit of qualitative patient analysis prior to system development and the feasibility of physicians designing individual treatment pathways. Any potential clinical benefits were offset by technical problems, the tendency for patients to skip their monthly self-evaluations and drop outs. To be more widely adopted such systems must effectively generalise to a wider range of patients and be integrated into clinical workflow.

  9. Comparison of the medical students? perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarb?l, Dorte Ejg; Holst, Ren?; ?vrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians? self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment. The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students? perceived self-efficacy of specific communication skills corresponds to the evaluation of simulated patients and observers. Methods All of the medical students who signed up for an Objective Structured Clinical Exa...

  10. The relationship between self-efficacy and academic motivation among students of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Roohi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: self-efficacy is referred to individual's beliefs about their abilities to learn and doing significant tasks in life. This study aims to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and academic motivation in a group of medical sciences' students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 275 students of Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS were selected using stratified random sampling method. A questionnaire consists of questions regarding demographic, academic motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs were used to collect data. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent T-Test and one way ANOVA were applied on the data. Results: The average of students’ academic motivation was 30.3±4.0. 50.2 percent of students had self-efficacy higher than average. Self-efficacy had significant correlation with intrinsic motivation sub-scale (r=0.196, P=0.001 and total score of academic motivation scale (r=0.155, P=0.01. There were no significant correlations between self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation (r=0.054, P=0.376 and motivation sub-scale (r=0.104, P=0.08. There was no significant difference between two genders in self-efficacy. Conclusion: Improvement in self-efficacy of medical sciences' students could improve their motivation.

  11. The concordance between self-reported medication use and pharmacy records in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K; El Marroun, H; Elfrink, M E; Jaddoe, V W V; Visser, L E; Stricker, B H Ch

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have been conducted to assess determinants affecting the performance or accuracy of self-reports. These studies are often not focused on pregnant women, or medical records were used as a data source where it is unclear if medications have been dispensed. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported medication data and pharmacy records among pregnant women and its determinants. We conducted a population-based cohort study within the Generation R study, in 2637 pregnant women. The concordance between self-reported medication data and pharmacy records was calculated for different therapeutic classes using Yule's Y. We evaluated a number of variables as determinant of discordance between both sources through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The concordance between self-reports and pharmacy records was moderate to good for medications used for chronic conditions, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or anti-asthmatic medications (0.88 and 0.68, respectively). Medications that are used occasionally, such as antibiotics, had a lower concordance (0.51). Women with a Turkish or other non-Western background were more likely to demonstrate discordance between pharmacy records and self-reported data compared with women with a Dutch background (Turkish: odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.29; other non-Western: odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.71). Further research is needed to assess how the cultural or ethnic differences may affect the concordance or discordance between both medication sources. The results of this study showed that the use of multiple sources is needed to have a good estimation of the medication use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. CONSUMER EXPECTATION ON SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDE BY PHARMACIST IN SELF MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfian, Sofa D; Sinuraya, Rano K; Kautsar, Angga P; Abdulah, Rizky

    2016-11-01

    Self-medication is the use of medicines for therapeutic intent without a clinician’s advice or prescription. The National Socioeconomic Survey for Indonesia in 2009 found the percentage of the Indonesians engaging in self-medication is increasing. The objectives of this study were to assess consumers’ expectations regarding service quality provide by pharmacist in self-medication practices and determine the factors associated with self-medication in Bandung, Indonesia. We conduct a cross-sectional survey at eight randomly selected community pharmacies during July-November 2012 and purposely sampled 1,200 costumers purchasing medication at those sites. Subjects reported they understood the information about the medicines given by the pharmacist but still wanted more information and time to consult with the pharmacist about their medicines. Factors associated with self-medication were younger age, male gender, greater education and lower income. The intervention is needed to improve appropriate self-medication.

  13. A reflective analysis of medical education research on self-regulation in learning and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Butler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    In the health professions we expect practitioners and trainees to engage in self-regulation of their learning and practice. For example, doctors are responsible for diagnosing their own learning needs and pursuing professional development opportunities; medical residents are expected to identify what they do not know when caring for patients and to seek help from supervisors when they need it, and medical school curricula are increasingly called upon to support self-regulation as a central learning outcome. Given the importance of self-regulation in both health professions education and ongoing professional practice, our aim was to generate a snapshot of the state of the science in medical education research in this area. To achieve this goal, we gathered literature focused on self-regulation or self-directed learning undertaken from multiple perspectives. Then, with support from a multi-component theoretical framework, we created an overarching map of the themes addressed thus far and emerging findings. We built from that integrative overview to consider contributions, connections and gaps in research on self-regulation to date. Based on this reflective analysis, we conclude that the medical education community's understanding about self-regulation will continue to advance as we: (i) consider how learning is undertaken within the complex social contexts of clinical training and practice; (ii) think of self-regulation within an integrative perspective that allows us to combine disparate strands of research and to consider self-regulation across the training continuum in medicine, from learning to practice; (iii) attend to the grain size of analysis both thoughtfully and intentionally, and (iv) most essentially, extend our efforts to understand the need for and best practices in support of self-regulation. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  14. Self-determining medical leadership needs of occupational health physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Prosenjit; Aylott, Jill; Kilner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Medical leadership is seen as crucial to the transformation of healthcare services, yet leadership programmes are often designed with a top-down and centrally-commissioned 'one-size-fits-all' approach. In the UK the Smith Review (2015) concluded that more decentralised and locally-designed leadership development programmes were needed to meet the healthcare challenges of the future. However, there is an absence of an evidence-base to inform the design of effective strategies to motiv...

  15. Patterns of self-medication in customers of a community pharmacy in the Antofagasta city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Alucema

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Self-medication is the use of unprescribed drugs; this means that people obtain drugs on their own initiative and without the assistance of health professionals. This is an increasingly common practice among the population that can cause numerous problems, becoming a public health problem. Aims: To determine the patterns of self-medication in customers who frequented a community pharmacy in the city of Antofagasta. Methods: A survey was conducted to 297 users over 18 years and with adequate mental and communicative power to answer the questions, and attending the pharmacy to buy a drug without a prescription. Results: The study revealed that of the 297 people who practiced self-medication, 41% do it with a frequency of at least once a month. The woman practiced in 64% and the men in 36%. The range of age of the studied group was between 31-50 years. The main reason to practice the self medication was to recognize symptoms (33%, within the most notable was the headache (11%. The therapeutic group of the most requested medicines was the NSAIDs (20%, and of them the paracetamol was the most used. Conclusions: The results reveal that a high percentage of customers surveyed self-medicate, which shows this practice as a real problem, so it is necessary to educate people.

  16. Parental Use of Antibiotics as Self Medication to Their School Going Children: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication with antibiotics constitutes a major form of irrational use of medicine and it is associated with risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Parents many times use antibiotics as self medication for their children which is hazardous. There is a need to find out such practices if they are happening. Aim and Objectives: to find out the prevalence and practices of antibiotics use as self medication in children amongst the parents and reasons for the same. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Schools from Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area were the study place. Parents of primary and secondary school students were the study subjects. The sample size was 1407. Cluster sampling method was used. The study duration was of 6 months. The questionnaire was used as a study tool. Results: The prevalence of non prescriptional parental use of antibiotic for school going children was 22.8%. Most common symptom treated was runny nose (41.43%. Majority parents (35.51% selected antibiotic by using their own experience. Commonest reason was 'convenience' (27.72%. Gender and type of family are the strong predictors for self-medication with antibiotic for children. Conclusion: Parental use of non prescribed antibiotic was high. Risk for parental use of self medication was high with nuclear families and mothers.

  17. Self-Explanation, An Instructional Strategy to Foster Clinical Reasoning in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Chamberland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical reasoning is a critical and complex skill that medical students have to develop in the course of their training. Although research on medical expertise has successfully examined the different components of that skill, designing educational interventions that support the development of clinical reasoning in students remains a challenge for medical educators. The theory of medical expertise describes how students׳ medical knowledge develops and is progressively restructured during their training and in particular through clinical exposure to patient problems. Instructional strategies to foster students’ learning from practice with clinical cases are scarce. This article describes the use of self-explanation as such a strategy. Self-explanation is an active learning technique of proven effectiveness in other domains which consists of having students explaining to themselves information on to-be-learned materials. The mechanisms through which self-explanation fosters learning are described. Self-explanation promotes knowledge development and revision of mental representations through elaboration on new information, organisation and integration of new knowledge into existing cognitive structures and monitoring of the learning process. Subsequently, the article shows how self-explanation has recently been investigated in medicine as an instructional strategy to support students׳ clinical reasoning. Available studies have demonstrated that students׳ diagnostic performance improves when they use self-explanation while solving clinical problems of a less familiar clinical topic. Unfamiliarity seems to trigger more self-explanations and to stimulate students to reactivate relevant biomedical knowledge, which could lead to the development of more coherent representations of diseases. The benefit of students׳ self-explanation is increased when it is combined with listening to residents׳ self-explanation examples and with prompts. The

  18. Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement of Zahedan Medical Sciences Students in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Arbabisarjou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Students with higher self-efficacy utilize higher tendency, endeavor, and strength in performing academic tasks and feel ensure of their ability, thus self-efficacy can influence their academic achievement. Current study was conducted aiming at investigating relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. It is a descriptive – analytical research on 190 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 2015 – 2016. Subjects were selected randomly and two-part questionnaire was used as data collection tool. First part was related to demographic characteristics and second part was related to self-efficacy questionnaire. Finally data were analyzed by SPSS 19 Software using deceptive statistics, Pearson correlation and independent t. Average age of individuals was 21.46 ± 312 and 82 students were female.Relationship between gender and self-efficacy of students was significant and self-efficacy was higher in females. But relationship between gender and academic achievementis not significant. Relationship between age and academic achievement was not significant. Relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students was measured through Pearson correlation test and significant relationship was observed. People with higher selfefficacy have more optimal academic status compared to people with low self-efficacy and there is direct positive relationship between GPA and self-efficacy.

  19. Medical student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication in adolescent medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer L; Pasold, Tracie L; Boateng, Beatrice A; Hense, Devon J

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication with teen issues and learning activities. Data were collected during the 8-week pediatric rotation for third-year medical students at a local children's hospital. Students completed a self-efficacy instrument at the beginning and end of the rotation; knowledge and communication skills were evaluated during standardized patient cases as part of the objective structured clinical examination. Self-efficacy, knowledge and communication frequencies were described with descriptive statistics; differences between groups were also evaluated utilizing two-sample t-tests. Self-efficacy levels of both groups increased by the end of the pediatric rotation, but students in the two-lecture group displayed significantly higher self-efficacy in confidentiality with adolescents (t(35)=-2.543, p=0.02); interviewing adolescents, assessing risk, sexually transmitted infection risk and prevention counseling, contraception counseling were higher with marginal significance. No significant differences were found between groups for communication; assessing sexually transmitted infection risk was marginally significant for knowledge application during the clinical exam. Medical student self-efficacy appears to change over time with effects from different learning methods; this higher self-efficacy may increase future comfort and willingness to work with this high-risk, high-needs group throughout a medical career.

  20. Assessment of Nature, Reasons, and Consequences of Self-medication Practice among General Population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sathvik B; Shariff, Atiqulla; Dallah, Lana; Anas, Doaa; Ayman, Maryam; Rao, Padma Gm

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0. The prevalence of self-medication practices among our study respondents was 52.1%. A headache (155 [37.5%]) was the most common clinical condition treated through self-medication practice. Familiarity with the treatment/medication (198 [48%]) was the most common cited reasons, whereas the advertisement and friend's advice were the most (182 [44%]) cited sources of information for self-medication usage. The majority (265 [64.1%]) of the respondents were considered self-medication practice as safe. However, 19 respondents reported side-effects or complications during the due course of self-medication. It was observed that there is a statistically significant association ( P employment status of this study participants with self-medication practices. The data from this study show that the self-medication practice is very common among the study population. Variables such as younger age group and occupation status were significantly associated with self-medication practice. We emphasize the role of pharmacist in educating the community regarding safe medication practices such as harmful effects of self-medicating and inappropriate practices such as sharing the medications among family members and friends.

  1. Psychosomatic symptoms in medical outpatients: an investigation of self-handicapping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Miranda, J

    1991-01-01

    Investigated self-handicapping theory as it relates to somatization in medical patients. We predicted that medical outpatients (N = 113) would report psychosomatic symptoms in response to events that threaten their self-esteem. As predicted, results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that high-perfectionism patients reported somatic symptoms positively related to the number of events that jeopardize their sense of accomplishment, whereas low-perfectionism patients' somatic symptoms were not related to these events (p = .005). Contrary to prediction, high-dependency patients did not differ significantly from low-dependency patients in the relationship of somatic symptoms and events that threatened their interpersonal relationships (p = .115). Implications of these findings and the utility of self-handicapping theory for predicting somatization in medical patients are discussed.

  2. Antenatal drug consumption: the burden of self-medication in a developing world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, Abiodun Idowu; Awoleke, Jacob Olumuyiwa

    2017-07-01

    This institutional-based cross-sectional study examines the burden of self-medication during pregnancy in a middle-income country setting and the impact on fetal wellbeing. Using a blend of open-ended and indication-oriented questionnaires, 346 pregnant women at term were interviewed about their pregnancy complaints and drug intake. Inferential statistical data analysis was employed with level of significance (α) set at 0.05. Excluding routine supplements and vaccinations, 251 (72.5%) women used medicines, of whom 79 (31.5%) had self-medicated. Consuming drugs without prescription was associated with increased US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) risk category (χ 2  = 8.375; P = 0.015). There is therefore a need to scale up efforts towards educating women about the dangers of self-medication, while also introducing effective restrictive policies on over-the-counter drug sales.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning self-medication with antibiotics among university students in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Dingkun; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Minghuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Guilan; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of university students on the use of antibiotics. A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students of Xi'an Jiaotong University, comprising 18 schools/colleges in Shaanxi Province, western China. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify risk factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics. Of the 731 respondents (response rate = 73.1%), 294 (40.2%) had self-medicated with antibiotics in the past 6 months. Most of the antibiotics (59.2%) for self-medication were purchased without prescription in retail pharmacies. The median score of students' knowledge about antibiotics was 4 (IQR: 3-6) of a maximum possible score of 10. Students had moderately accurate beliefs towards antibiotics. More than half of the students (56.5%) were storing antibiotics frequently. During self-medication, 16.7% of students claimed to have experienced adverse reactions, and 30.6% had used antibiotics to prevent common colds. The majority preferred to use broad-spectrum antibiotics, and nearly half preferred intravenous antibiotics. Over 44% of students had changed antibiotic dosage, and 36.5% had switched to another antibiotic during the treatment course. Logistic regression analysis identified college and home town as independent risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics (P students had inadequate knowledge, moderately accurate beliefs and inappropriate practices concerning antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A systematic review of patient medication error on self-administering medication at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Lorenzo, Susana; Guilabert, Mercedes; Navarro, Isabel; Pérez-Jover, Virtudes

    2015-06-01

    Medication errors have been analyzed as a health professionals' responsibility (due to mistakes in prescription, preparation or dispensing). However, sometimes, patients themselves (or their caregivers) make mistakes in the administration of the medication. The epidemiology of patient medication errors (PEs) has been scarcely reviewed in spite of its impact on people, on therapeutic effectiveness and on incremental cost for the health systems. This study reviews and describes the methodological approaches and results of published studies on the frequency, causes and consequences of medication errors committed by patients at home. A review of research articles published between 1990 and 2014 was carried out using MEDLINE, Web-of-Knowledge, Scopus, Tripdatabase and Index Medicus. The frequency of PE was situated between 19 and 59%. The elderly and the preschooler population constituted a higher number of mistakes than others. The most common were: incorrect dosage, forgetting, mixing up medications, failing to recall indications and taking out-of-date or inappropriately stored drugs. The majority of these mistakes have no negative consequences. Health literacy, information and communication and complexity of use of dispensing devices were identified as causes of PEs. Apps and other new technologies offer several opportunities for improving drug safety.

  5. Determinants of self-medication with NSAIDs in a Portuguese community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes AP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a widely used therapeutic group in the world, and particularly in the Portuguese population. Objective: To compare NSAID’s use by prescription and self-medication acquisition and to determine the pattern of indication of NSAIDs, their usage profile and possible implications for patients’ safety. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used where individuals presenting at a community pharmacy requesting NSAIDs during the study period (one month were invited to answer a face-to-face interview where socio-demographic characteristics, the indication pattern and previous experience of side effects were assessed. A follow-up interview was performed one week later to assess the incidence of adverse effects. The study was ethically approved. Results: A sample of 130 NSAIDs users was recruited, comprising mostly women (n=87; 66.9%, actively employed (n=77; 59.2% and presenting a mean age of 49.5 years old (SD=20.49. An equal proportion of individuals acquired NSAIDs by self-medication and with medical prescription (n=65; 50%. Over 4/5 of patients (n=57; 87.7% acquiring NSAIDs without a prescription were self-medicated by their own initiative, and only 10.8% (n=7 had been advised by the pharmacist. The most commonly acquired active substances were ibuprofen and diclofenac. Self-medicated users more frequently resorted to topical NSAIDs following short term treatments. The major underlying condition motivating NSAIDs sought were musculoskeletal disorders (45.0%, regardless of the regimen. An important proportion of prevalent users of NSAIDs reported previous experience of adverse effects (11.3%. One week after initiating NSAID therapy, a small proportion of patients reported incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Self-medication with NSAIDs is sought for numerous medical conditions. Reported adverse effects (prevalent and incident confirm the need for a more rational use of NSAIDs and ongoing

  6. Medical students' self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students' motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students' self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students' views on benefiting from PBL. The female students' mean score was higher for the 'planning and goal setting' subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students' mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the 'lack of self-directedness' subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the 'responsibility' subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students' development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning environment, individual differences, and how these can affect the

  7. Medical students’ self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirören, Meral; Turan, Sevgi; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1%) and third (275; 80.2%) year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP) scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL) scale were used in the study. Results The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale) and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017), and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27). There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26). Conclusions The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum, learning

  8. Medical students’ self-efficacy in problem-based learning and its relationship with self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demirören

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problem-based learning (PBL is most commonly used in medical education to enhance self-regulated learning (SRL skills. Self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ motivation through self-regulatory processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical students’ self-reported SRL skills and their self-efficacy in PBL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with second (286; 83.1% and third (275; 80.2% year students at the Ankara University School of Medicine. The SRL perception (SRLP scale and self-efficacy for problem-based learning (SPBL scale were used in the study. Results: The SRLP subscales were positively correlated with the SPBL subscales. There was a weak but meaningful correlation between the subscales of SRLP (with the exception of the lack of self-directedness scale and the subscales of SPBL and the students’ views on benefiting from PBL. The female students’ mean score was higher for the ‘planning and goal setting’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.017, and the second-year students’ mean score was higher than that of the third-year students for the ‘lack of self-directedness’ subscale of SRLP (p=0.001 with small effect sizes (Cohen's d is 0.17 and 0.27. There was no statistically significant difference between the year and subscales of SPBL. With regard to gender, the female students had higher scores than the male students on the ‘responsibility’ subscale of SPBL (p=0.003; Cohen's d=0.26. Conclusions: The study showed that medical students used SRL skills and believed in their ability to learn effectively in the PBL context and demonstrated the relationship between SRL skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Monitoring students’ development in these skills and giving them feedback could be beneficial for the cognitive achievement of students with learning difficulties and insufficient study skills. Further studies need to be undertaken to investigate issues such as the curriculum

  9. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana Reddy, A M; Prashanth, L K; Sharat Kumar, G G; Chandana, G; Jadav, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary) is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter.

  10. Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.

  11. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.

  12. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; da Silva, Camila Damázio; Ferraz, Gisely Carvalho; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira, Lílian Varanda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were the student him/herself (54.1%) and lack of time to go to a doctor (50%), respectively. The most frequently used analgesic was dipyrone (59.8%) and pain relief was classified as good (Md=8.5;Max=10;Min=0). The prevalence of self-medication was higher than that observed in similar studies. Many students reported that relief obtained through self-medication was good, a fact that can delay the clarification of a diagnosis and its appropriate treatment.

  13. Changes in medical students' motivation and self-regulated learning: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Hye W

    2015-12-28

    To investigate whether medical students' motivation and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) change over time to enhance our understanding of these constructs as dependent variables in medical education. A cohort of first-year students (n=43) at a medical school in South Korea completed a self-report questionnaire on motivation and SRL--the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The same questionnaire was administered to the same cohort in the beginning of Year 2. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to determine if changes in participants' MSLQ scores occurred between in Years 1 and 2. Forty-one students completed the questionnaires in both years (95% response rate). Participants' motivation scores significantly increased, whereas their SRL scores decreased significantly after they went through Year 1. The most notable change in participants' MLSQ scores was in the increase in their test anxiety. There was a positive association between the participants' test anxiety and their cognitive strategies use in Year 1, which changed to a negative one in Year 2. Meanwhile, participants' test anxiety scores and their self-regulation scores became more negatively associated over time. Our study shows that even as medical students become more motivated, they actually use fewer self-regulated strategies over time. Our findings highlight the need for change in the medical school's learning environment to lessen students' test anxiety to facilitate their use of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies.

  14. Effect of Self-monitoring and Medication Self-titration on Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Richard J.; Mant, Jonathan; Haque, M. Sayeed; Bray, Emma P.; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M.; Jones, Miren I.; Jowett, Sue; Little, Paul; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Shovelton, Claire; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Self-monitoring of blood pressure with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but there are no data about patients in high-risk groups.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensive medication compared with usual care on systolic blood pressure among patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.\\ud \\ud DESIGN, SETTING, AN...

  15. Financial hardship, unmet medical need, and health self-efficacy among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Mitchell, Jamie A; Shires, Deirdre A; Modlin, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet medical need due to cost potentially mediates this association. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from a convenience sample of African American men who attended a 1-day annual community health fair in Northeast Ohio (N = 279). Modified Poisson regression models were estimated to obtain the relative risk of reporting low health self-efficacy. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, those reporting financial hardship were 2.91 times, RR = 2.91 (confidence interval [1.24, 6.83]; p financial hardship and low health self-efficacy was no longer statistically significant. Our results suggest that the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy can be explained by unmet medical need due to cost. Possible intervention efforts among African American men with low financial resources should consider expanding clinical and community-based health assessments to capture financial hardship and unmet medical need due to cost as potential contributors to low health self-efficacy. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Medical students and stigma of depression. Part 2. Self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalska, Julia; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Szczygieł, Marta; Łojko, Dorota

    2017-06-18

    Up to 30% of medical students suffer from depression. They have better access to healthcare, but still receive appropriate treatment less frequently than people with depression in the general population. Most of them do not seek medical help as depression is perceived as a stigmatizing disorder, which leads to self-stigma and hampers early diagnosis and treatment. Thus, self-stigma means less effective therapy, unfavorable prognosis and relapses. According to the literature, self-stigma results in lowered self-esteem and is a major obstacle in the performance of social roles at work and in personal life. Stigmatization and self-stigma of depression among medical students are also associated with effects in their later professional life: they can lead to long-term consequences in the process of treating their patients in the future. Currently there are no unequivocal research results indicating the most effective ways of reducing stigmatization and self-stigma. It is necessary to educate about the symptoms and treatment of depression and to implement diverse intervention techniques to change behaviors and attitudes as early as possible.

  17. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  18. Achievement goal structures and self-regulated learning: relationships and changes in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; Durning, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Practicing physicians have a societal obligation to maintain their competence. Unfortunately, the self-regulated learning skills likely required for lifelong learning are not explicitly addressed in most medical schools. The authors examined how medical students' perceptions of the learning environment relate to their self-regulated learning behaviors. They also explored how students' perceptions and behaviors correlate with performance and change across medical school. The authors collected survey data from 304 students at different phases of medical school training. The survey items assessed students' perceptions of the learning environment, as well as their metacognition, procrastination, and avoidance-of-help-seeking behaviors. The authors operationalized achievement as cumulative medical school grade point average (GPA) and, for third- and fourth-year students, collected clerkship outcomes. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were associated with their metacognition, procrastination, and help-avoidance behaviors. These behaviors were also related to academic outcomes. Specifically, avoidance of help seeking was negatively correlated with cumulative medical school GPA (r=-0.23, P<.01) as well as exam (r=-0.22, P<.05) and clinical performance (r=-0.34, P<.01) in the internal medical clerkship; these help-avoidance behaviors were also positively correlated with students' presentation at a grade adjudication committee (r=0.20, P<.05). Additionally, students' perceptions of the learning environment varied as a function of their phase of training. Medical students' perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors; these perceptions seem to change across medical school.

  19. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lip Gregory YH

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1% respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7% women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%, (p = 0.006. Ten (6.7% respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8% CAM-users and 46 (60.5% non-CAM users (p = 0.07. Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8% respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the

  20. Determinants of self medication practices among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Omarusehe, Louis-Domeih

    2011-10-01

    To assess the frequency and evaluate the factors underlining self-medication with orthodox and herbal medicines among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Setting Antenatal clinics at the major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study with a pre-tested 15-item structured questionnaire over a 12 week period among 1,650 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics at a major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Data analysis was done with Chi-square, multivariate logistic regression and summary statistics. Frequency and major factors associated with self-medication in pregnancy. The response and completion rate was 96.6% (1,594) [mean age ± SD 27 ± 5.3 years]. The majority of the respondents were literate (92.6%), self-employed (61.5%) and in the third trimester (49.5%). A significant majority (63.8%) used self-medication (orthodox and herbal medicines) as their first response to perceived ill-health (P patent medicine stores (55%). Mothers-in-law and relatives (41.3%) were the most frequently cited sources of advice during self-medication. Miscarriage/bleeding (44.3%) was the most frequently cited potential adverse effect that could occur with the use of certain medicines during pregnancy. Only 32% of respondents could identify medicines that are potentially harmful in pregnancy. Poorly guided self-medication with prescription, over-the-counter and herbal medicines is pervasive and significantly associated with gestational age and occupational pattern among pregnant women in Ibadan, south-western. A majority lacked the knowledge of potential adverse outcomes associated with the use of certain medicines, and the potentially harmful medicines to avoid during pregnancy.

  1. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Medical students' clerkship experiences and self-perceived competence in clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katowa-Mukwato, P; Andrews, B; Maimbolwa, M; Lakhi, S; Michelo, C; Mulla, Y; Banda, S S

    2014-01-01

    In a traditional curriculum, medical students are expected to acquire clinical competence through the apprenticeship model using the Halstedian "see one, do one, and teach one, approach". The University of Zambia School of Medicine used a traditional curriculum model from 1966 until 2011 when a competence-based curriculum was implemented. To explore medical students' clerkships experiences and self-perceived competence in clinical skills. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 5th, 6 th , and 7 th year medical students of the University of Zambia, School of Medicine two months prior to final examinations. Students were asked to rate their clerkship experiences with respect to specific skills on a scale of 1 to 4 and their level of self-perceived competence on a scale of 1 to 3. Skills evaluated were in four main domains: history taking and communication, physical examination, procedural, and professionalism, team work and medical decision making. Using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS), correlations were performed between experiences and self-perceived competence on specific skills, within domains and overall. Out of 197 clinical students 138 (70%) participated in the survey. The results showed significant increase in the proportion of students performing different skills and reporting feeling very competent with each additional clinical year. Overall correlations between experience and self-perceived competence were moderate (0.55). On individual skills, the highest correlation between experience and self-perceived competence were observed on mainly medical and surgical related procedural skills with the highest at 0.82 for nasal gastric tube insertion and 0.76 for endotracheal intubation. Despite the general improvement in skills experiences and self-perceived competence, some deficiencies were noted as significant numbers of final year students had never attempted common important procedures especially those performed in emergency situations

  3. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skliros Eystathios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years, who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%. 508 individuals (44.6% reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%. The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%, cefaclor (9.7%, cefuroxim (7.9%, cefprozil (4.7% and ciprofloxacin (2.3%. Fever (41.2%, common cold (32.0% and sore throat (20.6% were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold.

  4. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years), who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%). 508 individuals (44.6%) reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%). The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%), cefaclor (9.7%), cefuroxim (7.9%), cefprozil (4.7%) and ciprofloxacin (2.3%). Fever (41.2%), common cold (32.0%) and sore throat (20.6%) were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold. PMID:20691111

  5. [Assessment of two applications of medication self-management in older patients. Qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, I; Guilabert, M; Pérez-Jover, V; Mira, J J

    2015-01-01

    The aging population and the growing use of technology are two realities of modern society. Developing tools to support medication self-management to polymedicated elderly may contribute to increase their safety. To know how patients polymedicated and older than 64 years manage dose their medication and assessment the utility of two medication self-management applications, specifically analyzing management systems, medication errors and positive and improvable aspects of each of the tools presented. Seven focal groups with 59 patients from associations and health departments were conducted. In such meetings, they received the applications and they were encouraged to use it. Then, a several group questions were asked them about their health status, how they managed their medication and their assessment about the applications. Most participants reported to use memory strategies to take correctly their medication. They assessed positively the applications although some of them showed resistance to incorporate it in their daily routine. The simple interface and ease of use were the characteristics of the applications most appreciated by patients. Is possible to foster among elderly patients the use of technological tools to support the proper administration of medications with purpose is to decrease errors and increase safety. When designing health applications is necessary to take into account the preferences of those who are targeted. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying regions of interest in medical images using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Wei-Guang; Chang, Ping-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Advances in data acquisition, processing and visualization techniques have had a tremendous impact on medical imaging in recent years. However, the interpretation of medical images is still almost always performed by radiologists. Developments in artificial intelligence and image processing have shown the increasingly great potential of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). Nevertheless, it has remained challenging to develop a general approach to process various commonly used types of medical images (e.g., X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound images). To facilitate diagnosis, we recommend the use of image segmentation to discover regions of interest (ROI) using self-organizing maps (SOM). We devise a two-stage SOM approach that can be used to precisely identify the dominant colors of a medical image and then segment it into several small regions. In addition, by appropriately conducting the recursive merging steps to merge smaller regions into larger ones, radiologists can usually identify one or more ROIs within a medical image.

  7. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slonim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207 aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62 across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results: Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions: The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.

  8. Relationship between Socioeconomic Demographic Characteristics with Antibiotic Self-Medication in Community Dwelling Adults

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    Michael Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases escalation in developing countries especially in Indonesia lead to increasing use of antibiotics in the community. Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of resistant bacteria and irrational use of antibiotics. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic -demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on people from Sayang Village in West Java Indonesia aged over 18 years and had experience in using antibiotics. A total of 146 respondents were selected as the sample of this study. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Results: Out of 146 questionnaires that were completed, 111 were female and 35 male respondents, 75 respondents had experience in using antibiotics without prescription. The survey showed significant relation between antibiotics use with monthly income (p=0,031 and source of income (p=0,009. Conclusions: The study confirms that there is relation between monthly income and source of income with antibiotic self-medication.

  9. Pattern of self-medication for acute febrile illness in the outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of self-medication for acute febrile illness in the outpatient clinic of an urban tertiary hospital in Jos. ... cross-sectional study at the GOPD of BHUTH, Jos from October 2012 to February 2013. The participants were drawn from all patients with fever or history of fever of not more than two weeks duration at presentation.

  10. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  11. Determinants of self-medication among undergraduate students at King Saud University: Knowledge, attitude and practice

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    Khulood K AlRaddadi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Half of the respondents practice self-medication; which demonstrates the need to raise public awareness, becoming more conscious during drug utilisation and the pharmacists' advisory role. In addition, further studies should be conducted to assess the herbals' practice in our community as their use was reported to be high in the results.

  12. Self-medication in academics of a public university in the south of Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martiniano MONTANARI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is a common practice anywhere in the world and the study of drug use is recognized as an important indicator in identifying the major pathologies in specific populations, estimating the prevalence and enabling better understanding on how populations use therapeutic resources. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of self-medication among students of a public university in southern Minas Gerais and verify if the healthcare academics behave differently from the ones of humanities area. To this end, we performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 200 students, with 100 in the area of ​​Health Science (group 1 and 100 of the area of Humanities (group 2. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 96.9 % among students in group 1 and 82.6 % in group 2 (p = 0.002. The most commonly used classes of drugs were analgesics/antipyretics. The main responsible for the indication of the drug in group 1 was the pharmacist; and in group 2 relatives and friends (p = 0.002 Conclusion: The self-medication proved to be a frequent practice among academics, demonstrating the need to devise strategies to sensitize the academic community regarding this practice.

  13. Self-medication with antibiotics in Sana'a City, Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *For correspondence: Email: profyahaya@gmail.com; Tel: +60195515611 ... Conclusion: Self-medication with antibiotics is high among consumers in Sana'a City, ... UiTM university, health office in Sana'a City and ... safety of antibiotics. .... laws and policies in Yemen [18]. .... the authors named in this article and all liabilities.

  14. Guidelines for adults on self-medication for the treatment of acute diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingate, D.; Phillips, S. F.; Lewis, S. J.; Malagelada, J. R.; Speelman, P.; Steffen, R.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2001-01-01

    Acute uncomplicated diarrhoea is commonly treated by self-medication. Guidelines for treatment exist, but are inconsistent, sometimes contradictory, and often owe more to dogma than evidence. An ad hoc multidisciplinary group has reviewed the literature to determine best practice. In general it is

  15. How clinical medical students perceive others to influence their self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Helmich, Esther; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2017-03-01

    Undergraduate medical students are prone to struggle with learning in clinical environments. One of the reasons may be that they are expected to self-regulate their learning, which often turns out to be difficult. Students' self-regulated learning is an interactive process between person and context, making a supportive context imperative. From a socio-cultural perspective, learning takes place in social practice, and therefore teachers and other hospital staff present are vital for students' self-regulated learning in a given context. Therefore, in this study we were interested in how others in a clinical environment influence clinical students' self-regulated learning. We conducted a qualitative study borrowing methods from grounded theory methodology, using semi-structured interviews facilitated by the visual Pictor technique. Fourteen medical students were purposively sampled based on age, gender, experience and current clerkship to ensure maximum variety in the data. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were, together with the Pictor charts, analysed iteratively, using constant comparison and open, axial and interpretive coding. Others could influence students' self-regulated learning through role clarification, goal setting, learning opportunities, self-reflection and coping with emotions. We found large differences in students' self-regulated learning and their perceptions of the roles of peers, supervisors and other hospital staff. Novice students require others, mainly residents and peers, to actively help them to navigate and understand their new learning environment. Experienced students who feel settled in a clinical environment are less susceptible to the influence of others and are better able to use others to their advantage. Undergraduate medical students' self-regulated learning requires context-specific support. This is especially important for more novice students learning in a clinical environment. Their learning is influenced most

  16. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Simone-Finstrom

    Full Text Available The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB. Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication

  17. Associations between teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratelle, John T; Bonnes, Sara L; Wang, Amy T; Mahapatra, Saswati; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mauck, Karen F; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M

    2017-07-01

    Effective medical educators can engage learners through self-reflection. However, little is known about the relationships between teaching effectiveness and self-reflection in continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to determine associations between presenter teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in conference-based CME. This cross-sectional study evaluated presenters and participants at a national CME course. Participants provided CME teaching effectiveness (CMETE) ratings and self-reflection scores for each presentation. Overall CMETE and CME self-reflection scores (five-point Likert scale with one as strongly disagree and five as strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation. Correlations were measured among self-reflection, CMETE, and presentation characteristics. In total, 624 participants returned 430 evaluations (response, 68.9%) for the 38 presentations. Correlation between CMETE and self-reflection was medium (Pearson correlation, 0.3-0.5) or large (0.5-1.0) for most presentations (n = 33, 86.9%). Higher mean (SD) CME reflection scores were associated with clinical cases (3.66 [0.12] vs. 3.48 [0.14]; p = 0.003) and audience response (3.66 [0.12] vs. 3.51 [0.14]; p = 0.005). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a relationship between teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in conference-based CME. Presenters should consider using clinical cases and audience response systems to increase teaching effectiveness and promote self-reflection among CME learners.

  18. Home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Francis S V; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Stephan, Celso; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This is a descriptive population study based on a home survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. age medicines kept at home; and having taken at least one medication during the 15 days prior to the interview. The participants were split into two groups based on medication: self-medication (lay advice) and medical prescription. Tests of linear association were performed, in addition to a descriptive analysis of the variables and multiple logistic regression. A total of 3,619 medicines were found (mean = 5.1/household; 79.6% were pharmaceutical preparations). The rooms most commonly used to store medications were bedrooms (47.5%), kitchens (29.9%), and bathrooms (14.6%); 76.5% were in cardboard boxes and within easy reach of 142 children aged medicines at home is a common practice, and it is important to implement campaigns to encourage rational use, reduced waste and safe storage of medicines.

  19. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.

  20. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  1. Evaluation of Medication-related Self-care Skills in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kelsey Lackey; John, Barnabas; Condren, Michelle; Carter, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) increases, the focus on ensuring success with medication therapies is increasingly important. The ability of patients to autonomously manage medications and related therapies is poorly described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to assess the level of medication-related knowledge and self-care skills in patients with CF. METHODS: This project took place in a Cystic Fibrosis Foundation accredited affiliate center. Eighty-nine patients between the ages of 6 and 60 were eligible to participate based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pharmacists administered a 16-item questionnaire and detailed medication history during clinic visits from January through May 2014. RESULTS: Forty-five patients 6 to 41 years old participated in the study. The skills most often performed independently were preparing nebulizer treatments (85%) and telling someone if they feel their medicines are causing a problem (89%). Skills least often performed were carrying a medication list (82%) and bringing a medication list to appointments (76%). In respondents 21 years of age and older, less than 75% of respondents were involved with obtaining financial resources, maintaining equipment, carrying a medication list, or rinsing their mouth after using inhaled medicines. Participants were able to provide drug name, dose, and frequency of use for pancreatic enzymes and azithromycin 37% and 24% of the time, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the population surveyed, many medication-related skills had not been acquired by early adulthood. Assessing and providing education for medication-related self-care skills at all ages are needed.

  2. Comparing antibiotic self-medication in two socio-economic groups in Guatemala City: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramay, Brooke M; Lambour, Paola; Cerón, Alejandro

    2015-04-27

    Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-medication with antibiotics may represent an opportunity to develop interventions guiding the rational use of antibiotics. We aimed to compare the magnitude of antibiotic self-medication and the characteristics of those who self-medicate in two pharmacies serving disparate socio-economic communities in Guatemala City. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in one Suburban pharmacy and one City Center pharmacy in Guatemala City. We used a questionnaire to gather information about frequency of self-medication, income and education of those who self-medicate. We compared proportions between the two pharmacies, using two-sample z-test as appropriate. Four hundred and eighteen respondents completed the survey (221 in the Suburban pharmacy and 197 in the City Center pharmacy). Most respondents in both pharmacies were female (70%). The reported monthly income in the suburban pharmacy was between $1,250.00-$2,500.00, the city-center pharmacy reported a monthly income between $125.00- $625.00 (p Guatemala City. Additionally, self-medicating respondents were most often women and most commonly self-medicated with amoxicillin. Our findings support future public health interventions centered on the regulation of antibiotic sales and on the potential role of the pharmacist in guiding prescription with antibiotics in Guatemala.

  3. Self-assembling peptide-based building blocks in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Handan; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Chung, Eun Ji; Schnorenberg, Mathew R.; Barrett, John C.; LaBelle, James L.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Peptides and peptide-conjugates, comprising natural and synthetic building blocks, are an increasingly popular class of biomaterials. Self-assembled nanostructures based on peptides and peptide-conjugates offer advantages such as precise selectivity and multifunctionality that can address challenges and limitations in the clinic. In this review article, we discuss recent developments in the design and self-assembly of various nanomaterials based on peptides and peptide-conjugates for medical applications, and categorize them into two themes based on the driving forces of molecular self-assembly. First, we present the self-assembled nanostructures driven by the supramolecular interactions between the peptides, with or without the presence of conjugates. The studies where nanoassembly is driven by the interactions between the conjugates of peptide-conjugates are then presented. Particular emphasis is given to in vivo studies focusing on therapeutics, diagnostics, immune modulation and regenerative medicine. Finally, challenges and future perspectives are presented.

  4. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedefaw A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95

  5. [Development of the scale of strategies for enhancing self-esteem among medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ju; Jang, Eun-Young; Park, Yong-Chon

    2013-06-01

    From the point of view that medical students are under the pressure of academic achievement and vulnerable to subjective distress, there is need for evaluate their strategies for enhancing self-esteem when they failed academically. This study was to develop the scale for enhancing self-esteem and to confirm the convergent, discriminant and criteria validity. Data were collected from 279 students at a medical school in Seoul. The scale of strategies for enhancing self-esteem (SSES) comprised comparison with inferior, doubting academic failure, accepting failure, and attribution to incidental factors. Also, to confirm the validities, participants responded to items measuring self-esteem, narcissism, 5 personality factors, depression and adjustment. By explanatory factor analysis of SSES, composed of three factors-comparison, doubting, and acceptance-and in the confirmatory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were best fit. Notably, comparison and doubting strategies were positively associated with depression and negatively associated with adjustment. In contrast, acceptance strategies were negatively associated with depression and positively associated with adjustment. Additionally, comparison and doubting strategies were positively associated with narcissism. The SSES of medical school students after academic failure yields 3 dimensions reliably and consistently. Also, it shows satisfactory convergent and concurrent validities.

  6. Validity of self-reported periodontal measures, demographic characteristics and systemic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F

    2018-04-06

    The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  7. Self-Reflected Well-Being via a Smartphone App in Clinical Medical Students: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Elizabeth K; Leonard, Daniel J; Gray, Andrew R; Pinnock, Ralph; Taylor, Barry

    2018-03-07

    Well-being in medical students has become an area of concern, with a number of studies reporting high rates of clinical depression, anxiety, burnout, and suicidal ideation in this population. The aim of this study was to increase awareness of well-being in medical students by using a smartphone app. The primary objective of this study was to determine the validity and feasibility of the Particip8 app for student self-reflected well-being data collection. Undergraduate medical students of the Dunedin School of Medicine were recruited into the study. They were asked to self-reflect daily on their well-being and to note what experiences they had encountered during that day. Qualitative data were also collected both before and after the study in the form of focus groups and "free-text" email surveys. All participants consented for the data collected to be anonymously reported to the medical faculty. A total of 29 participants (69%, 20/29 female; 31%, 9/29 male; aged 21-30 years) were enrolled, with overall median compliance of 71% at the study day level. The self-reflected well-being scores were associated with both positive and negative experiences described by the participants, with most negative experiences associated with around 20% lower well-being scores for that day; the largest effect being "receiving feedback that was not constructive or helpful," and the most positive experiences associated with around 20% higher scores for that day. The study of daily data collection via the Particip8 app was found to be feasible, and the self-reflected well-being scores showed validity against participant's reflections of experiences during that day. ©Elizabeth K Berryman, Daniel J Leonard, Andrew R Gray, Ralph Pinnock, Barry Taylor. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 07.03.2018.

  8. Medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among psychiatric patients attending psychosocial rehabilitation services at Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaxmi Gandhi; Rajitha Pavalur; Sivakumar Thanapal; Nirmala B Parathasarathy; Geetha Desai; Poornima Bhola; Mariamma Philip; Santosh K Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals’ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to ...

  9. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objec...

  10. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling metho...

  11. Development of a self-assessment teamwork tool for use by medical and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-08-24

    Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. The authors modified a previously published teamwork instrument designed for experienced critical care teams for use with medical and nursing students involved in mass casualty simulations. The 17-item questionnaire was administered to students immediately following the simulations. These scores were used to explore the psychometric properties of the tool, using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 202 (128 medical and 74 nursing) students completed the self-assessment teamwork tool for students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors (5 items - Teamwork coordination and communication; 4 items - Information sharing and support) and these were justified with confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was 0.823 for Teamwork coordination and communication, and 0.812 for Information sharing and support. These data provide evidence to support the validity and reliability of the self-assessment teamwork tool for students This self-assessment tool could be of value to health professional students following team training activities to help them identify the attributes of effective teamwork.

  12. Self-perception of knowledge and confidence in performing basic life support among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Yonathan; Duchateau, François-Xavier; Baker, Elinor C; Goulet, Hélène; Carreira, Serge; Schmidt, Matthieu; Riou, Bruno; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Duguet, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Before implementing new workshops and teaching in our faculty for performing basic life support (BLS), we aimed to determine the level of self-confidence of medical students with regard to the management of cardiac arrest (CA). We conducted a preinterventional study. A questionnaire was sent to third-year to sixth-year medical students. We recorded sex, year of training, and personal witnessing of CA. We asked them about their theoretical knowledge on 10 main items of BLS and their self-perception of qualification to conduct a CA situation. We tested the respective influence of sex, year of training, and personal witnessing of CA. In total, 592 (37%) students completed the questionnaire, 42% of them were men. Less than a third of the students (30%) thought of themselves as being sufficiently qualified to conduct BLS. After the third year, the level of study did not influence their theoretical knowledge or their self-perception of qualification. Male sex and the number of CAs witnessed were the only factors positively associated with better self-confidence regarding qualification. Self-perception of qualification in BLS is poor in our faculty. In our study, personal witnessing of CA greatly influenced confidence, whereas level of study did not.

  13. Patterns of Self-Medication Behavior for Oral Health Problems Among Adults Living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Aldeeri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57% and acetaminophen (47.43%, a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%. Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%. Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55% with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city.

  14. Factors associated with self-medication in Spain: a cross-sectional study in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclós, Gracia; Olivar, Teresa; Rodilla, Vicent

    2018-06-01

    The identification of factors which may influence a patient's decision to self-medicate. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of the adult population (at least 16 years old), using data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey in Spain, which included 22 188 subjects. Logistic regression models enabled us to estimate the effect of each analysed variable on self-medication. In total, 14 863 (67%) individuals reported using medication (prescribed and non-prescribed) and 3274 (22.0%) of them self-medicated. Using logistic regression and stratifying by age, four different models have been constructed. Our results include different variables in each of the models to explain self-medication, but the one that appears on all four models is education level. Age is the other important factor which influences self-medication. Self-medication is strongly associated with factors related to socio-demographic, such as sex, educational level or age, as well as several health factors such as long-standing illness or physical activity. When our data are compared to those from previous Spanish surveys carried out in 2003 and 2006, we can conclude that self-medication is increasing in Spain. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. "Walk with me…" : A journey of self-directed holistic cancer education by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Al Badi, Majid; Al Obaidani, Athari; Al Jarrah, Adil

    2014-03-01

    Cancer education offers an ideal opportunity to inspire and initiate medical students in life-long, self-directed learning. Early and innovative out-of-the-box learning experiences, tailored to appeal to a multi-media savvy generation of medical students, form the theme of these reflections. Students never fail to surprise teachers when the seed of an idea appeals and motivates their minds. 'Walk with me…' is the story of a journey together of students, mentors, patients, and the manifold professionals who manage breast cancer.

  16. Are tax subsidies for private medical insurance self-financing? Evidence from a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Nicolás, Angel; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2008-09-01

    This paper develops an empirical strategy to estimate whether subsidies to private medical insurance are self-financing in countries where public and private insurance coexist and the latter covers the same treatments as the former. We construct a simulation routine based on a micro-econometric discrete choice model that allows us to evaluate the impact of premium changes on the utilization of outpatient and inpatient health care services. As an application, we estimate the budgetary effects of scrapping a subsidy from the purchase of individual private policies, using micro-data from Catalonia. Our results suggest that the subsidy is not self-financing. This result is driven by the fact that private medical insurance holders make concurrent use of public and private services, and by the price inelasticity of the demand for private policies.

  17. Leakage from medically-certified to self-certified workplace absence among norwegian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Geir Runar; Ytterstad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20021518.2017.1411119 There are two different kinds of sickness absence in Norway: self-certified absence (SCA), and medically-certified absence (MCA). In this study of 6437 Norwegian employees, we applied logistic regression models for a dichotomous SCA variable on initially 38 independent vari- ables including age and gender. Our findings showed that employees reporting long-term health issues but no record of MCA in the past 12 months (...

  18. Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Developing and Testing a Biphasic Self-Medication Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a moderated-mediation model of work stress and alcohol use, based on the biphasic (stimulant and sedative) effects of alcohol and the self-medication and stress-vulnerability models of alcohol use. The model proposes that exposure to work stressors can increase both negative affect and work fatigue, and that these two sources of strain can subsequently motivate the use of alcohol. However, the relations of negative affect and work fatigue to a...

  19. Concordance of self-reported and medical chart information on cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xiao Ou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information is an important tool for collecting clinical information for epidemiologic studies and in clinical settings where electronic medical records are not employed and shared. Methods Using data collected from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 5,042 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Shanghai, China, we compared the concordance of patient questionnaire responses to a survey administered approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis with medical chart information obtained from the diagnostic hospitals for several disease and treatment-related variables. Results Of 5,042 SBCSS participants, medical chart information was available for 4,948 women (98.1%. Concordance between patient self-reported and medical chart information was high for the majority of disease-related variables, including: diagnosing hospital (agreement: 98.7%, kappa: 0.99, type of surgery conducted (94.0%, 0.53, ER/PR status (94.5%, 0.91, and tumor position (98.2%, 0.97, as well as for important calendar dates, such as date of diagnosis, surgery, and first chemotherapy treatment. The 10 most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs were all reported with agreement rates of at least 82%, with associated kappa values that ranged from 0.41 for calcium folinate to 0.76 for vinorelbine. Conclusions Our study found high validity for patient self-reported information for a variety of disease and treatment-related variables, suggesting the utility of self-reports as an important source of clinical information for both epidemiological research and patient care.

  20. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication in Karachi: A community survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, M. Iqbal; Rasool, Ghulam; Tabassum, Rabia; Shaheen, Marriam; Siddiqullah; Shujauddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and pattern of self-medication among adult males and females in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional community- based survey was carried out at five randomly selected towns of Karachi (Defence, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, North Nazimabad, Malir, Orangi town) over a period of 3 months (October, November & December 2012). A sample size of 500 adult cases (250 males & 250 females), with systemic random selection from different towns of Karachi were inducted in this study. The city was divided in 5 zones and one town from each zone was selected by systemic randomization. First available male and female from each randomly selected house were included in the study. After consent and confidentiality assurance they were interviewed on semi-structured Performa designed for this purpose. Results were analyzed and tabulated through SPSS v14.0. Result: The prevalence of self-medication in males and females in Karachi is found to be 84.8% (males 88.4% and females 81.2%). The most frequent symptoms for which self-medication used were headache (32.7%), fever (23.3%) and the medicines used were painkillers (28.8%), fever reducer medicines (19.8%). The most common reason 33.3% was previous experience with similar symptom. Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent (84.8%) in Karachi. It was frequently used for headache followed by fever. Predominantly painkillers, fever reducer and cough syrups were used in the form of tablets and syrups. Main source of medicines for males were friends and for females were relatives. PMID:26649022

  1. Medical student changes in self-regulated learning during the transition to the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kenneth K; Marjadi, Brahm; Langendyk, Vicki; Hu, Wendy

    2017-03-21

    Self-regulated learning (SRL), which is learners' ability to proactively select and use different strategies to reach learning goals, is associated with academic and clinical success and life-long learning. SRL does not develop automatically in the clinical environment and its development during the preclinical to clinical learning transition has not been quantitatively studied. Our study aims to fill this gap by measuring SRL in medical students during the transitional period and examining its contributing factors. Medical students were invited to complete a questionnaire at the commencement of their first clinical year (T0), and 10 weeks later (T1). The questionnaire included the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and asked about previous clinical experience. Information about the student's background, demographic characteristics and first clinical rotation were also gathered. Of 118 students invited to participate, complete paired responses were obtained from 72 medical students (response rate 61%). At T1, extrinsic goal orientation increased and was associated with gender (males were more likely to increase extrinsic goal orientation) and type of first attachment (critical care and community based attachments, compared to hospital ward based attachments). Metacognitive self-regulation decreased at T1 and was negatively associated with previous clinical experience. Measurable changes in self-regulated learning occur during the transition from preclinical learning to clinical immersion, particularly in the domains of extrinsic goal orientation and metacognitive self-regulation. Self-determination theory offers possible explanations for this finding which have practical implications and point the way to future research. In addition, interventions to promote metacognition before the clinical immersion may assist in preserving SRL during the transition and thus promote life-long learning skills in preparation for real-world practice.

  2. Home blood pressure monitoring and self-titration of antihypertensive medications: Proposed patient selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), coupled with self-titration of medications is a viable intervention to control hypertension. There are currently no established criteria to evaluate patients for inclusion in such a program. The purpose of this discussion is to propose criteria for determining if a patient is appropriate to participate in a program of HBPM and self-titration. Inclusion criteria for two self-titration trials were examined, and additional factors in clinical practice were identified and discussed. Additional selection criteria were proposed to support the decision to enroll a patient in an antihypertensive self-titration program. Inclusion criteria from self-titration trials provide a reasonable starting point for choosing appropriate patients in clinical practice, but additional research is necessary. Adaptation of these criteria and consideration of the identified factors can be used to develop decision support instruments. Such instruments should be evaluated for effectiveness and reliability prior to use in clinical practice. HBPM combined with self-titration is an effective patient-centered approach for hypertension management. Decision support instruments to determine appropriate patients are necessary for safe and effective use in clinical practice. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Factors associated with self-medication among expatriate high school students: a cross-sectional survey in United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ilyas Shehnaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess factors associated with self-medication (SM among expatriate high school students of United Arab Emirates using a validated questionnaire. Most common reasons for self-medication in 324 participating students were: presence of mild illness and previous experiences. High risk practices like altering the dose, discontinuation of medication and self-medication without adult guidance were observed. The likelihood of SM was 4.9 times (95%C.I.: 2.0-12.2 in students not utilizing private healthcare services than those who were utilizing these services. Increased efforts are needed to prevent the risks of self-medication in adolescents through healthcare education for both parents and adolescents.

  5. Household storage of medicines and self-medication practices in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, B; Foroutan, R

    2014-10-12

    Self-medication and inappropriate storage of medicines at home are potential health risks. This crosssectional study in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010 aimed to determine where householders kept their medicines and to assess the frequency and determinants of self-medication. Householders from different parts of Birjand city (n = 500) were visited and completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Analgesics were the most common medicines stored at home, followed by adult cold remedies and antibiotics. The refrigerator was the most common place for storing medicines (50.6%). Most householders did not consult the package inserts. Many householders (53.6%) reported that they practised self-medication, and the frequency of reuse of physicianprescribed antibiotics was high. There was a significant association between self-medication and educational level but not with age, sex, martial status, occupation and type of insurance. Better public knowledge and information about storage and risks of reuse of prescription medications is needed.

  6. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  7. Parental social support as a moderator of self-medication in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Shadur, Julia; Hussong, Andrea M

    2011-03-01

    We examined the moderating effects of parenting on the temporal relationship between negative affect and subsequent alcohol use in adolescents as an indicator of self-medication. Specifically, we tested whether youth are more likely to self-medicate if they receive less parental social support. We used a multi-method, multi-reporter strategy and an experience sampling paradigm to examine these mechanisms in an elevated-risk sample preparing for the transition to high school. Seventy-one adolescents and their parents completed home-based interviews and adolescents completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol in which they reported their alcohol use daily and their affect thrice daily. Parent-reported family communication, though no other parental support indicators, moderated the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Plotting of interactions showed a greater likelihood of drinking on days characterized by greater negative affect only in adolescents with higher levels of parent-reported family communication. This study offers tentative support for parental support as a moderator of the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Parental support may be a response to alcohol use and self-medication in teens such that parents become more involved and open in talking with their teens when they notice these patterns of behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concordance between Self and Standardized Patient Ratings of Medical Students' Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Min Ji; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between self and standardized patient (SP) ratings of medical students' communication skills. Forty-three students interviewed SPs. The students were asked to complete a communication skills questionnaire that comprised 2 measures (empathy and interpersonal communication) before the interview. After each student's interview with the SP, the latter completed the same questionnaire as the students. Based on Lin's concordance coefficient, there was strong disconcordance between students' self-ratings and the SPs' ratings. With regard to empathic communication, more than 50% of students who considered themselves higher than middle level were regarded by SP as low level. On interpersonal communication, 39% of students who assessed themselves as higher than middle level were scored low level by SPs. There was strong disconcordance between students' self-ratings and the SPs' ratings-students tended to overevaluate themselves regarding their communication skills. These differences might result in patient dissatisfaction and noncompliance. Further, it could become a serious hindrance to the development of a good doctor-patient relationship. Medical educators should make sincere efforts to reduce this gap by teaching medical students the importance of the patients' perception of his doctors' communication skills.

  9. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Joyce Y; Do, Chuong B; Hinds, David A; Kiefer, Amy K; Macpherson, J Michael; Chowdry, Arnab B; Francke, Uta; Naughton, Brian T; Mountain, Joanna L; Wojcicki, Anne; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  10. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Y Tung

    Full Text Available While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence. Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  11. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  12. Self-medication practices in patients attending a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Urban North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to determine the frequency, reasons, and the association of self-medication with demographic and other factors reported by participants. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 500 patients visiting a tertiary hospital in Ludhiana, North Western India. Participants were interviewed with a preset questionnaire. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel and analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16. Frequencies and proportions were calculated. Results: Of 500 study participants, 93.8% reported self-medication with no gender difference. The participants who took self-medication were of the opinion that self-medication resulted in quick cure of illness 50.75%, saved their time 17.46%, and gave them a sense of independence in 17.06%, respectively. The common reasons self-medication 45.84% for fever, 18.34% for pain, and 10.87% for headache with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 49.4% followed by antibiotics (11.6% be the common medication. The most common source of information is local chemists/pharmacy 39%. Conclusions: Self-medication is described as a double-edged sword in India, and regulation of over-the-counter sale of antibiotics prescription medication is necessary to safeguard the populace.

  13. The Use of Herbal Supplements as One of Self Medications in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dika P. Destiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal supplements as one of self medications in Indonesia has not yet been well-documented since many people used these supplements in absence of medical consultation with pharmacist. This retrospective observational study was conducted at one of healthcare service centers in Bandung. Data related to the sale of herbal supplements during 2014 period was collected and analyzed. We found that 30.163 items of herbal supplements were sold in 2014. Approximately 1.277 sold items were specific supplements for chronic and degenerative diseases. Based on the category of therapy, the most sold item was a herbal supplement for hyperlipidemia with three major ingredients: garlic, lecithin, and spirulina. Despite the huge number of the use of herbal supplements in Indonesia, medical information from pharmacist about the use of herbal supplements is still scarce.

  14. Validation of the shortened Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale in patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Marcus G; Ostini, Remo; Harrington, Magdalena; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2018-05-21

    Self-efficacy, or perceived competence, has been identified as an important factor in self-management behaviors and health outcomes in patients with chronic disease. Measures of self-management self-efficacy are currently available for multiple forms of chronic disease. One established measure is the 8-item Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale (PMCSMS). This study investigated the use of the PMCSMS in samples of patients with a chronic disease to develop an abbreviated version of the scale that could be more readily used in clinical contexts or in large population health cohort studies. The PMCSMS was administered as either a generic scale or as a disease-specific scale. The results of analyses using item response theory and classical test theory methods indicated that using 4 items of the scale resulted in similar internal consistency (α = .70-0.90) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .75 after 2 to 4 weeks) to the 8-item PMCSMS (r = .81 after 2 to 4 weeks). The 4 items selected had the greatest discriminability among participants (α parameters = 2.49-3.47). Scores from both versions also demonstrated similar correlations with related constructs such as health literacy (r = .13-0.29 vs. 0.14-0.27), self-rated health (r = .17-0.48 vs. 0.26-0.50), social support (r = .21-0.32 vs. 0.25-0.34), and medication adherence (r = .20-0.24 vs. 0.20-0.25). The results of this study indicate that 4-item PMCSMS scores are equally valid but more efficient, and have the potential to be beneficial for both research and clinical applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Self-citation rates among medical imaging journals and a possible association with impact factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, Timothy P.; Kurmis, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Since conceptualisation in 1955, journal impact factors (IFs) have evolved as surrogate markers of perceived 'quality'. However, no previous research has explored the relationship between IF and journal self-citation rate, which may inflate this measure. Given Radiography's ongoing push to achieve Medline and ISI database inclusion, this paper aimed to quantitatively explore the frequency of self-citation and correlate this with ISI-reported IF. Methods: A review of articles published in two peer-reviewed, Medline and ISI-listed, imaging journals (Radiology and Academic Radiology), and Radiography, within in a 12-month period, was performed. The total number of citations and self-citations per article was recorded, and the results compared. Basic statistical and correlation analyses between listed IF ratings and self-citation indices were also performed. Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this work represents the preliminary investigation exploring the association between ISI-listed IF and self-citation frequency. From the current results it can be suggested that such a relationship does exist, as demonstrated by the strongly positive correlation statistic (Pearson's r 2 = 0.99). Radiology was noted to have a considerably larger mean number of self-citations per article than the other two journals (p < 0.01), despite near-equivalent numbers of references per article. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there may be relationship between an ISI-listed IFs and journal self-citation rates. It is hoped that this paper will be of interest in academic and research circles, both within medical imaging and more widely, and may provide impetus for discussion relating to self-citation frequency and influence on resultant IF calculations.

  16. The self medication use among adolescents aged between 13–18 years old; Prevalence and behavior, Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Homod Albatti

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in Riyadh, particularly among adolescents. Easy access to pharmacies was found to be the leading cause for self-medication. The use of these drugs was associated with inappropriate drug use and the deterioration of health status. Self-medication should be closely monitored and awareness should be increased with educational programs among students.

  17. Medication Adherence, Work Performance and Self-Esteem among Psychiatric Patients Attending Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services at Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Pavalur, Rajitha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Parathasarathy, Nirmala B; Desai, Geetha; Bhola, Poornima; Philip, Mariamma; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2014-10-01

    Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals' self-esteem. To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the 'Medication Adherence Rating scale', 'Griffiths work behaviour scale' and the 'Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale'. Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103) between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067) medication adherence and self-esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299) work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness.

  18. Creation and preliminary validation of the screening for self-medication safety post-stroke scale (S-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizer, Franceen; Kim, Angela; Van, My Tram; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol

    2010-03-01

    Patients with stroke should be screened for safety prior to starting a self-medication regime. An extensive literature review revealed no standardized self-medication tool tailored to the multi-faceted needs of the stroke population. The aim of this study was to create and validate a condition-specific tool to be used in screening for self-medication safety in individuals with stroke. Items were generated using expert consultation and review of the existing tools. The draft tool was pilot-tested on expert stroke clinicians to receive feedback on content, clarity, optimal cueing and domain omissions. The final version was piloted on patients with stroke using a structured interviewer-administered interview. The tool was progressively refined and validated according to feedback from the 11 expert reviewers. The subsequent version was piloted on patients with stroke. The final version includes 16 questions designed to elicit information on 5 domains: cognition, communication, motor, visual-perception and, judgement/executive function/self-efficacy. The Screening for Safe Self-medication post-Stroke Scale (S-5) has been created and validated for use by health professionals to screen self-medication safety readiness of patients after stroke. Its use should also help to guide clinicians' recommendations and interventions aimed at enhancing self-medication post-stroke.

  19. Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.

  20. The Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale can be applied to patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Marcus G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Green, Jamie A; Beach, Lauren B; Umeukeje, Ebele; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Ikizler, T Alp; Steed, Julia; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2017-10-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major burden on patients and the health care system. Treatment of CKD requires dedicated involvement from both caretakers and patients. Self-efficacy, also known as perceived competence, contributes to successful maintenance of patient's CKD self-management behaviors such as medication adherence and dietary regulations. Despite a clear association between self-efficacy and improved CKD outcomes, there remains a lack of validated self-report measures of CKD self-efficacy. To address this gap, the Perceived Kidney/Dialysis Self-Management Scale (PKDSMS) was adapted from the previously validated Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale. We then sought to validate this using data from two separate cohorts: a cross-sectional investigation of 146 patients with end-stage renal disease receiving maintenance hemodialysis and a longitudinal study of 237 patients with CKD not receiving dialysis. The PKDSMS was found to be positively and significantly correlated with self-management behaviors and medication adherence in both patient cohorts. The PKDSMS had acceptable reliability, was internally consistent, and exhibited predictive validity between baseline PKDSMS scores and self-management behaviors across multiple time points. Thus, the PKDSMS is a valid and reliable measure of CKD patient self-efficacy and supports the development of interventions enhancing perceived competence to improve CKD self-management. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiential Education Builds Student Self-Confidence in Delivering Medication Therapy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Parker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE on student self-confidence related to medication therapy management (MTM, fourth-year pharmacy students were surveyed pre/post APPE to: identify exposure to MTM learning opportunities, assess knowledge of the MTM core components, and assess self-confidence performing MTM services. An anonymous electronic questionnaire administered pre/post APPE captured demographics, factors predicted to impact student self-confidence (Grade point average (GPA, work experience, exposure to MTM learning opportunities, MTM knowledge and self-confidence conducting MTM using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Not at all Confident; 5 = Extremely Confident. Sixty-two students (26% response rate responded to the pre-APPE questionnaire and n = 44 (18% to the post-APPE. Over 90% demonstrated MTM knowledge and 68.2% completed MTM learning activities. APPE experiences significantly improved students’ overall self-confidence (pre-APPE = 3.27 (0.85 SD, post-APPE = 4.02 (0.88, p < 0.001. Students engaging in MTM learning opportunities had higher self-confidence post-APPE (4.20 (0.71 vs. those not reporting MTM learning opportunities (3.64 (1.08, p = 0.05. Post-APPE, fewer students reported MTM was patient-centric or anticipated engaging in MTM post-graduation. APPE learning opportunities increased student self-confidence to provide MTM services. However, the reduction in anticipated engagement in MTM post-graduation and reduction in sensing the patient-centric nature of MTM practice, may reveal a gap between practice expectations and reality.

  2. Small group learning: effect on item analysis and accuracy of self-assessment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.

  3. [THE PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL SELF-APPRAISAL OF GRADUATES OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Yu M; Bitrebaeva, D M; Baildinova, K J; Lepesova, S J; Dauletiarova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The human resources play a decisive role in support of effective functioning of any health care system. The study was carried out to analyze characteristics offormation ofprofessional self-appraisal of graduates of comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan choosing medical specialties. The study was organized in city of Pavlodar and the Pavlodarskaia oblast of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The sample included 447 schoolchildren of 9-10 classes, 25 workers of 3 urban and 1 rural schools, 12 lecturers of medical university. The questionnaire survey was applied. The statistical processing of data was implemented using SPSS v.20 software. It is established that medicine became a popular profession because it was chosen by 22% of schoolchildren. Out of them, only 37.4% belonged among personality type "human-human" corresponding to medical specialties. The childhood dream became main cause of choosing medicine among 55.6% of schoolchildren. The second place took perspective of employment and third place--insistent advice of parents (13.1% and 7.1% correspondingly). Only 31.3% of schoolchildren were aware of specificity of medical specialties and 52.5% had independent experience of initial medical care provision. The additional training is considered by 72.7% of schoolchildren as necessary for entering medical university. The workers of schools and medical university 65.5% and 66.7% limit themselves by once-only activities. The vocational guidance activities implemented in comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan can be significantly ameliorated. The possibility of implementing personality type test is to be considered. The application of innovative methods of vocational guidance is to be considered too.

  4. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Understanding Postdisaster Substance Use and Psychological Distress Using Concepts from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-11-10

    This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals. These mechanisms lead to an increase in postdisaster substance use. Last, recommendations are offered to encourage disaster researchers to test more complex models in studies on postdisaster psychological distress and substance use.

  6. Summer research training for medical students: impact on research self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle L; Curran, Maureen C; Golshan, Shahrokh; Daly, Rebecca; Depp, Colin; Kelly, Carolyn; Jeste, Dilip V

    2013-12-01

    There is a well-documented shortage of physician researchers, and numerous training programs have been launched to facilitate development of new physician scientists. Short-term research training programs are the most practical form of research exposure for most medical students, and the summer between their first and second years of medical school is generally the longest period they can devote solely to research. The goal of short-term training programs is to whet the students' appetite for research and spark their interest in the field. Relatively little research has been done to test the effectiveness of short-term research training programs. In an effort to examine short-term effects of three different NIH-funded summer research training programs for medical students, we assessed the trainees' (N = 75) research self-efficacy prior to and after the programs using an 11-item scale. These hands-on training programs combined experiential, didactic, and mentoring elements. The students demonstrated a significant increase in their self-efficacy for research. Trainees' gender, ranking of their school, type of research, and specific content of research project did not predict improvement. Effect sizes for different types of items on the scale varied, with the largest gain seen in research methodology and communication of study findings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Association between Perceived Value and Self-Medication with Antibiotics: An Observational Study Based on Health Belief Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa N. Insany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of self medication with antibiotics can increase the probability of irrational use of antibiotics which may lead antibiotics resistance. Thus, shifting of behavior is required to minimize the irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to determine the association between public perceived value and self-medication with antibiotics which can be used to develop an intervention model in order to reduce the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. An observational study was conducted during the period of November–December 2014.The subjects were patients who visit primary health care facilities in Bandung. A structured-interview that has been validated was used to investigate the association between perceived value and self-medication behavior based on the Health Belief Model theory (perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action. Approximately 506 respondents were drawn randomly from 43 community healthcare centers and 8 pharmacies. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (CI 95%, α = 5%. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were shown with a correlation coefficient of >0.3 and a cronbach-alpha value of 0.719, respectively. We found that 29.45% of respondents practiced self-medication with antibiotics over the last six months. Additionally, there was no significant association between the perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action with self-medication behavior (p>0.05. Easiness to access antibiotics without prescription was presumed as a factor that contribute to self-medication with antibiotics, therefore strict regulation in antibiotics use is very needed as a basic intervention to decrease self-medication with antibiotic.

  8. Accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Sander, Angelle M; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Nick, Todd G; Li, Jingyun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate factors that affect self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Prospective cohort study. Specialized rehabilitation center with inpatient and outpatient programs. Persons (N=242) with medically verified TBI who were identified from a registry of persons who had previously participated in TBI-related research. Not applicable. Self-reported length of coma and self-reported PTA duration. Review of medical records revealed that the mean medically documented length of coma and PTA duration was 6.9±12 and 19.2±22 days, respectively, and the mean self-reported length of coma and PTA duration was 16.7±22 and 106±194 days, respectively. The average discrepancy between self-report and medical record for length of coma and PTA duration was 8.2±21 and 64±176 days, respectively. Multivariable regression models revealed that time since injury, performance on cognitive tests, and medical record values were associated with self-reported values for both length of coma and PTA duration. In this investigation, persons with medically verified TBI showed poor accuracy in their self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Discrepancies were large enough to affect injury severity classification. Caution should be exercised when considering self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Challenges, Strategies, and the Role of Support Networks in Medication Self-management Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Seidling, Hanna M; Stützle, Marion; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM was recruited from local self-help groups, general practitioner practices, and a university hospital in southwestern Germany. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to identify the challenges patients experienced, the strategies they used, and their collaboration with support networks to assist them in self-managing their medication regimen. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, fully transcribed, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis, guided by the Self- and Family Management Framework (SFMF). Results Patients with T2DM experienced numerous challenges affecting medication self-management arising from their personal situation, health status and resources, characteristics of their regimen, and how health care is currently organized. Patients' self-initiated strategies included activating health care, community, social, and online resources; taking ownership of medication-related needs; and integrating medication-taking into daily life. Patients drew on self-help groups, family, and friends to discuss concerns regarding medication safety and receive experience-based information and advice for navigating within the health care system as well as practical hands-on support with daily medication self-management. Conclusions Understanding the challenges and building on strategies patients with T2DM devised help diabetes educators to better address patients' needs and priorities and guide patient-centered interventions to support patients' self-management activities. Community and social support networks operating in patients' lives need to be engaged in the self-management support.

  10. Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Aster Desalew; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Mekonnen, Habtamu Sewunet

    2018-04-10

    Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side effects, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards including death. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of self-medication practice and its associated factors among adult household members in Meket District, Northeast Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 722 adult household members in Meket District, from April 5 to May 5, 2017. The systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. A pre-tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection using an interviewer-administered technique. Epi-info version and SPSS version 22 were utilized for data entry and analysis, respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify association factors. The overall prevalence of self-medication was found to be 35.9%. Unmarried status (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.18, 4.01), previous experience of self-medication (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22, 2.61), accessibility of pharmacies (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.31, 10.51), peer/family pressure (AOR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.98, 4.18) and presence of medication at home (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.92) were factors associated with self-medication practices. More than one-third of the study participants practiced self-medication. Thus, strengthening communities awareness on drug side effects and integrated efforts of individuals, communities, health facilities, and regulatory bodies are highly necessary.

  11. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Omar T; Hassali, Mohamed A; Saleem, Fahad; Ibrahim, Inas R; Abdulameer, Aseel H; Jasim, Hanan H

    2017-01-01

    Patients' behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%), followed by self-medication (20.9%). The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89). The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  13. Self-medication and related health complaints among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Khan, Nelofer; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Issa, Khaled Jamal; Arifulla, Mohamed

    Background Self-medication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. Objective This study examines the prevalence of self-medication with both prescribed and non-prescribed (OTC) medications, related health complaints, sources of drugs, and sources of drug recommendation, and gender differences related to self-medication among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 expatriate students through a validated, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS 19 version. Means and proportions were calculated and Pearson Chi-square test of significance was used to analyze association among variables. Results Majority of the participating students, almost equally distributed by gender, was aged 16 to 17 years. The period prevalence rate of self-medication with prescribed and OTC medications were 89.2%, which did not vary with age, gender, ethnicity or parents’ educational level. The most common sources of drug and drug recommendation were community pharmacies and parents respectively. Headache and fever were the common self-medicated conditions and consequently, analgesics and antipyretics were most commonly used both in the previous two weeks and the previous year prior to the survey. A high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics (53%) and sedative/hypnotics (27%) was also observed. A female excess emerged for certain health complaints and use of medicines except for the use of anti-allergic and herbal/homeopathic drugs. Conclusions This is the first study to explore self-medication practices among high school students in UAE and provides baseline data critical in creating awareness about the risks and benefits of self-medication. Health care providers, educators and parents should be

  14. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Methods Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Results Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. Conclusion The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  15. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  16. Assessment of medical students’ learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA JOUHARI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of selfregulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40. Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Results: Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44, and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91. The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. Conclusion: The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence

  17. Self-regulated learning processes of medical students during an academic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Jalili, Mohammad; Yazdani, Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Sandars, John

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the self-regulated learning (SRL) processes of medical students during a biomedical science learning task and to examine the associations of the SRL processes with previous performance in biomedical science examinations and subsequent performance on a learning task. A sample of 76 Year 1 medical students were recruited based on their performance in biomedical science examinations and stratified into previous high and low performers. Participants were asked to complete a biomedical science learning task. Participants' SRL processes were assessed before (self-efficacy, goal setting and strategic planning), during (metacognitive monitoring) and after (causal attributions and adaptive inferences) their completion of the task using an SRL microanalytic interview. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the means and frequencies of SRL processes. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of SRL processes with previous examination performance and the learning task performance. Most participants (from 88.2% to 43.4%) reported task-specific processes for SRL measures. Students who exhibited higher self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.90) and reported task-specific processes for metacognitive monitoring (OR 6.61, 95% CI 1.68-25.93) and causal attributions (OR 6.75, 95% CI 2.05-22.25) measures were more likely to be high previous performers. Multiple analysis revealed that similar SRL measures were associated with previous performance. The use of task-specific processes for causal attributions (OR 23.00, 95% CI 4.57-115.76) and adaptive inferences (OR 27.00, 95% CI 3.39-214.95) measures were associated with being a high learning task performer. In multiple analysis, only the causal attributions measure was associated with high learning task performance. Self-efficacy, metacognitive monitoring and causal attributions measures were associated

  18. Improving medical student toxicology knowledge and self-confidence using mannequin simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Brunhild M; Lee, Meta T; Franke, Adrian A

    2010-01-01

    Learning medicine without placing patients at increased risk of complications is of utmost importance in the medical profession. High-fidelity patient simulators can potentially achieve this and are therefore increasingly used in the training of medical students. Preclinical medical students have minimal exposure to clinical rotations and commonly feel anxious and apprehensive when starting their clinical years. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if toxicology knowledge and confidence of preclinical second-year medical students could be augmented with simulation training. We designed and implemented a simulation exercise for second-year medical students to enhance learning of Basic Life Support, toxidromes, and management of a semiconscious overdose victim. Groups of 5-6 students were tasked to identify abnormal findings, order tests, and initiate treatment on a mannequin. Faculty observers provided video-assisted feedback immediately afterwards. On-line pre- and posttests were completed in the simulation lab before and after the exercise. This simulation exercise, completed by 52 students, increased test scores on average from 60% to 71% compared to a pre-test. Among the topics tested, students scored worst in identifying normal/abnormal vital signs. Mean confidence increased from 2.0 to 2.6 using a 5-point Likert scale (1-very low to 5-very high). This study suggests that simulation exercises for second-year medical students may be a valuable tool to increase knowledge and student self-confidence at a key transition period prior to beginning clerkship experiences. Further research is needed to prove long-term educational benefits of simulation interventions in the preclinical setting.

  19. Prevalence of Self-prescribing Propranolol Among Medical and Dental Students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Omar A. Al-Mohrej

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: The overall results showed a slightly high rate of propanol misuse among medical and dental students. The majority of users are aware of the risks and potential side effects of self-prescribing medications, however; the anxiety relieving effect of propranolol increased its use prior to oral exams and presentations. Educational activity targeting students must be implemented.

  20. Patients Who Attend the Emergency Department Following Medication Overdose: Self-Reported Mental Health History and Intended Outcomes of Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Ritter, Alison; Loxley, Wendy; Dietze, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Medication overdose is a common method of non-fatal self-harm. Previous studies have established which mental health disorders are commonly associated with the behaviour (affective, substance use, anxiety and personality disorders) and which medications are most frequently implicated (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and non-opioid…

  1. Medical and psychology students' self-assessed communication skills: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Läärä, Riitta; Kyrö, Tuuli; Lindeman, Sari

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how psychology and medical students assess their own competency and skills before and after training, in which role-play was used to teach interpersonal and communication skills. Interpersonal and communication skills were assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire before and after the training. The students of both medicine and psychology estimated their skill levels to be higher after the course. The psychology students estimated their skills for communication, motivating interviewing, empathy and reflection, and change orientation to be better at the end of the course. Medical students estimated their communication skills, motivating interviewing skills, and change orientation skills to be better at the end of the course. Even a short period of training in interpersonal and communication skills can positively affect the self-assessed skills of the medical students. In the future, it would be worthwhile to pay attention to reflective teaching practices in the training of both medical and psychology students. The cognitive and emotional components of these practices help students to develop their own communication skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical - and – psychological help to cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yudin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Classical treatment with medications, procedures, surgery is unable to restore physical health and almost has no effect on the psychological state of a patient. This raises the question of involvement in the treatment process psychological measures, increase knowledge about the psychology of the patient, medical professionals and their interrelation during treatment. The aim: to identify the targets of psychological help for cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem (DISE. Contingent and methods. The study was conducted at the Medical Center "CA Clinic" ( Kyiv during 2014 – 2016. 178 women with cosmetological problems participated in the research, among them 82 had DISE (active treatment group and 93 had harmonic self-esteem (control group. The complex psychodiagnostic study conducted for assessment psychological state. Cosmetological patients emotional condition was studied with SCL-90-R. To study the personality characteristics, Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI, form B and self-esteem questionnaire by V. V. Stolin and S. G. Pantileyeva were used, behavioral patterns have been investigated with S. Lazarus and Folkman’s method of WCB. Psychosocial sphere was assessed with test for diagnosis of interpersonal relations by T. Leary and social and psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and R. Diamond. Results. DISE patients complete a specific group of patients who seek for cosmetic help. Skin pathology and outwardness changes in this group had negative effects especially in the field of psychosocial functioning. The external view for DISE women is associated with high social status and is a tool of psychological impact on the environment. In DISE women signs of somatization with painful and histrionic displays, tension, nervousness, frustration and distrust for the environment, a sense of loneliness were present in the psycho-emotional sphere. For DISE patients  personality and behavioral patterns such

  3. Do reciprocal relationships between academic workload and self-regulated learning predict medical freshmen's achievement? A longitudinal study on the educational transition from secondary school to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joselina; Silva, Álvaro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton

    2018-04-16

    One of the most important factors that makes the transition from secondary school to medical school challenging is the inability to put in the study time that a medical school curriculum demands. The implementation of regulated learning is essential for students to cope with medical course environment and succeed. This study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relationships between self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) and academic workload (AW) across secondary school to medical school transition. Freshmen enrolled in medical school (N = 102) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of their academic year, assessing AW (measured as study time hours and perceived workload), SRLS (planning and strategies for learning assessment, motivation and action to learning and self-directedness) and academic achievement. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a longitudinal path analysis were performed. According to the EFA, study time and perceived workload revealed two factors of AW: students who had a high perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (tandem AW); and those who had a low perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (inverse AW). Only a longitudinal relationship between SRLS and AW was found in the path analysis: prior self-directedness was related to later tandem AW. Moreover, success during the first year of medical school is dependent on exposure to motivation, self-directedness and high study time without overload during secondary school and medical school, and prior academic achievement. By better understanding these relationships, teachers can create conditions that support academic success during the first year medical school.

  4. Interaction effect study on stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linlin; Feng Liyun; Yang Yanyan; Wu Di

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore interaction effect between stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel with path analysis. Methods: 728 radiological medical personnels were investigated with Maslach burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Self-esteem Scale. Results: Multiple regression and path analysis revealed that there were statistically significant relation between stress reaction and job burnout, Personality and self-esteem. Conclusion: Psychological stress is a complicated and multiple interaction of psychological stress related factors. (authors)

  5. Prevalence of self-medication among university students in Baghdad: a cross-sectional study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, Rawa J K; Abd Al-Badri, Husham J; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence and determinants of self-medication among college students in Baghdad, Iraq. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Al-Mustansiriyah and Al-Nahrain universities, Baghdad, from January to April 2015. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to collect data from 1435 college students using a questionnaire form. The mean age of the joining students was 19.8 years. Females form 53% of the sample. Self-medications use was prevalent among 92.4% of students. Antipyretics and antibiotics were the most used medicines. Self-medication was higher among urban residents (OR= 7.99, P resilience to self-medication (OR=0.455, P = 0.001). Despite free access to healthcare institutions, nine out of ten college students from Baghdad universities have practiced self-medication. Education of students about the safe use of medications and supervision of pharmacies are effective ways to control this malpractice.

  6. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges.

  7. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  8. Privacy-Preserving Self-Helped Medical Diagnosis Scheme Based on Secure Two-Party Computation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients’ health information and doctors’ diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions.

  9. Auto-exame das mamas entre estudantes de medicina Breast self-examination among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo de Freitas Júnior

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar o nível de conhecimento e prática do auto-exame da mama entre os estudantes do curso médico e determinar possíveis fatores associados a esta prática. Métodos: foi utilizado um questionário que continha informações sobre os alunos e o seu conhecimento a respeito do auto-exame, permitindo ainda, verificar entre as alunas a prática do mesmo. Utilizaram-se os testes do qui quadrado e "t" de Student, quando aplicáveis, para verificar a associação de alguns fatores com o auto-exame. Resultados: dos 348 questionários respondidos, 55 (16% pertenciam aos alunos do 5º ano (estudantes que haviam cursado a Disciplina de Ginecologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, 43% eram mulheres, 62% tinham familiares médicos e 17% apresentavam história familiar de câncer de mama. Em relação ao conhecimento do auto-exame, 95% conheciam o método. Das 149 estudantes, apenas 64% o praticavam. Os motivos para não fazê-lo eram: por ser muito jovem (24%, por não acreditar que pudesse acontecer com ela (4%, por medo (9% e por preguiça (19%, sendo que 44% das alunas não souberam explicar o motivo. Tanto o conhecimento quanto a prática do auto-exame não estiveram associados ao ano do curso médico, história familiar de câncer de mama ou à presença de familiar médico. Conclusão: o auto-exame é conhecido por praticamente todos os estudantes de medicina mesmo assim, um terço das estudantes não o praticam. Com isso ressalta-se a importância do auto-exame no curso médico, a fim de que os alunos possam levar mais informações à população, não limitando esta tarefa aos meios de comunicação.Purpose: to evaluate the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among medical students and to determine possible factors associated with this practice. Method: the authors used a questionnaire to gather information about the students and their knowledge of this self-examination. This questionnaire also allowed the authors to

  10. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  11. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2015-12-01

    Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high self-esteem levels was 89.7%. In Humor Styles Questionnaire, the average scores of affiliative and self-enhancing humor were significantly higher than the average scores of aggressive and self-defeating humor. Male students were using humor, especially aggressive and self-defeating humor styles more commonly than female students. A positive correlation was found between self-esteem and affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Conclusion: The present study revealed a positive correlation between self-esteem and positive humor styles. There is a need to develop educational models that would bolster self-esteem and positive humor in medical students. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 782-793

  13. Self-reported non-adherence and beliefs about medication in a Swedish kidney transplant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerling, Annette; Forsberg, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Patients' non-adherence to immunosuppressant treatment after organ transplantation may lead to organ failure, graft loss and death. Non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients has not previously been studied. Hence the aim of this study was to explore non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients by using self-report instruments as well as testing the hypothesis that there is a difference in self-reported symptoms, beliefs about medicine and social support between respondents with or without self reported non-adherence. In the present cross sectional study 250 renal transplant recipients participated by replying to a questionnaire. Two validated instruments were included, one on beliefs about medicine (the BMQ©), the other on nonadherence (the BAASIS©). Only 46 % never failed to follow the medical treatment with respect to taking the drugs, dosage or timing (>2 hrs from prescribed time). Timing was the most frequently reported deviation (48 %). Forty-seven patients (16 %) had failed taking at least one dose of the prescribed immunosuppressants during the past four weeks. Four individuals had reduced the prescribed doses. Only one reported taking a 'drug holiday'. Nine participants reported stronger concerns than necessities for immunosuppressive medication. For the BMQ the necessity scores were extremely high while the scores for concern were low. Risk behaviour identified by the BAASIS had no association in risk attitudes as identified in the BMQ. The only factor relating to non-adherence was lack of social support (p=0.022). In general adherence was high. Identification of the exceptions remains a challenge.

  14. Self-assessment of managerial knowledge and skills of medical doctors in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Pilav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the managerial knowledge and skills of mid-level managers – medical doctors in Medical center of the Canton Sarajevo.Methods: A cross-sectional study of the mid-level managers in the Medical center of the Canton Sarajevo was conducted using an originally developed questionnaire for self-assessment of managerial knowledge and skills. The respondents answered each of the questions using a 5-point Likert scale. Apart from the quantitative section, the respondents could present their observations concerning the educational needs in the health care system.Results: Almost 40% of the respondents said that the process of assessing health care needs is not conducted. No statistical significance was observed in the responses according to the length of service in a managerial position. In total, 41% of the respondents were not sure whether a plan exists, even though the development of these plans should be a principal managerial responsibility in the quality management. Managers who were longer in the position reported no plans for corrective actions. This result was in contrast with the answers obtained from the managers who were in the position for a shorter period. In addition, 91% of the respondents said that they regularly discuss problems with their employees.Conclusions: Self- assessment and assessment of managerial competencies should be regular activities in a health care organization, in order to monitor the knowledge and skills, as well as to make the development plans. The results of this study could serve as the basis for planning and developing the health management education in the Canton Sarajevo.

  15. Impact of an undergraduate course on medical students’ self-perceived nutrition intake and self-efficacy to improve their health behaviours and counselling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Doctors are increasingly involved in the management of chronic disease and counsel patients about their lifestyle behaviours, including nutrition, to improve their health outcomes. AIM: This study aimed to assess the impact of a medical undergraduate course containing nutrition content on medical students’ self-perceived nutrition intake and self-efficacy to improve their health behaviours and counselling practices. METHODS: A total of 239 medical students enrolled in a 12-week nutrition-related course at The University of Auckland were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire before and after the course. The questionnaire was adapted from a previous evaluation of a preventive medicine and nutrition course at Harvard Medical School. RESULTS: Sixty-one medical students completed both pre- and post-course questionnaires (25.5%. At baseline, medical students described their eating habits to be more healthy than non-medical students (p=0.0261. Post-course, medical students reported a higher frequency of wholegrain food intake (p=0.0229. Medical students also reported being less comfortable making nutrition recommendations to family and friends post-course (p=0.008. Most medical students (63.9% perceived increased awareness of their own dietary choices, and some (15.3% reported an increased likelihood to counsel patients on lifestyle behaviour post-course. DISCUSSION: Students can increase awareness of their own nutrition behaviour after undertaking a course that includes nutrition in the initial phase of their medical degree. Further investigation of how medical students’ confidence to provide nutrition advice evolves throughout their training and in future practice is required.

  16. Health literacy, self-efficacy, and patients' assessment of medical disclosure and consent documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Mackert, Michael; Guinn, Trey D; Tollison, Andrew C; Breckinridge, Barbara; Pont, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Informed consent documents are designed to convey the risks of medical procedures to patients, yet they are often difficult to understand; this is especially true for individuals with limited health literacy. An important opportunity for advancing knowledge about health literacy and informed consent involves examining the theoretical pathways that help to explain how health literacy relates to information processing when patients read consent forms. In this study, we proposed and tested a model that positioned self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between health literacy and patients' comprehension and assessment of informed consent documentation. Findings from structured interviews with patients (n = 254) indicated that lower health literacy predicted lower self-efficacy, which predicted feeling less well informed and less prepared, being more confused about the procedure and its hazards, and wanting more information about risks. Incorporating awareness of self-efficacy into disclosure documents and consent conversations may be a useful means of prompting patients to ask questions that can help them make informed decisions about care.

  17. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  18. Self-efficacy and health behaviour: Some implications for medical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Ljubiša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of personality characteristics and behaviours related to human health has become a key area of research within contemporary health psychology. Personality variable that has attracted a growing interest of health psychologists is the concept of self-efficacy developed by Albert Bandura within his highly influential social-cognitive or social learning theory of human behaviour. Defined generally as the individual's belief that one will be able to carry out one's plans and intentions successfully or to perform certain behaviours necessary to attain desired goals or anticipated outcomes, self-efficacy is one of the key factors in the exercise of personal control, including a control over the state of one's own health. Starting from this theoretical framework, the main purpose of this article is to provide at first a concise overview of the theory of self-efficacy, and then to consider its relationship with the various forms or patterns of behaviours related to health, as well as to suggest some possible implications of this theory for medical anthropology - especially for its applied areas that are focused on the health education, health promotion, and health protection.

  19. Budgetary participation and performance: The mediating effects of medical managers' job engagement and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Bozzi, Stefano; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Professional hybrids in healthcare have attracted a great deal of policy, managerial, and research interest. However, the current literature offers little guidance on (i) how hybrid roles can be supported by the hospital organization they work for as well as (ii) the cognitive and behavioral driving forces underpinning medical managers' managerial work that determine how they inhabit their roles and consequently meet the standards of performance that contribute to organizational effectiveness. Building on engagement theory and social cognitive theory and using data collected from clinical managers working in a large Italian public hospital, the current study focuses on the mediating role of psychological variables associated with the managerial role of medical managers, namely managerial job engagement and managerial self-efficacy, in the budgetary participation-job performance link. The results suggest that the information gained by participating in budgeting impact medical managers' thoughts and feelings about their managerial role and these, in turn, motivate different aspects of their performance. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and their managerial and policy implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Madness at the movies: prioritised movies for self-directed learning by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Heath, Deb; Heath, Tim; Gallagher, Peter; Huthwaite, Mark

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to systematically compile a list of 10 movies to facilitate self-directed learning in psychiatry by medical students. The selected areas were those of the top five mental health conditions from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. The search strategy for movies covered an extensive range of sources (published literature and websites), followed by closer examination and critical viewing of a sample. Out of a total of 503 potential movies that were identified, 23 were selected for viewing and more detailed critique. The final top 10 were: for depressive and anxiety disorders: Ordinary People (1980), Silver Linings Playbook (2012); for illicit drug use: Trainspotting (1996), Winter's Bone (2010), Rachel Getting Married (2008), Half Nelson (2006); for alcohol use disorders: Another Year (2010), Passion Fish (1992); and for schizophrenia: The Devil and Daniel Johnston (2006), and An Angel at My Table (1990). The final selection of 10 movies all appeared to have relatively high entertainment value together with rich content in terms of psychiatric themes. Further research could evaluate the extent to which medical students actually watch such movies, by assessing the level of withdrawals from a medical school library and surveying student responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  1. Impact of a brief addiction medicine training experience on knowledge self-assessment among medical learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Ahamad, Keith; Fairgrieve, Christoper; McLean, Mark; Mead, Annabel; Nolan, Seonaid; Wood, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of evidence-based approaches to the treatment of various substance use disorders is needed to tackle the existing epidemic of substance use and related harms. Most clinicians, however, lack knowledge and practical experience with these approaches. Given this deficit, the authors examined the impact of an inpatient elective in addiction medicine amongst medical trainees on addiction-related knowledge and medical management. Trainees who completed an elective with a hospital-based Addiction Medicine Consult Team (AMCT) in Vancouver, Canada, from May 2015 to May 2016, completed a 9-item self-evaluation scale before and immediately after the elective. A total of 48 participants completed both pre and post AMCT elective surveys. On average, participants were 28 years old (interquartile range [IQR] = 27-29) and contributed 20 days (IQR = 13-27) of clinical service. Knowledge of addiction medicine increased significantly post elective (mean difference [MD] = 8.63, standard deviation [SD] = 18.44; P = .002). The most and the least improved areas of knowledge were relapse prevention and substance use screening, respectively. Completion of a clinical elective with a hospital-based AMCT appears to improve medical trainees' addiction-related knowledge. Further evaluation and expansion of addiction medicine education is warranted to develop the next generation of skilled addiction care providers.

  2. Ultralight Cut-Paper-Based Self-Charging Power Unit for Self-Powered Portable Electronic and Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengyu; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Zi, Yunlong; Wen, Zhen; Chen, Jie; Liu, Guanlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-23

    The development of lightweight, superportable, and sustainable power sources has become an urgent need for most modern personal electronics. Here, we report a cut-paper-based self-charging power unit (PC-SCPU) that is capable of simultaneously harvesting and storing energy from body movement by combining a paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and a supercapacitor (SC), respectively. Utilizing the paper as the substrate with an assembled cut-paper architecture, an ultralight rhombic-shaped TENG is achieved with highly specific mass/volume charge output (82 nC g -1 /75 nC cm -3 ) compared with the traditional acrylic-based TENG (5.7 nC g -1 /5.8 nC cm -3 ), which can effectively charge the SC (∼1 mF) to ∼1 V in minutes. This wallet-contained PC-SCPU is then demonstrated as a sustainable power source for driving wearable and portable electronic devices such as a wireless remote control, electric watch, or temperature sensor. This study presents a potential paper-based portable SCPU for practical and medical applications.

  3. Factors influencing the current practice of self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Fisher, Colleen; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2016-05-13

    Research has shown that the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in Indonesia is suboptimal. To improve the performance of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies, the factors that influence current practice need to be understood. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, pharmacy owners, and counter attendants. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings. The current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations is directly influenced by the professionalism of pharmacy staff and patient responses to the consultations. These factors are in turn affected by the organisational context of the pharmacy and the external pharmacy environment. The organisational context of the pharmacy includes staffing, staff affordability, and the availability of time and facilities in which to provide consultations. The external pharmacy environment includes the number of trained pharmacy staff in the research setting, the relevance of pharmacy education to the needs of pharmacy practice, the support offered by the Indonesian Pharmacists Association, a competitive business environment, and the policy environment. Complex and inter-related factors influence the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies in this research setting. Multiple strategies will be required to improve consultation practices.

  4. [The Offer of Medical-Diagnostic Self-Tests on German Language Websites: Results of a Systematic Internet Search].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, P; Schmidt, S; Muehlan, H

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e. g. diabetes, chronic disease of the kidneys, liver, and lungs), sexually transmitted diseases (e. g. HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea), infectious diseases (e. g. tuberculosis, malaria, Helicobacter pylori), allergies (e. g. house dust, cats, histamine) and cancer as well as tests for the diagnostics of 12 different psychotropic substances. These were sold by 90 companies in Germany and by other foreign companies. The number of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be bought without a medical prescription on the Internet has increased enormously in the last 10 years. Further studies are needed for the identification of the determinants of the use of self-tests as well as the impact of the application on the experience and behavior of the user. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Self-Medication Practices with Antibiotics among Tertiary Level Students in Accra, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Nartey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics among tertiary level students in Accra (Ghana and evaluate factors associated with the practice. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and involved face-to-face interviews of 600 respondents selected by convenient sampling. Prevalence of self medication was 70% (95% CI: 66.3–73.7, and the practice was significantly lower among medically inclined students (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1–0.4, p < 0.001. Among the respondents who practiced self medication, the most common frequency of antibiotic usage was at intervals of one month (30%, 95% CI: 25.6–34.4%, and the most common antibiotic used was amoxacillin (23.9%, 95% CI: 21.0–26.8%. Treatment failure were reported by 35% (95% CI: 30.5–39.6% of the respondents, and the main reasons cited for self medication were that, it was less expensive compared to medical care in the hospital and  secondly, medical care in hospitals were associated with long delays. Forty nine percent (95% CI: 44.2–53.8% of the respondents had poor knowledge about the health implications of irrational use of antibiotics, and 46% (95% CI: 41.2–50.8% did not comply with the completion of the full course of antibiotics. Self medication among tertiary students in Accra is an important public health problem and this may reflect the situation among tertiary students in the whole of Ghana.

  6. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

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    Bente Frøkjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this. Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems. Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies. Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines. Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner. Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect

  7. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

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    Charlotte Rossing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended

  8. Self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students in Pakistan regarding academic misconduct: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Lakho, Ghulam Rehmani; Asim, Hamna; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Saeed, Sheikh Abdul

    2014-05-29

    Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted with medical students from one private and one public sector medical college. A pre-coded questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours regarding plagiarism, lying, cheating and falsifying documentation was completed anonymously by the students. A total of 465 medical students filled the questionnaire. 53% of private medical college students reported that they recognize copying an assignment verbatim and listing sources as references as wrong compared to 35% of public medical college students. 26% of private medical college students self-report this behaviour as compared to 42% of public medical college students. 22% of private versus 15% of public medical college students and 21% of students in clinical years compared to 17% in basic science years admit to submitting a fake medical certificate to justify an absence. 87% of students at a private medical college believe that cheating in an examination is wrong as compared to 66% of public medical college students and 24% self-report this behaviour in the former group as compared to 41% in the latter. 63% of clinical year students identify cheating as wrong compared to 89% of their junior colleagues. 71% of male versus 84% of female respondents believe that cheating is wrong and 42% of males compared to 23% of females admit to cheating. There are significant differences in medical students' attitudes and behaviours towards plagiarism, lying, cheating and stealing by gender, seniority status and type of institution

  9. Survey on prevalence and causes of self-medication in women referring to health centers in Ahwaz, in 2013

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    Pourandoght Afshary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, considerable advances achieved in different scientific fields have led to an ever-increasing access of people to various medications and their unauthorized consumption, which negatively affects the healthcare and treatment system. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the Prevalence and causes of this phenomenon in the female population of Ahwaz. Material and Methods: In this Cross-sectional study364 Women referring to seven health centers in Ahwaz were selected randomly and based on the family medical file number and by proportional distribution to each center and semi-structured questionnaires were completed through interviews. The data were analyzed by Chi square test and logistic regression. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Self-medication was observed in 70.1% of women. The most frequent group  was those above the age of 30. The most common self-medication case was urogenitaldisorders (58.7%. there was a significant relation between education (p<0.003 and number of births (p=0.003 and unauthorized drug consumption. The most causes for synthetic drug use were previous illness background (48.6% and high medication costs (50.6%, and about herbal drugs were high medication costs (41.1%, and the effectiveness of these products about medicinal herbs (38.1 %. Conclusion: High rate of self-medication in the studied society necessitates training on proper use of drugs through the use of social media.

  10. Do medical students and young physicians assess reliably their self-efficacy regarding communication skills? A prospective study from end of medical school until end of internship.

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    Gude, Tore; Finset, Arnstein; Anvik, Tor; Bærheim, Anders; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Grimstad, Hilde; Vaglum, Per

    2017-06-30

    This prospective study from end of medical school through internship investigates the course and possible change of self- reported self-efficacy in communication skills compared with observers' ratings of such skills in consultations with simulated patients. Sixty-two medical students (43 females) from four Norwegian universities performed a videotaped consultation with a simulated patient immediately before medical school graduation (T1) and after internship (internal medicine, surgery and family medicine, half a year each - T2). Before each consultation, the participants assessed their general self-efficacy in communication skills. Trained observers scored the videos and applied a well-validated instrument to rate the communication behaviour. Results from the two assessment methods were correlated at both time points and possible differences from T1 to T2 were explored. A close to zero correlation between self-efficacy and observed communication skills were found at T1. At T2, participants' self-efficacy scores were inversely correlated with levels of observed skills, demonstrating a lack of concordance between young physicians' own assessment of self-efficacy and observers' assessment. When dividing the sample in three groups based on the observers' scores (low 2/3), the group of male physicians showed higher levels of self-efficacy than females in all the three performance groups at T1. At T2, those having a high performance score yielded a low self-efficacy, regardless of gender. The lack of positive correlations between self-efficacy assessment and expert ratings points to limitations in the applicability of self-assessment measures of communication skills. Due to gender differences, groups of female and male physicians should be investigated separately. Those obtaining high-performance ratings from observers, through the period of internship, may become more conscious of how demanding clinical communication with patients may be. This insight may represent a

  11. A novel authentication scheme using self-certified public keys for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianli; Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping

    2015-06-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS), with the explosive growth of communication technology and physiological monitoring devices, are applied increasingly to enable and support healthcare delivery services. In order to safeguard patients' privacy and tackle the illegal access, authentication schemes for TMIS have been investigated and designed by many researchers. Many of them are promising for adoption in practice, nevertheless, they still have security flaws. In this paper, we propose a novel remote authentication scheme for TMIS using self-certified public keys, which is formally secure in the ID-mBJM model. Besides, the proposed scheme has better computational efficiency. Compared to the related schemes, our protocol is more practical for telemedicine system.

  12. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

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    Sopa Kummee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN using the multiplate integration assay (MIA. Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml, the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 26.4 μg/ml, the chloroform extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 33.0 μg/ml, the methanol extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 38.2 μg/ml and the chloroform extract of Piper betle (leaf, IC50 = 39.3 μg/ml, respectively.

  13. Relationship Between Self-Management Strategy and Self-Efficacy Among Staff of Ardabil Disaster and Emergency Medical Management Centers

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    Mohammad Taghi Amini

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In general, considering that job stress, safety behavior and self-management predictive self-efficacy of emergency staff. Individuals with high self-efficacy wait for the desired outcomes of their performance. So by giving stress management training and applying their safety principles and strategies, targeting can create a sense of self-efficacy such that a person can withstand persistent efforts to overcome obstacles. Improving working conditions also plays an effective role in increasing productivity.

  14. Validation of the self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) in a cohort of nursing and medical students.

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    Roper, Lucinda; Shulruf, Boaz; Jorm, Christine; Currie, Jane; Gordon, Christopher J

    2018-02-09

    Poor teamwork has been implicated in medical error and teamwork training has been shown to improve patient care. Simulation is an effective educational method for teamwork training. Post-simulation reflection aims to promote learning and we have previously developed a self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) for health students to measure teamwork performance. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a revised self-assessment teamwork tool. The tool was tested in 257 medical and nursing students after their participation in one of several mass casualty simulations. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the revised self-assessment teamwork tool was shown to have strong construct validity, high reliability, and the construct demonstrated invariance across groups (Medicine & Nursing). The modified SATT was shown to be a reliable and valid student self-assessment tool. The SATT is a quick and practical method of guiding students' reflection on important teamwork skills.

  15. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia

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    Dawood OT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. Results: This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%, followed by self-medication (20.9%. The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89. The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  16. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

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    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  17. The impact of cognitive insight, self-stigma, and medication compliance on the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Impaired quality of life (QoL) is a common and clinically relevant feature of schizophrenia. In the present study, we attempted to formulate a model of QoL in the chronic stage of schizophrenia by including key variables-namely cognitive insight, self-stigma, insight into treatment, and medication compliance-that were proposed as its significant predictors in previous studies. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously test the associations between these variables. A total of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. Cognitive insight, self-stigma, insight into treatment, medication compliance, and QoL were assessed through self-reporting. Symptoms were rated by interviewers. The influences of cognitive insight, stigma, insight into treatment, and medication compliance on QoL were supported using SEM. Our findings indicated that cognitive insight had a significant, positive, and direct effect on both self-stigma and insight into treatment; in contrast, it had a negative and direct effect on medication compliance. Notably, no evidence indicated a direct effect of cognitive insight on QoL. Thus, individuals with high cognitive insight reported low QoL because of stigma, low medication compliance, and their increased insight into treatment. In contrast, cognitive insight might indirectly ameliorate QoL mediated by the effect of insight into treatment on medication compliance. The findings provide additional support of the links between cognitive and clinical insight, self-stigma, medication compliance, and QoL in those with schizophrenia and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population.

  18. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  19. Automedicação em crianças e adolescentes Self-medication in children and adolescents

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    Francis S. V. T. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da automedicação em crianças e adolescentes dos municípios de Limeira e Piracicaba (SP, correlacionando-a a indicadores sociodemográficos e utilização de serviços de saúde (pública ou privada. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar de uma amostra aleatória simples de ambos os municípios, constituída de 772 moradores procedentes de 85 setores censitários selecionados por meio de amostragem por conglomerado. Critérios de inclusão: idade OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of self-medication in children and adolescents in the municipalities of Limeira and Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, and to correlate results with sociodemographic indicators and with the use of health care services (public or private. METHODS: Descriptive population-based study of a simple random sample from the two municipalities, comprised of 772 inhabitants from 85 urban census sectors selected through cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria: age < 18 years; interview with one parent/tutor; consumption of at least one drug in the previous 15 days. Subjects were divided into two study groups according to their pattern of drug use: self-medication (lay advice and medical prescription. Linear association tests, descriptive analysis of variables and multiple logistic regression tests were carried out to analyze data. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-medication was 56.6%. Mothers (51% and drugstore employees (20.1% were most frequently responsible for self-medication. The main groups of self-prescribed drugs were: analgesic/antipyretic and non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (52.9%; drugs acting on the respiratory tract (15.4% and gastrointestinal drugs (9.6%; and systemic antibiotics (8.6%. The situation that most commonly motivated self-medication were respiratory diseases (17.2%, fever (15%, and headache (14%. Subjects in the age group of 7-18 years (odds ratio = 2.81 and public health care users

  20. Characteristics of self-medication for pain relief among first-year health care students in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brlić, Kristina Čuljak; Janev Holcer, Nataša; Sović, Slavica; Štimac, Danijela

    2014-12-01

    Taking over the responsibility for one's own health and active participation in eliminating the existing health problems is ever more widespread in the world. Self-medication in the form of using any kind of therapy without previous consultation with medical professionals has been ever more common among student populations in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes about self-medication for pain relief and features of self-medication in first-year students of the University of Applied Health Studies in Zagreb. The study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire, which was completed by 389 respondents. Taking painkillers in the past year was reported by 74.6% of respondents, significantly more by female students (80.8%); 62.6% of female students used painkillers once a month versus 45.7% of male students taking analgesics once a year. Ibuprofen was preferred by female students and acetylsalicylic acid by male students. Headache was the most common indication for taking painkillers (76.6%), followed by menstrual discomforts in female students (66.2%) and toothache (28.6%). Significant sex differences were recorded in the choice of drugs, indications for self-medication, and frequency of drug use. There were no differences between study courses. Appropriate student education and improved information transfer between professionals and students are the key elements to ensure judicious, quality and knowledge based use of drugs among students.

  1. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, María Luisa; Sanromán, Luciano; Martín, Alicia; Figueira, Montserrat; Martínez, Noemi; Hernández, Vicent; Del Campo, Victor; Pineda, Juan R; Martínez-Cadilla, Jesús; Pereira, Santos; Rodríguez Prada, José Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ). Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01). The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  2. Relationship of physical self concept and athletic performance in male medical students in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

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    Shahnaz Tabiee

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was found that athletic performance improves physical self-esteem and self-esteem of students. Therefore, health system policy makers can promote the necessary facilities for expanding the culture of sports activities and also create an environment with sufficient facilities in the university.

  3. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J Craig; Brion, John M; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2013-11-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients' quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client's choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients' engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = -5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = -3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL.

  4. Using self-regulation theory to examine patient goals, barriers, and facilitators for taking medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Thomas, Sheena; Bazzi, Abraham; Virant-Young, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    : Self-regulation theory predicts that patient behavior is determined by the patient's assessment of his/her condition (illness presentation) and related health goals. Patients will adapt their behavior to achieve those goals. However, there are multiple levels of goals. In such cases, those lower-level goals (health goals) that are strongly correlated with higher-level goals (i.e. quality of life [QOL]) are more likely to drive patient behavior. Medication non-compliance is a health behavior that challenges healthcare practitioners. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between the lower-level goals for taking medication with higher-level goals. This paper also identifies patient-perceived barriers and facilitators toward achieving goals as they may relate to patients' illness representation. : To identify lower- and higher-level goals associated with medication use for chronic conditions. To determine if there is a relationship between higher-level (global) goals and lower-level (health-related) goals. To identify patient-perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving those goals. : This was a prospective, observational study using a mailed survey. The setting was a US Midwestern state-wide survey. Participants were patients living in the community with hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or arthritis, and taking prescription medication for any one of those conditions. The main outcome measures were lower- and higher-level goals related to medication use. The survey asked the participants if they had achieved their goals and to identify factors that may pose as barriers or facilitators to achieving them. Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between the lower- and higher-level goals at p goals existed (p = 0.03). Preventing future health problems was the most important lower-level goal for almost half of the respondents. Approximately 43% of the respondents said 'improving or maintaining quality of

  5. How does the medical graduates' self-assessment of their clinical competency differ from experts' assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of the performance of medical school graduates during their first postgraduate years provides an early indicator of the quality of the undergraduate curriculum and educational process. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical competency of medical graduates, as perceived by the graduates themselves and by the experts. Methods This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It covered 105 medical graduates and 63 experts selected by convenient sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire covering the different areas of clinical competency constructed on a five-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Data processing and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. The mean, frequency distribution, and percentage of the variables were calculated. A non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was applied to verify whether the graduates' and experts' assessments were influenced by the graduates' variables such as age, gender, experience, type of hospital, specialty and location of work at a (p ≤ 0.05) level of significance. Results The overall mean scores for experts' and graduates' assessments were 3.40 and 3.63, respectively (p= 0.035). Almost 87% of the graduates perceived their competency as good and very good in comparison with only 67.7% by experts. Female and male graduates who rated themselves as very good were 33.8% and 25% respectively. More than 19% of the graduates in the age group > 30 years perceived their clinical competency as inadequate in contrast with only 6.2% of the graduates in the youngest age group. Experts rated 40% of the female graduates as inadequate versus 20% of males, (p= 0.04). More than 40% of the graduates in younger age group were rated by experts as inadequate, versus 9.7% of the higher age group >30 years (p = 0.03). Conclusion There was a wide discrepancy between the graduates' self-assessment and experts' assessment, particularly in the level

  6. Antibiotictherapy and Self Medication: A Common Practice Among Students of a Biomedicine Course in a Higher Education Institution

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    Isabella Leone Rossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication habit of antibiotics contributes to the bacterial resistance mechanism, which is a global public health problem that must be prevented. The university student, as a future health professional, is summoned to guide a conduct and report on the use of antimicrobials regarding the casual agent, the site of infection and the severity of the disease. In this study, it has been verified, through a questionnaire, the profile of freshmen and academic students who are majoring in Biomedical Science in an institution of higher education, comparing the results obtained. It is a descriptive study with quantitative data approach (relative frequency – % through a self-administered questionnaire, and containing 13 multiple choice questions stored in the database in Excel. The sample consisted of 132 undergraduate students from the Biomedical Science course from this University Center. Among the freshmen, the purchase of antibiotic is mainly influenced by previous experiences with the drug, what is not repeated by the students that are graduating and prefer to seek and follow medical advice. Thus, 91.8% of trainees believe that self-medication may be harmful to health. Regarding the use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic before the use of antibiotics, 67% of the entering students said that they take these medications, against 70% of the senior students that also do it. Therefore, we may conclude that information on the danger of self-medication is provided in the disciplines of microbiology and pharmacology, which have not been studied by the freshmen and is unknown by the general population, that appeals to self-medication due to the lack of knowledge. To reverse this situation, it is necessary a greater media exposure on educational practices regarding the risks, the benefits, and elucidation about multi-resistant bacteria.

  7. MELLO: Medical lifelog ontology for data terms from self-tracking and lifelog devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Soo Youn; Baik, Su Youn; Kim, Ju Han

    2015-12-01

    The increasing use of health self-tracking devices is making the integration of heterogeneous data and shared decision-making more challenging. Computational analysis of lifelog data has been hampered by the lack of semantic and syntactic consistency among lifelog terms and related ontologies. Medical lifelog ontology (MELLO) was developed by identifying lifelog concepts and relationships between concepts, and it provides clear definitions by following ontology development methods. MELLO aims to support the classification and semantic mapping of lifelog data from diverse health self-tracking devices. MELLO was developed using the General Formal Ontology method with a manual iterative process comprising five steps: (1) defining the scope of lifelog data, (2) identifying lifelog concepts, (3) assigning relationships among MELLO concepts, (4) developing MELLO properties (e.g., synonyms, preferred terms, and definitions) for each MELLO concept, and (5) evaluating representative layers of the ontology content. An evaluation was performed by classifying 11 devices into 3 classes by subjects, and performing pairwise comparisons of lifelog terms among 5 devices in each class as measured using the Jaccard similarity index. MELLO represents a comprehensive knowledge base of 1998 lifelog concepts, with 4996 synonyms for 1211 (61%) concepts and 1395 definitions for 926 (46%) concepts. The MELLO Browser and MELLO Mapper provide convenient access and annotating non-standard proprietary terms with MELLO (http://mello.snubi.org/). MELLO covers 88.1% of lifelog terms from 11 health self-tracking devices and uses simple string matching to match semantically similar terms provided by various devices that are not yet integrated. The results from the comparisons of Jaccard similarities between simple string matching and MELLO matching revealed increases of 2.5, 2.2, and 5.7 folds for physical activity,body measure, and sleep classes, respectively. MELLO is the first ontology for

  8. Are carer attitudes toward medications related to self-reported medication adherence amongst people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Frank P; McAlpine, Elizabeth; Byrne, Mitchell K; Davis, Esther L; Mortimer, Christine

    2017-11-22

    Medication nonadherence among consumers with psychiatric disorders can significantly affect the health and wellbeing of the consumer and their family. Previous research has suggested that carers have an impact on consumer attitudes toward medication and adherence. Yet, how carer attitudes toward medication may be related to consumer attitudes and adherence has received little investigation. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the relationships between carer and consumer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence behaviour. A cross-sectional survey assessing consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence was conducted amongst 42 consumer-carer dyads. Correlation analyses showed a positive association between consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and between consumer and carer attitudes with adherence. There was a general indication that the greater the difference between consumer and carer attitudes, the lower the level of adherence. Regression analyses revealed that while neither consumer nor carer attitudes were significant predictors of adherence, carer attitudes appeared to have a stronger role in adherence than consumer attitudes. These preliminary results highlight the importance of carer attitudes in relation to patient perceptions and behaviours toward medication, and thus the potential benefits of addressing both consumer and carer attitudes in any intervention for improving adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in Korean nurses working in the emergency medical center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; Jeoung, Yeonok; Lee, Hye Kyung; Sok, Sohyune R

    2015-06-01

    The communication competence of nurses working in emergency medical center settings is essential to establish a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. Education and strategic development are required to improve the communication competence of emergency room (ER) nurses. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in Korean nurses in the emergency medical center setting. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 214 nurses at 11 emergency medical centers in Seoul and Kyunggi-Do, Korea. Measures used included the Global Interpersonal Communication Competence, self-efficacy scale, and job satisfaction scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0 statistical software program and included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent t test, analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation coefficient). The degrees of communication competence and self-efficacy of ER nurses were good, with higher scores than the median values. However, the degree of job satisfaction was poor, indicating a lower score than the median value. Religious affiliation and previous participation in communication education each had a significant impact on communication competence. Religious affiliation and time of worse duty each had a significant impact on self-efficacy. Length of career (year) in the emergency medical center and type of hospital each had a significant impact on job satisfaction. Positive correlations were identified among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. This study supported the presence of significant correlations among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. Thus, it is necessary to develop training programs that are customized to individual characteristics such as self-efficacy and job satisfaction to improve the communicative competence

  10. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-04-30

    To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective competence: it was measured by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) by faculty using predetermined rating scales. Rank order correlation test was performed for self-perceived and objectively measured competence. Two thirds 36 (66.7%) of the participants perceived themselves as moderately competent, 15 (27.8%) rated themselves as highly competent while 3 (5.6%) had low self-perception. With objective competence, the majority 52 (92.8%) were barely competent while 4 (7.2%) were absolutely competent. When overall self-perception was compared to objectively measured competence, there was a discordance which was demonstrated by a negative correlation (Spearman rho -.123). Significant numbers of students reported low self-competence in performing procedures such as endotracheal intubation, gastric lavage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation which most never performed during the clinical years of medical education. In addition, the negative correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured competence demonstrated the inability of students to assess and rate themselves objectively due to fear that others may know their weaknesses and realize that they are not as competent as expected at a specific level of training.

  11. A Correlational Study of Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Learning Activity Preference for Continuing Medical Education among Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Theresa J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, nonexperimental, correlational study sought to determine whether a relationship exists between family physicians' levels of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and their preferences for continuing medical education (CME) activities. The study also sought to determine whether years in clinical practice or size of clinical…

  12. Non-doctor consultations and self-medication practices in patients seen at a tertiary dental center in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Adeyinka Adedapo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Self-medication practices were quite high in this study, and these practices were also prevalent among the educated people. Drug control enforcement needs to be intensified and dental public health education needs to be given greater priority in the overall public health campaigns.

  13. Can Individualized Learning Plans in an advanced clinical experience course for fourth year medical students foster Self-Directed Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitkara, Maribeth B; Satnick, Daniel; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Fleit, Howard; Go, Roderick A; Chandran, Latha

    2016-09-01

    Residency programs have utilized Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to customize resident education while undergraduate medical education has not done so in a meaningful way. We discuss the use of ILPs within a fourth year medical school course to facilitate self-directed learning (SDL). At Stony Brook University School of Medicine, an ILP component was added to the Advanced Clinical Experience (ACE) course for fourth year students. Each completed an ILP outlining personal learning goals and strategies to achieve them. An adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Duncan T and McKeachie W, Educ Psych 40(2):117-128, 2005 and Cook DA et al., Med Ed 45:1230-1240, 2011) was used to measure success of ILPs in improving SDL. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on the ILPs and self-reflections. Forty-eight students participated. Two of the four SDL sub-domains identified on the MSLQ showed improvement; self-efficacy (p = .001) and self-regulation (p = .002). 'Medical Knowledge' was the competency most frequently identified as an area of concentration (90 %) and professionalism was selected least frequently (4 %). A higher percentage (83 %) of students who reported complete achievement of their ILP goals also reported feeling better prepared for entering residency. ILPs improve SDL strategies among medical students and may serve as useful tools to help shape future learning goals as they transition to residency training.

  14. Poor medication adherence to bisphosphonates and high self-perception of aging in elderly female patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Wei, D; Sun, B; Wu, X N

    2016-10-01

    Non-adherence to bisphosphonates exposes the elderly female osteoporosis patients to an increased risk of fracture. This was one of the first studies to explore the relationship between medication adherence and self-perception of aging. Feelings of lacking control and expectations for negative events, beliefs of illness's chronic duration nature, and its linkage with aging were associated with of poor medication adherence. To examine the relationship between medication adherence to bisphosphonates and self-perception of aging in elderly female patients with osteoporosis. This was a cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample of 245 elderly female patients with osteoporosis prescribed regular oral bisphosphonate therapy was recruited from three tertiary hospitals in China. Sociodemographic and osteoporosis-related data, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) and Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) data were collected. Mean adherence score measured by MMAS-8 was 4.46(SD = 1.91; range, 0.25-7.00). Percentages of good and poor adherence were 28.6 and 71.4 %, which showed a poor medication adherence. Six domains of APQ statistically significantly associated with medication adherence. Interestingly, with control of age, educational status, marital status, and symptoms accompanying osteoporosis as covariates in the multivariate linear regression model, the effects of three domains disappeared. Significantly, worse adherence was observed in those patients who had higher feelings of lack of control, more expectations for negative events, more beliefs of osteoporosis's chronic duration nature and its linkage with aging. We conclude that feelings of lacking control, expectations for negative events, beliefs of illness's chronic duration nature, and its linkage with aging were associated with poor medication adherence in elderly female patients with osteoporosis. Concerns about self-perception of aging need to be addressed in order to improve medication adherence.

  15. Visualizing the topical structure of the medical sciences: a self-organizing map approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Skupin

    Full Text Available We implement a high-resolution visualization of the medical knowledge domain using the self-organizing map (SOM method, based on a corpus of over two million publications. While self-organizing maps have been used for document visualization for some time, (1 little is known about how to deal with truly large document collections in conjunction with a large number of SOM neurons, (2 post-training geometric and semiotic transformations of the SOM tend to be limited, and (3 no user studies have been conducted with domain experts to validate the utility and readability of the resulting visualizations. Our study makes key contributions to all of these issues.Documents extracted from Medline and Scopus are analyzed on the basis of indexer-assigned MeSH terms. Initial dimensionality is reduced to include only the top 10% most frequent terms and the resulting document vectors are then used to train a large SOM consisting of over 75,000 neurons. The resulting two-dimensional model of the high-dimensional input space is then transformed into a large-format map by using geographic information system (GIS techniques and cartographic design principles. This map is then annotated and evaluated by ten experts stemming from the biomedical and other domains.Study results demonstrate that it is possible to transform a very large document corpus into a map that is visually engaging and conceptually stimulating to subject experts from both inside and outside of the particular knowledge domain. The challenges of dealing with a truly large corpus come to the fore and require embracing parallelization and use of supercomputing resources to solve otherwise intractable computational tasks. Among the envisaged future efforts are the creation of a highly interactive interface and the elaboration of the notion of this map of medicine acting as a base map, onto which other knowledge artifacts could be overlaid.

  16. Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, Erik

    2018-06-01

    To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  17. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2007-01-01

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married

  18. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  19. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for self-reported fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Sarah; Bianchi, William; Quinn, Thomas A; Best, Mark; Fotopoulos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    During medical education, many students experience psychological distress, including symptoms such as fatigue, stress, and depression. To evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on self-perceived fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students. This randomized controlled pilot study with repeated measures was conducted at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine-Bradenton in Florida during the fall 2012 semester. First-year osteopathic medical students voluntarily enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to directed OMT (D-OMT), nondirected OMT (ND-OMT), or control groups. The D-OMT and ND-OMT groups received treatment by osteopathic physicians weekly for 4 weeks. The control group received no treatment. All groups completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Self-Perceived Stress Scale (SPSS), and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) depression scale before treatment (pretest), after 2 treatments (midtest), and after 4 treatments (posttest). All participants self-reported as white and single, with both sexes equally represented, and had an mean age of 24 years. Analysis of ESS scores revealed a statistically significant decrease in the D-OMT group from pretest and posttest scores and a statistically significant increase in the ND-OMT group from pretest to midtest but not from pretest to posttest scores. No statistically significant differences were noted in the control group scores on this measure. No statistically significant differences were seen in the SPSS or PHQ-9 scores from pretest to midtest or pretest to posttest in any of the 3 groups. The D-OMT regimen used in the current study produced a statistically significant decrease in self-perceived fatigue in first-year osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic manipulative treatment represents a potential modality to reduce self-perceived distress in medical students. Further research is

  20. The Impact of Media Literacy Intervention on the Students\\' Attitudes about Self-Medication of Slimming Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Solhi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Self-medication of slimming supplements has increased. Media advertising is involved in this field. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of media literacy educational intervention in the students' attitudes about self-medication of slimming supplements among the female dormitories in University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study of controlled type, 98 students were selected by multistage cluster sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of 49 tests and 49 control. The data collecting instruments were the researcher-made questionnaire about media literacy and attitude on self-medication of slimming pills, BICI questionnaire of body image, and SEI Cooper Smith's questionnaire of self-esteem. Based on the results obtained from the questionnaires early completion, an appropriate educational intervention was designed and carried out. One and three months after the intervention, data was gathered and analyzed in (16 SPSS software using descriptive and analytical tests. Results: Before the intervention, the mean scores of attitude, body image, self-esteem, and dimensions of media literacy in both groups were moderate, and there was no significant difference between them. Also, positive correlations were observed in the experiment group between attitude and knowledge (r = 0.99, p = 0.001, critical thinking (r = 0.61, p = 0.001 and analysis (r=0.37, p=0.009. One and three months after the intervention, the mean scores of  body image, self-esteem, and dimensions of media literacy were  observed significant in  both groups (p <0.05. Conclusion: Media literacy education was effective in promoting the attitude about slimming supplements. Paper Type: Research Article.

  1. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  2. Investigating the relationship between intelligence quotient and self-regulation in students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ghiasi Nadooshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the importance of IQ and self-monitoring in human behavior and its effects on the individual's life, this study examines the relationship between IQ and self-regulation in students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. The population included all the students studying at Birjand University of Medical Sciences (n=2300. According to Cochran’s Formula, the sample was calculated as 171 persons who were selected by random sampling method. To assess IQ, R B Cattell’s standard test 3rd scale, while Snyder’s 25-item standard test was used to assess self-regulation. The validity of self-regulatory questionnaire was approved by experts. Its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha as 85%. For data analysis, Pearson correlation test, ANOVA and independent T-test were used at a significance level p≤0.05. Results: From among the 171 participants, n=91 (53.2% were women. The average age of study participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ score and scores of self-regulation were 106±10.44 and 12.35±3.20 respectively. IQ scores did not show significant correlation with self-regulation test results (P>0.641. Girls were of a significantly higher mean IQ score (P=0.04. Self-regulatory mean score of men was significantly higher than women (P=0.007. Conclusion: Teaching and learning self-regulatory approach can enhance self-confidence of students during externship, internship and theoretical classes, hence improved academic performance.

  3. Medical-surgical nurses' perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities as first responders in acute patient deterioration events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patricia L; Spiva, LeeAnna; Baio, Pamela; Huff, Barbara; Whitfield, Denice; Law, Tammy; Wells, Tiffany; Mendoza, Inocenica G

    2014-10-01

    To explore and understand medical-surgical nurses' perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities as first responders in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration prior to the arrival of an emergency response team. Patients are admitted to hospitals with multiple, complex health issues who are more likely to experience clinical deterioration. The majority of clinical deterioration events occur on medical-surgical units, and medical-surgical nurses are frequently the first healthcare professionals to identify signs and symptoms of clinical deterioration and initiate life-saving interventions. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative design using a survey method was used. Nurses were recruited from an integrated healthcare system located in the south-east United States. Nurses completed a demographic, a self-confidence and a leadership ability questionnaire. One hundred and forty-eight nurses participated in the study. Nurses felt moderately self-confident in recognising, assessing and intervening during clinical deterioration events. In addition, nurses felt moderately comfortable performing leadership skills prior to the arrival of an emergency response team. A significant, positive relationship was found between perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities. Age and certification status were significant predictors of nurses' leadership ability. Although nurses felt moderately self-confident and comfortable with executing leadership abilities, improvement is needed to ensure nurses are competent in recognising patients' deterioration cues and making sound decisions in taking appropriate, timely actions to rescue patients. Further strategies need to be developed to increase nurses' self-confidence and execution of leadership abilities in handling deterioration events for positive patient outcomes. Educational provisions should focus on various clinical deterioration events to build nurses' self-confidence and leadership abilities

  4. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (ptesticular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention ptesticular cancer in the curricula of medical schools and other training institutions for health care personnel. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases: a comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa de-Castro

    Full Text Available Background: Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Methods: Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores < 6 or MPR < 0.8. Results: Two-hundred and three patients were enrolled (60% ulcerative colitis, 40% Crohn's disease; 51% were men, and the mean age was 46.3 (14 years. Seventy-four per cent of patients were on monotherapy and 26% on combination therapy; altogether, 65% received mesalazine, 46% thiopurines and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa. Non-adherence rate assessed by MPR was 37% and 22.4% by MMAS-8. Receiver operator curve analysis using a MMAS-8 cut-off of six gave an area under the curve of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.001. This score had an 85% sensitivity and 34% specificity to predict medication non-adherence, with negative and positive predictive values of 57% and 70% respectively. High scores in the BMQ potential for harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01. Conclusion: The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  6. Self-medication with antibiotics: A knowledge, attitude, and practice appraisal of 610 dental patients in Chennai, India, from 2016 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohamed Shamsudeen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the patients about self-medication in the Indian scenario. There is need for health-care professionals and government bodies to enlighten the public about the harmful effects of self-medication with antibiotics to overcome the antibiotic resistance.

  7. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  8. Men with pelvic pain: perceived helpfulness of medical and self-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A; Ciol, Marcia A; Von Korff, Michael; Liu, Yung-Wen; Berger, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To assess the frequency of use of different treatments and pain management strategies and their perceived helpfulness in male patients with pelvic pain. Approximately 1 month after a health maintenance organization visit for pelvic pain, 286 men (mean age 46.7 years) completed telephone interviews about their symptoms and treatments and pain management strategies used in the past year. Participants rated the helpfulness of each treatment and strategy used on 0 to 10 scales. Even though men with identified bacterial etiology were excluded from the study, antibiotic medication was the most commonly reported treatment (67% of patients) and rated as the second most helpful treatment [mean (SD)=6.3 (3.6)]. Opiates were rated as the most helpful treatment on average [mean (SD)=7.9 (2.1)], but were used by only 12% of patients. Substantial minorities of patients reported several behaviors as helpful, including urinating (reported as helpful by 26%), taking warm baths (23%), and drinking water (23%), although patterns of effects differed for men with versus without urinary symptoms. Activities most commonly reported as worsening symptoms were sitting (42%), walking/jogging (27%), and sexual activity (25%). Patients with male pelvic pain syndrome are commonly prescribed antibiotics, which they perceive as moderately helpful, despite the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy. Clinicians may find it useful to support patient use of safe, inexpensive, self-management approaches, especially warm baths, increased water intake, and avoidance of prolonged sitting.

  9. [Intelligent operating room suite : From passive medical devices to the self-thinking cognitive surgical assistant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Preukschas, A A; Müller-Stich, B P

    2016-12-01

    Modern operating room (OR) suites are mostly digitally connected but until now the primary focus was on the presentation, transfer and distribution of images. Device information and processes within the operating theaters are barely considered. Cognitive assistance systems have triggered a fundamental rethinking in the automotive industry as well as in logistics. In principle, tasks in the OR, some of which are highly repetitive, also have great potential to be supported by automated cognitive assistance via a self-thinking system. This includes the coordination of the entire workflow in the perioperative process in both the operating theater and the whole hospital. With corresponding data from hospital information systems, medical devices and appropriate models of the surgical process, intelligent systems could optimize the workflow in the operating theater in the near future and support the surgeon. Preliminary results on the use of device information and automatically controlled OR suites are already available. Such systems include, for example the guidance of laparoscopic camera systems. Nevertheless, cognitive assistance systems that make use of knowledge about patients, processes and other pieces of information to improve surgical treatment are not yet available in the clinical routine but are urgently needed in order to automatically assist the surgeon in situation-related activities and thus substantially improve patient care.

  10. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

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    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  11. Residents' Ratings of Their Clinical Supervision and Their Self-Reported Medical Errors: Analysis of Data From 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, DeWitt C; Daugherty, Steven R; Ryan, Patrick M; Yaghmour, Nicholas A; Philibert, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors and patient safety are major concerns for the medical and medical education communities. Improving clinical supervision for residents is important in avoiding errors, yet little is known about how residents perceive the adequacy of their supervision and how this relates to medical errors and other education outcomes, such as learning and satisfaction. We analyzed data from a 2009 survey of residents in 4 large specialties regarding the adequacy and quality of supervision they receive as well as associations with self-reported data on medical errors and residents' perceptions of their learning environment. Residents' reports of working without adequate supervision were lower than data from a 1999 survey for all 4 specialties, and residents were least likely to rate "lack of supervision" as a problem. While few residents reported that they received inadequate supervision, problems with supervision were negatively correlated with sufficient time for clinical activities, overall ratings of the residency experience, and attending physicians as a source of learning. Problems with supervision were positively correlated with resident reports that they had made a significant medical error, had been belittled or humiliated, or had observed others falsifying medical records. Although working without supervision was not a pervasive problem in 2009, when it happened, it appeared to have negative consequences. The association between inadequate supervision and medical errors is of particular concern.

  12. Increasing diabetic patient engagement and self-reported medication adherence using a web-based multimedia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabrout, Kerri

    2018-05-01

    Evidence-based, multimedia applications to supplement clinical care can improve patient engagement and clinical outcomes. Patients with diabetes with potentially devastating complication of foot ulcers present a substantial opportunity to improve engagement. This project examines how providing an online, multimedia self-management program affects patient engagement and self-reported medication adherence scores within 4-6 weeks compared with preprogram scores. Participants included 14 adult, diabetic outpatients receiving care at a Wound Care Center in suburban New York. Participants watched a Type 2 diabetes Emmi educational module on an electronic tablet during a routine wound treatment visit. Self-reported medication adherence was measured immediately before and at 4-6 weeks after the educational intervention. Patient engagement was measured immediately before, immediately after, and at 4-6 weeks postintervention. Self-reported medication adherence results demonstrated a modest increase at the delayed postintervention time. In addition, there was a large increase in engagement scores at the delayed postintervention time. The direction of change for both measures was consistent with the intervention being effective. Incorporating this type of novel, multimedia patient education resource may provide opportunities to enhance diabetes care.

  13. A case report of over-the-counter codeine dependence as consequence of self-medication for premature ejaculation

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    Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam Anil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-counter (OTC opioid abuse, including codeine, has been a growing problem around the world. Although the majority of the abusers use it for recreational purposes, many become dependent on it after having used it a medication for pain or cough. We present a case of codeine dependence where the initial prescribed use had been as a cough medication, but the subsequent abuse of it occurred the following self-medication for premature ejaculation. There is growing need for awareness among doctors and pharmacists of OTC abuse of opioids and for preventive interventions such as restricting supply, audit of pharmacies, training pharmacists, and counter staff and dispensing knowledge about proper use of opioid-containing medications to patients.

  14. Health behaviors, care needs and attitudes towards self-prescription: a cross-sectional survey among Dutch medical students.

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    Tjeerd Van der Veer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is a growing awareness of the potent ways in which the wellbeing of physicians impacts the health of their patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health behaviors, care needs and attitudes towards self-prescription of Dutch medical students, and any differences between junior preclinical and senior clinically active students. METHODS: All students (n = 2695 of a major Dutch medical school were invited for an online survey. Physical activity, eating habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, Body Mass Index, substance use and amount of sleep per night were inquired, as well as their need for different forms of care and their attitude towards self-prescription. RESULTS: Data of 902 students were used. Physical activity levels (90% sufficient and smoking prevalence (94% non-smokers were satisfying. Healthy eating habits (51% insufficient and alcohol consumption (46% excessive were worrying. Body Mass Indexes were acceptable (20% unhealthy. We found no significant differences in health behaviors between preclinical and clinically active students. Care needs were significantly lower among clinically active students. (p<0.05 Student acceptance of self-prescription was significantly higher among clinically active students. (p<0.001 CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy behaviors are prevalent among medical students, but are no more prevalent during the clinical study phase. The need for specific forms of care appears lower with study progression. This could be worrying as the acceptance of self-care and self-prescription is higher among senior clinical students. Medical faculties need to address students' unhealthy behaviors and meet their care needs for the benefit of both the future physicians as well as their patients.

  15. Living well: an intervention to improve self-management of medical illness for individuals with serious mental illness.

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    Goldberg, Richard W; Dickerson, Faith; Lucksted, Alicia; Brown, Clayton H; Weber, Elyssa; Tenhula, Wendy N; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale in patients with stroke

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    Dong XF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-fang Dong,1 Yan-jin Liu,2 Ai-xia Wang,1 Pei-hua Lv1 1Neurology Department, 2Nursing Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: It has been reported that stroke has a higher incidence and mortality rate in the People’s Republic of China compared to the global average. These conditions can be managed by proper medication use, but ensuring medication adherence is challenging.Objective: To translate the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale into Chinese and test its validity and reliability in patients with stroke.Methods: Instrument performances were measured from January 15, 2015 to April 28, 2015 on a convenience sample of 400 patients with stroke recruited at four neurology departments of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Questionnaires included the Chinese versions of the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (C-SEAMS and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (C-GSE. Construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability were measured.Results: Item analysis showed that item-to-total correlations were in the range of 0.362–0.672. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors (which accounted for 60.862% of total variance, with factor loading ranging from 0.534 to 0.756. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to support the results, with an acceptable fit (χ2=73.716; df=64; P<0.01; goodness-of-fit index =0.902; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.897; comparative fit index =0.865; root-mean-square error of approximation =0.058. The convergent validity of the C-SEAMS correlated well with the validated measure of the C-GSE in measuring self-efficacy (r=0.531, P<0.01. Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.826 to 0.915 and test–retest reliability (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r=0.642, P<0.01 were found.Conclusion: The C-SEAMS is a brief and

  17. The influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on self-efficacy of medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2016-06-02

    Conditions of a healthy, friendly and safe work environment and proper work organisation increase self-efficacy and decrease or eliminate the factors causing the occurrence of burnout symptoms, all of which have a decisive impact on increasing the quality of work. The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on the self-efficacy of medical staff. The study comprised randomly selected professionally-active nurses working on hospital wards (N=405) on the area of two provinces in Poland. The study used the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire concerning the factors that influence the process of work organisation at nursing positions in hospitals. Lower scores for self-efficacy resulted in a worse assessment of development opportunities and promotion prospects (r=-0.11), participation in the decision-making process (r=-0.11) and teamwork (r=-0.10). Lower self-efficacy contributed to the occurrence of burnout symptoms r∈[-0.19 - -0.17]. Properly shaped and used organisational factors are stimulating for professional efficiency and effectiveness, and consequently, for the quality of nursing work. Negative assessment of the factors in the work environment contributes to the occurrence of burnout symptoms and decrease in self-efficacy. Nurses with lower self-efficacy more often experienced symptoms of burnout.

  18. Self-assessment of intercultural communication skills: a survey of physicians and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Patricia; Perron, Noelle Junod; Perneger, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students), those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.

  19. The impact of self-concept and college involvement on the first-year success of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-03-01

    Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.

  20. Self-assessment of intercultural communication skills: a survey of physicians and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland

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    Perneger Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. Methods As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Results Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students, those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Conclusion Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.

  1. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S.; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J. Craig; Brion, John M.; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients’ quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client’s choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients’ engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR −7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = −5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = −3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL. PMID:24575329

  2. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Ahmed, Javed; Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Sonekhi, Gomand Beekho; Fayyaz, Nargis; Zainulabdin, Zeeshan; Jindani, Rahim

    2016-02-01

    Self-medication practice among nursing students is of growing concern. Access to drugs and handling them in their future practices make nursing students susceptible to self-prescription and self-medication. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. A random sample of convenience of 160 nursing students underwent a predesigned questionnaire. More than half of nursing students 79 (52.7%) experienced self-medication with antibiotics. It was more prevalent among males 49 (62%) . Knowledge about the drug 59 (74.7%) and convenience 13 (16.5%) were the key reasons to self-medicate. Fever 37 (46.8%) and sore throat 27 (34.2%) were the common symptoms predisposing to self-medication. Beta-lactam group of antibiotics 35 (44.3%) was most frequent used. Only 26 (32.9%) respondents completed the entire antibiotic course. Efforts must be directed towards educating nursing students about responsible and informed self-medication practices.

  3. mHealth medication and blood pressure self-management program in Hispanic hypertensives: a proof of concept trial

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    Sieverdes JC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available John C Sieverdes,1 Mathew Gregoski,1 Sachin Patel,1 Deborah Williamson,1 Brenda Brunner-Jackson,1 Judith Rundbaken,1 Eveline Treiber,1 Lydia Davidson,1 Frank A Treiber1,21Technology Applications Center for Healthful Lifestyles, College of Nursing, 2College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Patient nonadherence to medication regimens and provider therapeutic inertia (failure to respond in timely manner to clinical data are two primary contributors to ineffective chronic disease management. This 3-month proof of concept trial used an iterative design approach guided by self-determination theory and the technology acceptance model to develop a culturally sensitive, patient-centered, and provider-centered mobile health medication and blood pressure self-management program. Cellular connected electronic medication trays provided reminder signals for patients to take medications and smartphone messaging reminded patients to take at-home blood pressures using a Bluetooth-enabled monitor. Providers were given bimonthly feedback. Motivational and reinforcement text and audio messages were sent based upon medication adherence rates and blood pressure levels. Ten Hispanics with uncontrolled essential hypertension were randomized to standard care and Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH intervention groups. Primary outcomes of provider and patient acceptability of the program were found to be high. Retention rates for the 3-month program were 100%, with mean ± standard deviation overall medication adherence for the SMASH group at 97.2% ± 2.8%, with all strongly believing the program helped them remember to take their medication. SMASH participants measured their blood pressure every 3 days 83.2% ± 6.0% of the time and completed 89.2% ± 19.06% of the expected readings. Nonparametric tests showed statistical significance for resting blood pressure changes between groups at months 2 (P = 0

  4. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilbur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur1, Samah El Salam1, Ebrahim Mohammadi21Qatar University College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar; 2Qatar Petroleum Medical Services, Doha, QatarBackground: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use.Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient perceptions of pharmacists and use of nonprescription therapy in an ambulatory care population in Qatar. Methods: Patients having prescriptions filled at one organization’s private medical clinics during two distinct two-week periods were invited to participate in a short verbal questionnaire. Awareness of pharmacist roles in guiding OTC drug selection was assessed, as were patient preferences for OTC indications. Attitudes towards pharmacist and nurse drug knowledge and comfort with direct dispensing were also evaluated.Results: Five hundred seventy patients participated representing 29 countries. Most respondents were men (92.1% with mean age of 38.3 years. Almost 1 in 7 did not know medical complaints could be assessed by a pharmacist (15.3% and 1 in 5 (21.9% were unaware pharmacists could directly supply OTC therapy. The majority (85.3% would be interested in this service. In general, respondents were more comfortable with medication and related advice supplied by pharmacists as opposed to nursing professionals.Conclusion: Patients were familiar with the roles of pharmacists as they pertain to selfmedication with OTC therapy and described the desire to use such a service within this Qatar ambulatory health care setting.Keywords: patient, self-medication, over-the-counter, pharmacist, Qatar

  5. [The Results of Self-Assessment by Medical Organizations Their Correspondence to Proposals (Practical Recommendations) of the Roszdravnadzor Concerning Organization of Internal Control of Quality and Safety of Medical Activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I V; Shvabsky, O R; Minulin, I B

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of internal audits (self-rating) in medical organizations implemented on the basis of Proposals (practical guidelines) of the Roszdravnadzor concerning organization of inner control of quality and safety of medical activities in medical organization (hospital). The self-rating was implemented by the medical organizations themselves according the common criteria of the Proposals as provided the following plan: planning of self-rating, collection and processing of data, application of self-rating, analysis of obtained results, preparation of report. The article uses the results of self-rating of medical organizations corresponding to following criteria: profile of activity-multi-field hospital-number of beds more than 350-state property. The self-rating was implemented according to 11 basic parts of the Proposals. The criteria were developed for every part. The evaluation lists developed on the basis of the given Proposals permitted to medical organizations to independently establish problems in their activities. Within the framework of implemented self-rating medical organizations mentioned the directions of activity related to personnel management, identification of personality of patient, support of epidemiological and surgical safety as having significant discrepancies with the Proposals and requiring implementation of improvement measures.

  6. Self-reported patient safety competence among Canadian medical students and postgraduate trainees: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Ginsburg, Liane; Goldstein, David H

    2015-02-01

    Quality and patient safety (PS) are critical components of medical education. This study reports on the self-reported PS competence of medical students and postgraduate trainees. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered to medical students and postgraduate trainees in January 2012. PS dimension scores were compared across learning settings (classroom and clinical) and year in programme. Sixty-three percent (255/406) of medical students and 32% (141/436) of postgraduate trainees responded. In general, both groups were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills (eg, hand hygiene) and least confident in learning about sociocultural aspects of safety (eg, understanding human factors). Medical students' confidence in most aspects of safety improved with years of training. For some of the more intangible dimensions (teamwork and culture), medical students in their final year had lower scores than students in earlier years. Thirty-eight percent of medical students felt they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, and the majority of medical students (85%) and postgraduate trainees (78%) agreed it was difficult to question authority. Our results suggest the need to improve the overall content, structure and integration of PS concepts in both classroom and clinical learning environments. Decreased confidence in sociocultural aspects of PS among medical students in the final year of training may indicate that culture in clinical settings negatively affects students' perceived PS competence. Alternatively, as medical students spend more time in the clinical setting, they may develop a clearer sense of what they do not know. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Assessing student engagement and self-regulated learning in a medical gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, Marc A; Axelson, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    In courses with large enrollment, faculty members sometimes struggle with an understanding of how individual students are engaging in their courses. Information about the level of student engagement that instructors would likely find most useful can be linked to: (1) the learning strategies that students are using; (2) the barriers to learning that students are encountering; and (3) whether the course materials and activities are yielding the intended learning outcomes. This study drew upon self-regulated learning theory (SRL) to specify relevant information about learning engagement, and how the measures of particular scales might prove useful for student/faculty reflection. We tested the quality of such information as collected via the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). MSLQ items were administered through a web-based survey to 150 students in a first-year medical gross anatomy course. The resulting 66 responses (44% response rate) were examined for information quality (internal reliability and predictive validity) and usefulness of the results to the course instructor. Students' final grades in the course were correlated with their MSLQ scale scores to assess the predictive validity of the measures. These results were consistent with the course design and expectations, showing that greater use of learning strategies such as elaboration and critical thinking was associated with higher levels of performance in the course. Motivation subscales for learning were also correlated with the higher levels of performance in the course. The extent to which these scales capture valid and reliable information in other institutional settings and courses needs further investigation. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Family member accompaniment to routine medical visits is associated with better self-care in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cené, Crystal W; Haymore, Laura Beth; Lin, Feng-Chang; Laux, Jeffrey; Jones, Christine Delong; Wu, Jia-Rong; DeWalt, Darren; Pignone, Mike; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between frequency of family member accompaniment to medical visits and heart failure (HF) self-care maintenance and management and to determine whether associations are mediated through satisfaction with provider communication. Cross-sectional survey of 150 HF patients seen in outpatient clinics. HF self-care maintenance and management were assessed using the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index. Satisfaction with provider communication was assessed using a single question originally included in the American Board of Internal Medicine Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. Frequency of family member accompaniment to visits was assessed using a single-item question. We performed regression analyses to examine associations between frequency of accompaniment and outcomes. Mediation analysis was conducted using MacKinnon's criteria. Overall, 61% reported accompaniment by family members to some/most/every visit. Accompaniment to some/most/every visit was associated with higher self-care maintenance (β = 6.4, SE 2.5; p = 0.01) and management (β = 12.7, SE 4.9; p = 0.01) scores. Satisfaction with provider communication may mediate the association between greater frequency of accompaniment to visits and self-care maintenance (1.092; p = 0.06) and self-care management (1.428; p = 0.13). Accompaniment to medical visits is associated with better HF self-care maintenance and management, and this effect may be mediated through satisfaction with provider communication. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Comparison of the medical students' perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Holst, René; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2013-04-08

    The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians' self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment. The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students' perceived self-efficacy of specific communication skills corresponds to the evaluation of simulated patients and observers. All of the medical students who signed up for an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were included. As a part of the OSCE, the student performance in the "parent-physician interaction" was evaluated by a simulated patient and an observer at one of the stations. After the examination the students were asked to assess their self-efficacy according to the same specific communication skills. The Calgary Cambridge Observation Guide formed the basis for the outcome measures used in the questionnaires. A total of 12 items was rated on a Likert scale from 1-5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree). We used extended Rasch models for comparisons between the groups of responses of the questionnaires. Comparisons of groups were conducted on dichotomized responses. Eighty-four students participated in the examination, 87% (73/84) of whom responded to the questionnaire. The response rate for the simulated patients and the observers was 100%. Significantly more items were scored in the highest categories (4 and 5) by the observers and simulated patients compared to the students (observers versus students: -0.23; SE:0.112; p=0.002 and patients versus students:0.177; SE:0.109; p=0.037). When analysing the items individually, a statistically significant difference only existed for two items. This study showed that students scored their communication skills lower compared to observers or simulated patients. The differences were driven by only 2 of 12 items. The results in this study indicate that self-efficacy based on the Calgary Cambridge Observation guide seems to be a reliable

  10. Self Medication of Abortion Pill: Women’s Health in Jeopardy

    OpenAIRE

    Rajal Thaker; Kuti Deliwala; Parul Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI) recommends close monitoring of distribution of drugs that are used for medical abortion and that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industry should exercise due diligence in the promotion and usage of drugs that are used for medical abortion. Despite this, it has been perceived by the society that, medical abortions are extremely safe option even in hands of untrained personnel...

  11. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  12. Medication self-management skills and cognitive impairment in older adults hospitalized for heart failure: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Erik H; Senapati, Alpana; Hsich, Eileen; Gorodeski, Eiran Z

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among older adults (aged ≥65 years) hospitalized for heart failure and has been associated with poor outcomes. Poor medication self-management skills have been associated with poor outcomes in this population as well. The presence and extent of an association between cognitive impairment and poor medication self-management skills in this population has not been clearly defined. We assessed the cognition of consecutive older adults hospitalized for heart failure, in relation to their medication self-management skills. We conducted a cross-sectional study of older adults (aged ≥65 years) who were hospitalized for heart failure and were being discharged home. Prior to discharge, we assessed cognition using the Mini-Cog. We also tested patients' ability to read a pill bottle label, open a pill bottle safety cap, and allocate mock pills to a pill box. Pill allocation performance was assessed quantitatively (counts of errors of omission and commission) and qualitatively (patterns suggestive of knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, or skill-based slips). Of 55 participants, 22% were found to have cognitive impairment. Patients with cognitive impairment tended to be older as compared to those without cognitive impairment (mean age = 81 vs 76 years, p = NS). Patients with cognitive impairment had a higher prevalence of inability to read pill bottle label (prevalence ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval = 3.2-10.5, p = 0.001) and inability to open pill bottle safety cap (prevalence ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-8.4, p = 0.03). While most patients (65%) had pill-allocation errors regardless of cognition, those patients with cognitive impairment tended to have more errors of omission (mean number of errors = 48 vs 23, p = 0.006), as well as more knowledge-based mistakes (75% vs 40%, p = 0.03). There is an association between cognitive impairment and poor

  13. Medication self-management skills and cognitive impairment in older adults hospitalized for heart failure: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H Howell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among older adults (aged ≥65 years hospitalized for heart failure and has been associated with poor outcomes. Poor medication self-management skills have been associated with poor outcomes in this population as well. The presence and extent of an association between cognitive impairment and poor medication self-management skills in this population has not been clearly defined. Objective: We assessed the cognition of consecutive older adults hospitalized for heart failure, in relation to their medication self-management skills. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of older adults (aged ≥65 years who were hospitalized for heart failure and were being discharged home. Prior to discharge, we assessed cognition using the Mini-Cog. We also tested patients’ ability to read a pill bottle label, open a pill bottle safety cap, and allocate mock pills to a pill box. Pill allocation performance was assessed quantitatively (counts of errors of omission and commission and qualitatively (patterns suggestive of knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, or skill-based slips. Results: Of 55 participants, 22% were found to have cognitive impairment. Patients with cognitive impairment tended to be older as compared to those without cognitive impairment (mean age = 81 vs 76 years, p = NS. Patients with cognitive impairment had a higher prevalence of inability to read pill bottle label (prevalence ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval = 3.2–10.5, p = 0.001 and inability to open pill bottle safety cap (prevalence ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–8.4, p = 0.03. While most patients (65% had pill-allocation errors regardless of cognition, those patients with cognitive impairment tended to have more errors of omission (mean number of errors = 48 vs 23, p = 0.006, as well as more knowledge-based mistakes (75% vs 40%, p = 0.03. Conclusion

  14. PECULIARITIES OF MOTIVATION AND SELF-ATTITUDE DURING THE CHOICE OF SPECIALIZATION IN A MEDICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Malyutina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal backgrounds of the choice of specialization by graduates of a medical high school are studied in this article. The hypothesis is checked that the strategies of testees in the situation of the choice of specialization are determined by the peculiarities of self-attitude and motivation. Depending on the specifity of perception of the situation of specialization 4 groups of testees are distinguished and described. They have different types of an individual strategy: functionally efficient, optimal, investigative and troublous.

  15. Self-management of chronic illness: the role of 'habit' versus reflective factors in exercise and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Cohen, Joshua; Burns, Edith; Abrams, Jessica; Renninger, Steffi

    2016-12-01

    Non-adherence to health behaviors required for chronic illness self-management is pervasive. Advancing health-behavior theory to include behavioral initiation and maintenance factors, including reflective (e.g., belief- and feedback-based) and automatic (e.g., habit-based) mechanisms of adherence to different treatment-related behaviors could improve non-adherence prediction and intervention efforts. To test behavioral initiation and maintenance factors from an extended common sense self-regulation theoretical framework for predicting medication adherence and physical activity among patients with Type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 133) in an in-person (n = 80) or online (n = 53) version of the study reported treatment-related (1) barriers, (2) beliefs and experiential feedback (reflective mechanisms of treatment-initiation and short-term repetition), and (3) habit strength (automatic mechanism of treatment-maintenance) for taking medication and engaging in regular physical activity at baseline. Behaviors were assessed via self-reports (n = 133) and objectively (electronic monitoring pill bottles, accelerometers; n = 80) in the subsequent month. Treatment-specific barriers and habit strength predicted self-reported and objective adherence for both behaviors. Beliefs were inconsistently related to behavior, even when habits were "weak". Experiential feedback from behavior was not related to adherence. Among patients with Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, medication and physical activity adherence were better predicted by their degree of automatic behavioral repetition than their beliefs/experiences with the treatment-actions. Habit strength should be an intervention target for chronic illness self-management; assessing it in practice settings may effectively detect non-adherence to existing treatment-regimens. However, future research and further refining of CS-SRM theory regarding the processes required for such habit development are needed.

  16. Impact of Article Language in Multi-Language Medical Journals - a Bibliometric Analysis of Self-Citations and Impact Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of globalization there is an increasing use of English in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of English-language articles in multi-language medical journals on their international recognition – as measured by a lower rate of self-citations and higher impact factor (IF). Methods and Findings We analyzed publications in multi-language journals in 2008 and 2009 using the Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Reuters (former Institute of Scientific Information) and PubMed as sources of information. The proportion of English-language articles during the period was compared with both the share of self-citations in the year 2010 and the IF with and without self-citations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to analyze these factors as well as the influence of the journals‘ countries of origin and of the other language(s) used in publications besides English. We identified 168 multi-language journals that were listed in WoS as well as in PubMed and met our criteria. We found a significant positive correlation of the share of English articles in 2008 and 2009 with the IF calculated without self-citations (Pearson r=0.56, p = journal‘s country of origin – North American journals had a higher IF compared to Middle and South American or European journals. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a larger share of English articles in multi-language medical journals is associated with greater international recognition. Fewer self-citations were found in multi-language journals with a greater share of original articles in English. PMID:24146929

  17. Improvements in self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication following a course in peer-supervision and communication for medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit; O Connor, Maja; Kjær, Louise Binow

    and Department of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Center for Medical Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.; belas@clu.au.dk Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of a training course in peer-supervision and communication with the aim of improving medical...... student self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication and examine the influence of course-related motivation to learn, course-related self-efficacy, and medical student well-being at baseline. Methods: A total of 127 graduate school medical students in clinical clerkship who participated...... in a course in peer-supervision and communication completed a pre-course questionnaire package including: 1) The Patient-Centeredness Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PCSEQ), 2) Course-Related Motivation to Learn (CRML), 3) Course-Related Self-Efficacy (CRSE), and 4) the Medical Student Well-Being Index (MSWBI...

  18. Using peer mentoring for people with spinal cord injury to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and prevent medical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Inger; Kroll, Thilo; Libin, Alexander; Gordon, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury/disease are faced with a myriad of psychosocial adjustment challenges. This article describes the implementation of a peer-mentoring programme designed to support this adjustment process for people with SCI/disease and the programme's believed impact on self-efficacy and prevention of medical complications. With shorter length of stay in acute inpatient rehabilitation after spinal cord injury/disease, peer mentor programmes are becoming an important component to assist with education and community re-integration. Quasi-experimental non-controlled pretest/post-test. Patients with newly acquired spinal cord injury/disease participated in a one-year spinal cord injury peer-mentoring programme. Peer mentors met with their assigned participants regularly during inpatient care and on discharge to track medical complications and assist with adjusting to life after spinal cord injury/disease. In all, of 37 mentees enrolled, 24 successfully completed the programme. Sixty-seven per cent showed improved self-efficacy score between the two time points. Medical complications and doctor visits all decreased significantly between 0-6 months and 7-12 months. Our findings indicate that the older an individual is, the lower the likelihood of having a urinary tract infection (p = 0.006). The programme was well received by all mentees who felt they could connect well with their peer mentor. Peer mentoring in a rehabilitation setting enhances the understanding of challenges that patients and medical staff deal with on a day-to-day basis. Our findings suggest it is important to monitor and educate individuals with spinal cord injury/disease at the acute stage to improve medical outcomes. Caution is advised in the interpretation of these results as they were obtained in a small non-random sample using self-report data. Peer mentors play an increasingly important role in nurse-delivered education in the spinal cord injury/disease population. © 2011

  19. Peer-Led Self-Management of General Medical Conditions for Patients With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druss, Benjamin G; Singh, Manasvini; von Esenwein, Silke A; Glick, Gretl E; Tapscott, Stephanie; Tucker, Sherry Jenkins; Lally, Cathy A; Sterling, Evelina W

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with serious mental illnesses have high rates of general medical comorbidity and challenges in managing these conditions. A growing workforce of certified peer specialists is available to help these individuals more effectively manage their health and health care. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of peer-led programs for self-management of general medical conditions for this population. This randomized study enrolled 400 participants with a serious mental illness and one or more chronic general medical conditions across three community mental health clinics. Participants were randomly assigned to the Health and Recovery Peer (HARP) program, a self-management program for general medical conditions led by certified peer specialists (N=198), or to usual care (N=202). Assessments were conducted at baseline and three and six months. At six months, participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significant differential improvement in the primary study outcome, health-related quality of life. Specifically, compared with the usual care group, intervention participants had greater improvement in the Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary (an increase of 2.7 versus 1.4 points, p=.046) and mental component summary (4.6 versus 2.5 points, p=.039). Significantly greater six-month improvements in mental health recovery were seen for the intervention group (p=.02), but no other between-group differences in secondary outcome measures were significant. The HARP program was associated with improved physical health- and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with serious mental illness and comorbid general medical conditions, suggesting the potential benefits of more widespread dissemination of peer-led disease self-management in this population.

  20. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  1. Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Ajibola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to evaluate self-medicated antibiotics and knowledge of antibiotic resistance among undergraduate students and community members in northern Nigeria. Antibiotic consumption pattern, source of prescription, illnesses commonly treated, attitude towards antibiotics, and knowledge of antibiotic resistance were explored using a structured questionnaire. Responses were analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 1230 respondents from undergraduate students and community members, prescription of antibiotics by a physician was 33% and 57%, respectively, amongst undergraduate students and community members. We tested the respondents’ knowledge of antibiotic resistance (ABR and found that undergraduate students displayed less knowledge that self-medication could lead to ABR (32.6% and 42.2% respectively. Self-medication with antibiotics is highly prevalent in Northwest Nigeria, with most medicines being purchased from un-licensed stores without prescription from a physician. We also observed a significant gap in respondents’ knowledge of ABR. There is an urgent need for public health authorities in Nigeria to enforce existing laws on antibiotics sales and enlighten the people on the dangers of ABR.

  2. Self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuo; Lu Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the curative effect and safety of the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds for the treatment of advanced esophageal carcinomas. Methods: Implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds was performed in 32 patients with advanced esophageal canner. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The technical success rate, the operation time, the immediate and mid-term effectiveness, the survival time, the complications, the body weight, the blood picture, the immune indexes, the average hospitalization days and hospitalization expenses were analyzed. Results: The average operation time was (18±5) minutes. Successful stent implantation was achieved in all 32 patients (100%). No 125 I seeds fell off during the procedure. The remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal restenosis occurred in four patients, and displacement of the stent was seed in one patient. One month after the treatment, 90% of patients had a Karnofsky performance score over 60. The mean survival time was (8.7±6.6) months. The average hospitalization time was (7.8±3.7) days and the mean hospitalization cost was (12±3) thousand Chinese Yuan. Conclusion: For the treatment of esophageal carcinomas, the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds is safe, effective and simple. This treatment can markedly improve the symptom of dysphagia and significantly prolong the patient's survival time. (authors)

  3. Seroepidemiology of Varicella and value of self-reported history of Varicella infection in Iranian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Abbas; Mohammadi, Navid; Najar, Azade

    2014-04-01

    We conducted this study to assess the seroprevalence of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in a group of Iranian medical sciences students that were at risk of Varicella and the value of self-reported history as a predictor of immunity. 255 medical, nursing and obstetrics students who had not entered as a student or worked in a hospital from 3 different schools were enrolled in the study in 2012 (Qazvin province, Iran). Demographics and other information as well as the history of Varicella were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine the Varicella IgG levels via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A statistical analysis was performed by calculating prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, Cohen's kappa and positive and negative likelihood ratios of recalled history were determined. p history with immunity against the virus were statistically significant. The overall rate of reported history was 57%. The positive and negative predictive values of self-reported history of Varicella were 91% and 47.3%, respectively. Immunization of students of Iranian medical sciences seems logical in the near future. Also, they should be tested for Varicella immunity regardless of the history of previous infection.

  4. Medical Student Self-Efficacy with Family-Centered Care during Bedside Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Henry N.; Schumacher, Jayna B.; Moreno, Megan A.; Brown, Roger L.; Sigrest, Ted D.; McIntosh, Gwen K.; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Kelly, Michelle M.; Cox, Elizabeth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Factors that support self-efficacy must be understood in order to foster family-centered care (FCC) during rounds. Based on social cognitive theory, this study examined (1) how 3 supportive experiences (observing role models, having mastery experiences, and receiving feedback) influence self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and (2) whether the influence of these supportive experiences was mediated by self-efficacy with 3 key FCC tasks (relationship building, exchanging information, and decision making). Method Researchers surveyed 184 students during pediatric clerkship rotations during the 2008–2011 academic years. Surveys assessed supportive experiences and students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and with key FCC tasks. Measurement models were constructed via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Composite indicator structural equation (CISE) models evaluated whether supportive experiences influenced self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and whether self-efficacy with key FCC tasks mediated any such influences. Results Researchers obtained surveys from 172 eligible students who were 76% (130) White and 53% (91) female. Observing role models and having mastery experiences supported self-efficacy with FCC during rounds (each pFCC tasks, relationship building and decision making (each p FCC during rounds. Conclusions Observing role models and having mastery experiences foster students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds, operating through self-efficacy with key FCC tasks. Results suggest the importance of helping students gain self-efficacy in key FCC tasks before the rounds experience and helping educators implement supportive experiences during rounds. PMID:22534602

  5. Relation of knowledge and level of education to the rationality of self-medication on childhood diarrhea on the Code River banks in Jogoyudan, Jetis, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, H.; Ihsan, M. N.

    2017-11-01

    Self-medication as an alternative is used to reduce the severity of diarrhea. Optimal treatment can be done by increasing the rationalization of self-medication on diarrhea. This can be achieved with good knowledge about self-medication, which is in turn influenced by level of education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of knowledge and education level to rationality of self-medication on childhood diarrhea around the Code River in Jogoyudan, Jetis, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted by cross-sectional analytical observational design. The subjects were mothers who had children aged 2-11 years who had experienced diarrhea and had self-medication. Questionnaires were used to assess the rationality of self-medication on children's diarrhea by the parents. The respondents were askeds to fill out about indications, right drugs, doses, time intervals and periods of drug administration. Data were analyzed using chi- square. It was showed that of 40 respondents, 14 respondents (35%) performed rational self-medication on children's diarrhea and 26 respondents (65%). did not rationalize the treatment. The results of a bivariate test obtained a chi-square value of 9.808 (> 3.841) and a p value of 0.002 ( 3.841) and a p value of 0.000 (<0.05) on relationship between knowledge and rationality of self- medication. The conclusion of this study is that there is a correlation between knowledge and level of education and rationality of self-medication on childhood diarrhea on the Code River banks in Jogoyudan, Jetis, Yogyakarta.

  6. Study of stress, self-esteem and depression in medical students and effect of music on perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Vrushali S; Gadkari, Jayashree V

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to many stressors and if stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive can affect academic performance and health adversely. The objective of this study was to assess stress, predominant stressor and effect of music on perceived stress. 90 undergraduate students were selected randomly. A written questionnaire about personal information, stressful factors, ways to cope up stress, Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and 'Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology' self-rated 16 (QIDS-SR-16) was given.45.6% Students had mild stress, 7.7% students had moderate stress and 1.1% students had severe stress. Academic factors were the predominant cause of stress in most students, followed by physical, social and emotional. On Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) 85.6% students had high self-esteem and on QIDS-SR16 50% students had depression. Effect of music on perceived stress was statistically significant. Medical curriculum is associated with increased stress in students. Music can be used as simple, inexpensive and effective therapy for stress.

  7. Role of Using Internet on Self-Efficacy, Educational Motivation and Educational Achievement Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadnazhad Bahrami GhR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In order to improve the quality of education in the scientific and educational centers, usage of communication technologies, especially the Internet, is encouraged and promoted. However, there are not still considerable researches on the role of Internet to improve the quality of education and psychological characteristics of students. The present study investigated the role of using Internet on self-efficacy, educational motivation and achievement of medical students. Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 363 of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences’ students (174 Internet users and 189 nonusers who had studied in 2013-14 academic year were selected by stratified random sampling method and entered into the study. To collect data, educational motivation scale, Sharer's self-efficacy scale (GSES, Internet using questionnaire which made by researcher and the latest educational grade point averages were used. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and independent samples T tests. Findings: The internet user students had significantly more general self-efficacy (creativity and attempt subscales in comparison to nonusers, but there was no significant difference in perseverance subscale of two groups. Internet user students had more educational achievement and motivation (task of interest subscales, educational effort, social interest, praise gaining, typifying, business continuity, competing in comparison to nonusers. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in social power subscale. Conclusion: Self-efficacy and educational achievement motivation of Internet user students is more than nonusers.

  8. Ready to work or not quite? Self-perception of practical skills among medical students from Serbia ahead of graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Nurković, Selmina; Marić, Gorica; Kurtagić, Ilma; Kovačević, Nikolina; Kisić-Tepavčević, Darija; Pekmezović, Tatjana

    2015-08-01

    To assess final year medical students' self-perception of their practical skills. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade during compulsory practical sessions in the period December 2-9, 2013 and 390 students agreed to participate (response rate 77.8%). The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, 21 questions on students' self-perception of their practical skills, and 1 question on students' self-perceived readiness to start working with patients. Cronbach's α for the entire scale was 0.891. Students felt most confident about measuring arterial pulse and blood pressure and taking patients' history (average score 10 for all three skills) and least confident about placing a urinary catheter (average score 1) and suturing a wound (average score 2). They rated their readiness to work with patients with 5.0 out of 10.0 points. The total score did not correlate with students' average mark (Spearman's ρ=0.039; P=0.460) and the average mark did not correlate with the self-perceived readiness to work with patients (Spearman's ρ=-0.048; P=0.365). Our study suggests that medical students lack confidence to perform various clinical procedures, particularly those related to surgical interventions. To improve students' confidence, clinical curriculum should include either more hours of practical work or ensure closer supervision of practical training in wards.

  9. A single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; DeWalt, Darren A; Baker, David W; Schillinger, Dean; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kristen; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Holmes, George M; Broucksou, Kimberly A; Erman, Brian; Hawk, Victoria; Cene, Crystal W; Jones, Christine DeLong; Pignone, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether a single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure. Poor medication adherence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Having a simple means of identifying suboptimal medication adherence could help identify at-risk patients for interventions. We performed a prospective cohort study in 592 participants with heart failure within a four-site randomised trial. Self-report medication adherence was assessed at baseline using a single-item question: 'Over the past seven days, how many times did you miss a dose of any of your heart medication?' Participants who reported no missing doses were defined as fully adherent, and those missing more than one dose were considered less than fully adherent. The primary outcome was combined all-cause hospitalisation or death over one year and the secondary endpoint was heart failure hospitalisation. Outcomes were assessed with blinded chart reviews, and heart failure outcomes were determined by a blinded adjudication committee. We used negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between medication adherence and outcomes. Fifty-two percent of participants were 52% male, mean age was 61 years, and 31% were of New York Heart Association class III/IV at enrolment; 72% of participants reported full adherence to their heart medicine at baseline. Participants with full medication adherence had a lower rate of all-cause hospitalisation and death (0·71 events/year) compared with those with any nonadherence (0·86 events/year): adjusted-for-site incidence rate ratio was 0·83, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 0·68. Incidence rate ratios were similar for heart failure hospitalisations. A single medication adherence question at baseline predicts hospitalisation and death over one year in heart failure patients. Medication adherence is associated with all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisation and death in heart

  10. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  11. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

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    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  12. Prevalence of Self-Medication among Students of Pharmacy and Medicine Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia

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    Fatimah Ali Albusalih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.

  13. Self-esteem and spiritual health in cancer patients under chemotherapy in Semnan University of Medical Sciences in 2014

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    Farah Abbasian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cancer as a frightening disease may affect people's confidence in their abilities, sense of controlling over their lives, and in other words self-esteem. Spiritual health as the main aspect of health can be an important source for calmness, decrease in existential distress, improvement of self-esteem and coping with the disease. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between spiritual health and self-esteem in Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was accomplished by obtaining Rosenberg Self-Esteem and Paloutzian & Ellison scales questionnaire from a  convenience sample of 170 cancer patients who were referred for chemotherapy to hospitals of SEMNAN University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed by SPSS using one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation, and level of significance (P was considered <0.05. Results: Study group has shown a mean self-esteem score of 18.5±3.5 and 98.1±13.2 for spiritual well- being. There was a direct correlation between spiritual health and self- esteem after adjustment for sex, age, education level and marital status (r=0.55. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that spiritual health was significantly associated with self-esteem in cancer patients. Considering critical conditions of cancer patients and their urgent need for maintaining and improving spiritual well-being, enhancement of spiritual health and self-esteem should be further emphasized in the treatment programs of these patients such that they and their families that represent a large population can be assisted to overcome the critical conditions.

  14. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study

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    Bryan Burford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature

  15. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study.

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    Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S

    2017-11-13

    The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the

  16. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

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    Van Steenis MNA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other

  17. Factors Associated With Self-reported and Medically Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence Among Community-Dwelling Older Women In Korea

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    Jeongok Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI in community-dwelling Korean women 60 years or older, and to identify factors associated with self-reported and medically diagnosed UI. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey, which used a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of 8,961 elderly Korean women. Results: Of the 8,961 women in this study, 579 (6.5% had self-reported UI, and 209 (2.3% were medically diagnosed with UI. As patient age and exercise ability of the upper extremities increased, risk for self-reported UI decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the number of limited instrumental activities of daily living (IADL increased, the risk for self-reported UI increased (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24–1.35. Overweight women were 1.94 times more likely to have self-reported UI compared to underweight women. Women with a history of stroke or asthma were more likely to have self-reported UI compared to women with no history. Also, women who reported being in good health were less likely to have UI, compared to women who reported being in poor health (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.70. Medically diagnosed UI was negatively associated with the number of limited IADL and exercise ability scores for the lower extremities (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the exercise ability score for the upper extremities increased, so did the risk for medically diagnosed UI (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03. Conclusions: An interventional program for home visit health services is needed for incontinent women who are highly dependent on others for IADL.

  18. Do different medical curricula influence self-assessed clinical thinking of students?

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    Gehlhar, Kirsten; Klimke-Jung, Kathrin; Stosch, Christoph; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental element of medical practice, clinical reasoning should be cultivated in courses of study in human medicine. To date, however, no conclusive evidence has been offered as to what forms of teaching and learning are most effective in achieving this goal. The Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) was developed as a means of measuring knowledge-unrelated components of clinical reasoning. The present pilot study examines the adequacy of this instrument in measuring differences in the clinical reasoning of students in varying stages of education in three curricula of medical studies. The Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) comprises 41 items in two subscales ("Flexibility in Thinking" and "Structure of Knowledge in Memory"). Each item contains a statement or finding concerning clinical reasoning in the form of a stem under which a 6-point scale presents opposing conclusions. The subjects are asked to assess their clinical thinking within this range. The German-language version of the DTI was completed by 247 student volunteers from three schools and varying clinical semesters. In a quasi-experimental design, 219 subjects from traditional and model courses of study in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia took part. Specifically, these were 5(th), 6(th) and 8(th) semester students from the model course of study at Witten/Herdecke University (W/HU), from the model (7(th) and 9(th) semester) and traditional (7(th) semester) courses of study at the Ruhr University Bochum (RUB) and from the model course of study (9(th) semester) at the University of Cologne (UoC). The data retrieved were quantitatively assessed. The reliability of the questionnaire in its entirety was good (Cronbach's alpha between 0.71 and 0.83); the reliability of the subscales ranged between 0.49 and 0.75. The different groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test, revealing significant differences among semester cohorts within a school as well as between students from similar

  19. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

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    Somes Grant W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65% was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25% were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009 even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4. Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for

  20. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey.

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    Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I

    2011-09-23

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic

  1. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam.

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    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-11-23

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine) was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11-86 yrs) and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year). Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%), E. coli (12.2%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2%) were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin and

  2. General hospital costs in England of medical and psychiatric care for patients who self-harm: a retrospective analysis.

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    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; McDaid, David; Casey, Deborah; Brand, Fiona; Leal, Jose; Park, A-La; Geulayov, Galit; Hawton, Keith

    2017-10-01

    Self-harm is an extremely common reason for hospital presentation. However, few estimates have been made of the hospital costs of assessing and treating self-harm. Such information is essential for planning services and to help strengthen the case for investment in actions to reduce the frequency and effects of self-harm. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of hospital medical care associated with a self-harm episode and the costs of psychosocial assessment, together with identification of the key drivers of these costs. In a retrospective analysis, we estimated hospital resource use and care costs for all presentations for self-harm to the John Radcliffe Hospital (Oxford, UK), between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Episode-related data were provided by the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm and we linked these with financial hospital records to quantify costs. We assessed time and resources allocated to psychosocial assessments through discussion with clinical and managerial staff. We then used generalised linear models to investigate the associations between hospital costs and methods of self-harm. Between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, 1647 self-harm presentations by 1153 patients were recorded. Of these, 1623 (99%) presentations by 1140 patients could be linked with hospital finance records. 179 (16%) patients were younger than 18 years. 1150 (70%) presentations were for self-poisoning alone, 367 (22%) for self-injury alone, and 130 (8%) for a combination of methods. Psychosocial assessments were made in 75% (1234) of all episodes. The overall mean hospital cost per episode of self-harm was £809. Costs differed significantly between different types of self-harm: self-injury alone £753 (SD 2061), self-poisoning alone £806 (SD 1568), self-poisoning and self-injury £987 (SD 1823; p<0·0001). Costs were mainly associated with the type of health-care service contact such as inpatient stay, intensive care, and psychosocial assessment. Mean

  3. Financial Hardship, Unmet Medical Need, and Health Self-Efficacy among African American Men

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    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Mitchell, Jamie A.; Shires, Deirdre A.; Modlin, Charles S., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health self-efficacy (the confidence to take care of one's health) is a key component in ensuring that individuals are active partners in their health and health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between financial hardship and health self-efficacy among African American men and to determine if unmet…

  4. Survey of stress, anxiety, depression and self-concept of students of Fasa University of medical sciences, 2010

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    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Studying periods in university is very important for students. Because of the problems, this period is usually accompanied with mental status changes of students. The aim of this study was the assessment of psychological variables (stress, anxiety and depression and self-concept of students. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 89-88 were selected through census sampling method. The DASS-21 was used to assess stress, anxiety and depression of students and in order to evaluate the status of their self-concept; the Carl Rogers questionnaire was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics (t test, ANOVA, Chi square and Pearson correlation. Results: The results of this study showed that 76% of students had stress, 56.4% anxiety and 53.1% depression, and 69/3% had weak or negative self-concepts. There was a statistically significant correlation between high stress, anxiety and depression with negative self-concept (P<0.001.Conclusion: High stress, anxiety and depression and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of students were found. It is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of students and have appropriate interventions.

  5. Performance of a core of transversal skills: self-perceptions of undergraduate medical students.

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    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-15

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.

  6. Benefits of personality characteristics and self-efficacy in the perceived academic achievement of medical students

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    Guntern, Sabine; Korpershoek, Hanke; van der Werf, Greetje

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the joint impact of personality characteristics and self‐efficacy on the perceived academic achievement of medical students on top of their prior high school performance. The sample consisted of medical students in their pre‐clinical years. The students’ grade point average

  7. Self-efficacy beliefs, locus of control, religiosity and non-adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplant patients.

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    Silva, Andresa Nascimento; Moratelli, Lucas; Tavares, Paula Liziero; Marsicano, Elisa De Oliveira; Pinhati, Renata Romanholi; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2016-11-01

    Adherence to immunosuppressive medication is essential for favourable kidney transplant outcomes. The present study aims to investigate how self-efficacy beliefs, health locus of control and religiosity are associated with adherence to immunosuppressives in post kidney transplant recipients. This is a cross-sectional study with 88 recipients with more than 1 year after transplantation. Three methods were used to classify patients as adherent or non-adherent: Basel Assessment of Adherence Scale for Immunosuppressives - BAASIS, the collateral report and blood levels of immunosuppressive medications. Self-efficacy, health locus of control, and religiosity were evaluated applying General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and Duke University Religion Index, respectively. Non-adherence was modelled by uni- and multivariated analysis. Sixty-three percent of the patients were male, age 47.2 ± 12.9 years, and median post-transplant time 108.71 (49.0-266.0) months. We found 70.5% of patients were non-adherent through at least one method. Adherent patients presented higher self-efficacy scores (45.1 ± 4.9 vs 38.3 ± 8.6; P locus of control (OR 1.23, IC 1.04-1.45, P = 0.016) and lower intrinsic religiosity (OR 0.56, IC 0.38-0.84, P = 0.006). Our study showed that self-efficacy, chance locus of control, and intrinsic religiosity were associated with non-adherence to immunosuppressives. A broader perception of the kidney transplant patient´s integrality can help health professionals to design strategies to promote adherence in this population. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications.

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    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.

  9. Using a smartphone-based self-management platform to support medication adherence and clinical consultation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Wang, Duolao; Burn, David; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Galtrey, Clare; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Hellman, Bruce; Ben James; Pal, Suvankar; Stamford, Jon; Steiger, Malcolm; Stott, R W; Teo, James; Barker, Roger A; Wang, Emma; Bloem, Bastiaan R; van der Eijk, Martijn; Rochester, Lynn; Williams, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The progressive nature of Parkinson's disease, its complex treatment regimens and the high rates of comorbid conditions make self-management and treatment adherence a challenge. Clinicians have limited face-to-face consultation time with Parkinson's disease patients, making it difficult to comprehensively address non-adherence. Here we share the results from a multi-centre (seven centres) randomised controlled trial conducted in England and Scotland to assess the impact of using a smartphone-based Parkinson's tracker app to promote patient self-management, enhance treatment adherence and quality of clinical consultation. Eligible Parkinson's disease patients were randomised using a 1:1 ratio according to a computer-generated random sequence, stratified by centre and using blocks of variable size, to intervention Parkinson's Tracker App or control (Treatment as Usual). Primary outcome was the self-reported score of adherence to treatment (Morisky medication adherence scale -8) at 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were Quality of Life (Parkinson's disease questionnaire -39), quality of consultation for Parkinson's disease patients ( Patient-centred questionnaire for Parkinson's disease ), impact on non-motor symptoms (Non-motor symptoms questionnaire), depression and anxiety (Hospital anxiety and depression scale) and beliefs about medication (Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire) at 16 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints were analysed using a generalised linear model with treatment as the fixed effect and baseline measurement as the covariate. 158 patients completed the study (Parkinson's tracker app = 68 and TAU = 90). At 16 weeks Parkinson's tracker app significantly improved adherence, compared to treatment as usual (mean difference: 0.39, 95%CI 0.04-0.74; p  = 0.0304) with no confounding effects of gender, number of comorbidities and age. Among secondary outcomes, Parkinson's tracker app significantly improved patients' perception of quality of

  10. Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-06-01

    HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.

  11. Self-medication among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Makongoro health centre in Mwanza, Tanzania: a challenge to health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwa, Karol J; Njalika, Agnes; Ruganuza, Deodatus; Katabalo, Deogratias; Kamugisha, Erasmus

    2018-01-08

    Self-medication is a universal challenge that requires attention because of the potential threat not only to the pregnant women but also to unborn child. Data on self-medication practice and predictors among pregnant women is lacking in Tanzania. Information on the effects of this practice to the pregnant woman and the foetus globally is also scanty. This was a cross sectional study which was conducted using face to face interview with 372 pregnant women at Makongoro health centre. Semi-structured questionnaires were used. Data were analysed using STATA 13 (Statistical Corporation, College Station, Texas, US). A total of 372 pregnant women participated in the study. The prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women was 172 (46.24%). There was a significant statistical association between self-medication and occupation (P value =0.01), gestation age (P self-medication (P = 0.809, P = 0.243 and P = 0.922) respectively. When bivariate logistic regression was performed, occupation and education were the only determining factors for self-medication. Pregnant women who were unemployed, doing business and house wife were most likely to practice self-medication than employed pregnant women (P = 0.03; OR = 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.31, P = 0.01; OR = 2.31; CI 1.21-4.41, P = self-medication than pregnant women with college or university education (P leading illness/symptoms which led to self-medication among pregnant women attending clinic were malaria 56 (32.56%, morning sickness 44 (25.55%) and headache 33(19.19%). Drugs commonly used in self-medication among pregnant women were ant malarial 42 (24.42%), antiemetics 59 (34.30%) and analgesics 33 (19.19%). Prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women is high in Tanzania. This is a threat to the safety of the developing foetus and the pregnant woman. Therefore there is a need of interventions to minimize the practice among pregnant women.

  12. Medical managers' managerial self-efficacy and role clarity: How do they bridge the budgetary participation-performance link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Cantaluppi, Gabriele; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This study explains the process ''how'' organizational accounting practices, such as budgetary participation, influence medical doctors' perceptions and beliefs associated with their hybrid role and what the consequences are on their performance. Building on social cognitive theory, we hypothesize a structural model in which managerial self-efficacy and role clarity mediate the effects of budgetary participation on performance. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The research hypotheses were tested employing a path model. The results suggest that role clarity and managerial self-efficacy fully mediate the link between budgetary participation and performance. From a managerial viewpoint results suggest that organizations that invest in budgetary participation will also affect individual beliefs about the perceived benefits of participation itself, since an information-rich internal environment allows employees to experience a clearer sense of direction through organizational goals. According to our results, organizations that seek self-directed employees should pay attention to the experience the medical managers acquire through budgetary participation. In fact, this event influences the employees' mental states-and specifically provides them with information needed to perform in the role and enhance their judgment of their own capabilities to organize and execute the required course of actions-which take on internal psychological motivation to reach performance levels.

  13. Delivering health information about self-medication to older adults: use of touchscreen-equipped notebook computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, P J; Strickler, Z; Shellman, J; Padula, A T

    2001-11-01

    Preventing Drug Interactions in Active Older Adults is an educational intervention to prevent prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug and alcohol interactions in active, community-living older adults. The objectives of the program are to increase older adults' knowledge of potential interactions of prescription medications with OTC drugs and alcohol and to increase their confidence (self-efficacy) about how to avoid such interactions. An interactive multimedia computer software program (Personal Education Program or PEP) was designed for the learning styles and psychomotor skills of older adults. Focus groups of older adults evaluated PEP components in a formative manner during development. The program content dealing with antacids, calcium supplements, and acid reducers was pilot tested with 60 older adults recruited from local senior centers. Participants used the PEP on notebook computers equipped with infrared-sensitive touchscreens. Users of PEP had greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores than controls. Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the PEP and reported their intent to make specific changes in self-medication behaviors.

  14. Victimization, Suicidal Ideation, and Alcohol Use From Age 13 to 15 Years: Support for the Self-Medication Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Renaud, Johanne; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen increased coverage of adolescent victimization and suicide. Both adolescent peer victimization and substance use have been associated with suicidal ideation, with evidence suggesting that all three factors are interrelated. There are at least four models which can explain the associations between these factors (i.e., self-medication, secondary mental disorder, bidirectional, and common factor). However, none of them is being empirically supported as the dominant model because few longitudinal studies have explored the association between these factors. The present study compared longitudinal paths of all four models simultaneously using a cross-lagged model. This was done using self-reported measures of peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and alcohol use at age 13, 14, and 15 years in a longitudinal sample of 238 adolescents. All three variables were moderately stable across time. Significant cross-lagged associations were found, showing that frequent peer victimization at age 13 years was associated with higher odds of having suicidal ideation at age 14 years (odds ratio, 1.82; p suicidal ideation at age 14 years was significantly associated with higher alcohol use frequency at age 15 years (β = .13; p suicidal ideation and alcohol use over 1 year, supporting the self-medication model. Clarifying the empirical basis of these underlying models could allow for earlier prevention strategies, by targeting the risk factor that appears the earliest in the model. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A clinical nurse specialist-led intervention to enhance medication adherence using the plan-do-check-act cycle for continuous self-improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L

    2010-01-01

    A clinical nurse specialist-led intervention to improve medication adherence in chronically ill adults using renal transplant recipients as an exemplar population is proposed. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of chronically ill and transplant patients indicate that patient-specific characteristics not only are poor and inconsistent predictors for medication nonadherence but also are not amenable to intervention. Adherence has not meaningfully improved, despite meta-analyses and systematic narrative reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dealing with medication nonadherence in acutely and chronically ill persons and RCTs dealing with transplant patients. Interventions with a superior potential to enhance medication adherence must be developed. Use of a clinical nurse specialist-led continuous self-improvement intervention with adult renal transplant recipients is proposed. Continuous self-improvement focuses on improving personal systems thinking and behavior using the plan-do-check-act process. Electronic medication monitoring reports, one of several objective measures of medication adherence, are used by the clinician to provide patient feedback during the check process on medication-taking patterns. Continuous self-improvement as an intervention holds promise in supporting patient self-management and diminishing the blame that clinicians place on patients for medication nonadherence. Using an objective measure of medication adherence such as an electronic monitoring report fosters collaborative patient-clinician discussions of daily medication-taking patterns. Through collaboration, ideas for improving medication taking can be explored. Changes can be followed and evaluated for effectiveness through the continuous self-improvement process. Future studies should include RCTs comparing educational and/or behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence.

  16. Revisiting the 'self-medication' hypothesis in light of the new data linking low striatal dopamine to comorbid addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A George; Voruganti, Lakshmi L N P

    2015-06-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are at a high risk, almost 4.6 times more likely, of having drug abuse problems than persons without psychiatric illness. Among the influential proposals to explain such a high comorbidity rate, the 'self-medication hypothesis' proposed that persons with schizophrenia take to drugs in an effort to cope with the illness and medication side effects. In support of the self-medication hypothesis, data from our earlier clinical study confirmed the strong association between neuroleptic dysphoria and negative subjective responses and comorbid drug abuse. Though dopamine has been consistently suspected as one of the major culprits for the development of neuroleptic dysphoria, it is only recently our neuroimaging studies correlated the emergence of neuroleptic dysphoria to the low level of striatal dopamine functioning. Similarly, more evidence has recently emerged linking low striatal dopamine with the development of vulnerability for drug addictive states in schizophrenia. The convergence of evidence from both the dysphoria and comorbidity research, implicating the role of low striatal dopamine in both conditions, has led us to propose that the person with schizophrenia who develops dysphoria and comorbid addictive disorder is likely to be one and the same.

  17. Are patients reliable when self-reporting medication use? Validation of structured drug interviews and home visits by drug analysis and prescription data in acutely hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm

    2007-01-01

    were compared to the patients' self-reported medication history. Information on prescribed drugs dispensed from any Danish pharmacy was collected from nationwide real-time pharmacy records. The authors performed home visits in a subgroup of 115 patients 4 weeks after their discharge. Stored drugs were......The medication history among hospitalized patients often relies on patients' self-reports due to insufficient communication between health care professionals. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of patients' self-reported medication use. Five hundred patients admitted...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...

  18. A pilot Tuning Project-based national study on recently graduated medical students? self-assessment of competences - the TEST study

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo Diogo, Pedro; Barbosa, Joselina; Am?lia Ferreira, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tuning Project is an initiative funded by the European Commission that developed core competences for primary medical degrees in Europe. Students' grouped self-assessments are used for program evaluation and improvement of curricula. The TEST study aimed to assess how do Portuguese medical graduates self-assess their acquisition of core competences and experiences of contact with patients in core settings according to the Tuning framework. Methods Translation of the Tuning's co...

  19. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year.Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, "5"=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted.The highest learning needs were found for the "to show how"-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking ("to know how": mean difference = +1.7, "to show how": +1.8, pdecision making (+1.2), self-assessing one's own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding methods, the deployed simulated patients (2-4 per 10-student-course group in 3 of the 7 course sessions, respectively) were rated the most helpful. The present evaluation calls for both further development of

  20. Patients perception of self-administrated medication in the treatment of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Adrian; Fouche, Andrew; Craig, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Early therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE) decreases morbidity, improves outcomes, decreases absenteeism, and possibly decreases mortality. This can be accomplished best with self-therapy. Previously, the authors examined barriers to self-therapy from the perspective of the nurse and the physician, but data are lacking on what patients perceive as major barriers to self-administered therapy for HAE. To identify those barriers in a prospective fashion by patient interview. After approval from the institutional review board, a telephone survey was performed of patients with HAE from a database of patients who were recently seen in the clinic. The survey focused on anxiety, depression, stress, concerns regarding method of administration, the ability to inject themselves, and what they perceived as barriers to providing self-care. Ninety-two patients were contacted and 59 agreed to participate. With 69% of those patients currently undergoing self-administered treatment, the results showed minimal depression and anxiety, a high satisfaction with treatment, and significant compliance with treatment. Most of those not yet on self-administered therapy wanted to start despite being satisfied with the care received in the emergency department. They also believed care at home would be optimal. The main concern of the 2 groups was not being able to treat themselves in the event of an HAE attack. From these data, it is obvious that most patients are willing to self-treat. This suggests that physicians should encourage self-treatment of HAE to improve outcomes and quality of life of patients with HAE. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a self-assessment teamwork tool for use by medical and nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Christopher J.; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. Methods The authors modified a previousl...

  2. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza H.,Maria Paz; Ponte,Talles S.; Carvalho,Clarissa G.; Pedrotti,Michell R.; Nunes,Paula V.; Souza,Camila M.; Zanette,Camila B.; Voltolini,Sara; Chaves,Marcia L. F.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years). The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder...

  3. Impact of a brief addiction medicine training experience on knowledge self-assessment among medical learners

    OpenAIRE

    Klimas, Jan; Ahamad, Keith; Fairgrieve, Kit; McLean, Mark; et al.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Implementation of evidence-based approaches to the treatment of various substance use disorders is needed to tackle the existing epidemic of substance use and related harms. Most clinicians, however, lack knowledge and practical experience with these approaches. Given this deficit, the authors examined the impact of an inpatient elective in addiction medicine amongst medical trainees on addiction-related knowledge and medical management. Methods: Trainees who completed an elective...

  4. Psycho-education's impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of emergency medical technical student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Mersin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Emergency medical students are first persons that encountered and make medical aids to patients or traumatized people. It is stated that having adequate facilities about the communication of each health workers to deal with emergency patient and wounded persons is as important as immediate treatment. This research was conducted as quasi-experimental in order to determine the education of emotion recognition and expression's impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of emergency medical technical students. Methods: The research was made with 7 students in first year of education in emergency department at a university in Turkey in 2013-2014 academic years. Total 12-session education of emotion recognition and expression was given to student within research for 2 hours in a week during 12 weeks. Information Form including socio-demographic characteristics, Communication Skills Inventory (CSI, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS were applied to students before and after psycho-education. Results: It was determined that CSI mean scores of students within research were high before and after psycho-education but there is no statistically difference between them. It was determined that also there is no significantly difference between students' RSES and STAS mean scores before and after psycho-education. Conclusion: It was determined in the research that education of emotion recognition and expression has no impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of students and students' communication skills levels were high before and after psycho-education. It has been concluded that especially empathy from communication skills is the mode of existence and therefore cannot be taught. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 489-495

  5. Association of research self-efficacy with medical student career interests, specialization, and scholarship: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Prayson, Richard A; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2015-05-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory-Short Form (CRAI-SF) items at matriculation (n = 128) or graduation (n = 111) during 2009-2013. Parametric statistics were used to compare CRAI-SF scales to domains proposed in SCCT: trainees' characteristics (gender, training level, advanced degree), career interests, career intentions (medical specialty), and performance (peer-reviewed publications and required thesis topic). A number of lessons emerged in using theory to frame the evaluation of a complex educational program. Graduates rated their research self-efficacy significantly higher on all six CRAI-SF scales with large effect sizes (>.90) on five scales (Conceptualizing a Study, Study Design and Analysis, Responsible Research Conduct, Collaborating with Others, and Reporting a Study). Women and men did not have significantly different scores on CRAI-SF scales (p > .05), suggesting that the research program provides adequate supports for women students. Most thesis projects addressed clinical (36.9 %, n = 41) or translational (34.2 %, n = 38) research topics. The CRAI-SF discriminated between medical school matriculates and graduates, suggesting that research self-efficacy increases with mastery experiences. No significant relationships occurred between CRAI-SF scores and graduates' thesis topics or chosen clinical specialty. Correlations demonstrated significant relationships between graduates' perceptions of research self-efficacy and their interest in clinical research careers.

  6. The agency of patients and carers in medical care and self-care technologies for interacting with doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Francisco; Andersen, Tariq; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine

    2017-06-01

    People living with Parkinson's disease engage in self-care for most of the time but, two or three times a year, they meet with doctors to re-evaluate the condition and adjust treatment. Patients and (informal) carers participate actively in these encounters, but their engagement might change as new patient-centred technologies are integrated into healthcare infrastructures. Drawing on a qualitative study that used observations and interviews to investigate consultations, and digital ethnography to understand interactions in an online community, we describe how patients and carers living with Parkinson's participate in the diagnosis and treatment decisions, engage in discussions to learn about certain topics, and address inappropriate medication. We contrast their engagement with a review of self-care technologies that support interactions with doctors, to investigate how these artefacts may influence the agency of patients and carers. Finally, we discuss design ideas for improving the participation of patients and carers in technology-mediated scenarios.

  7. Development and Validation of the "iCAN!"--A Self-Administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Tseretopoulou, Xanthippi; Tzamalis, Theodoros; Bazoukis, George; Benos, Alexis; Gogos, Charalambos; Malizos, Konstantinos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N.; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The Tuning-Medicine Project produced a set of "level one" and "level two" learning outcomes/competences to be met by European medical graduates. In the learner-centered era self-assessment becomes more and more important. Our aim was to develop a self-completion questionnaire ("iCAN!") evaluating graduates' learning…

  8. Implementation of a diabetes self-management education program in primary care for adults using shared medical appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement diabetes self-management education in primary care using the Chronic Care Model and shared medical appointments (SMA) to provide evidence-based interventions to improve process and measure outcomes. A quality improvement project using the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle was implemented in a primary care setting in South Texas to provide diabetes self-management education for adults. Biological measures were evaluated in 70 patients at initiation of the project and thereafter based on current practice guidelines. The results of the project were consistent with the literature regarding the benefits, sustainability, and viability of SMA. As compared with that in studies presented in the literature, the patient population who participated in SMA had similar outcomes regarding improvement in A1C, self-management skills, and satisfaction. SMA are an innovative system redesign concept with the potential to provide comprehensive and coordinated care for patients with multiple and chronic health conditions while still being an efficient, effective, financially viable, and sustainable program. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increase, innovative models of care can meet the growing demand for access and utilization of diabetes self-management education programs. Programs focusing on chronic conditions to improve outcomes can be replicated by health care providers in primary care settings. SMA can increase revenue and productivity, improve disease management, and increase provider and patient satisfaction.

  9. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  10. Self-assessed competency at working with a medical interpreter is not associated with knowledge of good practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hudelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific knowledge and skills are needed to work effectively with an interpreter, but most doctors have received limited training. Self-assessed competency may not accurately identify training needs. PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to explore the association between self-assessed competency at working with an interpreter and the ability to identify elements of good practice, using a written vignette. METHODS: A mailed questionnaire was sent to 619 doctors and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland. RESULTS: 58.6% of respondents considered themselves to be highly competent at working with a professional interpreter, but 22% failed to mention even one element of good practice in response to the vignette, and only 39% could name more than one. There was no association between self-rated competency and number of elements mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Training efforts should challenge the assumption that working with an interpreter is intuitive. Evaluation of clinicians' ability to work with an interpreter should not be limited to self-ratings. In the context of large-scale surveys, written vignettes may provide a simple method for identifying knowledge of good practice and topics requiring further training.

  11. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  12. Translation and psychometric analysis of the Malaysian version of medication understanding and use self-efficacy scale (m-muse) for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa A Al Abboud; Sohail Ahmad; Mohamed B.L Bidin; Nahlah E Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Enhancing diabetes self-efficacy (SE) level can improve the self-management behaviour in patients living with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to translate and assess the psychometric properties of Malaysian version of diabetes Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy Scale (M-MUSE). Methods: Following the translation of English version of MUSE to Malay language using established international standard translation guidelines, 252 adult diabetics (≥ 18 years old; DM...

  13. Self-medication in academic course graduate of health in a private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thricy Dhamer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: The World Health Organization defi nes self-medication as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat their illnesses or symptoms. It is considered a public health problem that deserves special attention, since it presents risks, because of adverse drug reactions, bringing serious consequences and may lead to the death. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of self-medication realized by undergraduate students enrolled in health courses in a community college, as well the symptoms that led to this practice. Methods: This study was an observational and quantitative research, where it was used structured and pre-coded questionnaires to obtains the data, among students enrolled at 5th and 6th semesters of Biology, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition, Dentistry and Psychology at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul. Results: 342 students were evaluated, 74% female, aged between 18 and 50, which was the most prevalent age group of 21-30 years, which were 71.4% of students. The prevalence of medicines used among those surveyed was 68.7% last month, with an average of 2 medications per student. The medications were distributed by medical prescription in 282 cases (59.1%, under self-medication in 139 cases (29.1%, oriented by a pharmaceutical in 25 cases (5.2% and no response in 31 cases (6.6%. The classes of drugs most used were analgesics/antipyretics (48.2%, NSAIDs (14.2% and antacids (9.9%. The main purpose of motivating self medication were headache (14.4%, digestive disorders (13.2%, contraception (7.2% and general pain (6.0%. Conclusion: Self medication is a common practice among students in the health area, where about a third reported conduct such practice. KEYWORDS Self-medication. Student Health Occupations. Drugs.

  14. Perfil da automedicação nos pacientes otorrinolaringológicos Self-medication profile of ENT patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa Servidoni

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os hábitos de automedicação praticados pelos pacientes portadores de afecções otorrinolaringológicas, visando caracterizar aspectos problemáticos passíveis de intervenção. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo descritivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Utilizamos como instrumento para a obtenção dos dados deste trabalho um questionário em formato de testes de múltipla escolha, contendo 17 questões sobre os hábitos de automedicação, distribuído a pacientes atendidos na clínica de otorrinolaringologia do Instituto Penido Burnier, durante o mês de julho de 2003. RESULTADO: Aproximadamente 83% dos pacientes relataram já ter usado ou comprado medicação sem apresentação da receita médica. Porém, desse total, 73% responderam que tal medicação não requeria "apresentação obrigatória" da receita para a sua compra. Os mais utilizados foram: analgésicos/antitérmicos (90%, seguidos pelos antigripais (78% e pelos AINEs (69%. Os antibióticos apareceram em 8 (11%. Com relação aos motivos ou doenças que os pacientes acreditavam possuir, as cefaléias (76%, que justificassem a automedicação, observamos: em 1 seguidas por resfriados/gripes (74% e por quadros febris (56%. Já as otites apareceram em último lugar (12%. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstra a necessidade de contínuas campanhas informativas e conscientizadoras da população em geral quanto aos riscos de uma automedicação desnecessária ou equivocada, além da devida regulamentação e fiscalização do mercado farmacêutico pelas autoridades competentes.AIM: To describe self-medication habits of patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders to characterize problematic aspects in order to manage and correct them. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to obtain the data, consisting of 17 questions about self-medication habits. It was distributed to the patients assisted in our ENT clinic, in July/2003. RESULTS

  15. Concordance of Adherence Measurement Using Self-Reported Adherence Questionnaires and Medication Monitoring Devices: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnette, Alisha; Zhang, Yichen; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    As medication adherence continues to be a prevalent issue in today's society, the methods used to monitor medication-taking behaviors are constantly being re-evaluated and compared in search of the 'gold standard' measure. Our review aimed to assess the current literature surrounding the correlation between self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and electronic monitoring devices to determine if these measures produce similar results. We performed a literature search from 2009 to 2017 using PubMed, PubMed In-Process and Non-Indexed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process. A keyword search using the terms 'patient compliance', 'treatment compliance', 'medication adherence', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance', and 'medications' was done to capture all articles. We included articles measuring adherence using both monitoring devices and SRQs. Thirty-five articles were included in this review. The average difference in measured adherence rates between the two measures was 9.2% (range -66.3 to 61.5). A majority (62.7%) of articles reported moderate (n = 12; 27.9%), high (n = 5, 11.6%), or significant (n = 10, 23.3%) correlations between SRQs and monitoring devices. Results from our review are consistent with previous studies, as we found that many of our studies produced moderate to high correlation between both SRQs and monitoring devices [Farmer, Clin Ther 21(6):1074-90 (1999), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable costs in US health care (2012), Patel et al., Respirology 18(3):546-52 (2013), Siracusa et al., J Cyst Fibros 14(5):621-6 (2015), Smith et al., Int J Cardiol 145(1):122-3 (2010)]. Our findings demonstrate that self-reported adherence produces comparable results to electronic monitoring devices. As there is not yet a 'gold standard' measure for monitoring patient adherence, SRQs and Medication Event Monitoring Systems

  16. Mental health self-care in medical students: a comprehensive look at help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jessica A; Johnson, Benjamin; Leydon, Gary; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Wilkins, Kirsten M

    2015-02-01

    The authors characterize medical student help-seeking behaviors and examine the relationship with stress, burnout, stigma, depression, and personal health behaviors. In 2013, the authors administered an electronic survey of all enrolled students at Yale School of Medicine (183 responders, response rate=35 %), inquiring about students' primary medical and mental health care, personal health behaviors, support systems, and help-seeking behaviors. Students completed the Attitudes to Mental Health Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, and a modified Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analyzed the results with logistic regression, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, or a test for significance of Kendall rank correlation. Most students reported having a primary care provider (PCP), yet few reported seeking care when sick (33 %). Nineteen percent of students reported having a mental health provider, fewer than reported having a PCP (pstudents reported increased mental health needs since beginning medical school, and these students were more likely to agree that their needs were untreated. The majority of students endorsed stress, which correlated with increased and unmet mental health needs (pstudents and correlated with stress and increased and untreated needs. Most students reported comfort with asking for academic help; those uncomfortable were more likely to have mental health needs for which they did not seek treatment (p=0.004). Mental health stigma was low. Medical students had a significant unmet need for health care, influenced by barriers to accessing care, stress, burnout, and depression. Academic help seeking and supportive faculty relationships appear related to mental health treatment seeking. Targeted interventions for stress and burnout reduction, as well as incorporation of reflective practice, may have an impact on overall care seeking among medical students. Future studies should expand to other medical and professional

  17. Who Am I, and Who Do I Strive to Be? Applying a Theory of Self-Conscious Emotions to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, William E; Artino, Anthony R

    2018-06-01

    The self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride are a distinct set of cognitively complex, powerful, and ubiquitous emotions that arise when an individual engages in self-evaluation. Currently, little is known about the influence or outcomes of self-conscious emotions in medical learners. In this article, the authors present a leading theory of self-conscious emotions that outlines the appraisals and attributions that give rise to and differentiate shame, guilt, and two forms of pride. The authors then apply the theory to three relevant topics in medical education: perfectionism, professional identity formation, and motivation. In doing so, the authors present novel ways of viewing these topics through the lens of self-conscious emotion, suggest areas of future research, and outline a framework for emotional resilience training. Ultimately, the goal of this article is to highlight the fundamental nature of shame, guilt, and pride, which the authors believe are underappreciated and understudied in medical education, and to inform future empirical study on the role that these emotions might play in medical education. Additionally, from a practical standpoint, this article aims to encourage educators and learners to recognize self-conscious emotions in themselves and their colleagues, and to begin developing more resilient approaches to learning-approaches that acknowledge and confront shame, guilt, and pride in medical education.

  18. Self-Perceived End-of-Life Care Competencies of Health-Care Providers at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Marcos; Smith, Heather M; Price, Deborah M; Ghosh, Bidisha; Strodtman, Linda

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most deaths occur in hospitals, with approximately 25% of hospitalized patients having palliative care needs. Therefore, the provision of good end-of-life (EOL) care to these patients is a priority. However, research assessing staff preparedness for the provision of EOL care to hospitalized patients is lacking. To assess health-care professionals' self-perceived competencies regarding the provision of EOL care in hospitalized patients. Descriptive study of self-perceived EOL care competencies among health-care professionals. The study instrument (End-of-Life Questionnaire) contains 28 questions assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to the provision of EOL care. Health-care professionals (nursing, medicine, social work, psychology, physical, occupational and respiratory therapist, and spiritual care) at a large academic medical center participated in the study. Means were calculated for each item, and comparisons of mean scores were conducted via t tests. Analysis of variance was used to identify differences among groups. A total of 1197 questionnaires was completed. The greatest self-perceived competency was in providing emotional support for patients/families, and the least self-perceived competency was in providing continuity of care. When compared to nurses, physicians had higher scores on EOL care attitudes, behaviors, and communication. Physicians and nurses had higher scores on most subscales than other health-care providers. Differences in self-perceived EOL care competencies were identified among disciplines, particularly between physicians and nurses. The results provide evidence for assessing health-care providers to identify their specific training needs before implementing educational programs on EOL care.

  19. eDrugCalc: an online self-assessment package to enhance medical students' drug dose calculation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Daniel S; Begg, Michael J; Maxwell, Simon R J

    2010-10-01

    Dose calculation errors can cause serious life-threatening clinical incidents. We designed eDrugCalc as an online self-assessment tool to develop and evaluate calculation skills among medical students. We undertook a prospective uncontrolled study involving 1727 medical students in years 1-5 at the University of Edinburgh. Students had continuous access to eDrugCalc and were encouraged to practise. Voluntary self-assessment was undertaken by answering the 20 questions on six occasions over 30 months. Questions remained fixed but numerical variables changed so each visit required a fresh calculation. Feedback was provided following each answer. Final-year students had a significantly higher mean score in test 6 compared with test 1 [16.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.2, 17.0 vs. 12.6, 95% CI 11.9, 13.4; n= 173, P variable in all tests with 2.7% of final-year students scoring formative dose-calculation package and encouragement to develop their numeracy. Further research is required to establish whether eDrugCalc reduces calculation errors made in clinical practice. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Preserving third year medical students' empathy and enhancing self-reflection using small group "virtual hangout" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Pamela; Grosseman, Suely; Novack, Dennis H; Rosenzweig, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Medical student professionalism education is challenging in scope, purpose, and delivery, particularly in the clinical years when students in large universities are dispersed across multiple clinical sites. We initiated a faculty-facilitated, peer small group course for our third year students, creating virtual classrooms using social networking and online learning management system technologies. The course emphasized narrative self-reflection, group inquiry, and peer support. We conducted this study to analyze the effects of a professionalism course on third year medical students' empathy and self-reflection (two elements of professionalism) and their perceptions about the course. Students completed the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) before and after the course and provided anonymous online feedback. The results of the JSE before and after the course demonstrated preservation of empathy rather than its decline. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in GRAS scores (p < 0.001), suggesting that the sharing of personal narratives may foster reflective ability and reflective practice among third year students. This study supports previous findings showing that students benefit from peer groups and discussion in a safe environment, which may include the use of a virtual group video platform.

  1. Evaluation of an assertiveness training program on nursing and medical students' assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ru; Shiah, I-Shin; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lai, Tzu-Ju; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2004-11-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of an assertiveness training program on nursing and medical students' assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction. Using a longitudinal research design, 69 participants whose scores on the Assertive Scale were assertiveness) and who were willing to participate were included and assigned to an experimental group (33 subjects) or comparison group (36 participants; participants were matched with the experimental group by grade and sex). Participants in the experimental group received eight 2-h sessions of assertiveness training once a week. Data were collected before and after training and again one month after the end of the training using the Rotter's Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement Scale, Sex Role Inventory, Assertive Scale, Esteem Scale, and Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction Inventory. The generalized estimated equation (GEE) method was used for statistical analysis. The assertiveness and self-esteem of the experimental group were significantly improved in nursing and medical students after assertiveness training, although interpersonal communication satisfaction of the experimental group was not significantly improved after the training program.

  2. Guided graded exercise self-help plus specialist medical care versus specialist medical care alone for chronic fatigue syndrome (GETSET): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lucy V; Pesola, Francesca; Thomas, Janice M; Vergara-Williamson, Mario; Beynon, Michelle; White, Peter D

    2017-07-22

    Graded exercise therapy is an effective and safe treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, but it is therapist intensive and availability is limited. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of graded exercise delivered as guided self-help. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we recruited adult patients (18 years and older) who met the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome from two secondary-care clinics in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned to receive specialist medical care (SMC) alone (control group) or SMC with additional guided graded exercise self-help (GES). Block randomisation (randomly varying block sizes) was done at the level of the individual with a computer-generated sequence and was stratified by centre, depression score, and severity of physical disability. Patients and physiotherapists were necessarily unmasked from intervention assignment; the statistician was masked from intervention assignment. SMC was delivered by specialist doctors but was not standardised; GES consisted of a self-help booklet describing a six-step graded exercise programme that would take roughly 12 weeks to complete, and up to four guidance sessions with a physiotherapist over 8 weeks (maximum 90 min in total). Primary outcomes were fatigue (measured by the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire) and physical function (assessed by the Short Form-36 physical function subscale); both were self-rated by patients at 12 weeks after randomisation and analysed in all randomised patients with outcome data at follow-up (ie, by modified intention to treat). We recorded adverse events, including serious adverse reactions to trial interventions. We used multiple linear regression analysis to compare SMC with GES, adjusting for baseline and stratification factors. This trial is registered at ISRCTN, number ISRCTN22975026. Between May 15, 2012, and Dec 24, 2014, we recruited 211 eligible patients, of whom 107 were assigned to the

  3. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Danping; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Juying; Duan, Zhanqi

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers. We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, Pfamily conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction accounted for 2.6% (F = 5.93, Pfamily conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China.

  4. The Educational Kanban: promoting effective self-directed adult learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart

    2009-07-01

    The author reviews the many forces that have driven contemporary medical education approaches to evaluation and places them in an adult learning theory context. After noting their strengths and limitations, the author looks to lessons learned from manufacturing on both efficacy and efficiency and explores how these can be applied to the process of trainee assessment in medical education.Building on this, the author describes the rationale for and development of the Educational Kanban (EK) at Children's Hospital Boston--specifically, how it was designed to integrate adult learning theory, Japanese manufacturing models, and educator observations into a unique form of teacher-student collaboration that allows for continuous improvement. It is a formative tool, built on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies, that guides educational efforts to optimize teaching and learning, promotes adult learner responsibility and efficacy, and takes advantage of the labor-intensive clinical educational setting. The author discusses how this model, which will be implemented in July 2009, will lead to training that is highly individualized, optimizes faculty and student educational efforts, and ultimately conserves faculty resources. A model EK is provided for general reference.The EK represents a novel approach to adult learning that will enhance educational effectiveness and efficiency and complement existing evaluative models. Described here in a specific graduate medical setting, it can readily be adapted and integrated into a wide range of undergraduate and graduate clinical educational environments.

  5. Investigating a self-scoring interview simulation for learning and assessment in the medical consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruen C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Bruen,1 Clarence Kreiter,2 Vincent Wade,3 Teresa Pawlikowska1 1Health Professions Education Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 3School of Computer Science and Statistics, Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Experience with simulated patients supports undergraduate learning of medical consultation skills. Adaptive simulations are being introduced into this environment. The authors investigate whether it can underpin valid and reliable assessment by conducting a generalizability analysis using IT data analytics from the interaction of medical students (in psychiatry with adaptive simulations to explore the feasibility of adaptive simulations for supporting automated learning and assessment. The generalizability (G study was focused on two clinically relevant variables: clinical decision points and communication skills. While the G study on the communication skills score yielded low levels of true score variance, the results produced by the decision points, indicating clinical decision-making and confirming user knowledge of the process of the Calgary–Cambridge model of consultation, produced reliability levels similar to what might be expected with rater-based scoring. The findings indicate that adaptive simulations have potential as a teaching and assessment tool for medical consultations. Keywords: medical education, simulation technology, competency assessment, generalizability theory

  6. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  7. Self-reported medical care seeking behaviour of doctors in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Fawibe

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... b Department of Family Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching ... Purpose: This work was therefore designed to study the medical care ... for their health problems and find it difficult to adopt the role ..... Conflict of interest. None ...

  8. Learning Medical School Biochemistry Through Self-Directed Case-Oriented Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Colin G. D.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Describes an alternative medical school curriculum for the first two years of preclinical basic science studies. Discusses student and faculty selection for the program. Details the format for teaching biochemistry in the Alternative Curriculum, including program structure, content organization and exams. Evaluates the success of the program. (CW)

  9. Self-reported cannabis use characteristics, patterns and helpfulness among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bucossi, Meggan M; Babson, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Little research has investigated the demographic and symptom profile of medical cannabis users in states in the USA that have legalized cannabis use. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the demographic profile of 217 adults currently receiving medical cannabis, as well as differences in problematic use and perceived helpfulness in terms of (i) symptoms of psychological disorders and pain, and (ii) motives for use. Findings indicated that medical cannabis users (i) use and perceive cannabis to be beneficial for multiple conditions, some for which cannabis is not specifically prescribed or allowed at the state level; and (ii) report similar rates of disordered use as compared with population estimates among regular users. Furthermore, problematic cannabis use was predicted by several symptoms of psychological disorders (e.g. depression) and a variety of use motives (e.g. coping), while cannabis was reported as particularly helpful among those with several psychological symptoms (e.g. traumatic intrusions), as well as those reporting use for social anxiety reasons. Results are discussed in terms of future directions for research given the current debates regarding legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and, more generally, the lack of empirical data to inform such debates.

  10. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  11. Topical ear drop self-medication practice among the Ear, Nose, and Throat patients in Ido Ekiti, Nigeria: A cross - sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Toye Gabriel; Aremu, Kayode Shuaib; Esan, Olaide T; Dosunmu, Adepeju Oluwatona; Raji, Mustapha Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Self-medication is a common habit in our country; Nigeria, especially among patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders. Medication when taken wrongly may bring dire consequences to the individual, such as masking developing diseases and may cause many other undesirable effects. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to analyze topical ear drop self-medication practices among respondents attending the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Nigeria. A 6-month hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who were seen in the Ear, Nose, and Throat facility of Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti from July to December 2016 to determine topical ear drop self-medication practices. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtained information from respondents. A total of 162 respondents out of 493 patients seen during the study had otological problems. Of which 107 (66%) respondents had engaged in self-medication with topical ear drops. Their ages ranged between 2 and 83 years with a mean age of 36.6 ± 19.1 years. There were 75 males and 87 females. The major reason for self-medication was that their ailments were minor in about 40.2% and the most common indication for self-medication was ear blockage with hearing impairment (33.6%). Pharmacy/chemist shops (42%) were major sources of information for those that self-medicated. Chloramphenicol and gentamycin were the major drugs that were used by the respondents. Majority of the respondents in this study practiced self-medication using different topical ear drops. Major source of information on the topical ear drops used was from pharmacy/chemist shops. There is a need for adequate public health education to create awareness among people on the danger of self-medication and to enact or enforce the law to reduce access to over the counter drugs. Healthcare should be made available and avoidable at primary health-care level.

  12. Impact of community-based health insurance in rural India on self-medication & financial protection of the insured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Dror

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households′ self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i household surveys, and (ii the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM. To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD, and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013, self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH′s location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to self-care communication during medical appointments in the United States for adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritholz, Marilyn D; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Brooks, Kelly M; Abrahamson, Martin J; Weinger, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes self-care is challenging and requires effective patient-provider communication to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. This study explored perceptions of barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-care communication during medical appointments. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a semistructured interview guide. Thirty-four patients with type 2 diabetes and 19 physicians who treat type 2 diabetes. Physicians described some patients as reluctant to discuss their self-care behaviors primarily because of fear of being judged, guilt, and shame. Similarly, patients described reluctant communication resulting from fear of being judged and shame, particularly shame surrounding food intake and weight. Physicians and patients recommended trust, nonjudgmental acceptance, open/honest communication, and providing patients hope for living with diabetes as important factors for improving self-care communication. Further, patients stressed the clinical benefits of physicians directly addressing poor self-care behaviors while physicians described having few strategies to address these difficulties. Physician-patient self-care communication barriers included patients' reluctance to discuss self-care behaviors and physicians' perceptions of few options to address this reluctance. Treatment recommendations stressed the importance of establishing trusting, nonjudgmental and open patient-provider communication for optimal diabetes treatment. Medical education is needed to improve physicians' strategies for addressing self-care communication during medical appointments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Cancer Screening Among Patients Who Self-Identify as Muslim: Combining Self-Reported Data with Medical Records in a Family Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, A K; Slater, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Cancer screening is a core component of family medicine but screening inequalities are well documented in Canada for foreign-born persons. Although people of Muslim faith and culture are the fastest growing immigrant population in Canada, there is little information in the literature about their cancer screening practices. Determining screening gaps could inform practice-based quality improvement initiatives. We conducted a retrospective chart review combining patient-level medical record data with self-reported religious affiliation to examine the relationship between religion and cancer screening in a large multi-site urban family practice. Religious affiliation was classified as Muslim, other affiliation, or atheist/no religious affiliation. 5311 patients were included in the study sample. Muslim patients were significantly less likely to prefer English for spoken communication than the other two groups, less likely to be Canadian-born, more likely to have a female family physician, and were over-represented in the lowest income quintile. Muslim women were most likely to be up-to-date on breast cancer screening (85.2 vs. 77.5 % for those with other religions vs. 69.5 % for those with no religious affiliation). There were no significant differences in cancer screening by physician sex. In this pilot study conducted within a primary care practice, we used self-reported data on religious affiliation to examine possible inequities in cancer screening and observed intriguing variations in screening by self-identified religious affiliation. Future efforts to collect and use similar patient-level data should incorporate non-official languages and intensively outreach to patients with less health system contact. Regardless, the family medicine context may be the ideal setting to collect and act on patient-level sociodemographic data such as religious affiliation.

  15. A survey of mindset theories of intelligence and medical error self-reporting among pediatric housestaff and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathesan, Mithila; Vitberg, Yaffa M; Pusic, Martin V

    2016-02-11

    Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting.  We sent an anonymous electronic survey to pediatric residents and attending pediatricians at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Respondents completed the "Theories of Intelligence Inventory" which classifies individuals on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (Fixed Mindset) to 6 (Growth Mindset). Subsequent questions collected data on respondents' recall of medical errors by self or others. We received 176/349 responses (50 %). Participants were equally distributed between mindsets with 84 (49 %) classified as "fixed" and 86 (51 %) as "growth". Residents, fellows and attendings did not differ in terms of mindset. Mindset did not correlate with the small number of reported medical errors. There is no dominant theory of intelligence (mindset) amongst pediatric physicians. The distribution is similar to that seen in the general population. Mindset did not correlate with error reports.

  16. An epidemiological study on herbal product self-medication practice among psychotic outpatients from Serbia: A cross-sectional study

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    Gordana Nikolić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of herbal products (HPs is a common practice in the traditional medicine of people from southeastern Serbia. In this study, we focused on the usage of HPs as a self-medication practice among patients diagnosed with a mental illness, by aiming to ascertain the usage prevalence, the identity of the main plant taxa utilized, their formulations and target symptoms. This was accomplished through a cross-sectional study of psychiatric outpatients, conducted in the Clinic for Mental Health Protection in Niš, and which included a questionnaire on HP utilization and a non-structured psychiatric interview. Typically, single, middle-aged males, with a secondary education degree, utilized Matricaria chamomilla and/or Melissa officinalis in a form of an infusion (tea for relieving anxiety and psychotic symptoms. In some cases, adverse effects were noted when HPs were used in combination with prescribed psychotropic medications. Our and previous results urge a thorough evaluation of possible benefits and/or harmful interactions of HP with standard medication in the treatment of psychiatric patients.

  17. Socio-economics: a propensity of self-medication among OPD patients of a teaching hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Subha Sankar Chattopadhyay; Angana Datta; Aritra Ghosh; Suvadip Biswas; Krishnendu Mandal; Supreeti Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of over the counter (OTC) drug is very much common in India. Not only medical professionals or educated urban population but also it is common in rural area and low educated person. This study was done to assess the extent of knowledge and practices of OTC drugs among OPD patients of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 1680 Medicine OPD (outpatient department) patients. Results: Among the participants, 62% patients taking ...

  18. Self-Reported Behaviour about Internet Addiction among Medical and Paramedical Students

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    Akila Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internet has become an essential tool in day to day life. It has become an important and convenient mode for networking and information exchange. Excessive use of internet adversely affects an individual’s physical, mental and social health along with academic performance. Aim: The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of internet addiction among undergraduate and postgraduate medical and paramedical students and also the effect of internet on gender. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire based, cross-sectional study carried out among 1011 medical and paramedical undergraduate and postgraduate students of Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. A questionnaire consisting of two components; basic demographic information of the participants and Modified Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT was used to gather data. The normal users were categorized as non-addicts and mild, moderate and severe users were categorized as addicts. Descriptive statistics was calculated in terms of frequency and percentage. Inferential statistics was calculated using Chi-Square test. Results: According to the findings, most of the students were mild internet addicts 590 (58.40% followed by moderate addicts 239 (23.60%, normal users 171 (16.90% and severe addicts 11 (1.10%. Prevalence of internet addiction was outnumbered by medical 112 (91.10% students among all the other medical and paramedical specialties. Conclusion: Internet addiction has become an emerging problem among the professional students, which has educational, physical and mental impact on student’s life. So, it is necessary to understand the importance of prevention of internet addiction, which is essential for promoting safe and healthy use of the internet.

  19. The Development of Self-Regulated Learning during the Pre-Clinical Stage of Medical School: A Comparison between a Lecture-Based and a Problem-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Susanna M.; van der Geest, Jos N.; Elói-Santos, Silvana M.; de Faria, Rosa M. Dellbone; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2016-01-01

    Society expects physicians to always improve their competencies and to be up to date with developments in their field. Therefore, an important aim of medical schools is to educate future medical doctors to become self-regulated, lifelong learners. However, it is unclear if medical students become better self-regulated learners during the…

  20. Evaluation of antibiotic self-medication among outpatients of the state university hospital of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Kenny; Bernard, Joseph Junior; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2017-01-01

    In Haiti, where all drugs are available over the counter, self-medication with antibiotics appears as a common practice. Inappropriate use of beta-lactams and macrolides is likely to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to (i) assess the extent of self-medication with antibiotics, (ii) explore the contributing factors (age, gender and educational background) and (iii) identify specific antibiotic drug classes used among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince. A cross-sectional survey among 200 outpatients of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince was conducted in December 2014. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Parents of pediatric patients were allowed to answer to questions on their behalf. Among the study sample, 45.5% practiced self-medication with antibiotics. It was less prevalent among patients with the highest education level (23.1%; OR: 0.89 (0.5-1.75), p = 0.001). Mild symptoms (28.6%) and vaginal itching (44.4%) were the main reasons for self-medication with antibiotics. Self-medication using amoxicillin was reported by 67.0%. Self-medication with antibiotics is a common practice among Haitian patients and is more common among the less educated. Amoxicillin for urinary tract infections is the most commonly used medication. It is crucial to raise awareness on the dangers of the practice in the population and inforce the current law regarding the use of over the counter antibiotics.

  1. Evaluation of an mHealth Medication Regimen Self-Management Program for African American and Hispanic Uncontrolled Hypertensives

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    Tatiana M. Davidson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African Americans and Hispanics have disproportionate rates of uncontrolled essential hypertension (EH compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Medication non-adherence (MNA is the leading modifiable behavior to improved blood pressure (BP control. The Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH program was developed using a patient-centered, theory-guided, iterative design process. Electronic medication trays provided reminder signals, and Short Message Service [SMS] messaging reminded subjects to monitor BP with Bluetooth-enabled monitors. Motivational and reinforcement text messages were sent to participants based upon levels of adherence. Thirty-eight African-American (18 and Hispanic (20 uncontrolled hypertensives completed clinic-based anthropometric and resting BP evaluations prior to randomization, and again at months 1, 3 and 6. Generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM revealed statistically significant time-by-treatment interactions (p < 0.0001 indicating significant reductions in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP for the SMASH group vs. the standard care (SC control group across all time points. 70.6% of SMASH subjects vs. 15.8% of the SC group reached BP control (< 140/90 mmH at month 1 (p < 0.001. At month 6, 94.4% of the SMASH vs. 41.2% of the SC group exhibited controlled BP (p < 0.003. Our findings provide encouraging evidence that efficacious mHealth, chronic disease, medical regimen, self-management programs can be developed following principles of patient-centered, theory-guided design.

  2. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark

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    Rie Raffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors’ self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. Conclusions The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. Trial registration The Scientific Ethical Committee

  3. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-10-23

    Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors' self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. The Scientific Ethical Committee for the Capital Region of Denmark. Number: H-3-2010-101, date: 2010.09.29.

  4. Determining nurses\\' clinical competence in hospitals of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences by self assessment method

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    Masood mahreini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses’ self awareness of their own level of clinical competence is essential in maintaining high standards of care and identifying areas of educational need and professional development. Self-assessment is a method for measuring clinical competence, and encourages nurses to use reflective thinking and take an active part in the learning process. Although nurse competence may vary between hospitals, very few studies have been done on this subject. Methods: In this cross sectional study, we analyzed clinical competency of 190 registered nurses working in different hospitals in Bushehr by self assessment method. The instrument for data collection was a valid and reliable questionnaire consisting of 73 items from seven categories which were devised from Benner's “from Novice to Expert” framework. The level of competence was assessed on a scale of 0-100 and the frequency of using the competencies was assessed on a Likert scale. Results: the nurses reported their overall level of competence as “good” (51-75. They felt more competent in the categories of “managing situations” and “helping role” (with maximum score of 79.54 and least competent in “teaching – coaching” and “ensuring quality” categories (with minimum score of 61.15. The frequency of practicing competencies had a positive correlation with the level of nursing clinical competence. Conclusion: The level of nursing competence and frequency of using competencies varied in different hospitals. Although the nurses reported their overall level of competence as good, we should be concerned about 24% of competencies which are not used by the nurses, especially in "teaching – coaching" and "ensuring quality" categories.

  5. Effects of differences in problem-based learning course length on academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yune, So Jung; Im, Sun Ju; Lee, Sun Hee; Baek, Sun Yong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2010-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational approach in which complex authentic problems serve as the context and stimulus for learning. PBL is designed to encourage active participation during learning. The goal of this study was to study the effects of PBL on academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness in medical school students. The subjects of this study were 190 students in the 1st and 2nd grade of medical school. The period of the PBL course was two weeks for Year 1 and five weeks for Year 2 students. Students completed one module over one week. Academic motivation tests and self-directed learning readiness tests were performed before and after the PBL course. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures MANCOVA. PBL had positive effects on academic self-efficacy (self-control efficacy, task-level preference) and academic failure tolerance (behavior, task-difficulty preference) as academic motivation. PBL had a mildly positive effect on self-directed learning readiness. In addition, the five-week PBL course had greater positive effects on academic motivation than the two-week course but not with regard to self-directed learning readiness. Medical students engage in academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness during PBL, suggesting that the five-week PBL course has greater positive effects than the two-week course. Future studies are needed to confirm the most effective periods of PBL.

  6. High fidelity medical simulation in the difficult environment of a helicopter: feasibility, self-efficacy and cost

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    Holland Carolyn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the feasibility, self-efficacy and cost of providing a high fidelity medical simulation experience in the difficult environment of an air ambulance helicopter. Methods Seven of 12 EM residents in their first postgraduate year participated in an EMS flight simulation as the flight physician. The simulation used the Laerdal SimMan™ to present a cardiac and a trauma case in an EMS helicopter while running at flight idle. Before and after the simulation, subjects completed visual analog scales and a semi-structured interview to measure their self-efficacy, i.e. comfort with their ability to treat patients in the helicopter, and recognition of obstacles to care in the helicopter environment. After all 12 residents had completed their first non-simulated flight as the flight physician; they were surveyed about self-assessed comfort and perceived value of the simulation. Continuous data were compared between pre- and post-simulation using a paired samples t-test, and between residents participating in the simulation and those who did not using an independent samples t-test. Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. Cost data for the simulation experience were estimated by the investigators. Results The simulations functioned correctly 5 out of 7 times; suggesting some refinement is necessary. Cost data indicated a monetary cost of $440 and a time cost of 22 hours of skilled instructor time. The simulation and non-simulation groups were similar in their demographics and pre-hospital experiences. The simulation did not improve residents' self-assessed comfort prior to their first flight (p > 0.234, but did improve understanding of the obstacles to patient care in the helicopter (p = 0.029. Every resident undertaking the simulation agreed it was educational and it should be included in their training. Qualitative data suggested residents would benefit from high fidelity simulation in other

  7. A case of sudden cardiac death following Domperidone self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Vermiglio, Elisa; Laposata, Chiara; Lockwood, Robert; Gottardo, Rossella; De Leo, Domenico

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of sudden cardiac death is usually related to the worsening of existing heart conditions leading to ventricular arrhythmia (VA). One of the well-known triggers of SCD is drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval, such as that caused by Domperidone (D). Despite its risk to prolong the QT interval and associated narrow therapeutic index, D is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in many countries such as Italy, Ireland, Netherlands, China, South Africa, Mexico, New Zealand and Chile to treat gastroesophageal reflux and functional dyspepsia. The present paper reports a case of SCD that occurred some hours after D self-administration in a 47-year-old female subject with mitral valve prolapse, thus, predisposed to both VA and SCD. Despite the risks related to D administration, to the best of our knowledge, this particular issue has not been discussed in the medico-legal literature. For this reason, the forensic implications of D administration are discussed focusing on issues related to the self-administration as an OTC drug (as seen in this case), administration to incapacitated subjects, prescription to patients with contraindications and the off-label drug use of D at high and hazardous concentrations to stimulate lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parochialism or self-consciousness? Internationality in medical history journals 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view.

  9. Parochialism or Self-Consciousness? Internationality in Medical History Journals 1997–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view. PMID:22028500

  10. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loayza H. Maria Paz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years. The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder was 22.19%; and of insomnia, 28.15%. Difficulty initiating sleep (OR=3.45, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=7.61, falling asleep later (OR=1.99 and waking up earlier (OR=1.91 were associated with suspicion of psychiatric disorder. As a group, the variables difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, falling asleep after 11 pm, and waking up before 6 am presented an odds ratio of 5.96 for positivity in the screening for psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=2.24 was associated with "being female," and falling asleep later (OR=0.43 was associated with "being male". These results underscore the importance of determining in what cases difficulty sleeping may have severe clinical repercussions or affect performance.

  11. How self-determination theory can assist our understanding of the teaching and learning processes in medical education. AMEE guide No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Th J; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Self-determination Theory (SDT), designed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, serves among the current major motivational theories in psychology. SDT research has been conducted in many areas, among which are education and health care, but its applications in medical education are rare. The potential of SDT to help understand processes in medical education justifies this Guide. SDT is explained in seven principles, one of which is the distinction of three innate psychological needs of human beings: for competence, for autonomy and for relatedness. Further, SDT elaborates how humans tend to internalise regulation of behaviour that initially has been external, in order to develop autonomous, self-determined behaviour. Implications of SDT for medical education are discussed with reference to preparation and selection, curriculum structure, classroom teaching, assessments and examinations, self-directed learning, clinical teaching, students as teachers and researchers, continuing professional development, faculty development and stress among trainees.

  12. Self-directed learning: Status of final-year students and perceptions of selected faculty leadership in a Nigerian medical school – a mixed analysis study

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    T E Nottidge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-directed learning (SDL is the essential mechanism of lifelong learning, which, in turn, is required for medical professionals to maintain competency because of advancing technology and constantly evolving disease care and contexts. Yet, most Nigerian medical schools do not actively promote SDL skills for medical students. Objective. To evaluate the status of SDL behaviour among final-year students, and the perceptions of faculty leadership towards SDL in a Nigerian medical school. Methods. A mixed research method was used, with a survey consisting of a validated Likert-based self-rating scale for SDL (SRSSDL to assess students’ SDL behaviour. Focus group discussions with selected faculty leaders were thematically analysed to assess their perceptions of SDL. Results. The medical students reported moderate SDL behaviour, contrary to faculty, who considered their students’ SDL behaviour to be low. Faculty leadership further defined SDL as the self-motivated student demonstrating initiative in learning under the guidance of teachers, who use interactive forums for teaching. Furthermore, teachers and students should partner towards the goal of ensuring that student learning takes place. Teachers expressed concerns about SDL methods in medical schools owing to the fear that this will require medical students to teach themselves medicine without expert guidance from teachers. Conclusion. This study suggests that final-year students have a low to moderate level of SDL behaviour. The index faculty are willing to develop teacherguided self-motivated learning for their students, rather than strict SDL. Faculty should be concerned about this behaviour and should encourage SDL in such a way that students realise its benefits to become lifelong learners. Further study of the perceptions about self-regulated learning are recommended.

  13. Implementing video cases in clinical paediatric teaching increases medical students' self-assessed confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malon, Michelle; Cortes, Dina; Andersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of video cases in clinical education is rarely used systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical students (n = 127) reported by questionnaire whether they had or had not seen a bedside case of each of 22 specific clinical conditions during their five-week clinical course...... the intervention, this share was 75% (218/289) (p = 0.06). Furthermore, internal as well as external examiners found video cases valuable, but the use of videos did not change the average examination grade. CONCLUSION: A video case supplement to teaching in clinical paediatrics was considered to be of value...... for teaching. We were successful in establishing an educational resource that students considered useful. Internal and external examiners found that a short video case was a valuable supplementary tool during the oral examination. FUNDING: The University of Copenhagen funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  14. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fujita, Shoichiro

    1977-01-01

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  15. Self-medication hypothesis in substance-abusing psychotic patients: Can it help some subjects?

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    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The evidence for gself.medication hypothesish (SMH in patients with dual diagnosis psychosis has been conflicting, though largely not supported, recently. But, still can SMH be a beneficial one in some patients with dual diagnosis remains a question. Methods: The study was conducted at Drug De.addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. This cross.sectional comparative study had psychotic patients with substance use disorder as cases and those without substance use disorder as controls. Demographic details, clinical information, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores were ascertained for cases and controls. Cases were additionally administered modified Stated Reasons Scale and modified Perceived Effects Scale. Results: Case and controls were comparable on demographic details and duration of psychotic illness, but cases had significantly lower scores on BPRS. The reasons reported for substance abuse in cases were more often nonhedonistic than hedonistic. Perceived effects of major substances of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, and opioids were different. Alcohol use was associated with perceived decrease in loneliness and cannabis was associated with perceived increase in suspiciousness and delusions. Considerable match was found between reasons for taking the substances and the effects perceived. Interpretation and Conclusions: Incorporating reasons for taking substance and their perceived effects in the treatment regimen would certainly help a subset of such difficult.to.treat patients. India being a low.resource country with a scarcity of experts and specialized dual diagnosis clinics, these findings may have an important implication in the clinical practice.

  16. Online continuing medical education as a key link for successful noncommunicable disease self-management: the CASALUD™ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo-Rincón H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor Gallardo-Rincón,1 Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez,1 Ricardo Mujica-Rosales,1 Evan M Lee,2 Amy Israel,2 Braulio Torres-Beltran,3 Úrsula Quijano-González,3 Elena Rose Atkinson,3 Pablo Kuri-Morales,4 Roberto Tapia-Conyer1 1Fundación Carlos Slim, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Lilly Global Health, Eli Lilly and Company, Vernier, Switzerland; 3C230 Consultores, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Mexican Ministry of Health, Mexico City, Mexico Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the benefits of online continuing medical education (CME provided to health care professionals traveled along a patient “educational chain”. In this study, the educational chain begins with the influence that CME can have on the quality of health care, with subsequent influence on patient knowledge, disease self-management, and disease biomarkers. Methods: A total of 422 patients with at least one noncommunicable disease (NCD treated in eight different Mexican public health clinics were followed over 3 years. All clinics were participants in the CASALUD Model, an NCD care model for primary care, where all clinic staff were offered CME. Data were collected through a questionnaire on health care, patient disease knowledge, and self-management behaviors; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were collected to measure patient disease biomarkers. Results: Between 2013 and 2015, the indexes measuring quality of health care, patient health knowledge, and diabetes self-management activities rose moderately but significantly (from 0.54 to 0.64, 0.80 to 0.84, and 0.62 to 0.67, respectively. Performing self-care activities – including owning and using a glucometer and belonging to a disease support group – saw the highest increase (from 0.65 to 0.75. A1C levels increased between 2013 and 2015 from 7.95 to 8.41% (63–68 mmol/mol (P<0.001, and blood pressure decreased between 2014 and 2015 from 143.7/76.8 to 137.5/74.4 (systolic/diastolic reported in mmHg (P<0

  17. The Effects of Model-Based Educational Intervention on Self-medication Behavior in Mothers with Children less than 2- year

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    Rostam Heydartabar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication by people is one of the major issues in the world that can be lead to numerous medical and economic problems, this especially issue in children under 2 years who are at the age of growth and development have great importance. The aim of this study was investigate the effects of model-based educational interventions on self-medication behavior in mothers with children under 2 years of age who referred to the health centers of Firoozkooh city (Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was quasi - experimental interventional study. The study population consisted of mothers with children under 2 years old referring to health centers of the Firoozkooh city, Iran. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire which its validity and reliability was assessed than was used. The required information was collected before and after the educational intervention. Then 4 months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Significant difference was not found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy with performance (self-medication before the educational intervention (P>0.05. But after the educational intervention, statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy with performance (P

  18. Evaluation of a community-based training to promote responsible self-medication in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, Adji P; Wibowo, Yosi; Setiawan, Eko; Presley, Bobby; Mulyono, Ika; Wardhani, Ari S; Sunderland, Bruce

    2018-05-24

    To explore pharmacist/pharmacy staff trainers' perspectives on conducting community-based training to promote responsible self-medication, and to evaluate knowledge gained among community representatives participating in the training. Training was conducted in four districts/cities in East Java, Indonesia in 2016. A pre-test/post-test study was used to evaluate the knowledge of 129 community representatives (participants) before/after the training; pre-test and post-test scores as well as absolute gain were determined. Four focus group discussions with 20 pharmacist/pharmacy staff (trainers) were conducted after the training, and the data were thematically analysed. Overall mean test scores for community representatives significantly improved from 14.11 to 15.70 after the training (P < 0.001). The average total absolute gain was 1.85 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.39). To reach local communities, trainers suggested improvements to the content and structure of the module, training aids, trainer competency, approach and time allocation. Community-based training provides a potential strategy to improve community knowledge of medications. Findings from this study should inform strategies for a broader uptake amongst local communities in Indonesia. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Validation of the MedUseQ: A Self-Administered Screener for Older Adults to Assess Medication Use Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Rebecca L; Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Robinson, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Older adults taking multiple prescription and nonprescription drugs are at risk for medication use problems, yet there are few brief, self-administered screening tools designed specifically for them. The study objective was to develop and validate a patient-centered screener for community-dwelling older adults. In phase 1, a convenience sample of 57 stakeholders (older adults, pharmacists, nurses, and physicians) participated in concept mapping, using Concept System® Global MAX TM , to identify items for a questionnaire. In phase 2, a 40-item questionnaire was tested with a convenience sample of 377 adults and a 24-item version was tested with 306 older adults, aged 55 and older, using Rasch methodology. In phase 3, stakeholder focus groups provided feedback on the format of questionnaire materials and recommended strategies for addressing problems. The concept map contained 72 statements organized into 6 conceptual clusters or domains. The 24-item screener was unidimensional. Cronbach's alpha was .87, person reliability was acceptable (.74), and item reliability was high (.96). The MedUseQ is a validated, patient-centered tool targeting older adults that can be used to assess a wide range of medication use problems in clinical and community settings and to identify areas for education, intervention, or further assessment.

  20. Emergency Medical Services Perspectives on Identifying and Reporting Victims of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Self-Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E

    2017-10-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of medicines in high-risk pregnancy: evaluation of determinants related to the use of prescription drugs and self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Danielle Dayse; Leal, Marineide Marinho; Santos, Eliane Jucielly Vasconcelos; Leal, Leila Bastos

    2013-01-01

    The use of drugs during pregnancy still represents a challenge for medicine, since the majority of drugs cross the placental barrier with a potential to cause several congenital problems to the fetus, and most of them have not been clinically tested in pregnant patients. At the same time, the medicalization phenomenon, self-medication, and lack of patient information about the misuse of medicines are additional problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of medicine cons...

  2. An internet survey on self-reported food allergy in Greece: clinical aspects and lack of appropriate medical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M P; Chliva, C; Sergentanis, T N; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Psaltopoulou, T

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy (FA) represents a common and worldwide disorder but in publications referring to FA the reported diagnosis is rarely confirmed. Consequently, the subjectively assessed FA may negatively affect the quality of life of patients and their families. We have conducted this internet survey in order to estimate the self-reported perception of FA in Greece. A standard anonymous questionnaire was posted for a 3-month period on http://www.in.gr, a Greek popular Internet portal. Each individual could participate only once. Participants were screened for the presence or history of FA by a key question and were then asked to provide information on symptoms, course and management. A total of 3673 adult subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 18-74, females 61.3%), reporting FA were included in analysis. Most reported reactions were related to fruits (14.9%), seafood (10.7%) and nuts (9.2%). The first episode occurred principally during the second (29.2%) and third (30.9%) decade within 3 h from consumption (82.2%). Predominant symptoms were urticaria and oral allergy syndrome (almost 25% each one). Nearly half of the participants sought no medical advice, while 31.4% asked for an allergist's consultation. Almost 21% of reactors were hospitalized; nuts, severity of symptoms (lower respiratory and/or cardiovascular), onset in lower age, previous exercise and concomitant alcohol and/or aspirin intake were positively associated with hospitalization. Although FA causes severe anaphylactic episodes, almost 50% of individuals who experience symptoms perceived as FA do not seek medical advice. Awareness programmes must be carried out in order to increase consciousness about this potentially fatal medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Ikuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22. A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements. This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus

  4. Self-evaluation and peer-feedback of medical students' communication skills using a web-based video annotation system. Exploring content and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, Robert L; van der Vloodt, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are important strategies within the reflective practice paradigm for the development and maintenance of professional competencies like medical communication. Characteristics of the self-evaluation and peer-feedback annotations of medical students' video recorded communication skills were analyzed. Twenty-five year 4 medical students recorded history-taking consultations with a simulated patient, uploaded the video to a web-based platform, marked and annotated positive and negative events. Peers reviewed the video and self-evaluations and provided feedback. Analyzed were the number of marked positive and negative annotations and the amount of text entered. Topics and specificity of the annotations were coded and analyzed qualitatively. Students annotated on average more negative than positive events. Additional peer-feedback was more often positive. Topics most often related to structuring the consultation. Students were most critical about their biomedical topics. Negative annotations were more specific than positive annotations. Self-evaluations were more specific than peer-feedback and both show a significant correlation. Four response patterns were detected that negatively bias specificity assessment ratings. Teaching students to be more specific in their self-evaluations may be effective for receiving more specific peer-feedback. Videofragmentrating is a convenient tool to implement reflective practice activities like self-evaluation and peer-feedback to the classroom in the teaching of clinical skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surfing, self-medicating and safety: buying non-prescription and complementary medicines via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, T L; Anderson, J N; Silagy, C A; Sansom, L N; Hiller, J E

    2003-04-01

    To examine whether the sale of medicines via the internet supports their safe and appropriate use. e-Pharmacy websites were identified using key words and a metasearch engine and the quality of information published on these websites was surveyed using the DISCERN tool. A case scenario and internet pharmacy practice standards were also used to evaluate the quality of care delivered. Between July and September 2001 104 websites were surveyed and 27 sent either Sudafed (pseudoephedrine HCl), St John's wort products, or both to a residential address in Melbourne, Australia. Quality of health information (DISCERN ratings), information exchanged between e-pharmacy staff and consumers, and product and delivery costs. Of 104 e-pharmacies from at least 13 different countries, 63 websites provided some health information but overall the quality of the information was poor. Only three website operators provided adequate advice to consumers to avoid a potential drug interaction. The costs for a daily dose of pseudoephedrine HCl (240 mg) ranged from 0.81 Australian dollars to 3.04 Australian dollars, and delivery costs from 3.28 Australian dollars to 62.70 Australian dollars. Consumers who self-select medicines from websites have insufficient access to information and advice at the point of ordering and on delivery to make informed decisions about their safe and appropriate use.

  6. Self-reported medical leave by Brazilian Labor-law magistrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães

    2016-11-22

    Sick leave can be envisaged as an important public health indicator. Health problems and trouble at work are predictors of absenteeism. Within the context of reforming the judicial system, the aim of this study was to examine whether individual characteristics and working conditions influenced reports of sick leave amongst a population of Brazilian magistrates. A web-based survey was conducted in 2011 in such a way as to reach the entire population of Brazilian Labor-law magistrates across the country. The variable of interest related to the question: "Have you taken any medical leave due to illness over the last 12 months?" Less than a quarter of the population participated in the survey, despite widespread publicity produced by the professional association. Among the work-related factors, experiences of violence in the courthouse were shown to be associated with the outcome. No significant association with the material or psychosocial working conditions or with the workload was found. Female, worse health assessment, not participating in social activities and having a mother with higher schooling level were significantly associated with absenteeism among the magistrates. It is desirable to formulate sectorial policies focusing on controlling and monitoring violent events in the courthouse.

  7. Self-medication practices and rational drug use habits among university students: a cross-sectional study from Kahramanmaraş, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Azim Okyay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Self-medication refers to the use of medicines to treat self-diagnosed diseases without consulting any healthcare professionals. Irrational drug use and self-medication have serious negative consequences both on health and economy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the habits related to rational use of drugs (RUD and to estimate the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on university students in Kahramanmaraş. From May 2017 to June 2017 a total of 960 students filled a “Rational Use of Drugs Questionnaire”. Results The prevalence of practicing self-medication in students was 63.4%. The most common medicines that the students had consumed without prescription were analgesics by 39.5%, antibiotics by 36.9% and cold remedies by 24.0%. The rate of students who declared that they were familiar with RUD and “rational use of antibiotics” (RUA was 45.9%. Reading/checking the instructions in the prospectus (OR = 1.529, 95% CI [1.176–1.990], understanding the context of the prospectus (OR = 1.893, 95% CI [1.387–2.584], compliance with the duration of antibiotic treatment (OR = 1.597, 95% CI [1.231–2.071] and consulting a physician in case of a side effect (OR = 1.350, 95% CI [1.037–1.757] were significantly higher among students who were familiar with RUD as compared to who were not. Discussion Since the awareness of RUD among university students was found to be inadequate, it has critical importance to hold educational activities with the cooperation of physicians, health organizations, universities, non-governmental organizations and media to avoid negative consequences of irrational drug use and self-medication.

  8. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses’ Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035

  9. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses' Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh

    2015-07-31

    Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.

  10. Predictors of students' self-reported adoption of a smartphone application for medical education in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Maximilian; Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2015-05-21

    Smartphones and related applications are increasingly gaining relevance in the healthcare domain. We previously assessed the demands and preferences of medical students towards an application accompanying them during a course on general practice. The current study aims to elucidate the factors associated with adoption of such a technology. Therefore we provided students with a prototype of an application specifically related to their studies in general practice. A total estimation among students participating in a general practice examination at the Leipzig Medical School was conducted in May 2014. Students were asked to answer a structured self-designed questionnaire. Univariable comparisons were made to identify significant differences between those students who reported to have used the application frequently and those who did not. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to reveal independent predictors of frequent application usage. The response rate was 99.3 % (n = 305/307). The majority (59 %, n = 180/305) were female students. T