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Sample records for self compacting concrete

  1. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  2. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Iureş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  3. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Iureş, Liana; Bob, Corneliu

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  4. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  5. Durability of Self Compacting Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmarce, A.; Boudjehem, H.; Bendjhaiche, R.

    2011-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) seem to be a very promising materials for construction thanks to their properties in a fresh state. Studying of the influence of the parameters of specific designed mixes to their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics in a state hardened is an important stage so that it can be useful for new-to-the-field researchers and designers (worldwide) beginning studies and work involving self compacting concrete. The objective of this research is to study the durability of self compacting concrete. The durability of concrete depends very much on the porosity; the latter determines the intensity of interactions with aggressive agents. The pores inside of concrete facilitate the process of damage, which began generally on the surface. We are interested to measure the porosity of concrete on five SCC with different compositions (w/c, additives) and vibrated concrete to highlight the influence of the latter on the porosity, thereafter on the compressive strength and the transfer properties (oxygen permeability, chloride ion diffusion, capillary absorption). (author)

  6. Summary of Self-compacting Concrete Workability

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Gui-xiang; Duan Hong-jun

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a large number of domestic and foreign literature, situation and development of self-compacting concrete is introduced. Summary of the compacting theory of self-compacting concrete. And some of the factors affecting the workability of self-compacting concrete were discussed and summarized to a certain extent. Aims to further promote the application and research of self-compacting concrete

  7. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  8. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  9. Bond behavior of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponmalar S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of an optimum design lies in the effective load transfer done by the bond forces at the steel-concrete interface. Self Compacting Concrete, is a new innovative concrete capable of filling intrinsic reinforcement and gets compacted by itself, without the need of external mechanical vibration. For this reason, it is replacing the conventional vibrated concrete in the construction industry. The present paper outlays the materials and methods adopted for attaining the self compacting concrete and describes about the bond behavior of this concrete. The bond stress-slip curve is similar in the bottom bars for both SCC and normal concrete whereas a higher bond stress and stiffness is experienced in the top and middle bars, for SCC compared to normal concrete. Also the interfacial properties revealed that the elastic modulus and micro-strength of interfacial transition zone [ITZ] were better on the both top and bottom side of horizontal steel bar in the SCC mixes than in normal vibrated concrete. The local bond strength of top bars for SCC is about 20% less than that for NC. For the bottom bars, however, the results were almost the same.

  10. Bond behavior of self compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponmalar, S.

    2018-03-01

    The success of an optimum design lies in the effective load transfer done by the bond forces at the steel-concrete interface. Self Compacting Concrete, is a new innovative concrete capable of filling intrinsic reinforcement and gets compacted by itself, without the need of external mechanical vibration. For this reason, it is replacing the conventional vibrated concrete in the construction industry. The present paper outlays the materials and methods adopted for attaining the self compacting concrete and describes about the bond behavior of this concrete. The bond stress-slip curve is similar in the bottom bars for both SCC and normal concrete whereas a higher bond stress and stiffness is experienced in the top and middle bars, for SCC compared to normal concrete. Also the interfacial properties revealed that the elastic modulus and micro-strength of interfacial transition zone [ITZ] were better on the both top and bottom side of horizontal steel bar in the SCC mixes than in normal vibrated concrete. The local bond strength of top bars for SCC is about 20% less than that for NC. For the bottom bars, however, the results were almost the same.

  11. Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, V.; Moriconi, G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

  12. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  13. Application of nanotechnology in self-compacting concrete design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghsoudi, A. A.; Arabpour Dahooei, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, first, different mix design of four types of Self-Compacting Concrete, 1. Self-Compacting Concrete consisted of only nano silica, 2. Self-Compacting Concrete included only micro silica, 3. Self-Compacting Concrete consisted of both micro silica and nano silica and 4. Self-Compacting Concrete without micro silica and nano silica called as control mix, were casted and tested to find out the values of the Slump Flow, L-Box and 7 and 28 days compressive strength. Then, based on the results obtained and as yet there is no universally accepted standard for characterizing of Self-Compacting Concrete, the most suitable four concrete mixes were selected for further investigation of fresh and hardened concrete. For selected mixes, the fresh concrete properties such as values of the Slump Flow, L-Box, V-Funnel, J-Ring and hardened engineering properties such as compressive and flexural strength, shrinkage and swelling values were investigated for three curing conditions at short and long term. The results showed that the engineering properties of Self-Compacting Concrete mixes could not be improved by adding only nano silica. However, a satisfactory behavior can be achieved using micro silica in the Self-Compacting Concrete mixes. However, by adding both micro silica and nano silica to the Self-Compacting Concrete mixtures, the best effect on the engineering properties was reported while comparing to the control mixes.

  14. An integral design concept for ecological self-compacting concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis addresses an alternative design concept for Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). SCC is a special type of concrete with superior workability, which flows and compacts in all corners of a formwork just by the influence of gravity. Introduced to the concrete world in the late 1980s, SCC has

  15. Performance of self-compacting rubberized concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Used tyre rubber wastes present a serious environmental problem of pollution and storage. The recycling of this waste in the industry of construction could be an appropriate solution to produce an eco-concrete and could contribute to the improvement of some of its properties. This paper aims to study the possibility of using tyre rubber waste as fine aggregate replacement in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Fines rubber particles of 0-2 mm of waste tyres were added SCC mixtures as a partial substitution of the total volume of sand at different percentages (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The influence of fines rubber of used tyres on fresh and hardened properties of the SCC was investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were performed by using slump-flow, T50 flow time, L-box, V-funnel and segregation resistance tests. Characteristics of the hardened state were obtained by compressive strength and thermal conductivity. The experimental results showed that the inclusion of fines rubber in SCC decreases the workability, reduced its passing capacity and increases the possibility of blocking. A decrease in compressive strength is observed with the increase in rubber content. On the other hand, the incorporation of the rubber fines aggregates enhances in a remarkably way the thermal conductivity.

  16. Self-Compacting Concrete in Precast Elements Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bob

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present information about the Self-Compacting Concrete and experimental results regarding the use of them into precast element industry. This type of concrete does not require vibration for placing and compaction; it is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. The experimental programme has take into account two prestressed beams which were prefabricated and tested on a special stands. The beams of Self-Compacting Concrete with the length of 24 m were prepared at „Beton-Star” Kft, Kecsekenet, Hungary, and used at the CASCO, Satu-Mare.

  17. Self-compacting concrete mixtures for road BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Tuan My

    2012-10-01

    Therefore, effective concrete road pavements require self-compacting though non-segregating concrete mixtures to comply with the pre-set values of their properties, namely, bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance, freeze resistance, etc. Acting in cooperation with Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes of MSUCE, NIIMosstroy developed and examined a self-compacting cast concrete mixture designated for durable monolithic road pavements. The composition in question was generated by adding a multi-component modifier into the mix. The modifier was composed of a hyperplasticiser, active (structureless fine and crystalline silica, and a concrete hardening control agent.

  18. Transporting fibres as reinforcement in self-compacting concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of self-compacting concrete (SCC) was an important step towards efficiency at building sites, rationally producing prefabricated concrete elements, better working conditions and improved quality and appearance of concrete structures. By adding fibres to SCC bar reinforcement can be

  19. Self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete applied in thin plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Shionaga, R.; Walraven, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Floor panels produced with traditionally vibrated concrete are relatively thick due to the need to reinforce concrete and consequently, heavy. Without the need to place rebars in panels and by applying self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete (SCFRC) the production process becomes more efficient.

  20. Wider application of additions in self-compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to normally vibrated concrete (NVC), self-compacting concrete (SCC) possesses enhanced qualities and improves productivity and working conditions due to the elimination of compaction. SCC generally has a higher powder content than NVC and thus it is necessary to replace some of the cement by additions to achieve an economical and durable concrete. The established benefits of using low volumes of fly ash in SCC, high volumes of fly ash in NVC and the search for uses ...

  1. Durability Properties of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ofuyatan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self Compacting Concrete (SCC is a new innovation in technology that can flow readily into place under its own self weight and fill corner areas of reinforcement structures without the need to vibrate and without segregation of its constitute. The problem of durability of concrete structures due to inadequate compaction by skilled workers has become a source of concern globally. The shortage of skilled manpower, noise and vibration of equipment on construction sites has led to the development of self compacting concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of Self Compacting Concrete with partial placement of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA. Twelve POFA self-compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at varying percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The concrete with no placement of ash served as control. Conplast SP432MS was used as superplasticiser in the mix. The experiments are carried out by adopting a water-powder ratio of 0.36. Workability of the fresh concrete is determined by using tests such as: slump flow, T50, V-funnel and L-Box tests. The durability of concrete is tested by acid resistance, sulphate attack and saturated water absorption at the age of 14, 28, 56 and 90 days.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HYBRID FIBER SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Leela Bharathi

    2017-01-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is a recently developed concept in which the ingredients of the concrete mix are proportioned in such a way that it can flow under its own weight to completely fill the formwork and passes through the congested reinforcement without segregation and self-consolidate without any mechanical vibration. Several studies in the past have revealed the usefulness of fibres to improve the structural properties of concrete like ductility, post crack resistance, energy absorption...

  3. DEFORMATION PROPERTIES OF LIGHT SELFCOMPACTING CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bychkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Аn article deformation properties of a light selfcompacting concrete (LSCC are considered. Its comparison with characteristics of light concrete on porous fillers is given. Creep and LSCC shrinkage are in detail analyzed. Conclusions on work are drawn.

  4. Rotation capacity of self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.

    2006-01-01

    Steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) has been used in segmental tunnel linings in the past years. In order to investigate the effect of steel fibers on the rotation capacity of plastic hinges in self-compacting concrete (SCC) the effect of the addition of fibers to SCC in compression, tension and

  5. Research on working property and early age mechanical property of self-compacting concrete used in steel-concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongguang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-compacting concrete that has good working property is the prerequisite of steel-concrete structure. The early age mechanical property of self-compacting concrete is the important parameter when design steel-concrete structure. Purpose: This paper attempts to research the working property and early age mechanical property of self-compacting concrete. Methods: Test is used to research the working property and early age mechanical property of self-compacting concrete. Results: Self-compacting concrete that could meet the requirement of steel-concrete structure has been mixed and parameters of early age mechanical property of self-compacting concrete which is necessary for design of steel-concrete structure have been presented. Conclusions: Base on the results, this paper can guide the construction of self-compacting concrete in steel-concrete structure and the design and construction of steel-concrete structure. (author)

  6. A Blocking Criterion for Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    To benefit from the full potential of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) prediction tools for the form filling ability of SCC are needed. This paper presents a theoretical concept for assessment of the blocking resistance of SCC. A critical concrete flow rate above which no blocking occurs...... is introduced. The critical flow rate takes into account the mix design, the rheological properties of the matrix and concrete, and the geometry of the flow domain....

  7. Self-compacting geopolymer concrete-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukesh Praveen, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this construction world, Geopolymer concrete is a special concrete which doesn’t requires the Ordinary Portland Cement and also reduces the emission of carbon-dioxide. The Geopolymer Concrete is made up of industrial by-products (which contains more Silica and Alumina) and activated with the help of Alkaline solution (combination of sodium hydroxide & sodium silicate or potassium hydroxide & potassium silicate). The high viscosity nature of Geopolymer Concrete had the ability to fail due to lack of compaction. In improvising the issue, Self Compacting Geopolymer Concrete has been introduced. The SCGC doesn’t require any additional compaction it will flow and compacted by its own weight. This concrete is made up of industrial by-products like Fly ash, GGBFS and Silica Fume and activated with alkaline solution. The earlier research was mostly on Fly ash based SCGC. In few research works Fly ash was partially replaced with GGBS and Silica Fume. They evaluated the compressive strength of concrete with varying molarities of NaOH; curing time and curing temperature. The flexural behaviour of the concrete also examined. The Fly ash based SCGC was got high compressive strength in heat curing as well as low compressive strength in ambient curing. The presence of GGBS improves the strength in ambient curing. For aiming the high strength in ambient curing Fly ash will be completely replace and examine with different mineral admixtures.

  8. Plastometry for the Self-Compacting Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsa, V. Ā.; Krasnikovs, A.; Lusis, V.; Lukasenoks, A.

    2015-11-01

    Operative determination of consistence of self-compacting concrete mixes at plant or in construction conditions is an important problem in building practice. The Abram's cone, the Vebe's device, the U-box siphon, L-box or funnel tests are used in solving this problem. However, these field methods are targeted at determination of some indirect parameters of such very complicated paste-like material like concrete mix. They are not physical characteristics suitable for the rheological calculations of the coherence between the stress and strains, flow characteristics and the reaction of the concrete mix in different technological processes. A conical plastometer having higher precision and less sensitive to the inaccuracy of the tests in construction condition has been elaborated at the Concrete Mechanics Laboratory of RTU. In addition, a new method was elaborated for the calculation of plasticity limit τ0 taking into account the buoyancy force of the liquid or non-liquid concrete mix. In the present investigation rheological test of the concrete mix by use the plastometer and the method mentioned earlier was conducted for different self-compacting and not self-compacting concrete mixes.

  9. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dinakar; K.G. Babu; Manu Santhanam [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Building Technology Division

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.

  10. Flow modelling of steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich

    was done by means of the Immersed boundary method with direct forcing. Evolution of the immersed particles was described by Newton's differential equations of motion. The Newton's equations were solved by means of Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg iterative scheme. Several challenges had to be overcome during...... in concrete can efficiently substitute or supplement conventional steel reinforcement, such as reinforcement bars. Ordinary concrete composition further makes the material stiff and non-flowable. Self-compacting concrete is an alternative material of low yield stress and plastic viscosity that does flow...... of the fluid near formwork surface. A method to incorporate the apparent slip into the Lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics solver was suggested. The proposed numerical framework was observed to correctly predict flow of fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete. The proposed numerical framework can therefore...

  11. Design considerations and sustainability of self-compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Grünewald, Steffen; De Schutter, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) differs from conventional vibrated concrete (CVC) in the rheological behaviour, which is achieved by adequate mix design. The application and production requirements also pose demands on the mix design and workability. Effective production requires adequate strength control. The use of Portland Cement promotes a rapid early age strength development, but it comes with a relative high impact on the environment since decarbonation and a high energ...

  12. Rheological behaviour of self-compacting micro-concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Workability; viscosity; cement paste; high range water reducing admixture. Abstract. The rheological behaviour of Self-Compacting Micro-Concrete (SCMC) mixtures has been investigated within the scope of this paper. Rheological measurements have been performed using a novel rheometer equipped with a ball ...

  13. Development of Self-Compacting Eco-Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, Martin; Brouwers, Jos

    2006-01-01

    Ever since its introduction and increasingly widespread use since the early nineties, new mix design methods of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) can hardly be recognized. Despite intensive research and a substantial number of publications in this new technology the design concept still mainly follows

  14. Prediction of flow induced inhomogeneities in self compacting concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skocek, Jan; Švec, Oldřich; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2011-01-01

    A model for simulation of flow of suspension of a non-Newtonian fluid and particles of arbitrary shape is briefly introduced and demonstrated on examples of flow of self compacting concrete. The model is based on the lattice Boltzmann method for flow, the immersed boundary method with direct...

  15. Self compacting concrete incorporating high-volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzoubaa, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete; Lachemi, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is now widely used in reinforced concrete structures. Fine materials such as fly ash ensure that the concrete has the necessary properties of high fluidity and cohesiveness. An experimental study was conducted in which 9 SCC mixtures and one control concrete were produced in order to evaluate SCC made with high-volumes of fly ash. The content of the cementitious materials remained constant at 400 kg/cubic metre, but the ratio of water to cementitious material ranged from 0.35 to 0.45. The viscosity and stability of the fresh concrete was determined for self-compacting mixtures of 40, 50 and 60 per cent Class F fly ash. The compressive strength and drying shrinkage were also determined for the hardened concretes. Results showed that the SCCs developed a 28-day compressive strength ranging from 26 to 48 MPa. It was concluded that high-volumes of Class F fly ash could offer the following advantages to an SCC: reduced construction time and labour cost; eliminate the need for vibration; reduce noise pollution; improve the filling capacity of highly congested structural members; and, ensure good structural performance. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Permeability, porosity and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcuende, M.O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most deterioration affecting the durability of self-compacting concrete structures is mediated by water penetration in the concrete, a condition related to its porous structure. The present study analyzes these two factors. To this end, two types of concrete were prepared, a self-compacting and a traditional vibrated concrete, with different W/C ratios and different types of cement. The results of low-pressure water testing to evaluate permeability and analyses to determine compressive strength and pore size distribution showed that self-compacting concrete has lower capillary porosity than traditional concrete, which would explain its greater resistance to water penetration. Such concrete likewise reached higher strength values, except where large proportions of lime powder with low sand equivalents were used in its manufacture, when lower strength was recorded. Lastly, the depth of water penetration and compressive strength were found to be linearly correlated. That correlation was seen to depend, in turn, on the type of concrete, since for any given strength level, self-compacting concrete was less permeable than the traditional material.

    En este trabajo experimental se estudia la penetración de agua en hormigones autocompactables, analizando al mismo tiempo su estructura porosa, pues gran parte de los procesos de deterioro que afectan a la durabilidad de las estructuras están condicionados por estos dos aspectos. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactable y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones A/C y distintos tipos de cemento. Tras determinar la permeabilidad al agua bajo presión, la resistencia a compresión y las distribuciones de tamaño de poro, los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactables presentan menor porosidad capilar que los tradicionales, lo que les confiere mejores prestaciones frente a la penetración de agua. Asimismo, dichos hormigones

  17. Mechanical properties of self-compacted fiber concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir M. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and improved working environment have had high priority in the development of concrete construction over the last decade. The major impact of the introduction of self-compacting concrete (SCC is connected to the production process. The productivity is drastically improved through the elimination of vibration compaction and process reorganization. The working environment is significantly enhanced through avoidance of vibration induced damages, reduced noise and improved safety. Additionally, SCC technology has improved the performance in terms of hardened concrete properties like surface quality, strength and durability. The main objective of this research was to determine the optimum content of fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers used in SCC. The effect of different fibers on the fresh and hardened properties was studied. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties, including compressive strength, flexural strength and impact strength of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete was performed. The results of the investigation showed that: the optimum dosage of steel and polypropylene fiber was 0.75% and 1.0% of the cement content, respectively. The impact performance was also improved due to the use of fibers. The control mix specimen failed suddenly in flexure and impact, the counterpart specimens contain fibers failed in a ductile manner, and failure was accompanied by several cracks.

  18. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete containing superplasticizer and metakaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidan, Shahiron; Tayeh, Bassam A.; Jamaludin, A. A.; Bahari, N. A. A. S.; Mohd, S. S.; Zuki Ali, N.; Khalid, F. S.

    2017-11-01

    The development of concrete technology shows a variety of admixtures in concrete to produce special concrete. This includes the production of self-compacting concrete which is able to fill up all spaces, take formwork shapes and pass through congested reinforcement bars without vibrating or needing any external energy. In this study, the main objective is to compare the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete containing metakaolin with normal concrete. Four types of samples were produced to study the effect of metakaolin towards the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete where 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of metakaolin were used as cement replacement. The physical properties were investigated using slump test for normal concrete and slump flow test for self-compacting concrete. The mechanical properties were tested for compressive strength and tensile strength. The findings of this study show that the inclusion of metakaolin as cement replacement can increase both compressive and tensile strength compared to normal concrete. The highest compressive strength was found in self-compacting concrete with 15% metakaolin replacement at 53.3 MPa while self-compacting concrete with 10% metakaolin replacement showed the highest tensile strength at 3.6 MPa. On top of that, the finishing or concrete surface of both cube and cylinder samples made of self-compacting concrete produced a smooth surface with the appearance of less honeycombs compared to normal concrete.

  20. Self-compacting concretes (SCC: comparison of methods of dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available The composition of a self-compacting concrete (SCC should be defined to fulfills a number of requirements, such as self-compactibility, strength and durability. This study aims to compare three methods of dosage for SCC with local materials, so as to determine which one is the most economical and rational, thus assisting the executor in making a decision and enabling economic and technical feasibility for its application. The methods used in the experimental program were: Nan Su et al., which was developed in 2001 [1]; Repette-Melo, which was proposed in 2005 [2]; and Tutikian & Dal Molin, which was developed in 2007 [3]. From the results obtained in the experimental program, it was observed that the method which presented the lowest cost and highest compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 and 91 days was Tutikian & Dal Molin, while the one which reached the lowest chloride ion penetration, best compactness and highest elasticity modulus was Repette-Melo. In tests carried out in the fresh state, all tested methods yielded mixtures which comply with the self-compactibility levels required by ABNT NBR 15823:2010 [4].

  1. APPLICATION OF FLOW SIMULATION FOR EVALUATION OF FILLING-ABILITY OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Shinji; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Sakihara, Kohei

    In this paper, MPS method was applied to fluid an alysis of self-compacting concrete. MPS method is one of the particle method, and it is suitable for the simulation of moving boundary or free surface problems and large deformation problems. The constitutive equation of self-compacting concrete is assumed as bingham model. In order to investigate flow Stoppage and flow speed of self-compacting concrete, numerical analysis examples of slump flow and L-flow test were performed. In addition, to evaluate verification of compactability of self-compacting concrete, numerical analys is examples of compaction at the part of CFT diaphragm were performed. As a result, it was found that the MPS method was suitable for the simulation of compaction of self-compacting concrete, and a just appraisal was obtained by setting shear strain rate of flow-limit πc and limitation point of segregation.

  2. PENGGUNAAN FLY ASH DAN VISCOCRETE PADA SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Sugiharto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Self Compacting Concrete (SCC gives a new solution in concrete technology, since SCC does not need vibrator for compacting. SCC has been used and developed abroad, however in Indonesia SCC is not used because there is no research about SCC yet. In this preliminary research, trial mix is performed to understand the characteristics and to calculate the materials composition to be used in SCC. From this trial mix, some variables are fixed and others are varied. This variable is examined further in the next trial mix. The workability is examined using slump cone method and flowability using L-shaped box. From this test, it is found out that to get the condition of self compactibility, viscocrete must be used. The binder (cement-fly ash composition, is examined using 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 cement to fly ash ratio, until the maximum of flowability and workability, which is 5:5. Viscocrete dose 1.5 % and 2 % did not show a significant difference for all binder composition. From the workability, flowability and strength point of view, binder composition 6:4 and viscocrete dose 1.5 % gives the optimal condition. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Self Compacting Concrete (SCC memberikan solusi baru dalam dunia teknologi beton karena tidak memerlukan vibrator untuk pemadatannya. SCC telah digunakan dan dikembangkan di luar negeri, tetapi di Indonesia belum begitu dikenal, dikarenakan belum adanya penelitian tentang SCC di Indonesia. Pada penelitian awal ini dilakukan trial mix untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan memperkirakan komposisi bahan yang dibutuhkan untuk SCC. Kemudian dari trial mix tersebut ditetapkan variabel-variabel berubah dan variabel-variabel tetap yang akan diuji pada trial mix selanjutnya. Pengujian workability dilakukan dengan alat slump cone sedangkan pengujian flowability dilakukan dengan alat L-shaped box. Dari hasil pengujian yang telah dilakukan, ternyata harus digunakan viscocrete untuk mendapatkan kondisi self compactibility. Untuk

  3. Research on Durability of Big Recycled Aggregate Self-Compacting Concrete Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Liu, Xuliang; Li, Jing; Li, Juan; Wang, Chang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2018-03-01

    Deflection and crack width are the most important durability indexes, which play a pivotal role in the popularization and application of the Big Recycled Aggregate Self-Compacting Concrete technology. In this research, comparative study on the Big Recycled Aggregate Self-Compacting Concrete Beam and ordinary concrete beam were conducted by measuring the deflection and crack width index. The results show that both kind of concrete beams have almost equal mid-span deflection value and are slightly different in the maximum crack width. It indicates that the Big Recycled Aggregate Self-Compacting Concrete Beam will be a good substitute for ordinary concrete beam in some less critical structure projects.

  4. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-01

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro - fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  5. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete

  6. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironova, M., E-mail: mirona@imbm.bas.bg; Ivanova, M., E-mail: magdalena.ivanova@imbm.bas.bg; Naidenov, V., E-mail: valna53@mail.bg [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 4, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Georgiev, I., E-mail: ivan.georgiev@parallel.bas.bg [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies & Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stary, J., E-mail: stary@ugn.cas.cz [Institute of Geonics Czech Academy of Sciences, Studentska str., Ostrava 1768 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-28

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  7. Flexural strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete beams using polypropylene fiber: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisantono, Ade; Praja, Baskoro Abdi; Hermawan, Billy Nouwen

    2017-11-01

    One of the methods to increase the tensile strength of concrete is adding a fiber material into the concrete. While to reduce a noise in a construction project, a self compacting concrete was a good choices in the project. This paper presents an experimental study of flexural behavior and strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete (RC) beams using polypropylene fiber. The micro monofilament polypropylene fibers with the proportion 0.9 kg/m3 of concrete weight were used in this study. Four beam specimens were cast and tested in this study. Two beams were cast of self compacting reinforced concrete without fiber, and two beams were cast of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete using polypropylene. The beams specimen had the section of (180×260) mm and the length was 2000 mm. The beams had simple supported with the span of 1800 mm. The longitudinal reinforcements were using diameter of 10 mm. Two reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for compressive reinforcement and three reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for tensile reinforcement. The shear reinforcement was using diameter of 8 mm. The shear reinforcements with spacing of 100 mm were put in the one fourth near to the support and the spacing of 150 mm were put in the middle span. Two points loading were used in the testing. The result shows that the load-carrying capacity of the self compacting reinforced concrete beam using polypropylene was a little bit higher than the self compacting reinforced concrete beam without polypropylene. The increment of load-carrying capacity of self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete was not so significant because the increment was only 2.80 % compare to self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete. And from the load-carrying capacity-deflection relationship curves show that both the self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete beam and the self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete beam were ductile beams.

  8. Steel hollow columns with an internal profile filled with self-compacting concrete under fire conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Binh; Gernay, Thomas; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude; Franssen, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal reinforcement consists of another profile (tube or H section) being embedded with the concrete, and filling is realized by self-compacting concrete (SCC). Ten columns filled with self-compacting concrete embedding another steel profile have been tested in the Fire Testing Laboratory of the University of...

  9. Rheological behaviour of self-compacting micro-concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    viscosity of micro-concretes improves the solid holding capacity of this composite. According to flow ...... J. Env. Management 78(3): 232–239 ... Felekoglu B 2007 Utilisation of high volumes of limestone quarry wastes in concrete industry (self-.

  10. Impact Resistance of Rubberized Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eehab Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impact loads due to ship collision on irrigation structures is significantly decreasing their durability. Loss of material and degradation are quite common problems facing lock walls and piers. In the current research, rubberized self-compacting concrete (SCC was used to investigate problems associated with impact. SCC with cement kiln dust cement replacement was used for that purpose. Concrete specimens were prepared with different crumb rubber ratios of 10% (RSCC-10, 20% (RSCC-20, 30% (RSCC-30, and 40% (RSCC-40 sand replacement by volume. Standard compressive, flexure, and splitting strength tests were conducted to monitor the effect of the added rubber on concrete behavior. Moreover, impact testing program was applied to specific specimens, cylinder of diameter 200 mm and thickness 50 mm, according to ACI committee 544 procedures. The number of blows to first and ultimate cracks was determined. The relationship between the mechanical properties and impact resilience is also presented. With the increase in rubber percentage the resistance to impact increased, but there was a decrease in specimen strength and modulus of elasticity. The variation in results was discussed and mix RSCC-30 exhibited the best impact resistance, 3 times over control mix with 40% reduction of compressive strength.

  11. Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Micro-SiO2 and Acrylic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of using acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Using these materials in SCC improves the characteristics of the concrete. Self-compacting samples with 1-2% of a polymer and 10% micro-SiO2 were made. In all cases, compressive strength, water absorption, and self-compacting tests were done. The results show that adding acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 does not have a significant negative effect on the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete. In addition using these materials leads to improving them.

  12. Transfer and anchorage bond behaviour in self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigueira-Víctor, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concretes (SCC provide solutions to the problems facing precast concrete construction, enhancing competitiveness, reducing turnaround times and improving final product quality. SCC is fast becoming a key product for the future development of the precast pre-stressed concrete industry.The present paper compares the bond performance of SCC and traditional concrete (TC. The bond performance results confirm the viability of SCC in precast pre-stressed concrete manufacture, despite a slightly higher loss of pre-stressing force and slightly greater anchorage lengths in SCC with a low water/cement ratio. No differences in transfer or anchorage length were detected,however, when high strength TC and SCC were compared. The ECADA test method proved to be well suited to detecting the differences between the concretes analyzed.El desarrollo de los hormigones autocompactantes (SCCofrece muchas posibilidades a las construcciones con hormigón prefabricado, aumentando su competitividad, reduciéndolos plazos de fabricación y ofreciendo mejoras en la calidad del producto final. El SCC se está convirtiendo en un producto clave para el futuro desarrollo de la industria de prefabricados de hormigón pretensado.En este estudio se compara el comportamiento adherente de los SCC con el de los hormigones tradicionales (TC actuales. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la viabilidad del uso de los SCC para la fabricación de elementos prefabricados con hormigón pretensado, en lo relativo a su comportamiento adherente, aunque con la necesidad de considerar unas pérdidas de pretensado ligeramente mayores. Asimismo,debe esperarse un ligero aumento de las longitudes de anclaje cuando se trabaje con SCC de baja relación agua/cemento. Sin embargo, no se han detectado diferencias de comportamiento entre ambos tipos de hormigón cuando la resistencia a compresión es alta en lo relativo a las longitudes de transmisión y anclaje. El método de ensayo ECADA

  13. The effect of measuring procedure on the apparent rheological properties of self-compacting concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Bradl, M.; Thrane, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Torque versus time during testing of the rheological properties of fresh concrete has been investigated. The testing was performed in a BML viscometer and on a self-compacting concrete (w/c = 0.45, 70% rapid hardening Portland cement, 3% silica fume, 27% fly ash, third generation superplasticizer......, lack of steady state may explain the apparent shear-thickening behaviour of self-compacting concrete reported elsewhere. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Application of the fluid dynamics model to the field of fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    Ability to properly simulate a form filling process with steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete is a challenging task. Such simulations may clarify the evolution of fibre orientation and distribution which in turn significantly influences final mechanical properties of the cast body. We...... have developed such a computational model and briefly introduce it in this paper. The main focus of the paper is towards validation of the ability of the model to properly mimic the flow of the fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete. An experiment was conducted where a square slab was filled...... behaviour of the self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete....

  15. Factorial Design Approach in Proportioning Prestressed Self-Compacting Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Xing, Feng; Wang, Wei-Lun

    2015-03-13

    In order to model the effect of mixture parameters and material properties on the hardened properties of, prestressed self-compacting concrete (SCC), and also to investigate the extensions of the statistical models, a factorial design was employed to identify the relative significance of these primary parameters and their interactions in terms of the mechanical and visco-elastic properties of SCC. In addition to the 16 fractional factorial mixtures evaluated in the modeled region of -1 to +1, eight axial mixtures were prepared at extreme values of -2 and +2 with the other variables maintained at the central points. Four replicate central mixtures were also evaluated. The effects of five mixture parameters, including binder type, binder content, dosage of viscosity-modifying admixture (VMA), water-cementitious material ratio (w/cm), and sand-to-total aggregate ratio (S/A) on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, as well as autogenous and drying shrinkage are discussed. The applications of the models to better understand trade-offs between mixture parameters and carry out comparisons among various responses are also highlighted. A logical design approach would be to use the existing model to predict the optimal design, and then run selected tests to quantify the influence of the new binder on the model.

  16. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with Self-Compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. M. Omar

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of reinforced concrete columns strengthened by addition of a self-compacting concrete overlay at the compressed and at the tensioned face of the member, with and without addition of longitudinal steel bars. Eight columns were submit- ted to loading with an initial eccentricity of 60 mm . These columns had 120 mm x 250 mm of rectangular cross section, 2000 mm in length and four longitudinal reinforcement steel bars with 10 mm in diameter. Reference columns P1 and P2 were tested to failure without any type of rehabilitation. Columns P3 to P8 were loaded to a predefined load (close to the initial yield point of tension reinforce- ment, then unloaded and strengthened for a subsequent test until failure. Results showed that the method of rehabilitation used was effective, increasing the loading capacity of the strengthened pieces by 2 to 5 times the ultimate load of the reference column.

  17. Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Micro-SiO2 and Acrylic Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Ali; Zabihi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 in self-compacting concrete (SCC). Using these materials in SCC improves the characteristics of the concrete. Self-compacting samples with 1-2% of a polymer and 10% micro-SiO2 were made. In all cases, compressive strength, water absorption, and self-compacting tests were done. The results show that adding acrylic polymer and micro-SiO2 does not have a significant negative effect on the mechanical properties of self-compa...

  18. Assessment of hardened characteristics of raw fly ash blended self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is widely used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Due to the implementation of new thermal power plants as a consequence of electricity demand, generation of fly ash is noticeably increased. In addition to pozzolana blended cement production, it is very imperative to use raw fly ash in concrete. Earlier research studies investigated the performance of processed fly ash in blended cement production as well as in concrete. In general, ground fly ash is used in blended cement production. A comprehensive study on the performance evaluation of raw fly ash in self-compacting concrete is not available in the existing literature. Moreover, utilization of raw fly ash in special concrete such as self-compacting concrete is essential to comprehend the performance of raw fly ash blended concrete compared to ordinary Portland concrete. Additionally, it will help to achieve maximum utilization of raw fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material rather than disposal as a waste, which eventually leads to several environmental issues. In the study, raw fly ash was collected and is directly used in development of self-compacting concrete. Two mixes were cast and hardened characteristics of blended concrete were investigated. Results from the study showed comparable performance with control concrete. Furthermore, significant reduction in chloride permeability was observed for raw fly ash blended concrete.

  19. Investigation of the existence of self compacting properties in high performance concrete through experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor H. Yoshida

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The self compacting concrete is characterized by its capacity to flow inside the formwork filling it exclusively by the force of the gravity with adequate cohesion and viscosity in such a way that segregation does not occur. One of its characteristic is the presence of fines which provide the necessary cohesion,and grains with maximum diameter of 20 mm. This work presents some procedures and experimental methods that make it possible to evaluate self compacting properties of high performance concrete. First, a bibliographical review on the subject was carried out, and later, the equipment used for the accomplishment of the assays were manufactured, in order to verify the properties related to the self compacting concrete: cohesion, viscosity and segregation. As for the work, two concretes were produced with Portland ARI Cement, thick sand, stone powder, sand 0, superplasticizer made of ether-carboxilate chains that differentiate from each other for the presence of active silica in one of them and fly ash in the other. Based on the results, it was verified whether the high performance concrete had self compacting characteristics. In this case, both were considered positive. It was also analyzed the behavior of these concretes in their hardened state by means of the compressive strength test. The Self Compacting Concrete has many advantages such as: reduction in the number of employees, shorter construction period, the non-use of the vibrator and the filling of formworks with high density of… or of complex geometry.

  20. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    Properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with two types of coarse aggregate - sea dredged gravel with smooth and rounded particles and crushed granite with rough and angular particles - have been studied. Sea gravel allowed a higher aggregate proportion in the concrete leading to a higher...

  1. Self-compacting concrete: the role of the particle size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Radix, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments and theories on Self-Compacting Concrete. The “Chinese Method”, as developed by Su et al. [1] and Su and Miao [2] and adapted to European circumstances, serves as a basis for the development of new concrete mixes. Mixes, consisting of slag blended cement, gravel

  2. The uniform design experimental research of a large amount of fly ash self-compaction concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M.; Ji, C.; Xiao, J. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China)

    2005-08-15

    The paper studied the effect of quantity of cementing material and fly ash, W/B (water-binder) ratio, admixture and sand percentage to the performance of super fly-ash self-compaction concrete. It also utilized the step-by-step regression analysis method in SPSS software to found regression equation, which uses the flow rate of concrete mixture and strength of concrete as objective function, and obtained the optimum mix proportion of super fly ash self-compaction by the optimization technology in the Matlab software.

  3. Flow simulation of fiber reinforced self compacting concrete using Lattice Boltzmann method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) is a promising material in the civil engineering industry. One of the benefits of the SCC is a fast and simplified casting followed by decreased labor costs. The SCC as any other type of concrete has a significantly lower tensile and shear strength in comparison to ....... A relatively new group of models - Lattice Boltzmann Modeling (LBM) - is presented in this paper. The conventional LBM is modified to include fiber and particle suspensions and non-Newtonian rheology and is used to model the fiber reinforced self compacting concrete flow....

  4. Evaluation of the shrinkage and creep of medium strength self compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, C. J.; Ramos, G.; Hurtado, W. A.

    2017-02-01

    The difference between self compacting concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete (CC) is in fresh state, is the high fluidity at first and the need for vibration at second, but in hardened state, both concretes must comply with the resistance specified, in addition to securing the safety and functionality for which it was designed. This article describes the tests and results for shrinkage and creep at some medium strength Self Compacting Concrete with added sand (SCC-MSs) and two types of cement. The research was conducted at the Laboratorio de Tecnología de Estructuras (LTE) of the Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC), in dosages of 200 liters; with the idea of evaluating the effectiveness of implementation of these new concretes at elements designed with conventional concrete (CCs).

  5. ESEARCH OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE SELF-COMPACTED CONCRETE OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bugayevskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete mixture is examined as a complex multicomponent system that becomes a single unit and can be studied as a physical unity with certain rheological, physical and mechanical properties. Studying the change of properties of self-compacted concrete over time, as well as the effect of two-phasic introduction of super-plasticizer on properties of concrete mixture are presented in this article.

  6. The Influence of Phase Change Materials on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Álvarez; Jaime Lorenzo; Itziar Goicoechea; María Fenollera; José Luis Míguez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to research new thermally-efficient concrete walls, analyzing the mechanical behavior of a self-compacting concrete to manufacture an uncoated solid structural panel, with the incorporation of a micro-encapsulated phase change material as additive. Different dosages are tested and mechanical properties of the product obtained from the molding of concrete specimens are evaluated, testing mechanical compressive strength, slump flow, and density. The results reveal the o...

  7. Study on Effects of Different Replacement Rate on Bending Behavior of Big Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Tiantian; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Lin; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Yalin

    2018-03-01

    Big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete is a new type of recycled concrete, which has the advantages of low hydration heat and green environmental protection, but its bending behavior can be affected by different replacement rate. Therefor, in this paper, the research status of big Recycled aggregate self compacting concrete was systematically introduced, and the effect of different replacement rate of big recycled aggregate on failure mode, crack distribution and bending strength of the beam were studied through the bending behavior test of 4 big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams. The results show that: The crack distribution of the beam can be affected by the replacement rate; The failure modes of big recycled aggregate beams are the same as those of ordinary concrete; The plane section assumption is applicable to the big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beam; The higher the replacement rate, the lower the bending strength of big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams.

  8. Performance of super-absorbent polymer as an internal curing agent for self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hubboubi Suhair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal curing agent by using super-absorbent polymer was present in this study, its effect on the properties of self-compacting concrete was evaluated .The SAP content in the concrete mix was 0.5 % by weight of cement. Three procedures for curing were adopted; curing in water, curing in water and air and curing in polyethylene sealed bags. Fresh concrete tests conducted to assess the self-compactability of the produced concrete. Moreover, compressive and splitting strength tests were carried out. The testing program had been extended to the age of 90 days.The use of super-absorbent polymer did not affect the fresh state characteristics of the studied SCC and achieved an increase in both compressive and tensile strengths as compared to the reference concrete mix.

  9. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with self-compacting concrete and connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Nascimento

    Full Text Available There are many problems involving cases of destruction of buildings and other structures. The columns can deteriorate for several reasons such as the evolution and changing habits of the loads. The experimental phase of this work was based on a test involving nine reinforced concrete columns under combined bending and axial compression, at an initial eccentricity of 60 mm. Two columns were used as reference, one having the original dimensions of the column and the other, monolithic, had been cast along the thickness of the strengthened piece. The remaining columns received a 35 mm thick layer of self-compacting concrete on their compressed face. For the preparation of the interface between the two materials, this surface was scarified and furrowed and connectors were inserted onto the columns' shear reinforcement in various positions and amounts.As connectors, 5 mm diameter steel bars were used (the same as for stirrups, bent in the shape of a "C" with 25 mm coatings. >As a conclusion, not only the quantity, but mainly, the location of the connectors used in the link between substrate and reinforcement is crucial to increase strength and to change failure mode.

  10. Evaluating the Carbonation Resistance of Self Compacting Concrete made with Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an investigation conducted to examine carbonation resistance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC made with coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA. In total, five SCC mixes were prepared by systematically replacing coarse Natural Aggregates (NA by RCA at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. In order to measure the carbonation resistance of SCC made with RCA, accelerated carbonation tests were performed for 4 and 12 weeks of exposure to carbon dioxide. The carbonation resistance has been evaluated after curing periods of 28 and 90 days. In addition to this, the compressive strength of all the mixes was also obtained after 7, 28 and 90 days of curing and ultra-sonic pulse velocity tests (UPV were also conducted. The results indicate that with the increase in the content of RCA as replacement of NA, decrease in the carbonation resistance, compressive strength and UPV was observed for all SCC mixes. It has been observed that the SCC mixes containing low percentages of RCA (i.e. 25% as replacement of NA do not impart detrimental behaviour in the overall performance but higher replacement levels (>50% have been found to deteriorate the performance in terms of carbonation resistance, compressive strength and UPV.

  11. Evaluation of the Strength Variation of Normal and Lightweight Self-Compacting Concrete in Full Scale Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinali, M.; Ranjbar, M. M.; Rezvani, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    -destructive testing. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) and lightweight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC) with different admixtures were tested and compared with normal concrete (NC). The results were also compared with results for standard cubic samples. The results demonstrate the effect of concrete type on the in situ......The strength of cast concrete along the height and length of large structural members might vary due to inadequate compaction, segregation, bleeding, head pressure, and material type. The distribution of strength within a series of full scale reinforced concrete walls was examined using non...

  12. Vibrated and self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete: experimental investigation on the fibre orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, A.; Plizzari, G. A.; Zerbino, R.

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the fibre type and content, the residual properties of fibre reinforced concrete are influenced by fibre orientation. Consequently, the performance fibre reinforced concrete can be affected by its fresh properties (workability, flowing capacity) and by casting and compaction processes adopted. This paper focuses on the study of the orientation of steel or macro-synthetic fibres in two materials characterized by very different fresh properties: vibrated and self-compacting concrete. Four rectangular slabs 1800 mm long, 925 mm wide and 100 mm high were produced changing concrete and fibre type. From each slab, eighteen small prisms (550 mm long) were firstly cut either orthogonal or parallel to casting direction and, secondly, notched and tested in bending according to EN 14651. Experimental results showed that the toughness properties of a thin slab significantly varies both in vibrated and self-compacting concrete, even if in case of self-compacting concrete this variation resulted higher. Steel fibres led to greater variability of results compared to polymer one, underlining a different fibre orientation. A discussion on the relative residual capacity measured on the prisms sawn from the slabs and the parameters obtained from standard specimens is performed.

  13. Self-Placing Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Certain concrete pours have areas where the congestion of reinforcing bars make placement of concrete almost impossible. Using conventional placing and vibration techniques, the resulting concrete can have considerable honeycombing due to the development of voids. Self-placing concrete is a possible solution to the problem. Also known as self-compactable concrete, self-consolidating concrete, flowable concrete, and non-vibration concrete. These concretes eliminate the need for vibration in a ...

  14. Application of a Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Jacket in Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams under Monotonic and Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E. Chalioris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the application of a reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing technique in damaged reinforced concrete beams. Test results of 12 specimens subjected to monotonic loading up to failure or under repeated loading steps prior to total failure are included. First, 6 beams were designed to be shear dominated, constructed by commonly used concrete, were initially tested, damaged, and failed in a brittle manner. Afterwards, the shear-damaged beams were retrofitted using a self-compacting concrete U-formed jacket that consisted of small diameter steel bars and U-formed stirrups in order to increase their shear resistance and potentially to alter their initially observed shear response to a more ductile one. The jacketed beams were retested under the same loading. Test results indicated that the application of reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing in damaged reinforced concrete beams is a promising rehabilitation technique. All the jacketed beams showed enhanced overall structural response and 35% to 50% increased load bearing capacities. The ultimate shear load of the jacketed beams varied from 39.7 to 42.0 kN, whereas the capacity of the original beams was approximately 30% lower. Further, all the retrofitted specimens exhibited typical flexural response with high values of deflection ductility.

  15. Mini Seminar on Form Filling Ability of Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic mini-seminar “Form Filling Ability of Self-Compacting Concrete” took place on 3-4 November 2003 at the Danish Technological Institute in Taastrup, Denmark. The mini-seminar gathered 12 participants from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The objective was to present and discuss recent...... developments of Self-Compacting Concrete in the Nordic countries. In general, the seminar included results and observations on the effect of fresh concrete behaviour, casting technique, and organisation on site on the filling ability, passing ability, and surface quality. The seminar had participants from...

  16. Properties of Fresh and Hardened High Strength Steel Fibres Reinforced Self-Compacted Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ali Al-Ta'an

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fresh and hardened properties of high strength steel fibrous self-compacted concrete were studied in this investigation. One reference high strength self-compacted concrete mix is used, with five percent (by weight of cement silica fume and eight percent of the cement replaced by limestone powder. Three steel fibres percentages by volume of concrete are used (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2. The used steel fibres were a shelled Harex type with irregular cross-section, equivalent diameter of 0.9278 mm, and 32 mm long. Super plasticizer was used to improve the workability and flow ability of the mixes. The test results showed that the presence of steel fibres decrease the flow ability, and increase the time of spreading, segregation, and passing ability of the fresh concrete. For the fibres percentages used, the fresh properties were within the recommended specifications for the self-compacted concrete. The test results showed an early strength development rate more than that for plain normal concrete due to the presence of the fine materials. As for normal concrete, the test results showed also that the increase in the splitting strength is more than the increase in the compressive strength due to the presence of the steel fibres. The brittle mode of failure of the plain unreinforced specimens changed to a ductile one due to the presence of the steel fibres.

  17. Self-compacting fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov Lev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the efficiency of application of fine-grained concrete for erection of cast-in-place concrete and reinforced concrete structures of different purpose. On the basis of analysis of experimental research results it was established that the introduction of microfillers with expansion effect to composite binder allows not only improving the rheological properties of fine-grained concrete, but also decreasing of value of shrinkage strain and improving of concrete crack resistance and durability. The analysis of the results of industrial use of fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage is given.

  18. Statistical and Detailed Analysis on Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Admixtures- A State of Art of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiyamaan, V.; Mohan Ganesh, G.

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is one of the special concretes that have ability to flow and consolidate on its own weight, completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement; whilst maintaining its homogeneity throughout the formwork without any requirement for vibration. Researchers all over the world are developing high performance concrete by adding various Fibers, admixtures in different proportions. Various different kinds Fibers like glass, steel, carbon, Poly propylene and aramid Fibers provide improvement in concrete properties like tensile strength, fatigue characteristic, durability, shrinkage, impact, erosion resistance and serviceability of concrete[6]. It includes fundamental study on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete with admixtures; its rheological properties, mechanical properties and overview study on design methodology statistical approaches regarding optimizing the concrete performances. The study has been classified into seven basic chapters: introduction, phenomenal study on material properties review on self-compacting concrete, overview on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures, review on design and analysis of experiment; a statistical approach, summary of existing works on FRSCC and statistical modeling, literature review and, conclusion. It is so eminent to know the resent studies that had been done on polymer based binder materials (fly ash, metakaolin, GGBS, etc.), fiber reinforced concrete and SCC; to do an effective research on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures. The key aim of the study is to sort-out the research gap and to gain a complete knowledge on polymer based Self compacting fiber reinforced concrete.

  19. Influence of curing conditions on the sorptivity and weight change characteristics of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the capillary water absorption and weight change characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC). Specimens were prepared using three types of concrete (SCC, Portland cement (PC), Fly ash (FA) concretes) and were cured under three different curing conditions (20C water and 20C and 40C air cure) for 28 days. Weight gain (water intake) in water curing and weight loss (water loss) in 20C and 40C air curing were recorded throughout the curing period. Compressive strength, water absorption and capillary water absorption tests were carried out at 28 days. The results indicated that FA concrete gained about 0.5% whilst PC and self-compacting concretes gained about 1.0% of the initial weight. This indicates that due to the slower reaction process more free water remains within FA concrete avoiding further water intake. In the weight loss study, FA concrete lost about 4.0% and 6.0% of the initial weight at 20C and 40C air curing, respectively; whereas SCC and PC concretes (both had almost identical values) lost about 3.2 and 5.2% at 20C and 40C, respectively. The absorption test results indicated that SCC gave the lowest captivity coefficient values followed by PC and FA concretes in all curing conditions. (author)

  20. Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

  1. Effect of mineral admixtures on kinetic property and compressive strength of self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagalur Mahalingasharma, Srishaila; Prakash, Parasivamurthy; Vishwanath, K. N.; Jawali, Veena

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations made on the influence of chemical, physical, morphological and mineralogical properties of mineral admixtures such as fly ash, ground granulate blast furnace slag, metakaoline and micro silica used as a replacement of cement in self compacting concrete on workability and compressive strength. Nineteen concrete mixes were cast by replacing with cement by fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag as binary blend at 30%, 40%, 50% and with addition of micro silica and metakaoline at 10% as a ternary blend with fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and obtained results were compare with control mix. Water powder ratio 0.3 and super plasticizer dosage 1% of cementitious material was kept constant for all the mixes. The self compacting concrete tested for slump flow, V-funnel, L-Box, J-Ring, T50, and compressive strength on concrete cube were determined at age of 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 days.

  2. Effect of hot-dry environment on fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tioua, Tahar; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Salhi, Aimad; Barluenga, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    Drying shrinkage can be a major reason for the deterioration of concrete structures. Variation in ambient temperature and relative humidity cause changes in the properties of hardened concrete which can affect their mechanical and drying shrinkage characteristics. The present study investigated mechanical strength and particularly drying shrinkage properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) reinforced with date palm fiber exposed to hot and dry environment. In this study a total of nine different fibers reinforced self compacting concrete (FRSCC) mixtures and one mixture without fiber were prepared. The volume fraction and the length of fibers reinforcement were 0.1-0.2-0.3% and 10-20-30 mm. It was observed that drying shrinkage lessened with adding low volumetric fraction and short length of fibers in curing condition (T = 20 °C and RH = 50 ± 5 %), but increased in hot and dry environment.

  3. Simulation of the Test Method "L-Box" for Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2004-01-01

    Both filling and passing ability are important properties to be considered for self-compacting concrete. This paper presents simulations of the L-box test and corresponding experiments. The assumption of a continuum mechanical approach, where the fluid rheology is described by the Bingham model...

  4. Investigation on the Mechanisms Governing the Robustness of Self-Compacting Concrete at Paste Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vurst, F; Lesage, Karel; Grunewald, S.; Vandewalle, Lucie; Vantomme, John; Schutter, G; Khayat, Kamal H.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the many advantages, the use of self-compacting concrete
    (SCC) is currently widely limited to application in precast factories and sihiations
    in which external vibration would cause large difficulties. One of the main
    limitations is the higher sensitivity to small variations

  5. A method for calculating equivalent diameter of fiber in self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.-B.; Bode, K.-A.; Beuthan, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating the equivalent diameter of fiber in self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete (SCFRC). The key idea is to utilize a small amount of particles with a narrow particle size distribution to replace the fibers by the same volume, without causing any obvious

  6. Low pH self compacting concrete for deposition tunnel plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Carsten; Lagerblad, Bjoern; Wallin, Kjell; Baldy, Franziska; Jonasson, Jan-Erik

    2009-04-01

    The temporary plugs in the entrance of the deposition tunnel have three purposes, i.e. to bring about a water pressure in the deposition holes as quickly as possible in order to facilitate the wetting of the buffer, to reduce the groundwater's pressure gradient in the backfill so that piping is prevented, and to keep the backfill in place during the operating phase until the main tunnel has been backfilled. In the repository concept, low-pH-concrete shall be used instead of conventional concrete. A low-pH concrete is a concrete with a leachate pH below 11, which is lower than in normal concrete (pH > 12.5). The low-pH concrete developed is achieved by replacing 40% by weight of the cement with silica fume. According to the current understanding, low-pH concrete should not disturb the function of the bentonite. This is accomplished by avoiding the development of a high-pH leachate by replacing leachable calcium compounds with silica in the low-pH-concrete. There are different demands on the concrete in fresh and hardened state in order to fulfil its purpose. The geometry of the plug requires the fresh concrete to be self-compacting. The method of placement requires that the fresh concrete keeps its self-compacting properties for at least two hours. All components of the mix design must be commercially available and it must be possible to produce the concrete in a normal concrete factory. The concrete shall release low exothermic heat during curing. The volume changes of the young and mature concrete shall be minimised. The properties of the young and mature concrete need to be quantified in order to design and construct the plugs so that they fulfil the intended purpose. Low-pH concrete with self-compacting properties has been developed and is presented in the report. The low-pH SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) contains ordinary Portland cement, densified silica fume, limestone filler, super plasticizer, high quality natural fine aggregates and average quality crushed

  7. Low pH self compacting concrete for deposition tunnel plugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten; Lagerblad, Bjoern; Wallin, Kjell; Baldy, Franziska (Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Jonasson, Jan-Erik (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    The temporary plugs in the entrance of the deposition tunnel have three purposes, i.e. to bring about a water pressure in the deposition holes as quickly as possible in order to facilitate the wetting of the buffer, to reduce the groundwater's pressure gradient in the backfill so that piping is prevented, and to keep the backfill in place during the operating phase until the main tunnel has been backfilled. In the repository concept, low-pH-concrete shall be used instead of conventional concrete. A low-pH concrete is a concrete with a leachate pH below 11, which is lower than in normal concrete (pH > 12.5). The low-pH concrete developed is achieved by replacing 40% by weight of the cement with silica fume. According to the current understanding, low-pH concrete should not disturb the function of the bentonite. This is accomplished by avoiding the development of a high-pH leachate by replacing leachable calcium compounds with silica in the low-pH-concrete. There are different demands on the concrete in fresh and hardened state in order to fulfil its purpose. The geometry of the plug requires the fresh concrete to be self-compacting. The method of placement requires that the fresh concrete keeps its self-compacting properties for at least two hours. All components of the mix design must be commercially available and it must be possible to produce the concrete in a normal concrete factory. The concrete shall release low exothermic heat during curing. The volume changes of the young and mature concrete shall be minimised. The properties of the young and mature concrete need to be quantified in order to design and construct the plugs so that they fulfil the intended purpose. Low-pH concrete with self-compacting properties has been developed and is presented in the report. The low-pH SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) contains ordinary Portland cement, densified silica fume, limestone filler, super plasticizer, high quality natural fine aggregates and average quality

  8. HIGH-QUALITY SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE WITH COAL BURNING WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Viktor Valerianovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: nowadays self-compacting concretes (SCC, the use of which requires no additional compaction, have become widespread for use in densely-reinforced structures and hard-to-reach places. In self-compacting concretes, finely-ground admixtures-microfillers are widely used for controlling technological properties. Their introduction into the concrete mix allows us to obtain more dense structure of concrete. The influence of micro-fillers on water consumption and plasticity of concrete mix, on kinetics of strength gain rate, heat release and corrosion resistance is also noticeable. Research objectives: the work focuses on the development of composition of self-compacting concrete with assigned properties with the use of fly ash based on coal burning waste, optimized with the help of experimental design method in order to clarify the influence of ash and cement quantity, sand size on strength properties. Materials and methods: pure Portland cement CEM I 42.5 N was used as a binder. Crushed granite of fraction 5…20 mm was used as coarse aggregate, coarse quartz sand with the fineness modulus of 2.6 and fine sand with the fineness modulus of 1.4 were used as fillers. A superplasticizer BASF-Master Glenium 115 was used as a plasticizing admixture. The fly ash from Cherepetskaya thermal power plant was used as a filler. The study of strength and technological properties of self-compacting concrete was performed by using standard methods. Results: we obtained three-factor quadratic dependence of strength properties on the content of ash, cement and fraction of fine filler in the mix of fine fillers. Conclusions: introduction of micro-filler admixture based on the fly ash allowed us to obtain a concrete mix with high mobility, fluidity and self-compaction property. The obtained concrete has high strength characteristics, delayed strength gain rate due to replacement of part of the binder with ash. Introduction of the fly ash increases degree of

  9. Self-compacting concrete and its application in contemporary architectural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okrajnov-Bajić Ruža

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In majority of the most modern architectural designs realized in the past 10-20 years, concrete having features in fresh and hardened state as well as making, placing and curing techniques that are defined in detail was used. Quite frequently concrete which was self-compacting in fresh state was used. In order to get acquainted with this material and with possibilities of its application this paper presents various buildings in which it was used. The definition of self-compacting concrete is given and advantages of its application are underlined. Next, features of fresh SCC, test methods are described in detail and classifications especially defined for this material are proposed.

  10. Precast self-compacting concrete (PSCC) panel with added coir fiber: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afif Iman, Muhamad; Mohamad, Noridah; Samad, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Goh, W. I.; Othuman Mydin, M. A.; Afiq Tambichik, Muhamad; Bosro, Mohamad Zulhairi Mohd; Wirdawati, A.; Jamaluddin, N.

    2018-04-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is the alternative way to reduce construction time and improve the quality and strength of concrete. The panel system fabricated from SCC contribute to the IBS system that is sustainable and environmental friendly. The precast self-compacting concrete (PSCC) panel with added coir fiber will be overview in this paper. The properties of SCC and coir fiber are studied and reviewed from the previous researches. Finite element analysis is used to support the experimental results by conduction parametric simulation study on PSCC under flexure load. In general, it was found that coir fiber has a significant influence on the flexural load and crack propagation. Higher fiber incorporated in SCC resulted with higher ultimate load of PSCC.

  11. Mechanical behavior of confined self-compacting reinforced concrete circular columns under concentric axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Khairallah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is abundant research information on ordinary confined concrete, there are little data on the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC under such condition. Due to higher shrinkage and lower coarse aggregate content of SCC compared to that of Normal Concrete (NC, its composite performance under confined conditions needs more investigation. This paper has been devoted to investigate and compare the mechanical behavior of confined concrete circular columns cast with SCC and NC under concentric axial loading. The parameters affecting are including concrete compressive strength and confinement configuration. Twenty column specimens were casted and confined using four confinement techniques, CFRP wrap, FRP tube, GFRP wrap, and spiral steel hoops. The performance of the tested column specimens is evaluated based on mode of failure, load–displacement curve, stress–strain characteristics, ultimate strength, ductility, and degree of confinement.

  12. Effect of filler types on physical, mechanical and microstructure of self compacting concrete and Flow-able concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez E. Elyamany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of various filler types on the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC and Flow-able concrete. For this purpose, two groups of fillers were selected. The first group was pozzolanic fillers (silica fume and metakaolin while the second group was non-pozzolanic fillers (limestone powder, granite dust and marble dust. Cement contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3 were considered while the used filler material was 7.5%, 10% and 15%. Slump and slump flow, T50, sieve stability and bleeding tests were performed on fresh concrete. The studied hardened properties included unit weight, voids ratio, porosity, and water absorption and cube compressive strength. In addition, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electronic microscope were performed. The test results showed that filler type and content have significant effect on fresh concrete properties where non-pozzolanic fillers improve segregation and bleeding resistance. Generally, filler type and content have significant effect on unit weight, water absorption and voids ratio. In addition, non-pozzolanic fillers have insignificant negative effect on concrete compressive strength. Finally, there was a good correlation between fresh concrete properties and hardened concrete properties for SCC and Flow-able concrete.

  13. X-Ray Investigation and Strength Measurement of Steel Fibre Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponikiewski Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on self-compacting concrete with two types of steel fibres. Under consideration was the effect the method of forming of beam elements has on the distribution of steel fibres. Formed we beams of dimensions 120×15×15 cm3 and 180×15×15 cm3. The self-compacting mixture contained steel fibres of varying lengths (35 and 50 mm and varying levels of their volume ratio in the mix (0.5% - 1.0% - 1.5%.

  14. Rheological behaviour of self-compacting micro-concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phase composition to link fresh concrete workability and mixing intensity. In this paper, rheological measurements have been performed using a novel rheometer equipped with a ball measuring system. SCMC mixtures with various HRWRA contents and conventional cement paste mixtures with varying water/cement ratios ...

  15. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  16. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  17. Comparative studies of self-compacting concrete made with different generations of superplasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkouss, R.; Hamad, B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was created as an effective solution to problems associated to low quality consolidation. Successful self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixes are designed to flow freely and cohesively without the intervention of mechanical compaction. The research presented in this paper has as objective to findthe effect of different types of superplasticizers on the performance of concrete mixes. The understanding of this technology was acquired through a comparative study of mixes made with second generation sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde based superplasticizerand third generation polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer. To meet the pre-defined objectives, the research program was subdivided into two interdependent phases. Phase I studies the effect of second and third generation superplasticizeron the fresh and hardened properties of mortar mixes. Phase II studies the effect of second and third generation superplasticizer on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete mixes.The experimental outcomes revealed that third generation superplasticizers induce more efficient dispersion defined by superior consistency levels and increased hardened strengths. (author)

  18. Neutron radiation shielding properties of polymer incorporated self compacting concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkapur, Santhosh M; Divakar, L; Narasimhan, Mattur C; Karkera, Narayana B; Goverdhan, P; Sathian, V; Prasad, N K

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the neutron radiation shielding characteristics of a class of novel polymer-incorporated self-compacting concrete (PISCC) mixes are evaluated. Pulverized high density polyethylene (HDPE) material was used, at three different reference volumes, as a partial replacement to river sand in conventional concrete mixes. By such partial replacement of sand with polymer, additional hydrogen contents are incorporated in these concrete mixes and their effect on the neutron radiation shielding properties are studied. It has been observed from the initial set of experiments that there is a definite trend of reductions in the neutron flux and dose transmission factor values in these PISCC mixes vis-à-vis ordinary concrete mix. Also, the fact that quite similar enhanced shielding results are recorded even when reprocessed HDPE material is used in lieu of the virgin HDPE attracts further attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulphuric Acid Resistant of Self Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Containing Slag and Ceramic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a one of the developing countries where the constructions of infrastructure is still ongoing, resulting in a high demand for concrete. In order to gain sustainability factors in the innovations for producing concrete, geopolymer concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag and ceramics was selected as a cement replacement in concrete for this study. Since Malaysia had many ceramic productions and uses, the increment of the ceramic waste will also be high. Thus, a new idea to reuse this waste in construction materials have been tested by doing research on this waste. Furthermore, a previous research stated that Ordinary Portland Cement concrete has a lower durability compared to the geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binders have been reported as being acid resistant and thus are a promising and alternative binder for sewer pipe manufacture. Lack of study regarding the durability of the geopolymer self-compacting concrete was also one of the problems. The waste will be undergoing a few processes in the laboratory in order to get it in the best form before undergoing the next process as a binder in geopolymer concrete. This research is very significant in order to apply the concept of sustainability in the construction field. In addition, the impact of this geopolymer binder is that it emits up to nine times less CO2 than Portland Cement.

  20. 3D Simulation of Self-Compacting Concrete Flow Based on MRT-LBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Chao Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM with a D3Q27 discrete velocity model is applied for simulation of self-compacting concrete (SCC flows. In the present study, the SCC is assumed as a non-Newtonian fluid, and a modified Herschel–Bulkley model is used as constitutive mode. The mass tracking algorithm was used for modeling the liquid-gas interface. Two numerical examples of the slump test and enhanced L-box test were performed, and the calculated results are compared with available experiments in literatures. The numerical results demonstrate the capability of the proposed MRT-LBM in modeling of self-compacting concrete flows.

  1. Fresh and hardened properties of binary blend high strength self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Vivek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self compacting concrete (SCC made a remarkable impact on the concrete construction industry because of its innovative nature. Assessment of optimal ratio between chemical and mineral admixtures plays a vital role in developing SCC. In the present work three different mineral admixtures were used as partial substitute in different proportions to cement to produce SCC with a characteristic compressive strength of 60 MPa. All the three types of SCC were investigated for its fresh and hardened properties. From the results, 50% GGBFS, 10% SF and 20% MK were found to the optimum values as partial substitute to cement.

  2. Lightweight self-compacting concrete with light expanded clay aggregate (LECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiza Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight concretes have been successfully applied in building constructions for many years due to their favorable material properties, particularly their low specific weight in connection with a high strength, a high capability of thermal insulation and a high durability. The development leading to lightweight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC represents an important advanced step within the recent years. This concrete combines the favorable properties of a lightweight concrete with those of a self-compacting concrete. Research work is aimed on development of (LWSCC with the use of light aggregates “Light expanded clay aggregate (LECA”. In this research, first by specific gravity factor method, twenty different mix designs of (LWSCC were cast and tested to find out the values of slump flow, J-ring , V-funnel and 28 day compressive strength. Based on the results obtained, the best mix design was selected for further investigation. This paper also focuses on studying the effect of changing the reinforcement ratio on reinforced two way slabs when the dimensions were kept constant.

  3. Measurement of properties and of the resistance to segregation in heavyweight, self-compacting barite concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, D.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavyweight concrete is used for shielding in structures requiring protection against radiation. The addition of superplasticizers to mixes yields workable, high density materials with low water/cement ratios. This paper discusses the results of adding a polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer to heavyweight barite concrete to obtain a self-compacting mix. The fresh properties were characterized with trials suitable for self-compacting concrete. Since the large differences in constituent densities make segregation a key issue in this type of concrete, a specific trial was designed to check for homogeneity. The flowability, passing ability and resistance to segregation findings showed that the product obtained was a self-compacting concrete.El hormigón de alta densidad se emplea en estructuras en las que se necesita protección frente a radiaciones. El empleo de superplastificantes permite obtener mezclas trabajables con bajas relaciones agua/cemento y alta densidad. Este trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos con el empleo de un superplastificante basado en policarboxilatos en un hormigón pesado de barita, que condujo a la obtención de un hormigón autocompactante. Las propiedades en el estado fresco se caracterizaron mediante ensayos adecuados para el hormigón autocompactante. Puesto que la segregación puede ser un aspecto clave en este tipo de hormigón, por las grandes diferencias entre las densidades de los componentes, se diseñó un ensayo específico para comprobar la homogeneidad del mismo. Los resultados permitieron comprobar que el hormigón fabricado poseía propiedades de autocompactabilidad, puesto que poseía la fluidez, la capacidad de paso a través de armaduras y la resistencia a la segregación adecuadas.

  4. Influence of Glass Fiber on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi Murugan, R.; Haridharan, M. K.; Natarajan, C.; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The practical need of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is increasing due to increase in the infrastructure competence all over the world. The effective way of increasing the strength of concrete and enhance the behaviour under extreme loading (fire) is the keen interest. Glass fibers were added for five different of volume fractions (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.6%) to determine the optimum percentage of glass fiber without compensating the fresh properties and enhanced hardened properties of SCC concrete. The fresh state of concrete is characterized by slump flow, T-50cm slump flow, and V-funnel and L- box tests. The results obtained in fresh state are compared with the acceptance criteria of EFNARC specification. Concrete specimens were casted to evaluate the hardened properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation the glass fiber into SCC reduces the workability but within the standard specification. The hardened properties of SCC glass fiber reinforced concrete were enhanced, due to bridging the pre-existing micro cracks in concrete by glass fiber addition.

  5. Advantage of using high strength self compacting concrete for precast product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdono, Ferryandy; Agustin, Winda; Soeprapto, Gambiro; Sunarso, Mukhlis

    2017-11-01

    According to the development in the world of construction, the need for precast concrete also increases. Now the day there are many products with narrow range reinforcement and difficult dimensions. The ordinary concrete is difficult to pour in a mold with narrow range reinforcement inside without vibrator because the concrete can't fill in the gaps between the bars. SCC (Self Compacting Concrete) is a concrete that precast concrete industry needs to. The using of SCC also supports the green construction through the cement reducing and reducing the use of vibrator that requires not less energy. This research is using EFNARC standard as a condition of admission SCC (filling ability, passing ability, segregation resistance), and performed well against the application of the product by the production of Railway Sleeper without using a vibrator. The results of this study, the LB-2 and LB-3 qualified as SCC and compressive strength is expected that greater than 70 MPa, as well as products quality, is equal to standard and can be mass produced with the efficiency of the price of concrete up to 11%.

  6. Some Properties of Polymer Modified Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to Kerosene and Gas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis aims to study the effect of addition polymer materials on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and also to assess the influence of petroleum products (kerosene and gas oil on mechanical properties of polymer modified self-compacting concrete (PMSCC after different exposure periods of (30 ,60 ,90 ,and 180 days. Two type of curing are used; 28 days in water for SCC and 2 days in water followed 26 days in air for PMSCC. The test results show that the PMSCC (15% P/C ratio which is exposed to oil products recorded a lower deterioration in compressive strength's values than reference concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength values of PMSCC (15% P/C ratio was (6.03% and (9.61% up to 180 days of exposure to kerosene and gas oil respectively, relative to the same mix immersed in water, while the percentages of reduction in compressive strength values of SCC (reference concrete was (21.18% and (25.19% up to 180 days of exposure to kerosene and gas oil respectively, relative to the same mix immersed in water. Flexural strength results present improvement for all ages and for all concrete mixes with all percentages of polymer content The total water absorption values of PMSCC (15% P/C ratio showed a better performance than reference concrete mix when exposed to oil products. It was (1.34, 2.21, 2.17 % up to 180 days with samples immersed in water, kerosene, and gas oil respectively, with percentages of reduction of (23.86%, (33.83%, and (31.33% relative to the SCC (reference concrete.

  7. Design of cost-effective M 25 grade of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Jawahar, J.; Sashidhar, C.; Ramana Reddy, I.V.; Annie Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Design of cost-effective M 25 grade of self compacting concrete is done. ► Mechanical properties of SCC compared with M 25 grade of conventional concrete. ► Effect of class F fly ash is studied on the SCC mechanical properties. ► Cost analysis is done between M 25 grade of CC and SCC. ► Recommendation of M 25 grade of SCC for normal building constructions. - Abstract: This investigation is mainly focused on the development of cost-effective normal strength M 25 grade of self compacting concrete (SCC) for the use of normal building constructions. Keeping in view of the normal strength, cost, quality and durability of SCC and greenhouse gas emissions, a combination type of SCC was developed with 35% replacement of cement with class F fly ash. This study recommended a SCC mix with moderate fines to obtain a cost-effective normal strength SCC for the normal building constructions. Studies also revealed that further reduction in fines content in SCC with the same replacement level of fly ash decreased the SCC strength and its performance. Cost analysis has been done between M 25 grade of SCC and conventional concrete (CC). Results shown that the SCC material cost is slightly higher than that of CC of the same strength class, but the savings in labour cost and construction time and quality of SCC would offset the SCC material cost and reduce the total life cycle cost of SCC

  8. Micro and macrolevel properties of fly ash blended self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Jawahar, J.; Sashidhar, C.; Ramana Reddy, I.V.; Annie Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of class F fly ash on micro and macrolevel properties of self compacting concrete is studied. ► Decrease in microcracking width and Ca/Si ratio was observed in SCC with the age. ► Micro and macrolevels properties of SCC were compared to those of conventional concrete. ► Micro and macrolevel properties of SCC are reasonably correlated. ► Recommendation of SCC mix with medium compressive strength of 32 MPa for the building constructions. - Abstract: This investigation is mainly focused on the effect of class F fly ash on the micro and macrolevel properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) after 28, 56 and 112 days of curing. The microlevel properties studied were the microcrack widths between aggregate and paste and atomic Calcium–Silica (Ca/Si) ratio. The macrolevel properties studied were compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile strength. A conventional concrete (CC) having an equivalent 28-day SCC compressive strength has also been examined at different ages. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried to examine the width of microcracks and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was carried out to determine the chemical elements of both SCC and CC. Studies revealed that pozzolanic action of class F fly ash improved the microlevel properties of SCC with age by reducing the microcracking width and Ca/Si ratio and thus enhanced the macrolevel properties

  9. Study some mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with nano silica under severe saline environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Ghalib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of Nano silica self-compacting concrete which is subjected to severe saline conditions that contain sulfates and chlorides at concentrations similar to those existing in the soils and ground water of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. For this purpose, ordinary and sulfate resistant Portland cement without and with 3% Nano silica addition by weight of cementitious materials were used. Splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated for all exposure conditions and all types of mixes of self-compacting concrete at ages of 28, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of Nano Silica in concrete mixes improved clearly the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete compared with reference concrete.

  10. Lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres for slab rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, N. S.; Fuente, A. de la; Aguado, A.; Maso, D.

    2011-01-01

    The slabs of some buildings in Barcelona are formed by unidirectional beams, with a ceramic arch in between, which are filled with broken pottery or construction waste. These structures often present problems such as displacement of the tiles arranged over it due to the lack of stiffness of the filling material. This supposes a risk to the user and could also cause durability problems. In order to rehabilitate it, a lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres (HLACF) has been designed to be used as a filling material, improving the stiffness of the structure. This paper presents a structural analysis of a standard case and the results of an experimental campaign. The concrete showed a density of 1665 kg/m3, a slump flow of 605 mm and a compressive strength of 22.3 MPa, at 28 days. These results are in agreement with the requirements, overcoming common lightweight concrete segregation problems. (Author) 24 refs.

  11. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  12. THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTHS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD NOR ATAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the compressive and flexural strengths of self-compacting concrete incorporating raw rice husk ash, individually and in combination with other types of mineral additives, as partial cement replacement. The additives paired with raw rice husk ash were fine limestone powder, pulverized fuel ash and silica fumes. The mix design was based on the rational method where solid constituents were fixed while water and superplasticizer contents were adjusted to produce optimum viscosity and flowability. All mixes were designed to achieve SF1 class slump-flow with conformity criteria ≥ 520 mm and ≤ 700 mm. Test results show that 15% replacement of cement using raw rice husk ash produced grade 40 concrete. It was also revealed that 30% and 45% cement replacements using raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and silica fume respectively, produced comparable compressive strength to normal concrete and improved flexural strengths.

  13. Modeling of fiber orientation in viscous fluid flow with application to self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolařík, Filip; Patzák, Bořek

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, unconventional concrete reinforcement is of growing popularity. Especially fiber reinforcement has very wide usage in high performance concretes like "Self Compacting Concrete" (SCC). The design of advanced tailor-made structures made of SCC can take advantage of anisotropic orientation of fibers. Tools for fiber orientation predictions can contribute to design of tailor made structure and allow to develop casting procedures that enable to achieve the desired fiber distribution and orientation. This paper deals with development and implementation of suitable tool for prediction of fiber orientation in a fluid based on the knowledge of the velocity field. Statistical approach to the topic is employed. Fiber orientation is described by a probability distribution of the fiber angle.

  14. Use of Rice Husk-Bark Ash in Producing Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrerng Rukzon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of blend of Portland cement with rice husk-bark ash in producing self-compacting concrete (SCC. CT was partially replaced with ground rice husk-bark ash (GRHBA at the dosage levels of 0%–40% by weight of binder. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride penetration, and corrosion of SCC were determined. Test results reveal that the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete improves substantially with partial replacement of CT with a blend of GRHBA and the improvement increases with an increase in the replacement level. The corrosion resistances of SCC were better than the CT concrete. In addition, test results indicated that the reduction in porosity was associated with the increase in compressive strength. The porosity is a significant factor as it affects directly the durability of the SCC. This work is suggested that the GHRBA is effective for producing SCC with 30% of GHRBA replacement level.

  15. The Influence of Phase Change Materials on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

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    Miguel Ángel Álvarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to research new thermally-efficient concrete walls, analyzing the mechanical behavior of a self-compacting concrete to manufacture an uncoated solid structural panel, with the incorporation of a micro-encapsulated phase change material as additive. Different dosages are tested and mechanical properties of the product obtained from the molding of concrete specimens are evaluated, testing mechanical compressive strength, slump flow, and density. The results reveal the optimum percentage of additive in the mixture that enables compliance with the technical specifications required by the product to be manufactured. A test is also performed for measuring the thermal conductivity for the optimal sample obtained and it evidences the reduction thereof.

  16. The Influence of Phase Change Materials on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollera, María; Míguez, José Luis; Goicoechea, Itziar; Lorenzo, Jaime; Ángel Álvarez, Miguel

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to research new thermally-efficient concrete walls, analyzing the mechanical behavior of a self-compacting concrete to manufacture an uncoated solid structural panel, with the incorporation of a micro-encapsulated phase change material as additive. Different dosages are tested and mechanical properties of the product obtained from the molding of concrete specimens are evaluated, testing mechanical compressive strength, slump flow, and density. The results reveal the optimum percentage of additive in the mixture that enables compliance with the technical specifications required by the product to be manufactured. A test is also performed for measuring the thermal conductivity for the optimal sample obtained and it evidences the reduction thereof.

  17. Attenuation coefficients for fibrous self-compacting concrete in the energy range of 50-3000 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, W.V.; Magalhaes, L.A.M.; Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    The fibrous self-compacting concrete is a high performance concrete with uniformly distributed iron fibers. Transmission measurements, with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co sources were performed for the attenuation coefficients determination for both ordinary and fibrous self-compacting concretes. The results were compared to each other and to the values found in the literature for ordinary concrete. The mass attenuation coefficient for the fibrous self-compacting concrete showed to be higher than those for ordinary concrete of about 5%, depending on the gamma energy. However, it should be noted that the density of fibrous self-compacting concrete is higher than ordinary concrete, 2.4 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.9 g/cm{sup 3} respectively, increasing still further the difference in mass attenuation coefficient. In addition to that, by using Monte Carlo simulations, with MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code, the data was extended to the 50-3000 keV gamma energy range. (author)

  18. Attenuation coefficients for fibrous self-compacting concrete in the energy range of 50-3000 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, W.V.; Magalhaes, L.A.M.; Conti, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    The fibrous self-compacting concrete is a high performance concrete with uniformly distributed iron fibers. Transmission measurements, with "1"3"7Cs and "6"0Co sources were performed for the attenuation coefficients determination for both ordinary and fibrous self-compacting concretes. The results were compared to each other and to the values found in the literature for ordinary concrete. The mass attenuation coefficient for the fibrous self-compacting concrete showed to be higher than those for ordinary concrete of about 5%, depending on the gamma energy. However, it should be noted that the density of fibrous self-compacting concrete is higher than ordinary concrete, 2.4 g/cm"3 and 1.9 g/cm"3 respectively, increasing still further the difference in mass attenuation coefficient. In addition to that, by using Monte Carlo simulations, with MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code, the data was extended to the 50-3000 keV gamma energy range. (author)

  19. Properties and mesostructural characteristics of linen fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete in slender columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the linen fibers were used to reinforce self-compacting concrete (SCC with 2 and 4 kg/m3 contents; then their effects on the fresh and hardened properties of SCC were investigated. Furthermore, three circular slender columns were cast using both plain and linen fiber reinforced (LFR SCC in order to study the variations of hardened properties and mesostructural characteristics along the columns height. The addition of linen fibers to SCC reduced its workability and affected its self-compacting characteristics in a manner depending on the fiber content. Also, noticeable improvement in mechanical properties and slight reduction in unit weight and UPV were recorded. The hardened properties did not vary significantly along the height of columns, however, lower values were observed at the upper end of columns. The aggregate distribution was slightly more homogenous in case of LFRSCC, and the variation of fiber density along the height of columns was relatively high.

  20. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

    El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

  1. Strengths and Failure Characteristics of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Glass Aggregate

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    Rahman Khaleel AL-Bawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different proportions of green-colored waste glass (WG cullet on the mechanical and fracture properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC were experimentally investigated. Waste bottles were collected, washed, crushed, and sieved to prepare the cullet used in this study. Cullet was incorporated at different percentages (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% by weight instead of natural fine aggregate (NFA and/or natural coarse aggregate (NCA. Three SCC series were designed with a constant slump flow of 700±30 mm, total binder content of 570 kg/m3 and at water-to-binder (w/b ratio of 0.35. Moreover, fly ash (FA was used in concrete mixtures at 20% of total binder content. Mechanical aspects such as compressive, splitting tensile, and net flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity of SCC were investigated and experimentally computed at 28 days of age. Moreover, failure characteristics of the concretes were also monitored via three-point bending test on the notched beams. The findings revealed that the mechanical properties as well as fracture parameters were adversely influenced by incorporating of WG cullet. However, highest reduction of compressive strength did not exceed 43% recorded at 100% WG replacement level. Concretes containing WG showed less brittle behavior than reference concrete at any content.

  2. Porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) incorporating high volume fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Murti, G. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of concrete could be triggered by the presence of aggressive agents from the environment into the body of concrete. The penetration of these agents is influenced by the pore characteristics of the concrete. Incorporating a pozzolanic material such as fly ash could modify the pore characteristic of the concrete. This research aims to investigate the influence of incorporating fly ash at high volume level on the porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Laboratory investigations were carried out following the ASTM C642 for measuring density and volume of permeable pores (voids) of the SCC with varying fly ash contents (50-70% by weight of total binder). In addition, a measurement of permeable voids by saturation method was carried out to obtain an additional volume of voids that could not be measured by the immersion and boiling method of ASTM C642. The results show that the influence of fly ash content on the porosity appears to be dependent on age of SCC. At age less than 56 d, fly ash tends to cause an increase of voids but at 90 d of age it reduces the pores. The additional pores that can be penetrated by vacuum saturation method counts about 50% of the total voids.

  3. Analysis of Flexural Fatigue Strength of Self Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, G.; Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul; Subhashini, N.; Vigneshwari, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the extensive statistical investigation ofvariations in flexural fatigue life of self-compacting Fibrous Concrete (FC) beams. For this purpose, the experimental data of earlier researchers were examined by two parameter Weibull distribution.Two methods namely Graphical and moment wereused to analyse the variations in experimental data and the results have been presented in the form of probability of survival. The Weibull parameters values obtained from graphical and method of moments are precise. At 0.7 stress level, the fatigue life shows 59861 cyclesfor areliability of 90%.

  4. The positive and negative influences of VMA's on the robustness of fresh self-compacting concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vurst, F.; Grunewald, S.; De Schutter, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over time, several mix design metliods liave been developed to obtain a selfcompacting concrete (SCC) with suitable fresh and hardened concrete properties. The very fluid concrete with no need for external compaction is achieved by using a higher powder content and the use of chemical admixtures.

  5. Numerical approach of the bond stress behavior of steel bars embedded in self-compacting concrete and in ordinary concrete using beam models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Almeida Filho

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the bond behavior between steel bars and concrete by means of a numerical analysis based on Finite Element Method. Results of a previously conducted experimental program on reinforced concrete beams subjected to monotonic loading are also presented. Two concrete types, self-compacting concrete and ordinary concrete, were considered in the study. Non-linear constitutive relations were used to represent concrete and steel in the proposed numerical model, aiming to reproduce the bond behavior observed in the tests. Experimental analysis showed similar results for the bond resistances of self-compacting and ordinary concrete, with self-compacting concrete presenting a better performance in some cases. The results given by the numerical modeling showed a good agreement with the tests for both types of concrete, especially in the pre-peak branch of the load vs. slip and load vs. displacement curves. As a consequence, the proposed numerical model could be used to estimate a reliable development length, allowing a possible reduction of the structure costs.

  6. Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Self-Compacting Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fenollera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the use of recycled aggregate (RA, from waste pieces generated during production in precast plants for self-compacting concrete (SCC manufactured with a double sustainable goal: recycle manufacturing waste (consumption and improvement of the thermal properties of the manufactured product (energy efficiency. For this purpose, a mechanical study to ensure technical feasibility of the concrete obtained has been conducted, as well as a thermal analysis of recycled SCC specimens of 50 N/mm2 resistance, with different RA doses (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%. The main parameters that characterize a SCC in both states, fresh (slump-flow and hard (compressive strength, have been tested; also, a qualitative analysis of the thermal conductivity using infrared thermography (IRT and quantitative analysis with heat flow meter at three temperatures 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C have been performed. The results suggest the existence of two different thermal behaviors: concretes with 0% and 20% of RA, and on the other hand concretes with 50% and 100% of RA. It has also demonstrated the validity of the IRT as sampling technique in estimating the thermal behavior of materials having reduced range of variation in parameters.

  7. Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Self-Compacting Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollera, María; Míguez, José Luis; Goicoechea, Itziar; Lorenzo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The research focuses on the use of recycled aggregate (RA), from waste pieces generated during production in precast plants for self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with a double sustainable goal: recycle manufacturing waste (consumption) and improvement of the thermal properties of the manufactured product (energy efficiency). For this purpose, a mechanical study to ensure technical feasibility of the concrete obtained has been conducted, as well as a thermal analysis of recycled SCC specimens of 50 N/mm2 resistance, with different RA doses (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%). The main parameters that characterize a SCC in both states, fresh (slump-flow) and hard (compressive strength), have been tested; also, a qualitative analysis of the thermal conductivity using infrared thermography (IRT) and quantitative analysis with heat flow meter at three temperatures 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C have been performed. The results suggest the existence of two different thermal behaviors: concretes with 0% and 20% of RA, and on the other hand concretes with 50% and 100% of RA. It has also demonstrated the validity of the IRT as sampling technique in estimating the thermal behavior of materials having reduced range of variation in parameters. PMID:28793449

  8. Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Self-Compacting Concrete with Recycled Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollera, María; Míguez, José Luis; Goicoechea, Itziar; Lorenzo, Jaime

    2015-07-20

    The research focuses on the use of recycled aggregate (RA), from waste pieces generated during production in precast plants for self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with a double sustainable goal: recycle manufacturing waste (consumption) and improvement of the thermal properties of the manufactured product (energy efficiency). For this purpose, a mechanical study to ensure technical feasibility of the concrete obtained has been conducted, as well as a thermal analysis of recycled SCC specimens of 50 N/mm² resistance, with different RA doses (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%). The main parameters that characterize a SCC in both states, fresh (slump-flow) and hard (compressive strength), have been tested; also, a qualitative analysis of the thermal conductivity using infrared thermography (IRT) and quantitative analysis with heat flow meter at three temperatures 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C have been performed. The results suggest the existence of two different thermal behaviors: concretes with 0% and 20% of RA, and on the other hand concretes with 50% and 100% of RA. It has also demonstrated the validity of the IRT as sampling technique in estimating the thermal behavior of materials having reduced range of variation in parameters.

  9. Effect of Fibers and Filler Types on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed K. Rejeb* , Majid Kh . N. Ayad A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete, by using three types of filler (silica fume, clinker powder & lime stone powder, and two types of fibers (steel & glass fibers with volume fractions of (0.5% and (0.1% respectively. For each type of fillers, the fresh properties are measured by using Slump test, J- ring and V- funnel, while hardened properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. The results show that adding fibers to the self-compacting concrete (SCC well reduces the workability and improves the hardened properties. Also, the study concluded that better workability is obtained by using (lime stone, silica fume and clinker powder as fillers, respectively. While the higher hardened properties are gained by using silica fume were rather than those of other types of fillers 

  10. Performance of Retrofitted Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams Using External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. M. AL-Shaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams, similar to other structural members, necessitate retrofitting for many causes. However, research on SCCFST beams externally retrofitted by bolted steel plates has seldom been explored in the literature. This paper aims at experimentally investigating the retrofitting performance of square self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams using bolted steel plates with three different retrofitting schemes including varied configurations and two different steel plate lengths under flexure. A total of 18 specimens which consist of 12 retrofitted SCCFST beams, three unretrofitted (control SCCFST beams, and three hollow steel tubes were used. The flexural behaviour of the retrofitted SCCFST beams was examined regarding flexural strength, failure modes, and moment versus deflection curves, energy absorption, and ductility. Experimental results revealed that the implemented retrofitting schemes efficiently improve the moment carrying capacity and stiffness of the retrofitted SCCFST beams compared to the control beams. The increment in flexural strength ranged from 1% to 46%. Furthermore, the adopted retrofitting schemes were able to restore the energy absorption and ductility of the damaged beams in the range of 35% to 75% of the original beam ductility. Furthermore, a theoretical model was suggested to predict the moment capacity of the retrofitted SCCFST beams. The theoretical model results were in good agreement with the test results.

  11. Fresh Properties and Flexural Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete Integrating Coal Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Norwati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of using coal bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in self-compacting concrete (SCC on its fresh properties and flexural strength. A comparison between SCC with various replacements of fine aggregates with coal bottom ash showed that SCC obtained flexural strength decrease on increase of water cement ratio from 0.35 to 0.45. The natural sand was replaced with coal bottom ash up to 30% volumetrically. The fresh properties were investigated by slump flow, T500 spread time, L-box test and sieve segregation resistance in order to evaluate its self-compatibility by compared to control samples embed with natural sand. The results revealed that the flowability and passing ability of SCC mixtures are decreased with higher content of coal bottom ash replacement. The results also showed that the flexural strength is affected by the presence of coal bottom ash in the concrete. In addition, the water cement ratios are influence significantly with higher binder content in concrete.

  12. Study on Flexural Behaviour of Ternary Blended Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Beam with Conventional RCC Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshaline Seles, M.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    The conventional concrete when used for structures having dense congested reinforcement, the problems such as external compaction and vibration needs special attention. In such case, the self compacting concrete (SCC) which has the properties like flow ability, passing and filling ability would be an obvious answer. All those SCC flow behavior was governed by EFNARC specifications. In present study, the combination type of SCC was prepared by replacing cement with silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK) along with optimum dosages of chemical admixtures. From the fresh property test, cube compressive strength and cylinder split tensile strength, optimum ternary mix was obtained. In order to study the flexural behavior, the optimum ternary mix was taken in which beam specimens of size 1200 mm x 100 mm x 200 mm was designed as singly reinforced section according to IS: 456-2000, Limit state method. Finally the comparative experimental analysis was made between conventional RCC and SCC beams of same grade in terms of flexural strength namely yield load & ultimate load, load- deflection curve, crack size and pattern respectively.

  13. A COST-REDUCTION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE INCORPORATING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher material cost of self-compacting concrete (SCC as compared to normal vibrated concrete is mainly due to its higher cement content. In order to produce economical SCC, a significant amount of cement should be replaced with cheaper material options, which are commonly found in byproduct materials such as limestone powder (LP, fly ash (FA and raw rice husk ash (RRHA. However, the use of these byproduct materials to replace the high volumes of cement in an SCC mixture will produce deleterious effects such as strength reduction. Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum SCC mixture proportioning capable of minimizing SCC’s material cost. A total of fifteen mixes were prepared. This study showed that raw rice husk ash exhibited positive correlations with fly ash and fine limestone powder and were able to produce high compressive and comparable to normal concrete. The SCC-mix made with quaternary cement-blend comprising OPC/LP/FA/RRHA at 55/15/15/15 weight percentage ratio is found to be capable of maximizing SCC’s material-cost reduction to almost 19% as compared with the control mix

  14. High-performance self-compacting concrete with the use of coal burning waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhrakh, Anton; Solodov, Artyom; Naruts, Vitaly; Larsen, Oksana; Alimov, Lev; Voronin, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Today, thermal power plants are the main producers of energy in Russia. Most of thermal power plants use coal as fuel. The remaining waste of coal burning is ash, In Russia ash is usually kept at dumps. The amount of utilized ash is quite small, less than 13%. Meanwhile, each ash dump is a local ecological disaster. Ash dumps take a lot of place and destroy natural landscape. The use of fly ash in building materials can solve the problem of fly ash dumps in Russia. A lot of papers of scientists are devoted to the use of fly ash as filler in concrete. The main advantage of admixing fly ash in concrete is decrease of amount of used cement. This investigation was held to find out if it is possible to utilize fly ash by its use in high amounts in self-compacting concrete. During experiments three mixtures of SCC with different properties were obtained. The first one is experimental and shows the possibility of obtaining SCC with high compressive strength with 60% of fly ash from the mass of cement. Two other mixtures were optimized with the help of the math planning method to obtain high 7-day and 28-day high compressive strength.

  15. Influence of calcined mud on the mechanical properties and shrinkage of self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SCC has a particular interest in terms of sustainable development. Indeed, their specific formulation leads to a greater volume of dough than for common concretes, thus, a larger quantity of cement. However, for economical, ecological and technical reasons, it is sought to limit their cement content [1]. It is therefore necessary to almost always use mineral additions as a partial replacement for cement because the technology of self-compacting concretes can consume large quantities of fines, in this case calcinated mud issued from dams dredging sediments that can give and/or ameliorate characteristics and performances of this type of concretes. Four SCCs had been formulated from the same composition where the only percentage of calcinated mud of Chorfa (west of Algeria dam changed (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of calcinated mud on characteristics at fresh state of SCC according to AFGC was quantified. Mechanical strengths and shrinkage deformation (total, autogenous, drying were evaluated. The results show the possibility to make SCCs with different dosages of calcinated mud having strengths that can defy those of the control SCC. The analysis of free deformations indicates the beneficial impact of the mud by contributing to decrease the amplitudes of the shrinkage compared to those of the control SCC.

  16. Technical viability of self-compacting concretes with by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bacarji

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this work is to present the technical viability of Self Compacting Concretes (SCC containing by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production. For this purpose, a vast characterization of these by-products was made; six mixtures of SCC were produced using two different aggregates: granite and mica schist. The binder/dry aggregate (b/agg ratio by mass was 1:3. The following properties were analyzed: compressive strength, direct tensile strength, flexural tensile strength and splitting tensile strength. Granite presented the best mechanical performance. The replacement of natural sand by granite sand generated concretes with the same level of compressive strength and caused an increase in tensile strength values. The incorporation of silica fume into concrete with granite produced an increase of 17% in compressive strength. So, the use of these by-product materials can provide a technically feasible solution that is also consistent with the aims of sustainable development and preservation of the environment.

  17. Durability Properties of Self Compacting Concrete containing Fly ash, Lime powder and Metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the durability properties of Self-compacting concrete (SCC, with different amounts of fly ash (FA, lime powder (LP and metakaolin (MK. A total of 6 mixes were prepared that have a constant water-binder ratio (w/b of 0.41 and superplasticizer dosage of 1% by weight of cement. In addition to compressive strength, the durability properties of SCC mixes were determined by means of Initial surface absorption test (ISAT and Capillary suction test. The test results indicated that the durability properties of the mixes appeared to be very dependent on the type and amount of the mineral admixture used; the mixes containing MK were found to have considerably higher permeability resistance. Good co-relation between strength and absorption were achieved.

  18. Strengthening of self-compacting reinforced concrete deep beams containing circular openings with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the behavior of reinforced self-compacting concrete deep beams with circular openings strengthened in shear with various arrangements of externally bonded Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP. Six simply supported deep beams were constructed and tested under two points load up to the failure for this purpose. All tested beams had same geometry, compressive strength, shear span to depth ratio, main flexural and web reinforcement. The variables considered in this study include the influence of fiber orientation, utilizing longitudinal CFRP strips with vertical strips and area of CFRP. The test results indicated that the presence of the circular openings in center of load path reduce stiffness and ultimate strength by about 50% when compared with solid one, also it was found that the externally bonded CFRP can significantly increase the ultimate load and enhance the stiffness of deep beam with openings.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Nano-Metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kareem Abed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of nano- metakaolin addition for production self-compacting concrete (SCC. Nano-metakaolin material was used at four percentages (0, 1, 3 and 5 % as partial replacement by weight of cement [Reference mix (PC, (1%, 3%, 5% nano-metakaolin(1, 3, 5 NMK]. This research studied the influence of nano-metakaolin material on the fresh and mechanical properties which represented by the different tests were slump flow, T50cm, L-Box, V-funnel, compressive and flexural strength. From the results of this study, found that the SCC with 5% of nano-metakaolin material as partial replacement by weight of cement give the best results of fresh and mechanical properties of SCC mixes.

  20. The effect of aging on the fracture characteristics and ductility of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygi, Morteza H.A.; Kazemi, Mohammad T.; Nikbin, Iman M.; Vaseghi Amiri, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fracture properties of SCC were obtained using two different methods. • Results showed with increase of age the fracture toughness increases. • As SCC becomes older, brittleness number is almost doubled. • The Size effect curve showed SCC brittleness increases with increase of age. - Abstract: Good knowledge of fracture parameters and cracking behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) from early ages until the SCC becomes mature plays an important role in design of SCC structure and also in evaluation of durability and consequently prevention of damage. In this paper, variation of fracture parameters and corresponding ductility behavior of SCC at different ages (e.g. 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days) for SCC mixes with w/c ratios of 0.45 and 0.65 have been experimentally studied. To do so, three-point bending tests were carried out on 120 notched beams. Then, size effect method (SEM) and work of fracture method (WFM) were applied to interpret the results. The results of analyses indicated that as the concrete is aging from 3 days to 90 days: (a) fracture energies from SEM (G f ) and WFM (G F ) are increased: (b) effective size of the process zone (C f ) in SEM and characteristic length (L ch ) in WFM are considerably decreased indicating increase of concrete brittleness: (c) fracture surface of concrete passing through the aggregate is increased which is attributed to strength improvement of hardened cement paste and aggregate–paste transition zone: (d) fracture toughness is significantly increased: (e) brittleness number is almost doubled. Also, the ratio of G F /G f , which is applied for calibration of numerical models of cracking at different ages, is equal to 2.70

  1. Medium strength self-compacting concrete containing fly ash: Modelling using factorial experimental plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Sonebi [University of Paisley, Paisley (United Kingdom). Advanced Concrete and Masonry Centre

    2004-07-01

    This investigation aims to develop medium strength self-compacting concrete (MS-SCC). The cost of materials will be decreased by reducing the cement content and by using pulverised fuel ash (PFA) with a minimum amount of superplasticizer (SP). A factorial design was carried out to mathematically model the influence of five key parameters on filling and passing abilities, segregation and compressive strength, which are important for the successful development of medium strength self-compacting concrete incorporating PFA. The parameters considered in the study were the contents of cement and PFA, water-to-powder (cement+PFA) ratio (W/P) and dosage of SP. The responses of the derived statistical models are slump flow, fluidity loss, Orimet time, V-funnel time, L-box, JRing combined to the Orimet, JRing combined to cone, rheological parameters, segregation and compressive strength at 7, 28 and 90 days. Twenty-one mixes were prepared to derive the statistical models, and five were used for the verification and the accuracy of the developed models. The models are valid for mixes made with 0.38 to 0.72 W/P, 60 to 216 kg/m{sup 3} of cement content, 183 to 317 kg/m{sup 3} of PFA and 0% to 1% of SP, by mass of powder. The influences of W/P, cement and PFA contents, and the dosage of SP were characterised and analysed using polynomial regression, which can identify the primary factors and their interactions on the measured properties. The results show tha MS-SCC can be achieved with a 28-day compressive strength of 30 to 35 MPa by using up to 210 kg/m{sup 3} of PFA.

  2. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  3. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  4. Fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete flow simulations in comparison with l-box experiments using carbopol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Olesen, John Forbes

    An evolution of distribution and orientation of fibres in the fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete during the casting process is an important matter as the final orientation and distribution of fibres can significantly influence mechanical properties of the structural elements. A two-way cou...

  5. Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) as a construction material has been getting more attention from the industry. Its application area varies from standard structural elements in bridges and skyscrapers to modern architecture having geometrical challenges. However, heterogeneities induced...

  6. A numerical model for self-compacting concrete flow through reinforced sections. A porous medium analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilic, Ksenija

    2016-05-01

    This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium

  7. A numerical model for self-compacting concrete flow through reinforced sections. A porous medium analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilic, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium

  8. Fresh and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete containing copper slag as fine aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is carried out on the development of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC using copper slag (CS as fine aggregates with partial and full replacement of sand. Six different SCC mixes (60% OPC and 40% Fly Ash with 0% as control mix, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of copper slag substituting sand with constant w/b ratio of 0.45 were cast and tested for fresh properties of SCC. Compressive strength and splitting tensile strength were evaluated at different ages and microstructural analysis was observed at 120 days. It has been observed that the fluidity of SCC mixes was significantly enhanced with the increment of copper slag. The test results showed that the compressive strength increases up to 60% copper slag as replacement of sand, beyond which decrease in strength was observed. The highest compressive strength was obtained at 20% copper slag substitution at different curing ages among all the mixes, except for 7 days curing. The splitting tensile strength of the CS substituted mixes in comparison to control concrete was found to increase at all the curing ages but the remarkable achievement of strength was detected at 60% copper slag replacement. The microscopic view from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated more voids, capillary channels, and micro cracks with the increment of copper slag as substitution of sand as compared to the control mix.

  9. Ductility and performance assessment of high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadhassani, Mohammad, E-mail: mmh356@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Jameel, Mohammed [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Badiee, Hamid [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arumugam, Arul M.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The width of the load point and the support point influences premature failure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Load-deflection relationship is linear till 85% of the ultimate load. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbed energy increases with the increase of tensile reinforcement ratios. - Abstract: The behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of normal beams. Because of their proportions, deep beams are likely to have strength controlled by shear. This paper discusses the results of eight simply supported high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams having variation in ratio of web reinforcement and tensile reinforcement. The deflection at two points along the beam length, web strains, tensile bars strains and the strain at concrete surface are recorded. The results show that the strain distribution at the section height of mid span is nonlinear. Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. The effect of width of load point and the support point is more important than the effect of tensile reinforcement ratio in preventing premature failure. Load-deflection graphs confirm linear relationship up to 85% of the ultimate load for HSSCC over-reinforcement web sections. The absorbed energy index increases with the increase in tensile reinforcement ratios.

  10. The use of non-destructive tests to estimate Self-compacting concrete compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Boukhelkhal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, there are few studies on the effect of mineral admixtures on correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity for concrete. The aim of this work is to study the effect of mineral admixture available in Algeria such as limestone powder, granulated slag and natural pozzolana on the correlation between compressive strength and corresponding ultrasonic pulse velocity for self-compacting concrete (SCC. Compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were determined for four different SCC (with and without mineral admixture at the 3, 7, 28 and 90 day curing period. The results of this study showed that it is possible to develop a good correlation relationship between the compressive strength and the corresponding ultrasonic pulse velocity for all SCC studied in this research and all the relationships had exponential form. However, constants were different for each mineral admixture type; where, the best correlation was found in the case of SCC with granulated slag (R2 = 0.85. Unlike the SCC with pozzolana, which have the lowest correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.69.

  11. Prediction of Mean and Design Fatigue Lives of Self Compacting Concrete Beams in Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S.; Singh, S. P.; Singh, P.; Kaushik, S. K.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, result of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC) beams in flexure are presented. An experimental programme was planned in which approximately 60 SCC beam specimens of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm were tested under flexural fatigue loading. Approximately 45 static flexural tests were also conducted to facilitate fatigue testing. The flexural fatigue and static flexural strength tests were conducted on a 100 kN servo-controlled actuator. The fatigue life data thus obtained have been used to establish the probability distributions of fatigue life of SCC using two-parameter Weibull distribution. The parameters of the Weibull distribution have been obtained by different methods of analysis. Using the distribution parameters, the mean and design fatigue lives of SCC have been estimated and compared with Normally vibrated concrete (NVC), the data for which have been taken from literature. It has been observed that SCC exhibits higher mean and design fatigue lives compared to NVC.

  12. Asphalt dust waste material as a paste volume in developing sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures are usually designed to have high workability during the fresh state through the influence of higher volumes of paste in concrete mixtures. Asphalt dust waste (ADW) is one of disposed materials obtained during the production of asphalt premix. These fine powder wastes contribute to environmental problems today. However, these waste materials can be utilized in the development of sustainable and economical SCC. This paper focuses on the preliminary evaluations of the fresh properties and compressive strength of developed SCC for 7 and 28 days only. 144 cube samples from 24 mixtures with varying water binder ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and ADW volume (0% to 100%) were prepared. MD940 and MD950 showed a satisfactory performance for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel tests at fresh state. The compressive strength after 28 days for MD940 and MD950 was 36.9 MPa and 28.0 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADW as paste volume should be limited and a higher water binder ratio will significantly reduce the compressive strength.

  13. Ductility and performance assessment of high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadhassani, Mohammad; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Jameel, Mohammed; Badiee, Hamid; Arumugam, Arul M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. ► The width of the load point and the support point influences premature failure. ► Load–deflection relationship is linear till 85% of the ultimate load. ► The absorbed energy increases with the increase of tensile reinforcement ratios. - Abstract: The behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of normal beams. Because of their proportions, deep beams are likely to have strength controlled by shear. This paper discusses the results of eight simply supported high strength self compacting concrete (HSSCC) deep beams having variation in ratio of web reinforcement and tensile reinforcement. The deflection at two points along the beam length, web strains, tensile bars strains and the strain at concrete surface are recorded. The results show that the strain distribution at the section height of mid span is nonlinear. Ductility decreased with increase in tensile reinforcement ratio. The effect of width of load point and the support point is more important than the effect of tensile reinforcement ratio in preventing premature failure. Load–deflection graphs confirm linear relationship up to 85% of the ultimate load for HSSCC over-reinforcement web sections. The absorbed energy index increases with the increase in tensile reinforcement ratios.

  14. Microstructural, thermal, physical and mechanical behavior of the self compacting concrete containing SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles effects on flexural strength of self compacting concrete. {yields} Physical and microstructural consideration. {yields} Mechanical tests. {yields} Thermal analysis. {yields} Porosimetry. - Abstract: In the present study, flexural strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self compacting concrete with different amount of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been investigated. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to self compacting concrete and various behaviors of the specimens have been measured. The results indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are able to improve the flexural strength of self compacting concrete and recover the negative effects of superplasticizer on flexural strength of the specimens. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of the increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages of hydration. The increased the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all also indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles up to 4 wt% could improve the mechanical and physical properties of the specimens. Finally, SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

  15. Microstructural, thermal, physical and mechanical behavior of the self compacting concrete containing SiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TiO 2 nanoparticles effects on flexural strength of self compacting concrete. → Physical and microstructural consideration. → Mechanical tests. → Thermal analysis. → Porosimetry. - Abstract: In the present study, flexural strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self compacting concrete with different amount of SiO 2 nanoparticles has been investigated. SiO 2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to self compacting concrete and various behaviors of the specimens have been measured. The results indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles are able to improve the flexural strength of self compacting concrete and recover the negative effects of superplasticizer on flexural strength of the specimens. SiO 2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of the increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount at the early ages of hydration. The increased the SiO 2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all also indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles up to 4 wt% could improve the mechanical and physical properties of the specimens. Finally, SiO 2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

  16. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Self Compacted Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Industrial Wastes under Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Mansoor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC differs from the normal concrete as it has the basic capacity to consolidate under its own weight. The increased awareness regarding environmental disturbances and its hazardous effects caused by blasting and crushing procedures of stone, it becomes a delicate and obvious issue for construction industry to develop an alternative remedy as material which can reduce the environmental hazards and enable high-performance strength to the concrete, which would make it durable and efficient for work. A growing trend is being established all over the world to use industrial byproducts and domestic wastes as a useful raw material in construction, as it provides an eco-friendly edge to the construction process and especially for concrete. This study aims to enlighten the use and comparative analysis for the performance of concrete with added industrial byproducts such as Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS, Silica fumes (SF and Marble Powder (MP in the preparation of SCC. This paper deals with the prediction of mechanical properties (i.e., compressive, tensile and flexural Strength of self-compacting concrete by considering four major factors such as type of additive, percentage additive replaced, curing days and temperature using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs.

  17. Effect of mix design on the size-independent fracture energy of normal- and high-strength self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, H.; Ríos, J.D.; Gómez, E.J.

    2018-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete has a characteristic microstructure inherent to its specific composition. The higher content of fine particles in self-compacting concrete relative to the equivalent vibrated concrete produces a different fracture behavior that affects the main fracture parameters. In this work, a comprehensive experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of self-compacting concrete has been carried out. Twelve different self-compacting concrete mixes with compressive strength ranging from 39 to 124 MPa (wider range than in other studies) have been subjected to three-point bending tests in order to determine the specific fracture energy. The influence of the mix design and its composition (coarse aggregate fraction, the water to binder ratio and the paste to solids ratio) on its fracture behavior has been analyzed. Moreover, further evidence of the objectivity of the size-independent fracture energy results, obtained by the two most commonly used methods, has been p [es

  18. Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concretes (SFRSCCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-point bending tests on notched beams of three types of steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC have been performed by using both a servo-hydraulic machine and a drop-weight impact instrument. The lo ading rates had a range of six orders of magnitude from 2.20 × 10−3 mm/s (quasi-static to 2.66 × 103 mm/s. These SFRSCCs had the same matrix, but various types of steel fiber (straight and hooked-end and contents (volume ratios, 0.51%, 0.77% and 1.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the fracture energy and the flexural strength increase as the loading rate increases. Moreover, such tendency is relatively moderate at low rates. However, at high rates it is accentuated. For the 0.51% fiber content, the dynamic increase factors of the flexural strength and the fracture energy are approximately 6 and 3, while for the 1.23% fiber content, they are around 4 and 2, respectively. Thus, the higher the fiber content the less rate sensitivity there is.

  19. An Investigation on Self-Compacting Concrete Using Ultrafine Natural Steatite Powder as Replacement to Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was made on flow properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete (SCC with ultrafine natural steatite powder (UFNSP as replacement to cement. The tests were conducted on specimens with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of replacement of UFNSP to the weight of cement and compared to the control specimens. The flow properties of all specimens were tested and checked for their limit with the existing guidelines. The compressive strength test was done on all specimens for strength of 7 days, 14 days, 28 days, and 56 days. The hardened samples were tested for their microstructural behavior and the elements Mg, Ca, and Si were mapped. Through mapping, the formations of M-S-H along with C-S-H are observed. The results show that the addition of UFNSP influences the flow property, by reducing the flow, and increases the compressive strength till 20% replacement. Further the addition of UFNSP increases the denseness of microstructure of the specimens thus resulting in the strength increment.

  20. Development of Flat Roof Construction with Waterproofing from Modified Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, R. R.; Ibragimov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    The given article considers the issues of increase of building flat roof durability by application of the modified self-compacting concrete (SSC). When SSC was modified, a complex modifier was developed and the optimization of the complex modifier composition was carried out using a three-factor experiment. The physico-mechanical properties of the obtained SSC are determined. The microstructure and phase composition of the modified cement stone were studied. On the basis of the studies carried out, namely, X-ray phase analysis and electron microscopy, it was concluded that the reduced content of calcium hydroxide in the samples with a complex modifier is due to the adsorption of calcium hydroxide on highly dispersed particles and the reaction of interaction with metakaolin also contributing to reduction in the content of calcium hydroxide in cement stone. The received data allow one to speak about SSC high operational characteristics. With the mark for the spreading of cone P5, the modified SSC has a class of compressive strength B50, high frost resistance (F600) and water resistance (W16).

  1. Effect of Lime Powder and Metakaolin on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmad Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the fresh and hardened properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC with different types and amounts of admixtures. Six mixes were prepared by replacing 30% of cement with different percentages of fly ash (FA, lime powder (LP and metakaolin (MK. Water- Cement ratio was kept constant at 0.41 and superplasticizer dosage of 1% by weight of cement. The filling and passing ability were investigated through Slump Flow, J-Ring, V-funnel and L-box test before filling the moulds. The compressive strength of hardened SCC cubes was also measured after specified days of curing (7, 14, 28, 60 & 90 days. The workability test results showed that as FA was replaced by increasing percentages of LP and MK, the mixes became dense and hence less workable. It was observed that the compressive strength showed an increase with increasing percentage replacement of FA with LP and MK. This increase was higher for mixes with MK than that of mixes with LP.

  2. Blocking Mechanism Study of Self-Compacting Concrete Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Zhida; Zhang, Zhihua

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the influence factors of blocking mechanism of Self-Compaction Concrete (SCC), Roussel’s granular blocking model was verified and extended by establishing the discrete element model of SCC. The influence of different parameters on the filling capacity and blocking mechanism of SCC were also investigated. The results showed that: it was feasible to simulate the blocking mechanism of SCC by using Discrete Element Method (DEM). The passing ability of pebble aggregate was superior to the gravel aggregate and the passing ability of hexahedron particles was bigger than tetrahedron particles, while the tetrahedron particle simulation results were closer to the actual situation. The flow of SCC as another significant factor affected the passing ability that with the flow increased, the passing ability increased. The correction coefficient λ of the steel arrangement (channel section shape) and flow rate γ in the block model were introduced that the value of λ was 0.90-0.95 and the maximum casting rate was 7.8 L/min.

  3. Lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres for slab rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein, N. S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slabs of some buildings in Barcelona are formed by unidirectional beams, with a ceramic arch in between, which are filled with broken pottery or construction waste. These structures often present problems such as displacement of the tiles arranged over it due to the lack of stiffness of the filling material. This supposes a risk to the user and could also cause durability problems. In order to rehabilitate it, a lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres (HLACF has been designed to be used as a filling material, improving the stiffness of the structure. This paper presents a structural analysis of a standard case and the results of an experimental campaign. The concrete showed a density of 1665 kg/m3, a slump flow of 605 mm and a compressive strength of 22.3 MPa, at 28 days. These results are in agreement with the requirements, overcoming common lightweight concrete segregation problems.

    Los forjados de ciertos edificios del ensanche de Barcelona, formados por viguetas unidireccionales con un revoltón de cerámica entre ellas y un relleno posterior (material cerámico y residuos de construcción, suelen presentar problemas de movimientos y despegues de las baldosas situadas en la parte superior, con el consiguiente riesgo para el usuario, aparte de los problemas de durabilidad asociados. Para rehabilitar esas estructuras se ha diseñado un hormigón ligero autocompactante con fibras (HLACF, como relleno de modo que mejore la rigidez a la estructura. El artículo presenta el análisis estructural de una solución tipo así como los resultados de una campaña experimental realizada. Como resultado se obtiene un hormigón de densidad de 1.665 kg/m3, escurrimiento de 605 mm y resistencia a compresión de 22,3 MPa, a los 28 días, que cumple con los requisitos y significa superar problemas de segregación previsibles para este tipo de hormigones.

  4. The Effect of Type and Volume Fraction (Vf) of Steel Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanbarpour, S.; Mazaheripour, H.; Mirmoradi, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC). Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers......Purpose – Self-compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fibers extends its possibilities. Steel fibers bridge cracks, retard their propagation, and improve several characteristics and properties of the SCC. The purpose of this paper...... – It was found that, inclusion of steel fibers significantly affect the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and vf. Besides, mathematical expressions were developed to estimate the flexural, modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of SFRSCCs regarding of compressive strength...

  5. Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesoğlu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerdaş, Kasım

    2012-10-15

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of high volumes of ultra-fine additions on self-compacting concrete[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, R. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Faculty of Engineering; Colangelo, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technologies; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The addition of fine minerals can reduce water demand and increase the slump characteristics of concrete. This paper examined the influence of high volumes of ultra-fine fly ash, raw fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Three samples of SCC were prepared using various mineral additions to determine normal slump and J-ring slump flows of fresh concrete as well as the compressive strength and elastic modulus properties of hardened concrete. Cement and crushed limestone natural aggregates were used. The fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites were subjected to wet high energy milling. The rotating speed, milling time, water-to-solid ratio, and size of milling media were optimized to obtain powders with varying qualities. Results of the study showed that values for the normal slump flow ranged between 604 and 785 mm, while the differences with the J-ring slump flow were less than 30 mm. The samples were then tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete after 7 and 28 curing days. The modulus of elasticity and compressive strength showed improvements in the concretes containing the ultra-fine fly ash. No segregation phenomena were observed in the case of the cylindrical column specimens. It was concluded that all the specimens provided environmentally sustainable, high workability concretes which can be successfully prepared with the addition of high volumes of minerals. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. The influence of using volcanic ash and lime ash as filler on compressive strength in self compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, Rahmi; Panatap Simanjuntak, Murydrischy

    2018-03-01

    Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a technology which is developing today in which concrete solidifies by itself without using vibrator. Casting conventional concrete which has a lot of reinforcement bars sometimes finds difficulty in achieving optimal solidity. The method used to solve this problem is by using SCC technology. SCC was made by using filler, volcanic ash, and lime ash as the filling materials so that the concrete became more solid and hollow space could be filled up. The variation of using these two materials was 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the cementitious mass and using 1% of superplasticizer from cementitious material. The supporting testing was done by using the test when the concrete was still fluid and when it was solid. Malleable concrete was tested by using EFNARC 2002 standard in slump flow test, v-funnel test, l-shaped box test, and j-ring test to obtain filling ability and passing ability. In this malleable lime concrete test, there was the decrease, compared with normal SCC concrete without adding volcanic ash and lime ash. Testing was also done in solid concrete in compressive strength, tensile strength, and concrete absorption. The result of the testing showed that the optimum tensile strength in Variation 1, without volcanic ash and lime ash – with 1% of superplasticizer was 39.556 MPa, the optimum tensile strength in Variation 1, without volcanic ash and lime ash- with 1% of super-plasticizer was 3.563 MPa, while the value of optimum absorption which occurred in Variation 5 (25% of volcanic ash + 25% of lime ash + 50% of cement + 1% of superplasticizer) was 1.313%. This was caused by the addition of volcanic ash and lime ash which had high water absorption.

  8. An eco-friendly self-compacting concrete with recycled coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira-de Oliveira, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential uses of coarse recycled aggregates in the composition of SCC increases the ecological value and partly solve the issues of waste disposal sites generated by construction and demolition of structures. Thus, this paper present an experimental study of SCC properties where the normal coarse aggregates were replaced by different percentages of recycled aggregates, i.e., 0% (SCC, 10% (SCCR10, 20% (SCCR20, 30% (SCCR30 and 40% (SCCR40. The results from fresh concrete (rheological properties and self-compactability as the hardened concrete properties (compressive strength, density and dynamic modulus of elasticity, show only minor discrepancies. From the standpoint of mechanical behaviour, the results confirm the viability to incorporate coarse recycled aggregates in the SCC demonstrating the conservative character of the currently recommended limits.Los usos potenciales de áridos gruesos reciclados en la composición del hormigón autocompactante (SCC aumenta el valor ecológico y en parte resuelve los problemas de los sitios de disposición de residuos generados por la construcción y la demolición de las estructuras. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un estudio experimental de las propiedades de SCC en el cual los áridos gruesos naturales fueron reemplazados por distintos porcentajes de áridos reciclados, es decir, 0% (SCC, el 10% (SCCR10, el 20% (SCCR20, el 30% (SCCR30 y el 40% (SCCR40. Los resultados del hormigón fresco (propiedades reológicas y la auto-compactación, como las propiedades de hormigón endurecido (resistencia a la compresión, densidad y módulo de elasticidad dinámico, muestran sólo pequeñas discrepancias. Desde el punto de vista del comportamiento mecánico, los resultados confirman la viabilidad de incorporar áridos gruesos reciclados en los SCC demostrando el carácter conservador de los límites actualmente recomendados.

  9. Fresh and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with coarse aggregate replacement using Waste of Oil Palm Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayuda, Hakas; Saleh, Fadillawaty; Ilham Maulana, Taufiq; Monika, Fanny

    2018-05-01

    Self-compacting Concrete (SCC) is a real innovation that can solidify itself without the help of tools to ease field practice. In its implementation, SCC can use alternative materials to reduce waste, such as Oil Palm Shell (OPS). In this research, OPS used as a replacement of crushed stone as the main coarse aggregate. The concrete mixture used consists of cement, sand, crushed stone, OPS as a variation of aggregate substitutes, palm oil fuel ash, and superplasticizer. OPS used were variated with 0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50% of crushed stone aggregate weight with age up to 28 days. Tests were conducted on fresh and mechanical properties. From the results, it is known that replacement of aggregate using OPS meets fresh properties criteria and although the compressive strength of OPS concrete mixture is lower than normal SCC, OPS still can be an alternative in making SCC and reducing palm oil industrial waste.

  10. Lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres for slab rehabilitation; Hormigon ligero autocompactante con fibras para rehabilitacion de forjados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, N. S.; Fuente, A. de la; Aguado, A.; Maso, D.

    2011-07-01

    The slabs of some buildings in Barcelona are formed by unidirectional beams, with a ceramic arch in between, which are filled with broken pottery or construction waste. These structures often present problems such as displacement of the tiles arranged over it due to the lack of stiffness of the filling material. This supposes a risk to the user and could also cause durability problems. In order to rehabilitate it, a lightweight self-compacting concrete reinforced with fibres (HLACF) has been designed to be used as a filling material, improving the stiffness of the structure. This paper presents a structural analysis of a standard case and the results of an experimental campaign. The concrete showed a density of 1665 kg/m3, a slump flow of 605 mm and a compressive strength of 22.3 MPa, at 28 days. These results are in agreement with the requirements, overcoming common lightweight concrete segregation problems. (Author) 24 refs.

  11. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  12. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  13. Potential of utilizing asphalt dust waste as filler material in the production of sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Waste materials from many industries are widely used in the production of sustainable green concrete. Utilizing asphalt dust waste (ADW) as a filler material in the development of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is one of the alternative solutions for reducing environmental waste. SCC is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. However, there is limited information on the effects of utilizing ADW in the development of SCC. Therefore, this research study examines the effects of various w/b ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and differing amounts of ADW (0% to 50%) on the rheological properties of fresh state concrete. The compressive strength of the SCC was tested only for 7 and 28 days as preliminary studies. The results revealed that mixtures MD730, MD740 and MD750 showed satisfactory results for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel test during the fresh state. The compressive strength values obtained after 28 days for MD730, MD740 and MD750 were 35.1 MPa, 36.8 MPa and 29.4 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the distribution of materials in mixtures has significant effect in achieving rheological properties and compressive strength of SCC.

  14. The combined influence of paste volume and volumetric water-to- powder ratio on robustness of fresh self-compacting concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vurst, F.; Grunewald, S.; Feys, D.; De Schutter, G.

    2015-01-01

    In order to avoid durability problems caused by an inadequate consolidation of concrete, self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been developed. The mix design of SCC aims at balancing a minimum flowability allowing air bubbles to escape and a maximum flowability in order to avoid segregation. Because of

  15. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  16. Effect of mix design on the size-independent fracture energy of normal- and high-strength self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cifuentes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete has a characteristic microstructure inherent to its specific composition. The higher content of fine particles in self-compacting concrete relative to the equivalent vibrated concrete produces a different fracture behavior that affects the main fracture parameters. In this work, a comprehensive experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of self-compacting concrete has been carried out. Twelve different self-compacting concrete mixes with compressive strength ranging from 39 to 124 MPa (wider range than in other studies have been subjected to three-point bending tests in order to determine the specific fracture energy. The influence of the mix design and its composition (coarse aggregate fraction, the water to binder ratio and the paste to solids ratio on its fracture behavior has been analyzed. Moreover, further evidence of the objectivity of the size-independent fracture energy results, obtained by the two most commonly used methods, has been provided on the self-compacting concrete mixes.

  17. The effects of CuO nanoparticles on properties of self compacting concrete with GGBFS as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and CuO nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early age of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (% at later ages. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased the CuO nanoparticles' content more than 3.0 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. More rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  18. An experimental survey on combined effects of fibers and nanosilica on the mechanical, rheological, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigi, Morteza H.; Berenjian, Javad; Lotfi Omran, Omid; Sadeghi Nik, Aref; Nikbin, Iman M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate combine effects of fibers and nanosilica on SCC. • The mechanical, rheological, and durability properties were tested and compared. • Microstructural properties of concrete were assessed using AFM and XRD techniques. • Nanosilica and fibers can improve the mechanical properties and durability of SCC. - Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that application of fibers in concrete enhances scratching, flexural and tensile strength. Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable and coherent concrete able to self-compact under its own weight. On the other hand, nanosilica particles and artificial pozzolans possessing high efficiency in concrete technology can improve structural properties of cement-based materials. Previous studies have suggested self-compacting and fiber-reinforced concretes for more stable and efficient buildings. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of nanosilica and different concrete reinforcing fibers including steel, polypropylene and glass on the performance of concrete. In this study mechanical (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strength, toughness and modulus of elasticity), rheological (L-Box, slump flow, T50) and durability (resist chloride ion penetration (RCPT) and water absorption) properties are assessed. In addition, microstructural properties of concrete were assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Totally, 40 concrete mixes , labeled as A, B, C and D, with nanosilica contents of 0, 2, 4 and 6 weight percent (wt.%) of cement, respectively and three types of reinforcing fibers (steel: 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 volume percent (v%) and polypropylene: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 v% and glass: 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 v%) were evaluated. The results of the study showed that the presence of both nanosilica and reinforcing fibers in optimal percentages, can improve the mechanical properties and durability of self-compacting

  19. Mechanical Performance Evaluation of Self-Compacting Concrete with Fine and Coarse Recycled Aggregates from the Precast Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara A; da Silva, Pedro R; de Brito, Jorge

    2017-08-04

    This paper intends to evaluate the feasibility of reintroducing recycled concrete aggregates in the precast industry. The mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with incorporation of recycled aggregates (RA) (coarse recycled aggregates (CRA) and fine recycled aggregates (FRA)) from crushed precast elements were evaluated. The goal was to evaluate the ability of producing SCC with a minimum pre-established performance in terms of mechanical strength, incorporating variable ratios of RA (FRA/CRA%: 0/0%, 25/25%, 50/50%, 0/100% and 100/0%) produced from precast source concretes with similar target performances. This replication in SCC was made for two strength classes (45 MPa and 65 MPa), with the intention of obtaining as final result concrete with recycled aggregates whose characteristics are compatible with those of a SCC with natural aggregates in terms of workability and mechanical strength. The results enabled conclusions to be established regarding the SCC's produced with fine and coarse recycled aggregates from the precast industry, based on its mechanical properties. The properties studied are strongly affected by the type and content of recycled aggregates. The potential demonstrated, mainly in the hardened state, by the joint use of fine and coarse recycled aggregate is emphasized.

  20. Use of limestone powder during incorporation of Pb-containing cathode ray tube waste in self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua-iam, Gritsada; Makul, Natt

    2013-10-15

    For several decades, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) were the primary display component of televisions and computers. The CRT glass envelope contains sufficient levels of lead oxide (PbO) to be considered hazardous, and there is a need for effective methods of permanently encapsulating this material during waste disposal. We examined the effect of adding limestone powder (LS) on the fresh and cured properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures containing waste CRT glass. The SCC mixtures were prepared using Type 1 Portland cement at a constant cement content of 600 kg/m(3) and a water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.38. CRT glass waste cullet was blended with river sand in proportions of 20 or 40% by weight. To suppress potential viscosity effects limestone powder was added at levels of 5, 10, or 15% by weight. The slump flow time, slump flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, Marsh cone flow time, and setting time of the fresh concrete were tested, as well as the compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of the hardened concrete. Addition of limestone powder improved the fresh and hardened properties. Pb leaching levels from the cured concrete were within US EPA allowable limits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE AND HYBRID FIBRES ON FIBRE REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH HIGH LEVEL OF FLY ASH USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BOZKURT, Nusret; YAZICIOĞLU, Salih; GÖNEN, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results of investigation carried out on fresh and mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (FRSCC) produced with fly ash which is an industrial waste material. Concrete industry is an important one between the industry branches for sustainability. In this study, high level of fly ash was used to reduce Portland Cement (PC) consumption as well as CO2 emission through the use of that waste material. For this purpose, a control Self C...

  2. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  3. The effects of ZrO2 nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties of high strength self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and coefficient of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ZrO2 nanoparticles have been investigated. The results indicate that the strength and the resistance to water permeability of the specimens are improved by adding ZrO2 nanoparticles in the cement paste up to 4.0 wt. (%. ZrO2 nanoparticles, as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount especially at the early age of hydration, could accelerate C-S-H gel formation and hence increase the strength of the concrete specimens. In addition, ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to act as nanofillers and recover the pore structure of the specimens by decreasing harmful pores. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  4. Effect of silica fume on the fresh and hardened properties of fly ash-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Fareed Ahmed; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil; Shafiq, Nasir

    2013-02-01

    The effect of silica fume on the fresh and hardened properties of fly ash-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) was investigated in this paper. The work focused on the concrete mixes with a fixed water-to-geopolymer solid (W/Gs) ratio of 0.33 by mass and a constant total binder content of 400 kg/m3. The mass fractions of silica fume that replaced fly ash in this research were 0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt%. The workability-related fresh properties of SCGC were assessed through slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box test methods. Hardened concrete tests were limited to compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, all of which were measured at the age of 1, 7, and 28 d after 48-h oven curing. The results indicate that the addition of silica fume as a partial replacement of fly ash results in the loss of workability; nevertheless, the mechanical properties of hardened SCGC are significantly improved by incorporating silica fume, especially up to 10wt%. Applying this percentage of silica fume results in 4.3% reduction in the slump flow; however, it increases the compressive strength by 6.9%, tensile strength by 12.8% and flexural strength by 11.5%.

  5. Durability and Shrinkage Characteristics of Self-Compacting Concretes Containing Recycled Coarse and/or Fine Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gesoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses durability and shrinkage performance of the self-compacting concretes (SCCs in which natural coarse aggregate (NCA and/or natural fine aggregate (NFA were replaced by recycled coarse aggregate (RCA and/or recycled fine aggregate (RFA, respectively. A total of 16 SCCs were produced and classified into four series, each of which included four mixes designed with two water to binder (w/b ratios of 0.3 and 0.43 and two silica fume replacement levels of 0 and 10%. Durability properties of SCCs were tested for rapid chloride penetration, water sorptivity, gas permeability, and water permeability at 56 days. Also, drying shrinkage accompanied by the water loss and restrained shrinkage of SCCs were monitored over 56 days of drying period. Test results revealed that incorporating recycled coarse and/or fine aggregates aggravated the durability properties of SCCs tested in this study. The drying shrinkage and restrained shrinkage cracking of recycled aggregate (RA concretes had significantly poorer performance than natural aggregate (NA concretes. The time of cracking greatly prolonged as the RAs were used along with the increase in water/binder ratio.

  6. Rotation capacity of self-compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.

    2009-01-01

    Steel fibres are known to enhance the toughness of concrete in compression and in tension. Steel fibres also improve the bond properties between concrete matrix and reinforcing steel bars. In order to investigate the effect of steel fibres on the rotation capacity of reinforced concrete members,

  7. Sawdust Ash as Powder Material for Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Naphthalene Sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine U. Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests are carried out to determine the fluidity of Ashaka Portland cement paste and its compatibility with sawdust ash (SDA as powder material for self-compacting cement (SCC mixtures. Results of the investigation showed that saturation was achieved at w/c ratios of 0.4 and 0.42, at dosages of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizers of 3.5% and 2%, respectively. The optimum replacement level for the SCC mixture was 10 wt.% of cement by SDA and 2% of the superplasticizer dosage. The achieved spread and flow time were 26 cm and 8 seconds and are within the specified range of 24 cm to 26 cm and 7 to 11 seconds, respectively. Statistical inference showed that the mix, w/c, and the interaction between the mix and w/c ratio are significant.

  8. Ultimate stress increase in unbonded tendons in post-tensioned indeterminate I-beams cast with high strength normal and self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Askari Dolatabad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of un-bonded tendons is prevalent in post-tensioned concrete structures. Equations for prediction of stress in un-bonded tendons of post-tensioned normal (vibrating concrete flexural members have been given in various codes. They are based on experience and don’t account all of important parameters such as concrete strength (normal and high strength and its type (vibrating and non-vibrating concrete. Since self-compacting concrete (SCC is nearly a new innovation therefore, understanding the implementation of this type of non-vibrating concrete on the ultimate unbonded tendon stress is critical. For this aim, in this paper there are presented experimental results of six continuous un-bonded post-tensioned I-beams in two groups were casted and monitored by different electrical strain gauges. In the first tested group, the beams (UPN1-12, UPN1-18, UPN1-22 were consisting of high strength normal concrete (HSNC where as in the second group (UPS1-12, UPS1-18, UPS1-22 high strength self-compacting concrete (HSSCC were tested. The variables included the type of concrete and percentage of bounded non-prestressed steel. Experimental monitored results of ultimate stress increase in unbonded tendons are compared with predicted equations of different researchers and standards. It was found that, the proposed equation is in better agreement with the test results. The results of standard error of estimate Sy/x, indicates that for two types of HSCs, the ACI 318-2011 provides better estimates than AASHTO-2010 model whereas this model provides better estimates than BS 8110-97. Keywords: Post-tensioned, Unbonded tendons, Stress increase, High strength normal and self-compacting concrete, Continuous beams

  9. The use of a volcanic material as filler in self-compacting concrete production for lower strength applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burgos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the use of large amounts of fine powders (fillers derived from a Colombian volcanic material into the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC for lower strength applications. The effects on SCC properties were studied with the incorporation of up to 50% of volcanic material of Tolima (MVT as a partial substitute of the total weight of Portland cement. The workability was determined through slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box test. The compressive strength results were analyzed statistically by MINITAB. These demonstrated that 30% (by total weight of cementitious material was the maximum allowable percentage of MVT to be used in the production of SCCs. Based on this, mechanical and permeability properties of SCC MVT 30% were evaluated at 28, 90 y 360 curing days. SCC MVT 30% exhibited compressive strength of 21 and 27 MPa after 28 and 360 days of curing, respectively.

  10. The use of a volcanic material as filler in self-compacting concrete production for lower strength applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, D.; Guzmán, A.; Hossain, K.M.A.; Delvasto, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of large amounts of fine powders (fillers) derived from a Colombian volcanic material into the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC) for lower strength applications. The effects on SCC properties were studied with the incorporation of up to 50% of volcanic material of Tolima (MVT) as a partial substitute of the total weight of Portland cement. The workability was determined through slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box test. The compressive strength results were analyzed statistically by MINITAB. These demonstrated that 30% (by total weight of cementitious material) was the maximum allowable percentage of MVT to be used in the production of SCCs. Based on this, mechanical and permeability properties of SCC MVT 30% were evaluated at 28, 90 y 360 curing days. SCC MVT 30% exhibited compressive strength of 21 and 27 MPa after 28 and 360 days of curing, respectively. [es

  11. Self-compacting concrete with sugarcane bagasse ash – ground blast furnace slag blended cement: fresh properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hien; Sheen, Yeong-Nain; Ngoc-Tra Lam, My

    2018-04-01

    In this investigation, major properties in fresh state of self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed from sugarcane bagasse ash and granulated blast furnace slag as supplementary cementitious materials were examined through an experimental work. There were four mix groups (S0, BA10, BA20, and BA30) containing different cement replacing levels; and totally, 12 SCC mixtures and one control mixture were provided for the test. Fresh properties of the proposed SCC were evaluated through measurement of the density, slump, slump-flow, V-funnel test, T500 slump, Box-test, and setting time. The testing results indicated that replacing either SBA and/or BFS to OPC in SCC mixtures led to lower density, lesser flowability, and longer hardening times.

  12. The influence of using accelerator addition on High strength self-compacting concrete (HSSCC) in case of enhancement early compressive strength and filling ability parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo; Fadillah, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Efficiency in a construction works is a very important thing. Concrete with ease of workmanship and rapid achievement of service strength will to determine the level of efficiency. In this research, we studied the optimization of accelerator usage in achieving performance on compressive strength of concrete in function of time. The addition of variation of 0.3% - 2.3% to the weight of cement gives a positive impact of the rapid achievement of hardened concrete, however the speed of increasing of concrete strength achievement in term of time influence present increasing value of filling ability parameter of self-compacting concrete. The right composition of accelerator aligned with range of the values standard of filling ability parameters of HSSCC will be an advantage guidance for producers in the ready-mix concrete industry.

  13. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength and setting time of self-compacted concrete paste as cementitious composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete were investigated after the addition of different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles, with an average particle size of about 30 nm, were synthesized and their properties studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The prepared nanoparticles were partially added to self-compacting concrete at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%), and the mechanical (flexural and split tensile) strength of the specimens measured after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. The present results have shown that the ZnO nanoparticles were able to improve the flexural strength of self-compacting concrete. The increased ZnO content of more than 0.2% could increase the flexural strength, and the maximum flexural and split tensile strength was observed after the addition of 0.5% nanoparticles. Finally, ZnO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of the self-compacted concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and less-harmful pores, while increasing mechanical strength.

  14. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Self-Compacted Concrete Paste as Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete were investigated after the addition of different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles, with an average particle size of about 30 nm, were synthesized and their properties studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction. The prepared nanoparticles were partially added to self-compacting concrete at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%, and the mechanical (flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens measured after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. The present results have shown that the ZnO nanoparticles were able to improve the flexural strength of self-compacting concrete. The increased ZnO content of more than 0.2% could increase the flexural strength, and the maximum flexural and split tensile strength was observed after the addition of 0.5% nanoparticles. Finally, ZnO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of the self-compacted concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and less-harmful pores, while increasing mechanical strength.

  15. Thermal and strength performance of reinforced self-compacting concrete slabs mixed with basalt and PVA fibers in high intensity fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jani Noraniza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibers addition to concrete and the innovation of self-compacting concrete technology lead to the development of high-performance concrete. However, high intensity fire may adversely affect the performance of this type of concrete. A series of fire resistance test experiments to evaluate the performance of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (FR-SCC slabs consisting of various mix of basalt and PVA fibers were carried out by subjecting the concrete slabs as an element of construction to high intensity Hydrocarbon fire heating condition. The fire testing condition was in accordance with the standard time-temperature fire curve for 120 minutes up to 1100°C heating temperature. The temperatures on the surface and within the concrete slabs were recorded and the performance of each type of FRSCC slabs were evaluated. The performance of Basalt FR-SCC was found to be more resistant to fire in comparison to PVA FRSCC. There residual compressive strength of core samples were tested and SEM analysis were carried out to determine the effect of high intensity fire on the basalt and PVA FR-SCC slabs.

  16. Bond of reinforcing bars in self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Braam, C.R.; Walraven, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Plain concrete demonstrates a rather brittle behavior both under compression and tension. By adding steel fibers, the post-cracking behavior becomes more ductile and an increase of the strain capacity under tension and compression is found. The research project currently being carried out aims at

  17. Bond of reinforcing bars in self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Braam, C.R.; Uijl, J.A. den; Walraven, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Pull-out tests were performed on 10 mm diameter ribbed bars embedded along three times the bar diameter in 200 mm cubes made of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) of normal strength (B45). The fiber content was 60 and 120 kg/m3, respectively, the aspect ratio of the fibers was 45 and

  18. Use of waste from the marble industry as filler for the production of self-compacting concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez, P.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the possibilities of using residual slurry from the cutting and superficial treatment of marble for the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC. The study considers the replacement of 30% of cement by the waste material, and assessed the effects on SCC properties in fresh and hardened states. Rheological characteristics were evaluated at the paste and concrete levels. Physical-mechanical characterization considers the rate of shrinkage and compressive strength gain. Pastes and concrete properties using waste marble as filler are compared with mixtures that include limestone filler, either added to the concrete or the cement. For the same dosage, an improvement in the flowability was observed in SCC with waste marble filler. The mechanical properties of the SCC adopting marble waste are equivalent to the SCC with limestone filler. The study shows that residual slurry from the processing of marble can represents an appropriate filler to be used in SCC.

    El presente estudio evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de lodos residuo de la industria del corte y tratamiento superficial del mármol para la producción de hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Se estudia el efecto del remplazo de un 30% del cemento por el residuo. Se valoran las características reológicas a nivel pasta y hormigón. La caracterización físico-mecánica contempla la evolución de la retracción y de la resistencia a compresión. Se comparan las prestaciones de pastas y hormigones empleando el residuo con mezclas que incorporan filler calizo, ya sea adicionado al hormigón o presente en el cemento. Se observa una mejora de la fluidez en el caso de los HAC que contienen el residuo estudiado; las propiedades mecánicas de éstos resultan equivalentes a las de los HAC con filler calizo. Se concluye que los lodos residuo del procesamiento del mármol pueden representan un filler adecuado para su uso en HAC.

  19. The effect of water to cement ratio on fracture parameters and brittleness of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygi, Morteza H.A.; Kazemi, Mohammad T.; Nikbin, Iman M.; Amiri, Javad. Vaseghi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fracture properties of SCC were obtained using two different methods. ► Results showed with decrease of w/c ratio the fracture toughness increases. ► Size effect method can predict the peak load with a good precision for SCC beams. ► The size effect curve showed SCC ductility increases with increase of w/c ratio. - Abstract: The paper describes an experimental research on fracture characteristics of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Three point bending tests conducted on 154 notched beams with different water to cement (w/c) ratios. The specimens were made from mixes with various w/c ratios from 0.7 to 0.35. For all mixes, common fracture parameters were determined using two different methods, the work-of-fracture method (WFM) and the size effect method (SEM). Test results showed that with decrease of w/c ratio from 0.7 to 0.35 in SCC: (a) the fracture toughness increases linearly: (b) the brittleness number is approximately doubled: (c) the effective size of the process zone c f in SEM and the characteristic length (l ch ) in WFM decrease which may be explained by the change in structural porosity of the aggregate–paste transition zone; and (d) the fracture surface of concrete is roughly smoother, which can be attributed to the improved bond strength between the aggregates and the paste. Also, the results showed that there is a correlation between the fracture energy measured by WFM (G F ) and the value measured through SEM (G f ) (G F ≅ 2.92G f )

  20. The influence of coarse aggregate size and volume on the fracture behavior and brittleness of self-compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beygi, Morteza H.A., E-mail: M.beygi@nit.ac.ir [Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi, E-mail: Kazemi@sharif.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikbin, Iman M., E-mail: nikbin@iaurasht.ac.ir [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaseghi Amiri, Javad, E-mail: Vaseghi@nit.ac.ir [Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbanifar, Saeed, E-mail: Saeed.rabbanifar@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Ebrahim, E-mail: Ebrahim.rahmani84@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on fracture characteristics and brittleness of self-compacting concrete (SCC), involving the tests of 185 three point bending beams with different coarse aggregate size and content. Generally, the parameters were analyzed by the work of fracture method (WFM) and the size effect method (SEM). The results showed that with increase of size and content of coarse aggregate, (a) the fracture energy increases which is due to the change in fractal dimensions, (b) behavior of SCC beams approaches strength criterion, (c) characteristic length, which is deemed as an index of brittleness, increases linearly. It was found with decrease of w/c ratio that fracture energy increases which may be explained by the improvement in structure of aggregate-paste transition zone. Also, the results showed that there is a correlation between the fracture energy measured by WFM (G{sub F}) and the value measured through SEM (G{sub f}) (G{sub F} = 3.11G{sub f})

  1. The influence of coarse aggregate size and volume on the fracture behavior and brittleness of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygi, Morteza H.A.; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Nikbin, Iman M.; Vaseghi Amiri, Javad; Rabbanifar, Saeed; Rahmani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on fracture characteristics and brittleness of self-compacting concrete (SCC), involving the tests of 185 three point bending beams with different coarse aggregate size and content. Generally, the parameters were analyzed by the work of fracture method (WFM) and the size effect method (SEM). The results showed that with increase of size and content of coarse aggregate, (a) the fracture energy increases which is due to the change in fractal dimensions, (b) behavior of SCC beams approaches strength criterion, (c) characteristic length, which is deemed as an index of brittleness, increases linearly. It was found with decrease of w/c ratio that fracture energy increases which may be explained by the improvement in structure of aggregate-paste transition zone. Also, the results showed that there is a correlation between the fracture energy measured by WFM (G F ) and the value measured through SEM (G f ) (G F = 3.11G f )

  2. 3D modelling of the flow of self-compacting concrete with or without steel fibres. Part I: slump flow test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    In part I of this two-part paper, a three-dimensional Lagrangian smooth particle hydrodynamics method has been used to model the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with or without short steel fibres in the slump cone test. The constitutive behaviour of this non-Newtonian viscous fluid is described by a Bingham-type model. The 3D simulation of SCC without fibres is focused on the distribution of large aggregates (larger than or equal to 8 mm) during the flow. The simulation of self-compacting high- and ultra-high- performance concrete containing short steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The simulation results show that the fibres and/or heavier aggregates do not precipitate but remain homogeneously distributed in the mix throughout the flow.

  3. Dataset on predictive compressive strength model for self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuyatan, O M; Edeki, S O

    2018-04-01

    The determination of compressive strength is affected by many variables such as the water cement (WC) ratio, the superplasticizer (SP), the aggregate combination, and the binder combination. In this dataset article, 7, 28, and 90-day compressive strength models are derived using statistical analysis. The response surface methodology is used toinvestigate the effect of the parameters: Varying percentages of ash, cement, WC, and SP on hardened properties-compressive strengthat 7,28 and 90 days. Thelevels of independent parameters are determinedbased on preliminary experiments. The experimental values for compressive strengthat 7, 28 and 90 days and modulus of elasticity underdifferent treatment conditions are also discussed and presented.These dataset can effectively be used for modelling and prediction in concrete production settings.

  4. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  5. Lime as an Anti-Plasticizer for Self-Compacting Clay Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanli Landrou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modification of clay properties with inorganic additives to deflocculate and flocculate inorganic soil for the development of a material that would be as easy to use as the current concrete products, but with a much lower environmental impact. Considering that the rheological behaviour of clays is controlled by their surface charge, we first introduce potential determining ions to deflocculate the clay particles and to reduce the yield stress of the earth material. Their efficiency is characterized using zeta potential measurements and rheological tests. We then achieve the flocculation of clay particles by using natural minerals that slowly dissolve in the interstitial liquid and ultimately precipitate calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. The precipitation products are identified by X-ray diffraction and the consequences of this delayed precipitation are followed by oscillatory rheometric measurements. Finally, it is suggested that in this process, C–S–H precipitation is not used as a binding vector but as an anti-plasticizer that removes the inorganic dispersant additives.

  6. The effectiveness of stone ash and volcanic ash of mount Sinabung as a filler on the initial strength of self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, R.; Muhammad, W.; Saragih, M. D. S. M.; Mustaqa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Self Compacting Concrete is a concrete variant that has a high degree of workability and also has great initial strength, but low water cement factor. It is also self-flowable that can be molded on formwork with a very little or no compacted use of compactors. This concrete, using a variety of aggregate sizes, aggregate portions and superplasticizer admixture to achieve a special viscosity that allows it to flow on its own without the aid of a compactor. Lightweight concrete brick is a type of brick made from cement, sand, water, and developers. Lightweight concrete bricks are divided into 2 based on the developed materials used are AAC (Autoclave Aerated Concrete) using aluminum paste and CLC (Cellular Lightweight Concrete) that use Foaming Agent from BASF as a developer material. In this experiment, the lightweight bricks that will be made are CLC type which uses Foaming Agent as the developer material by mixing the Ash Stone produced by Stone Crusher machine which has the density of 2666 kg / m3 as Partial Pair Substitution. In this study the variation of Ash Stone used is 10%, 15%, and 20% of the planned amount of sand. After doing the tasting the result is obtained for 10% variation. Compressive Strength and Absorption Increase will decrease by 25.07% and 39.005% and Variation of 15% compressive strength will decrease by 65,8% and decrease of absorbtion equal to 17,441% and variation of 20% compressive strength will decreased by 67,4 and absorption increase equal to 17,956%.

  7. The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanoparticles in concrete. → Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. → Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO 2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO 2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO 2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO 2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete

  8. The effect of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on water permeability and thermal and mechanical properties of high strength self-compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles effects on self-compacting concrete. {yields} Strength assessments. {yields} Water permeability. {yields} Thermal properties. {yields} Pore structure. {yields} Microstructure evaluations. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and coefficient of water absorption of high performance self-compacting concrete containing different amounts of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been investigated. The results indicate that the strength and the resistance to water permeability of the specimens are improved by adding TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the cement paste up to 4.0 wt%. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount especially at the early age of hydration, could accelerate C-S-H gel formation and hence increase the strength of the concrete specimens. In addition, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are able to act as nanofillers and recover the pore structure of the specimens by decreasing harmful pores. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  9. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on water permeability and thermal and mechanical properties of high strength self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TiO 2 nanoparticles effects on self-compacting concrete. → Strength assessments. → Water permeability. → Thermal properties. → Pore structure. → Microstructure evaluations. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and coefficient of water absorption of high performance self-compacting concrete containing different amounts of TiO 2 nanoparticles have been investigated. The results indicate that the strength and the resistance to water permeability of the specimens are improved by adding TiO 2 nanoparticles in the cement paste up to 4.0 wt%. TiO 2 nanoparticles, as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount especially at the early age of hydration, could accelerate C-S-H gel formation and hence increase the strength of the concrete specimens. In addition, TiO 2 nanoparticles are able to act as nanofillers and recover the pore structure of the specimens by decreasing harmful pores. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that TiO 2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  10. Guidelines for assessing the valorization of a waste into cementitious material: dredged sediment for production of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some guidelines in order to analyse the feasibility of including a waste material in the production of a structural cementitious material. First of all, the compatibility of the waste with a cementitious material has to be assured; then, if necessary, a decontamination step will be carried out; after, decision on the type of material has to be taken based on different aspects, with special emphasis on the granulometry. As a last step, mechanical, environmental and durability properties have to be evaluated. Then the procedure is illustrated with a full example, obtaining a self compacting concrete (SCC including dredged sediment taken from a Spanish harbour.Este artículo presenta algunas directrices con el fin de analizar la posibilidad de incluir un material de desecho en la producción de un material base cemento estructural. En primer lugar, debe asegurarse la compatibilidad de los residuos con el material base cemento. Tras ello, si es necesario, se llevará a cabo la etapa de descontaminación del residuo. Después debe tomarse la decisión sobre el tipo de material a utilizar en base a diferentes aspectos, haciendo especial énfasis en la granulometría. Como último paso, deben evaluarse las propiedades mecánicas, ambientales y de durabilidad del producto final. El procedimiento a seguir se ilustra con un ejemplo concreto basado en la obtención de un hormigón autocompactante (SCC incluyendo en su fabricación sedimentos dragados tomados de un puerto español.

  11. The Use of Waste Maroon Marble Powder and Iron Oxide Pigment in the Production of Coloured Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucteba Uysal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work covers some workability, mechanical, and durability properties of coloured self-compacting concrete (SCC containing maroon marble powder and iron oxide pigment. Pigments with varying amounts were used to produce coloured SCC. For this purpose, ten different series were prepared of which two of the series were pigment free that one of them was the colour of white SCC including limestone powder and the other one was the colour of maroon SCC including maroon marble powder. The other series were containing pigments with varying amounts. The water to binder ratio remained constant for all the series at 0.42. Slump flow, T50 time, V-funnel, and L-box tests were used to determine the workability of coloured SCC. The hardened properties that were determined included density, water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV, compressive strength, abrasion resistance, and impermeability. As workability, experimental results showed that coloured SCC could be obtained by using maroon marble powder and when iron oxide pigment used in amounts less than 6%. The addition of pigment notably increased the water absorption of SCC series. The use of smaller quantities of pigment caused slight increase in compressive strength. Higher pigment content also provided decreases in abrasive resistance, and after exposure to abrasion, mass losses were within the range of 0.89%–2.12% and the abrasion depths were within the range of 0.9 mm–2.1 mm. Among the varying amounts of pigmented series, M1 series which contains 1% pigment showed the best performance, and the findings indicated that it is possible to successfully utilize maroon marble powder and lower amounts of pigments in producing coloured SCC.

  12. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  13. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  14. Influence of formwork surface on the orientation of steel fibres within self-compacting concrete and on the mechanical properties of cast structural elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Zirgulis, Giedrius; Bolander, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The influences of formwork surface on the final orientation of steel fibres immersed in self-compacting concrete and on the resulting mechanical response of the cast structural elements are investigated. Experimental observations of fibre orientation within cast slabs, obtained via computed...... as input to the lattice model. Through comparisons with the experimental data, it is shown that these simulations correctly predict the phenomena of interest. We conclude the paper by highlighting a relationship between the number and orientation of the immersed steel fibres crossing the fracture plane...

  15. Self-compacting concrete containing different powders at elevated temperatures - Mechanical properties and changes in the phase composition of the paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiyari, S.; Allahverdi, A.; Rais-Ghasemi, M.; Zarrabi, B.A.; Parhizkar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Fire resistance of self-compacting concretes (SCC) containing limestone and quartz powders, with two different compressive strengths, were evaluated and compared with normal concretes (NC). The residual mechanical strengths of the mixes at different temperatures were measured. The changes in the phase composition of the cement pastes at high temperatures were examined with thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry methods. The SCC mixes showed a higher susceptibility to spalling at high temperatures but the NC mixes suffered much more from loss of the mechanical strengths. Both the powder types and the compressive strength notably influenced the fire behavior of the SCC. The quartz powder accelerated the hydration of the SCC cement paste at high temperatures, up to 500 o C. However, the quartz-contained SCC showed the highest risk of spalling among all the mixes. The results showed that the thermal analysis could be a useful device for evaluating the fire behavior of building materials.

  16. Self-compacting concrete containing different powders at elevated temperatures - Mechanical properties and changes in the phase composition of the paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiyari, S., E-mail: bakhtiyari@bhrc.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, A., E-mail: ali.allahverdi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rais-Ghasemi, M., E-mail: raissghasemi@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, B.A., E-mail: zarrabi@chalmers.se [Fire Technology Dep., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (Sweden); Parhizkar, T., E-mail: parhizkar@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-20

    Fire resistance of self-compacting concretes (SCC) containing limestone and quartz powders, with two different compressive strengths, were evaluated and compared with normal concretes (NC). The residual mechanical strengths of the mixes at different temperatures were measured. The changes in the phase composition of the cement pastes at high temperatures were examined with thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry methods. The SCC mixes showed a higher susceptibility to spalling at high temperatures but the NC mixes suffered much more from loss of the mechanical strengths. Both the powder types and the compressive strength notably influenced the fire behavior of the SCC. The quartz powder accelerated the hydration of the SCC cement paste at high temperatures, up to 500 {sup o}C. However, the quartz-contained SCC showed the highest risk of spalling among all the mixes. The results showed that the thermal analysis could be a useful device for evaluating the fire behavior of building materials.

  17. The role of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Nanoparticles in concrete. {yields} Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. {yields} Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could

  18. Finite-Element Investigation of the Structural Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP- Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC Decks Slabs in Thompson Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhu Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable development and improved whole life performance of concrete infrastructure has led to the requirement of more durable and sustainable concrete bridges alongside accurate predictive analysis tools. Using the combination of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC with industrial by-products and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP, reinforcement is anticipated to address the concerns of high carbon footprint and corrosion in traditional steel-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the structural behavior of basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP-reinforced SCC deck slabs in a real bridge, named Thompson Bridge, constructed in Northern Ireland, U.K. A non-linear finite element (FE model is proposed by using ABAQUS 6.10 in this study, which is aimed at extending the previous investigation of the field test in Thompson Bridge. The results of this field test were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed finite element model. The results showed good agreement between the test results and the numerical results; more importantly, the compressive membrane action (CMA inside the slabs could be well demonstrated by this FE model. Subsequently, a series of parametric studies was conducted to investigate the influence of different parameters on the structural performance of the deck slabs in Thompson Bridge. The results of the analyses are discussed, and conclusions on the behavior of the SCC deck slabs reinforced by BFRP bars are presented.

  19. Revisión del empleo de fibras de acero en hormigones autocompactantes = Review of the steel fibers use in concrete self-compacting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vega

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el hormigón es un material indispensable en la construcción. Tiene muchas ventajas, entre las que destaca su alta resistencia a compresión, pero a su vez presenta algunas deficiencias sobre las que se va a centrar este documento. Entre las deficiencias más destacables están la baja resistencia a tracción del material y su comportamiento frágil. Por ello desde sus orígenes se ha intentado cubrir esas deficiencias utilizando diferentes tipos de materiales para reforzar y complementar las capacidades estructurales del hormigón. La incorporación de fibras en este material ha ido implantándose en el mercado ya que gracias a sus características ayudan a abaratar los costos de ejecución y a una sustitución parcial o total de la armadura. En este trabajo se hará un repaso a al uso de los hormigones autocompactantes en la construcción y a las diferentes tipos de fibras que pueden aplicarse al hormigón convencional para la mejora de la tenacidad, control de fisuración y resistencia a flexotracción, con el fin de elaborar un hormigón autocompactante con fibras de acero que reúna las características propias del hormigón y que optimice algunos aspectos del mismos. Abstract Concrete is now an indispensable material in construction. It has many advantages, including its high resistance to compression, but in turn presents some deficiencies on which this document will be focused. Among the most notable deficiencies are the low tensile strength of the material and its brittle behavior. Therefore, from the outset, attempts have been made to cover these deficiencies by using different types of materials to reinforce and complement the structural capacities of concrete. The incorporation of fibers in this material has been implanted in the market since, thanks to their characteristics, they help to reduce the execution costs and to a partial or total replacement of the armature. This work will review the use of self-compacting

  20. Influence of Recycled Concrete Dust on the Properties of Self– Compacting Concrete (SCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Ernestas; Lazauskas, Mantas; Grigaliūnas, Paulius

    2017-01-01

    Concrete – composite material which economical effect mostly depends on the amount of binder material (usually cement), its type and fineness. Cement manufacturing generates great employment of energy resources. The demand for all kind of manufacturing natural resources are aimed to be reduced as much as possible. Alternative raw material resources are being introduced and tested together with increasing self-compacting concrete (SCC) popularity in Lithuania. Considering environmental require...

  1. Relationship between splitting tensile and compressive strengths for self-compacting concrete containing nano- and micro silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between splitting tensile strength and compressive strength of self-consolidating concrete using data collected from laboratory specimens tested at standard conditions. The results were then compared with some expressions published in international literature. The investigated variables included: type of cement, percentage of nanosilica and percentage of microsilica as a cement replacement by weight. In spite of concrete not being designed to resist direct tension the knowledge of tensile strength is needed to estimate the cracking load. In the absence of test results an estimate of the tensile strength may be obtained by using the relationship proposed. The verification of the proposed formula based on experimental data was estimated by means of the integral absolute error (IAE. The output of this study has provided a better understanding of the correlation between splitting and compressive strengths of SCCs and the effect of some related variables on the resultant behavior, which has therefore, helped to generate new expression with better accuracy.

  2. Analysis of Within-Test Variability of Non-Destructive Test Methods to Evaluate Compressive Strength of Normal Vibrated and Self-Compacting Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Miguel C. S.; Lopes, Sérgio M. R.

    2017-10-01

    Non-destructive tests (NDT) have been used in the last decades for the assessment of in-situ quality and integrity of concrete elements. An important step in the application of NDT methods concerns to the interpretation and validation of the test results. In general, interpretation of NDT results should involve three distinct phases leading to the development of conclusions: processing of collected data, analysis of within-test variability and quantitative evaluation of property under investigation. The analysis of within-test variability can provide valuable information, since this can be compared with that of within-test variability associated with the NDT method in use, either to provide a measure of the quality control or to detect the presence of abnormal circumstances during the in-situ application. This paper reports the analysis of the experimental results of within-test variability of NDT obtained for normal vibrated concrete and self-compacting concrete. The NDT reported includes the surface hardness test, ultrasonic pulse velocity test, penetration resistance test, pull-off test, pull-out test and maturity test. The obtained results are discussed and conclusions are presented.

  3. High-volume natural volcanic pozzolan and limestone powder as partial replacements for portland cement in self-compacting and sustainable concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal; Jackson, Marie D.; Mancio, Mauricio; Meral, Cagla; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo José Meleragno

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study demonstrates that high volume, 45% by mass replacement of portland cement (OPC) with 30% finely-ground basaltic ash from Saudi Arabia (NP) and 15% limestone powder (LS) produces concrete with good workability, high 28-day compressive strength (39 MPa), excellent one year strength (57 MPa), and very high resistance to chloride penetration. Conventional OPC is produced by intergrinding 95% portland clinker and 5% gypsum, and its clinker factor (CF) thus equals 0.95. With 30% NP and 15% LS portland clinker replacement, the CF of the blended ternary PC equals 0.52 so that 48% CO2 emissions could be avoided, while enhancing strength development and durability in the resulting self-compacting concrete (SCC). Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations of the crushed NP and finely-ground NP in the concretes provide new insights into the heterogeneous fine-scale cementitious hydration products associated with basaltic ash-portland cement reactions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Self-healing of polymer modified concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd_Elmoaty M. Abd_Elmoaty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Self healing phenomenon of concrete has been observed in traditional, fibrous, self compacting concrete. This phenomenon occurred mainly due to the presence of unhydrated cement particles in the presence of water. Mechanism of polymer in concrete depends on creating a layer and net of polymer around cement particles which enhances the properties of polymer modified concrete. This mechanism may affect the self healing of this type of concrete. This work aims to study the presence of the self healing phenomenon in polymer modified concrete and the related parameters. An experimental investigation on self healing of polymer modified concrete was undertaken. In this research work, effect of polymer type, polymer dose, cement content, cement type, w/cm ratio and age of damage were studied. The healing process extended up to 60 days. Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were used to evaluate the healing process. Results indicated that, the self healing phenomenon existed in polymer modified concrete as in traditional concrete. The increase of polymer dose increases the healing degree at the same healing time. This increase depends on polymer type. Also, the decrease of w/cm ratio reduces the self healing degree while the use of Type V Portland cement improves the self healing process compared with Type I Portland cement. Cement content has an insignificant effect on healing process for both concrete with and without polymer. In addition, the increase of damage age decreases the efficiency of self healing process.

  5. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  6. Effect of Dolomite as Expansive Agent and Shrinkage Reducing Admixture in Self-Compacting Shrinkage – Compensating Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Qosai Sahib Radi Marshdi; Ahlam Hamid Jasim; Haider Abass Obeed

    2018-01-01

    The principle of using expansive agents has been recommended to manufacture shrinkage compensating concrete provided that an adequate wet curing is carried out. On the other hand, shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) in the concrete mixes, has been more recently suggested to reduce the risk of cracking in concrete structures caused by drying shrinkage. This paper is devoted to the study of the influence of complex modifier in the form of superplasticizer, shrinkage reducing admixture and e...

  7. The Effect of Adding PET (Polyethylen Terephthalate) Plastic Waste on SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) to Fresh Concrete Behavior and Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswatama W, K.; Suyoso, H.; Meyfa U, N.; Tedy, P.

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect PET waste plastics on SCC then PET plastic waste content for SCC is made into 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%. As reference concrete is made SCC with 0% PET level. The results on all fresh concrete test items indicate that for all PET waste levels made are meeting the criteria as SCC. The effect of adding PET to fresh concrete behavior on all test items shows that the filling ability and passing ability of concrete work increases with increasing of PET. However, the increase in PET will decrease its mechanical properties. The result of heat test shows that the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting, and elastic modulus) after heating at 250°C temperature has not changed, while at 600°C has significant capacity decline. To clarify the differences between SCC before and after heating, microstructure analysis was done in the form of photo magnification of specimen using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).

  8. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala D.B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37 Orthogonal Arrays (OA with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering “Nominal the better” situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  9. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  10. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel; Guessasma, Sofiane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young's modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  11. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel

    2012-12-27

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young\\'s modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  12. Estudio experimental del comportamiento a compresión de hormigones autocompactantes reforzados con fibras de acero = Experimental study of performance self-compacting concrete reinforced with steel fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El hormigón autocompactante reforzado con fibras de acero presenta simultáneamente las ventajas de los hormigones autocompactantes y de los reforzados con fibras. Se consigue un material de altas prestaciones en cuanto a su colocación en obra, tenacidad y ductilidad. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento mecánico de un hormigón autocompactante reforzado con fibras de acero. Se han realizado ensayos a compresión a distintas edades, así como ensayos no destructivos (medida de la velocidad de ultrasonidos e índice esclerométrico. Los resultados muestran la variación de la respuesta del hormigón con el tiempo, la diferencia existente con los hormigones tradicionales y la viabilidad del empleo de técnicas no destructivas para el control de este tipo de hormigones.Abstract Self-compacting steel fibers reinforced concrete simultaneously has the advantages of self-compacting concrete and reinforced with fibers. A material of high performance in their laying on site, toughness and ductility is achieved. This paper has studied the mechanical behavior of a self-compacting concrete reinforced with steel fibers. Have been made compression tests, as well as non-destructive testing (measuring the speed of ultrasound and sclerometer test. The results show the variation of the response of concrete with time, the difference with the traditional concrete and the feasibility of using non-destructive techniques for controlling this type of concrete.

  13. Concrete, hardened: Self desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Persson, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    The test method covers the determination of internal relative humidity (RH) in hardened concrete and cement mortar using RH instruments. The determination of RH is done on crushed samples of concrete or cement motar. This test method is only for measuring equipment which gives off or takes up...

  14. 3D modelling of the flow of self-compacting concrete with or without steel fibres. Part II: L-box test and the assessment of fibre reorientation during the flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional Lagrangian particle-based smooth particle hydrodynamics method described in Part I of this two-part paper is used to simulate the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with and without steel fibres in the L-box configuration. As in Part I, the simulation of the SCC mixes without fibres emphasises the distribution of large aggregate particles of different sizes throughout the flow, whereas the simulation of high strength SCC mixes which contain steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The capabilities of this methodology are validated by comparing the simulation results with the L-box test carried out in the laboratory. A simple method is developed to assess the reorientation and distribution of short steel fibres in self-compacting concrete mixes during the flow. The reorientation of the fibres during the flow is used to estimate the fibre orientation factor (FOF) in a cross section perpendicular to the principal direction of flow. This estimation procedure involves the number of fibres cut by the section and their inclination to the cutting plane. This is useful to determine the FOF in practical image analysis on cut sections.

  15. Influence of compaction on the interfacial transition zone and the permeability of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, Andreas; Muench, Beat; Gasser, Philippe; Holzer, Lorenz

    2006-01-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is regarded as a key feature for the transport properties and the durability of concrete. In this study one self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixture and two conventionally vibrated concrete (CVC) mixtures are studied in order to determine the influence of compaction on the porosity of the ITZ. Additionally oxygen permeability and water conductivity were measured in vertical and horizontal direction. The quantitative analysis of images made with an optical microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope shows a significantly increased porosity and width of the ITZ in CVC compared to SCC. At the same time oxygen permeability and water conductivity of CVC are increased in comparison to SCC. Moreover, considerable differences in the porosity of the lower, lateral and upper ITZ are observed in both types of concrete. The anisotropic distribution of pores in the ITZ does not necessarily cause anisotropy in oxygen permeability and water conductivity though

  16. Physical and mechanical behaviour of a roller compacted concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the behaviour of a roller compacted concrete (RCC) reinforced with polypropylene fiber, six types of RCC were made with different content of fibers (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 Kg/m3). The physical parameters are the density, the workability, the shrinkage and the water absorption. For the mechanical ...

  17. The Effect Of Water/powder Material Ratio And Fiber Strength On The Mechanical Properties Of Fiber Reinforced Self-compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Dinç, Alihan

    2007-01-01

    Apart from the normal concrete to fulfill the necessities, specially designed high performance concrete has started to find a place for use towards special application purposes. Performance does not only mean increase in strength rather it also encompasses the quality of preserving the strength and other functions under external effects during the service life of the structure. High performance concrete can be defined as a concrete with high workability, durability and strength along with pre...

  18. MacDonald Dam reconstruction : using roller-compacted concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Located in Nova Scotia, the MacDonald Dam was commissioned in 1928. The dam consists of a 122 metre-long, 16 metre-high concrete structure comprised of an intake structure, stoplog openings, and a 34 metre-long free-overflow spillway. A 488 metre-long power canal was added as an upgrade in the 1950s. This paper provided details of the roller-compact concrete (RCC) used in the dam's recent rehabilitation following a dam failure analysis in 2003 by Nova Scotia Power Inc. RCC was chosen to help keep the dam's construction project on schedule. The layout and cross-section of the spillway was selected with consideration given to the RCC placing operation. A lift thickness of 0.20 m was selected. A formed ogee crest consisting of conventional reinforced concrete was constructed on top of the RCC. The downstream steps of the spillway were also covered with cast-in-place concrete. A low level sluice was designed to resist the weight of the wet RCC. The design compressive strength of the RCC was 20 MPa. The forms used to support the cast-in-place facing concrete on the upstream face of the dam were constructed full height and were braced back to the downstream face of the existing concrete structure prior to the start of RCC placement. Formwork inserts were placed in the facing concrete as construction progressed. Crack inducers were pre-placed on the forms. Aggregates from a local source were transported to a pug mill as the RCC construction progressed. The RCC was spread into 0.20 m lifts using a small bull-dozer, and the facing concrete was vibrated into the lift below. RCC lifts were compacted using a 9 tonne vibratory drum roller. The RCC placing operation was completed over a period of 10 days. Following the completion of the RCC portion of the dam, the remainder of the cast-in-place concrete was completed. It was concluded that the RCC provided a durable, low-maintenance structure that was completed at a lower price and in a shorter time-frame than

  19. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  20. Experimental analysis of compaction of concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlion, Nicolas; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Dahan, Noël

    2001-12-01

    Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material porous microstructure. It produces plastic strains in the material and, at the same time, an increase of its bulk modulus. This paper presents two experimental techniques aimed at obtaining the hydrostatic response of concrete and mortar. The first one is a uniaxial confined compression test which is quite simple to implement and allows to reach hydrostatic pressures of about 600 MPa. The specimen size is large enough so that concrete with aggregate sizes up to 16 mm can be tested. The second one is a true hydrostatic test performed on smaller (mortar) specimens. Test results show that the hydrostatic response of the material is elasto-plastic with a stiffening effect on both the tangent and unloading bulk moduli. The magnitude of the irreversible volumetric strains depends on the initial porosity of the material. This porosity can be related in a first approximation to the water/cement ratio. A comparison of the hydrostatic responses obtained from the two testing techniques on the same material show that the hydrostatic response of cementitious materials cannot be uncoupled from the deviatoric response, as opposed to the standard assumption in constitutive relations for metal alloys. This feature should be taken into account in the development of constitutive relations for concrete subjected to high confinement pressures which are needed in the modelling of impact problems.

  1. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  2. Final Report: Self Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kahn, Lawrence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kurtis, Kimberly [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Loreto, Giovanni [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Van Wyk, Jurie [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Canterero-Leal, Carlos [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This report outlines the development of a self-consolidating concrete (also termed “self-compacting concrete” or SCC) so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The self-roughening concrete produced as part of this research was assessed in SC structures at three scales: small-scale shear-friction specimens, mid-scale beams tested in in-plane and out-of-plane bending, and a full-scale validation test using an SC module produced by Westinghouse as part of the Plant Vogtle expansion. The experiments show that the self-roughening concrete can produce a cold-joint surface of 0.25 inches (6 mm) without external vibration during concrete placement. The experiments and subsequent analysis show that the shear friction provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9 can be used to assess the shear capacity of the cold-joints in SC modular construction, and that friction coefficient of 1.35 is appropriate for use with these provisions.

  3. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Cifuentes, Héctor; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-03-15

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution.

  4. Experimental investigation of the influence of the bond conditions on the shear bond strength between steel and self- compacting concrete using push-out tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helincks, P.; De Corte, W.; Klusák, Jan; Boel, V.; De Schutter, D.

    525-526, č. 1 (2013), s. 205-208 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fracture and Damage Mechanics /11./. Xi'an, 18.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1551 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : steel-concrete joint * epoxy adhesive layer * push-out test Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  5. EAF Slag Aggregate in Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Effects of Delay in Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Ngoc-Tra Lam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of delay in compaction on the optimum moisture content and the mechanical propertie s (i.e., compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity of roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP made of electric arc furnace (EAF slag aggregate. EAF slag with size in the range of 4.75–19 mm was used to replace natural coarse aggregate in RCCP mixtures. A new mixing method was proposed for RCCP using EAF slag aggregate. The optimum moisture content of RCCP mixtures in this study was determined by a soil compaction method. The Proctor test assessed the optimum moisture content of mixtures at various time after mixing completion (i.e., 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min. Then, the effect of delay in compaction on the mechanical properties of RCCP mixtures at 28 days of age containing EAF slag aggregate was studied. The results presented that the negative effect on water content in the mixture caused by the higher water absorption characteristic of EAF slag was mitigated by the new mixing method. The optimum water content and maximum dry density of RCCP experience almost no effect from the delay in compaction. The compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of RCCP using EAF slag aggregate fulfilled the strength requirements for pavement with 90 min of delay in compaction.

  6. Axi-Symmetric Simulation of the Slump Flow Test for Self-Compacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2004-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for further development of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)is to relate the fresh concrete properties, form geometry, reinforcement configuration, and casting technique to the form filling ability. Simulation of the filling ability might provide a tool in obtaining this goal...

  7. High temperature behaviour of self-consolidating concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Hanaa; Remond, Sebastien; Noumowe, Albert; Cousture, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) subjected to high temperature. Two SCC mixtures and one vibrated concrete mixture were tested. These concrete mixtures come from the French National Project B-P. The specimens of each concrete mixture were heated at a rate of 1 deg. C/min up to different temperatures (150, 300, 450 and 600 deg. C). In order to ensure a uniform temperature throughout the specimens, the temperature was held constant at the maximum temperature for 1 h before cooling. Mechanical properties at ambient temperature and residual mechanical properties after heating have already been determined. In this paper, the physicochemical properties and the microstuctural characteristics are presented. Thermogravimetric analysis, thermodifferential analysis, X-ray diffraction and SEM observations were used. The aim of these studies was in particular to explain the observed residual compressive strength increase between 150 and 300 deg. C.

  8. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution. PMID:29543765

  9. Phase distribution and microstructural changes of self-compacting cement paste at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, G.; Liu, X.; De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L.; Vandevelde, P.

    2007-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete, as a new smart building material with various advanced properties, has been used for a wide range of structures and infrastructures. However little investigation have been reported on the properties of Self-compacting when it is exposed to elevated temperatures. Previous experiments on fire test have shown the differences between high performance concrete and traditional concrete at elevated temperature. This difference is largely depending on the microstructural properties of concrete matrix, i.e. the cement paste, especially on the porosity, pore size distribution and the connectivity of pores in cement pastes. In this contribution, the investigations are focused on the cement paste. The phase distribution and microstructural changes of self-compacting cement paste at elevated temperatures are examined by mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The chemical decomposition of self-compacting cement paste at different temperatures is determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results of self-compacting cement paste are compared with those of high performance cement paste and traditional cement paste. It was found that self-compacting cement paste shows a higher change of the total porosity in comparison with high performance cement paste. When the temperature is higher than 700 deg. C, a dramatic loss of mass was observed in the self-compacting cement paste samples with addition of limestone filler. This implies that the SCC made by this type of self-compacting cement paste will probably show larger damage once exposed to fire. Investigation has shown that 0.5 kg/m 3 of Polypropylene fibers in the self-compacting cement paste can avoid the damage efficiently

  10. DETERMINATION OF ADHESIVE STRENGTH LAYER’S ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE THE METHOD AXIAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Van Lam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Roller compacted concrete for the construction of hydraulic and hydroelectric buildings is a composite material, which consists of a binder, fine aggregate (sand, coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone, water and special additives that provide the desired concrete workability and impart the required concrete performance properties. Concrete mixture is prepared at from concrete mixing plants strictly metered quantities of cement, water, additives and graded aggregates, whereupon they are delivered to the site laying Mixer Truck and sealing layers with each stack layer. The advantages of roller compaction technology should include the reduction of construction time, which allows fast commissioning construction projects, as well as reduce the amount of investment required. One of the main problems encountered in the process of roller compaction of the concrete mix is the need to provide the required adhesion strength between layers of concrete. This paper presents a method for determining the strength of adhesion between the concrete layers of different ages roller compacted concrete using axial tension. This method makes it possible to obtain objective and accurate results with a total thickness of layers of compacted concrete of up to 300…400 mm. Results from this method, studies have shown that the value of strength between the concrete layers in addition to the composition of the concrete and adhesion depends on the quality and the parallel end surfaces of the cylinder-models, which are mounted steel plates for axial tension, as well as the state of the contact surfaces of the concrete layer. The method can be used to determine the strength of interlayer adhesion in roller compacted concrete, which are used in the construction of dams and other hydraulic structures.

  11. Microencapsulation of Self-healing Concrete Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    design and development. Other factors that can affect concrete and its lifespan include shrinkage , design flaws or poor quality of construction...possible shrinkage , design flaws or poor quality of construction materials, reinforced concrete will eventually develop cracks. Inevitable damage to...SELF-HEALING CONCRETE PROPERTIES N00244-l 0-G-0004 Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER James Gilford III

  12. PZT-Based Detection of Compactness of Concrete in Concrete Filled Steel Tube Using Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the concrete compactness detection of concrete filled steel tube (CFST columns. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SAs were embedded in the predetermined locations prior to the casting of concrete columns to establish a wave-based smart sensing system for the concrete compactness detection purpose. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed approach, six specimens of the CFST columns with the rectangular cross-section were produced by placing some artificial defects during casting of concrete for simulating various uncompacted voids such as cavities, cracks, and debond. During the test, the time reversal technology was applied to rebuild the received signals and launch the reversed signals again by SAs, to overcome the issue of the lack of the prototype. Based on the proposed nonprototype, two indices of time reversibility (TR and symmetry (SYM were applied to relatively evaluate the level of concrete compactness in the range of the two SAs. The experimental results show that the developed method can effectively detect the compactness of concrete in CFST columns.

  13. Effect of mix design on the size-independent fracture energy of normal- and high-strength self-compacting concrete; Influencia de la composición de la mezcla sobre la energía de fractura de hormigones autocompactantes de resistencias media y alta.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, H.; Ríos, J.D.; Gómez, E.J.

    2018-04-01

    Self-compacting concrete has a characteristic microstructure inherent to its specific composition. The higher content of fine particles in self-compacting concrete relative to the equivalent vibrated concrete produces a different fracture behavior that affects the main fracture parameters. In this work, a comprehensive experimental investigation of the fracture behavior of self-compacting concrete has been carried out. Twelve different self-compacting concrete mixes with compressive strength ranging from 39 to 124 MPa (wider range than in other studies) have been subjected to three-point bending tests in order to determine the specific fracture energy. The influence of the mix design and its composition (coarse aggregate fraction, the water to binder ratio and the paste to solids ratio) on its fracture behavior has been analyzed. Moreover, further evidence of the objectivity of the size-independent fracture energy results, obtained by the two most commonly used methods, has been p [Spanish] Los hormigones autocompactantes tienen una microestructura interna inherente a su composición específica. Su mayor contenido de partículas finas, en comparación con hormigones vibrados equivalentes, provoca un comportamiento diferente en fractura que afecta a los principales parámetros de fractura. En este trabajo, se ha realizado una amplia investigación experimental del comportamiento en fractura de hormigones autocompactantes. Así, se han realizado ensayos de flexión en tres puntos para determinar sus propiedades de fractura sobre 12 hormigones autocompactantes de diferente composición, con resistencias a compresión que van desde 39 hasta 124 MPa (mayor que en otros estudios). De esta forma, se ha analizado la influencia de la dosificación del hormigón y su composición (contenido en árido grueso, relación agua-cemento y pasta-sólidos) sobre su comportamiento en fractura. Además, se ha validado, para hormigones autocompactantes, la objetividad de los

  14. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  15. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  16. The effects of coarse aggregate cleanliness and moisture content on asphalt concrete compactability and moisture susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Twelve field projects were studied where forty-four locations were evaluated to assess the cause or : causes of asphalt concrete that exhibits tender zone characteristics (i.e. instability during compaction) and to : investigate the tendency of...

  17. The use of a volcanic material as filler in self-compacting concrete production for lower strength applications; Uso de un material volcánico como filler en la producción de hormigones autocompactantes de baja resistencia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, D.; Guzmán, A.; Hossain, K.M.A.; Delvasto, S.

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates the use of large amounts of fine powders (fillers) derived from a Colombian volcanic material into the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC) for lower strength applications. The effects on SCC properties were studied with the incorporation of up to 50% of volcanic material of Tolima (MVT) as a partial substitute of the total weight of Portland cement. The workability was determined through slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box test. The compressive strength results were analyzed statistically by MINITAB. These demonstrated that 30% (by total weight of cementitious material) was the maximum allowable percentage of MVT to be used in the production of SCCs. Based on this, mechanical and permeability properties of SCC MVT 30% were evaluated at 28, 90 y 360 curing days. SCC MVT 30% exhibited compressive strength of 21 and 27 MPa after 28 and 360 days of curing, respectively. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta los resultados de utilización de cantidades elevadas de material volcánico colombiano como filler en la producción de hormigón autocompactante (CAC) de baja resistencia. Se estudió el efecto sobre las propiedades de los CACs de la incorporación del material volcánico del Tolima (MVT) hasta en 50% como remplazo parcial del peso total del cementante. La trabajabilidad fue determinada por medio del flujo de asentamiento, embudo V y Caja L. El análisis de resistencia a la compresión por medio de MINITAB demostró que el máximo porcentaje de incorporación de MVT en los CACs es del 30% respecto al peso total de cementante. Con base en esta optimización se evaluaron sus propiedades mecánicas y de permeabilidad a 28, 90 y 360 días de curado. Los resultados demostraron que este CAC MVT 30% presentó resistencias a compresión de 21 y 27 MPa después de 28 y 360 días de curado, respectivamente.

  18. Determining fracture energy parameters of concrete from the modified compact tension test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Canteli, A.; Castañón, L.; Nieto, B.; Lozano, M.; Holušová, Táňa; Seitl, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, OCT (2014), s. 383-393 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Grant - others:interní podpora AV ČR(CZ) M100411204 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete fracture energy * Modified compact tension test * Concrete * Numerical simulation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  19. Self-Consolidating Concrete for Prestressed Bridge Girders : Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is commonly used as an alternative to conventional concrete (CC) in precast, prestressed concrete (PSC) bridge girders. The high strength, highly workable mixture can flow through dense reinforcement to fill formwork...

  20. Self-sensing concrete with nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z.; Ding, Y.; Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Conductive concrete containing nano carbon black (NCB) and carbon fibre (CF) to enable the self-diagnosis of strain and damage was studied. The effect of NCB and CF on workability, mechanical properties and fractional change in resistance (FCR) in fresh and hardened concrete was analysed. The relationship between the FCR, the strain of initial geometrical neutral axis (IGNA) and the degree of beam damage was established. The results showed that the relationship between the FCR and the IGNA st...

  1. Final Report: Self-Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, Russell; Kahn, Lawrence; Kurtis, Kimberly; Petrovic, Bojan; Loreto, Giovanni; Van Wyk, Jurie; Canterero-Leal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on work completed on DE-NE0000667, Self-Consolidating Concrete for Modular Units, in connection with the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (DOE-NEET) program. This project was completed in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, with Westinghouse Corporation as the industrial partner. The primary objective of this project was to develop self-consolidating concrete (also termed ''self-compacting concrete'' or SCC) mixtures so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The SCC mixtures developed were able to carry shearing forces across the cold-joint boundaries. This ''self-roughening'' was achieved by adding a tailored fraction of lightweight aggregate (LWA) to the concrete mix, some of which raised to the surface during curing, forming a rough surface on which subsequent concrete placements were made. The self-roughening behavior was validated through three sets of structural tests. Shear friction on small-scale specimens with cold joints was assessed using varying fractions of LWA and with varying amounts of external steel plate reinforcement. The results show that the shear friction coefficient, to be used with the provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9, can be taken as 1.35. Mid-scale beam tests were completed to assess the cold-joint capacity in both in-plane and out-of-plane bending. The results showed that the self-roughened joints performed as well as monolithic joints. The final assessment was a full-scale test using a steel composite module supplied by

  2. Application of "The Water Layer Model" to self-compacting mortar with different size distributions of fine aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midorikawa, T.; Pelova, G.I.; Walraven, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is a relatively new type of concrete. Up to now only a few models have been developed to explain its physical behaviour, like the Water Layer Model and the Excess Paste Model. In this paper, the difference between the Water Layer Model and the Excess Paste Model is

  3. Grout compactness monitoring of concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube using electromechanical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaokun; Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing

    2018-05-01

    The concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) is a type of structural element widely used in corrosive environments. Poor grout compactness results in incomplete contact or even no contact between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete grout, which reduces the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. The monitoring of grout compactness for CFFTs is important. The piezoceramic-based electromechanical impedance (EMI) method has emerged as an efficient and low-cost structural health monitoring technique. This paper presents a feasibility study using the EMI method to monitor grout compactness of CFFTs. In this research, CFFT specimens with different levels of compactness (empty, 1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, and full compactness) were prepared and subjected to EMI measurement by using four piezoceramic patches that were bonded circumferentially along the outer surface of the CFFT. To analyze the correlation between grout compactness and EMI signatures, a compactness index (CI) was proposed based on the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). The experimental results show that the changes in admittance signatures are able to determine the grout compactness qualitatively. The proposed CI is able to effectively identify the compactness of the CFFT, and provides location information of the incomplete concrete infill.

  4. Self-curing concrete with different self-curing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala krishna sastry, K. V. S.; manoj kumar, Putturu

    2018-03-01

    Concrete is recognised as a versatile construction material globally. Properties of concrete depend upon, to a greater extent, the hydration of cement and microstructure of hydrated cement. Congenial atmosphere would aid the hydration of cement and hence curing of concrete becomes essential, till a major portion of the hydration process is completed. But in areas of water inadequacy and concreting works at considerable heights, curing is problematic. Self-Curing or Internal Curing technique overcomes these problems. It supplies redundant moisture, for more than sufficient hydration of cement and diminish self-desiccation. Self-Curing agents substantially help in the conservation of water in concrete, by bringing down the evaporation during the hydration of Concrete. The present study focuses on the impact of self-curing agents such as Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG), Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) on the concrete mix of M25 grade (reference mix). The effect of these agents on strength properties of Concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength was observed on a comparative basis which revealed that PEG 4000 was the most effective among all the agents.

  5. The effect of fly ash to self-compactability of pumice aggregate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects .... There has been an increase in using self-compacting concrete (SCC) in recent years and a .... of SCLC and the ability for SCLC to change its path and to pass through.

  6. Final Report: Self-Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kahn, Lawrence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kurtis, Kimberly [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Loreto, Giovanni [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Van Wyk, Jurie [Westinghouse Inc., Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Canterero-Leal, Carlos [Westinghouse Inc., Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This report focuses on work completed on DE-NE0000667, Self-Consolidating Concrete for Modular Units, in connection with the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (DOE-NEET) program. This project was completed in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, with Westinghouse Corporation as the industrial partner. The primary objective of this project was to develop self-consolidating concrete (also termed “self-compacting concrete” or SCC) mixtures so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The SCC mixtures developed were able to carry shearing forces across the cold-joint boundaries. This “self-roughening” was achieved by adding a tailored fraction of lightweight aggregate (LWA) to the concrete mix, some of which raised to the surface during curing, forming a rough surface on which subsequent concrete placements were made. The self-roughening behavior was validated through three sets of structural tests. Shear friction on small-scale specimens with cold joints was assessed using varying fractions of LWA and with varying amounts of external steel plate reinforcement. The results show that the shear friction coefficient, to be used with the provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9, can be taken as 1.35. Mid-scale beam tests were completed to assess the cold-joint capacity in both in-plane and out-of-plane bending. The results showed that the self-roughened joints performed as well as monolithic joints. The final assessment was a full-scale test using a steel composite module supplied by Westinghouse and similar in construction to

  7. The Behavior and Durability of Self-Consolidating Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report focuses on the production of self-consolidating concrete using local materials from Las Vegas, Nevada. Tests were conducted on eight self-consolidating concrete mixtures having two different percentages of fly-ash replacement (25% and 35%...

  8. Cyclic behavior of self-consolidated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This reports highlights on the production of Self-Consolidating concrete using local materials from Las Vegas, Nevada. 4 SCC : mixtures were worked on with 2 different levels of FA replacement and the inclusion of superplasticizers, ADVA 195 and V-MA...

  9. Physical and mechanical behaviour of a roller compacted concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benouadah A

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Rigid pavements are made with Portland cement ... The use of concrete for the construction of coverings; is now very widespread in the ... resistance [11,12], the plastic shrinkage [13] and the propagation of the cracks [14].

  10. Quality evaluation of concrete under compacting by vibration using resistance of electro current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshisugu

    2006-01-01

    Quality of concrete in structures is affected not only quality of materials; i.e. fresh concrete delivered to site but also placing and compaction works. Factors related to the latter are not studied minutely, and the works in site are judged and controlled by skilled person under his experience, and these process are said to the neck in QC and rationalization in construction site. The study to develop the evaluation system of fresh concrete quality is described in the paper, In the experiment, electrode was attached to formwork and resistance of electro current was recorded while vibrating. It can recognized that resistance is closely related to internal quality of concrete, so the resistance may be the effective index to know optimum compaction time in placing work.

  11. The effects of adding waste plastic fibers on some properties of roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Adil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to produce of roller compacted concrete (RCC improved by adding waste plastic fibers (WPFs resulting from cutting the PET beverage bottles was recorded in this study. The method which is used for production of RCC is an approved design method for ACI committee (5R-207,1980[1]. WPF was added by volumetric percentages ranging between (0.5 to 2 % and reference concrete mix was produced for comparison reason. Many tests were conducted on the models produced by rolling compacted concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, dry density, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1% had led to improvement in the properties of each of the compressive strength and flexural strength compared with reference concrete. Results also showed that the addition of these, fibers increase water absorption and reduce the speed of Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  12. Novel approach to make concrete structures self-healing using porous network concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Schlangen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers proposed self healing mechanism using hollow fibres and or microcapsule containing a modifying agent dispersed in the concrete to prolong its service life and make it more durable. A novel self healing concrete concept is proposed in this paper by using porous network concrete

  13. Mimicking Bone Healing Process to Self Repair Concrete Structure Novel Approach Using Porous Network Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    To repair concrete cracks in difficult or dangerous conditions such as underground structures or hazardous liquid containers, self healing mechanism is a promising alternative method. This research aims to imitate the bone self healing process by putting porous concrete internally in the concrete

  14. Compact, self-regulating nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Otis G.; Kimpland, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    An inherently safe nuclear power source has been designed, that is self-stabilizing and requires no moving mechanical components. Unlike conventional designs, the proposed reactor is self-regulating through the inherent properties of uranium hydride, which serves as a combination fuel and moderator. The temperature driven mobility of the hydrogen contained in the hydride will control the nuclear activity. If the core temperature increases over the set point, the hydrogen is driven out of the core, the moderation drops and the power production decreases. If the temperature drops, the hydrogen returns and the process is reversed. Thus the design is inherently fail-safe and requires only minimal human oversight. The compact nature and inherent safety opens the possibility for low-cost mass production and operation of the reactors. This design has the capability to dramatically alter the manner in which nuclear energy is harnessed for commercial use. (author)

  15. Investigation of fiber-reinforced self-consolidating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The rising cost of materials and labor, as well as the demand for faster construction, has prompted development of cheaper, faster alternatives to conventional building techniques. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), a high performance concrete charac...

  16. Performance of self-consolidating concrete in prestressed girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    A structural investigation of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in AASHTO Type I precast, : prestressed girders was performed. Six test girders were subjected to transfer length and : flexural testing. Three separate concrete mixtures, two girders pe...

  17. Self-flowing underwater concrete mixtures for high rise structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Placement of conventional concrete mixtures in underwater construction results in a high percentage of material loss due to washout of cement paste. This paper presents the influence of anti washout admixture (AWA) on various properties of concrete. Eleven self-flowing concrete (SFC) mixtures using type II cement were proportioned. A combination of low water cement (w/c), high cement contents, anti washout admixtures, fly ash, and silica fume were used to enhance the resistance of fresh concrete to washout. The concrete mixtures proportioned to be highly flow able, self-leveling and cohesive. The water-cementitious materials ratios ranged between 0.356 and 0.392 which correspond a typical underwater concrete mixture. The concrete mixtures were tested for slump, slump flow, washout resistance and compressive strength. The compressive strength of each concrete mixture cast underwater was determined at 3, 7, 28 days and compared with the compressive strength of the same concrete mixture cast in normal condition (in air). Test results indicated that the use of an AWA facilitates the production of flow able concrete mixtures with the added benefit of lower washout loss. Concrete mixture proportioned using Type II cement and fly ash at level of replacement of 15% was found to develop self flowing concrete with better fresh and hardened properties and more resistant to washout. The self-flowing underwater concretes developed a 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 20 to 28 MPa

  18. Lake Robertson hydroelectric project. Construction of a roller compacted concrete dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labelle, M.; Robitaille, F. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Construction of the Lake Robertson hydroelectric project on Quebec`s Lower North Shore was discussed in detail. The dam and powerhouse, located on the HaHa River, consists of a 134 m long concrete gravity dam, and a 21 MW powerhouse with two 69 kV transmission lines and four substations. The climate, terrain, and geography of the region, all of them characterized as severe, and the logistics of construction of the dam and power lines, aggravated by the isolation and severe conditions at the site, were described. The roller compacted concrete design and construction were noted, and justification for a concrete dam over an earth-fill dam was provided. Economics, properties, and composition of the roller compacted concrete (RCC) were examined, and control test results for the RCC concrete were provided. The use of RCC for the Lake Robertson development was described as successful in terms of the quality, watertightness, and completion time. The experience gained by the participants will make it possible to offer RCC as an alternative on various other projects. 2 figs.

  19. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  20. Effect of Using Porcelanite as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate on Roller Compacted Concrete with Different Curing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdulqader Salih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roller-Compacted Concrete is a no-slump concrete, with no reinforcing steel, no forms, no finishing and wet enough to support compaction by vibratory rollers. Due to the effect of curing on properties and durability of concrete, the main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various curing methods (air curing, 7 days water curing, and permanent water curing and porcelanite (local material used as an Internal Curing agent with different replacement percentages of fine aggregate (volumetric replacement on some properties of Roller-Compacted Concrete and to explore the possibility of introducing practical Roller-Compacted Concrete for road pavement with minimum requirement of curing. Specimens were sawed from slabs of (380*380*100 mm for determination of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV and Voids volume. Results show that using (5 % porcelanite improved the results of UPV and Voids volume of Roller-Compacted Concrete (with air curing as compared with reference Roller-Compacted Concrete (with permanent water curing by percentages ranging from(3.6 to 28.9% and (-8 to -15.5% respectively.

  1. Evaluation of density, moisture content and percentage compaction of concrete using direct transmission and backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attobrah, A. T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear method widely used in determining the density and moisture content of soil - aggregates, asphalt concretes, roller compacted concretes and Portland cement concretes, is the radiometry technique. Generally, all radiometry systems consist of a source of radiation, the sample being examined and a radiation detector. In operation, a radioactive source and a detector are placed on the same or opposite sides of a concrete sample. A portion of radiation from the source which passes through the concrete sample and reaches the detector produces a series of electrical pulses which when counted gives a measure of the dimensions or physical characteristics of the concrete sample. In this research work, concrete beams were fabricated using a 500 x 225 x 200mm wooden mould whiles a table vibrator was used to consolidate the concrete after placement in the mould. The mass of the beam was determined and the actual density calculated and inputted in the gauge. Measurements were performed on the unhardened and hardened concrete using the backscatter method and the direct transmission method at depths of 50mm, 100mm and 150mm. The measuring times of 15, 60 and 240 second were use to take the measurements. The study provided information on the variation of density with depth and this was observed to be within the range of 0 kg/m 3 to 1 kg/m 3 and 13 kg/m 3 to 23 kg/m 3 for the unhardened concrete samples in which density increased with depth and those in which density decreased with depth respectively. For the hardened concrete sample, the average change in density with depth was between 4 - 11 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density increased with depth and between 11 - 21 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density decreased with depth. The study also provided information about the degree of consolidation of Portland cement concrete which on the average was between 95% - 97% for the unhardened concrete samples and increased to between 97% - 99% for the hardened concrete

  2. Report E : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - hardened mechanical properties and durability performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete is one of the most produced and utilized materials in the world. Due to : the labor intensive and time consuming nature of concrete construction, new and : innovative concrete mixes are being explored. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is on...

  3. Valorisation du sable de concassage et du sable du désert dans la composition des bétons autoplaçants Valorization of the crushed sand and of the desert sand in the composition of the self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R’mili A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Les bétons autopla÷ants (BAP sont des bétons très fluides qui demandent des dosages élevés en sables et en éléments fins par rapport au béton ordinaire (BO. Le sable de concassage (SC, à granularité étalée, est un sous-produit de concassage des roches massives. Le sable du désert (SD est un sable extra-fin, caractérisé par une distribution serrée de grosseur des grains. Renfermant des teneurs importantes en fines, ces deux sables peuvent êtres des composants intéressants des BAP. Cette recherché consiste à incorporer le SC dans la composition des bétons et étudier l’effet de son remplacement progressif par le SD sur le comportement à l’état frais et durci des BAP. L’étude expérimentale montre que les paramètres d’ouvrabilité des BAP sont améliorés lorsque le SC est partiellement remplacé par le SD ( 30%, des quantités supplémentaires en eau et en superplastifiant sont nécessaires, pour répondre aux propriétés autopla÷antes. Les résistances mécaniques diminuent en ajoutant le SD au SC, mais elles atteignent des valeurs acceptables pour des dosages modérés en SD. Les performances des BAP sont nettement meilleures que celles des BO confectionnées avec les mêmes granulats. Les essais de spécification de la durabilité montrent que les coefficients d’absorption d’eau par capillarité et par immersion augmentent en ajoutant le SD au SC alors que le coefficient de perméabilité diminue. Self-compacting concretes (SCC are highly fluid concretes that require high proportions in sand and fine particles with respect to the ordinary concrete (OC. The crushed sand (CS, spread granulometry, is a by-product of crushing rock mass. The desert sand (DS is an extra fine sand, characterized by a tight distribution of grain size. Containing significant levels of fine sand, these two sands can be both interesting components of the SCC. This research is to incorporate the CS in the composition of concrete and

  4. 42 CFR 137.30 - What is a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a self-governance compact? 137.30 Section... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.30 What is a self-governance compact? A self-governance compact is a legally binding and mutually...

  5. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  6. Study on Identification of Material Model Parameters from Compact Tension Test on Concrete Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokes, Filip; Kral, Petr; Husek, Martin; Kala, Jiri

    2017-10-01

    Identification of a concrete material model parameters using optimization is based on a calculation of a difference between experimentally measured and numerically obtained data. Measure of the difference can be formulated via root mean squared error that is often used for determination of accuracy of a mathematical model in the field of meteorology or demography. The quality of the identified parameters is, however, determined not only by right choice of an objective function but also by the source experimental data. One of the possible way is to use load-displacement curves from three-point bending tests that were performed on concrete specimens. This option shows the significance of modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and specific fracture energy. Another possible option is to use experimental data from compact tension test. It is clear that the response in the second type of test is also dependent on the above mentioned material parameters. The question is whether the parameters identified within three-point bending test and within compact tension test will reach the same values. The presented article brings the numerical study of inverse identification of material model parameters from experimental data measured during compact tension tests. The article also presents utilization of the modified sensitivity analysis that calculates the sensitivity of the material model parameters for different parts of loading curve. The main goal of the article is to describe the process of inverse identification of parameters for plasticity-based material model of concrete and prepare data for future comparison with identified values of the material model parameters from different type of fracture tests.

  7. Use of flyash in roller compacted concrete for Ghatghar pumped storage scheme in Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damani, R.L.; Kshirsagar, S.L.; Narkhede, C.L. [MERI, Nashik (India)

    2003-07-01

    The paper described the use of 'Roller Compacted Concrete' (RCE) in which about 60% of the cement will be replaced by fly ash for construction of two storage dams - Upper dam and Lower dam in the Thane district of India. These are part of the Ghatghar Pumped Storage Scheme to generate hydropower. Fly ash from Eklahare and Dahav thermal power plant and processed fly ash, Pozzocrete 63 and 83b grade, all proved suitable for the RCC mix. 1 tab.

  8. Mechanical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of concrete containing self-curing agents are investigated in this paper. In this study, two materials were selected as self-curing agents with different amounts, and the addition of silica fume was studied. The self-curing agents were, pre-soaked lightweight aggregate (Leca; 0.0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of volume of sand; or polyethylene-glycol (Ch.; 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement. To carry out this study the cement content of 300, 400, 500 kg/m3, water/cement ratio of 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.0%, 15% silica fume of weight of cement as an additive were used in concrete mixes. The mechanical properties were evaluated while the concrete specimens were subjected to air curing regime (in the laboratory environment with 25 °C, 65% R.H. during the experiment. The results show that, the use of self-curing agents in concrete effectively improved the mechanical properties. The concrete used polyethylene-glycol as self-curing agent, attained higher values of mechanical properties than concrete with saturated Leca. In all cases, either 2% Ch. or 15% Leca was the optimum ratio compared with the other ratios. Higher cement content and/or lower water/cement ratio lead(s to more efficient performance of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into self-curing concrete mixture enhanced all mechanical properties, not only due to its pozzolanic reaction, but also due to its ability to retain water inside concrete.

  9. 25 CFR 1000.161 - What is a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a self-governance compact? 1000.161 Section 1000... EDUCATION ACT Negotiation Process for Annual Funding Agreements Negotiating A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.161 What is a self-governance compact? A self-governance compact is an executed document that affirms...

  10. Physical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-08-01

    The results show that the use of self-curing agent (Ch. in concrete effectively improves the physical properties compared with conventional concrete. On the other hand, up to 15% saturated leca was effective while 20% saturated leca was effective for permeability and mass loss but adversely affects the sorptivity and volumetric water absorption. Self-curing agent Ch. was more effective than self-curing agent leca. In all cases, both 2% Ch. and 15% leca were the optimum values. Higher cement content and/or lower water–cement ratio leads to more effective results of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into concrete mixtures enhances all physical properties.

  11. Self-Consolidating Concrete for Prestressed Bridge Girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This document reports the findings of a research project designed to better understand material and structural performance of prestressed bridge girders made with Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) from Wisconsin. SCC has high potential to be used for...

  12. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  13. Determining fracture energy parameters of concrete from the modified compact tension test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Canteli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modified compact tension (MCT test, though not yet recognized as a valid test for determining fracture energy of concrete, is believed to represent a plausible and suitable alternative versus other well established procedures, such as the wedge-splitting test (WST and the three point (3PB or four point bending (4PB tests, due to its simplicity and low cost. The aim of the paper is twofold: Firstly, to demonstrate the necessary correspondence between the experimental MCT test setup and finite element simulations and secondly, to initiate the way of establishing the desirable conversion between the fracture energy parameter values resulting from the MCT test and the standard conventional procedures. MCT tests are carried out and compared with the numerical results from 2-D and 3-D finite element calculations using the commercial codes ABAQUS and ATENA, the latter being specifically developed for applications on concrete structures and elements. In this way, the usability of the modified compact tension test for practical purposes is confirmed.

  14. Transfer and development length of prestressing tendons in full-scale AASHTO prestressed concrete girders using self-consolidating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is a highly workable concrete that flows through densely reinforced or : complex structural elements under its own weight. The benefits of using SCC include: a) Reducing labor costs : by eliminating the need for mech...

  15. 42 CFR 137.35 - What is the term of a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the term of a self-governance compact? 137... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.35 What is the term of a self-governance compact? Upon approval and execution of a self-governance...

  16. Optimization of flowable concrete for structural design : Progress report of fib task group 8.8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Ferrara, L.; Dehn, F.

    2014-01-01

    With the tendency to apply concrete with a higher workability and the use of new concrete components more options are available to design concrete. New concrete types like self-compacting concrete (SCC), ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) and high performance fibre reinforced

  17. Experimental investigations into the shear behavior of self-compacting RC beams with and without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar N. HANOON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is a new generation of high-performance concrete, known for its excellent deformability and high resistance to segregation and bleeding. Nonetheless, SCC may be incapable of resisting shear because the shear resistance mechanisms of this concrete are uncertain, especially the aggregate interlock mechanism. This uncertainty is attributed to the fact that SCC contains a smaller amount of coarse aggregates than normal concrete (NC does. This study focuses on the shear strength of self-compacting reinforced concrete (RC beams with and without shear reinforcement. A total of 16 RC beam specimens was manufactured and tested in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio and flexural and shear reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with those of the shear design equations developed by ACI, BS, CAN and NZ codes. Results show that an increase in web reinforcement enhanced cracking strength and ultimate load. Shear-tension failure was the control failure in all tested beams.

  18. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  19. Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span, each span had (1500 mm length and (150x250 mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location. The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%. The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

  20. Three-dimensional earthquake analysis of roller-compacted concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kartal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion effect on a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dams in the earthquake zone should be taken into account for the most critical conditions. This study presents three-dimensional earthquake response of a RCC dam considering geometrical non-linearity. Besides, material and connection non-linearity are also taken into consideration in the time-history analyses. Bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening material models are utilized in the materially non-linear analyses for concrete and foundation rock respectively. The contraction joints inside the dam blocks and dam–foundation–reservoir interaction are modeled by the contact elements. The hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures of the reservoir water are modeled with the fluid finite elements based on the Lagrangian approach. The gravity and hydrostatic pressure effects are employed as initial condition before the strong ground motion. In the earthquake analyses, viscous dampers are defined in the finite element model to represent infinite boundary conditions. According to numerical solutions, horizontal displacements increase under hydrodynamic pressure. Besides, those also increase in the materially non-linear analyses of the dam. In addition, while the principle stress components by the hydrodynamic pressure effect the reservoir water, those decrease in the materially non-linear time-history analyses.

  1. Structural Design and Economic Evaluation of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement with Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Yavuz; Taner Yildirim, Salih

    2017-10-01

    Using recycled aggregates in the concrete offers advantages in many areas such as waste management, energy save and natural resources, conservation of ecological balance, low CO2 emissions, and users are encouraged in this regard to use these materials. In this study, the profit / loss account arising in the structural design phase was investigated when Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), which is limited to use in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) pavements, was used as coarse aggregate. RAP materials were used as coarse aggregates by the levels of 0%, 15% and 20% and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were investigated. In the last stage, the mechanical properties obtained from these experimental studies were entered into KENSLABS software as input, and the slab layer thicknesses were determined according to three different subgrade conditions and a certain fatigue criterion. According to the results, it has been determined that the use of RAP at a level of 20% is a serious reducing effect on mechanical properties and and the use of RAP at a level of 15% does not bring a great economic benefit but it is reasonable to use it as coarse aggregate in RCC mixes in consideration of environmental effects.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.162 - What is included in a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included in a self-governance compact? 1000.162...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Negotiation Process for Annual Funding Agreements Negotiating A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.162 What is included in a self-governance compact? A model format for self-governance...

  3. Post-cracking tensile behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced roller-compacted-concrete for FE modelling and design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarifar, N.; Pilakoutas, K.; Angelakopoulos, H.; Bennett, T.

    2017-01-01

    Fracture of steel-fibre-reinforced-concrete occurs mostly in the form of a smeared crack band undergoing progressive microcracking. For FE modelling and design purposes, this crack band could be characterised by a stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship. For industrially-produced steel fibres, existing methodologies such as RILEM TC 162-TDF (2003) propose empirical equations to predict a trilinear σ-ε relationship directly from bending test results. This paper evaluates the accuracy of these methodologies and their applicability for roller-compacted-concrete and concrete incorporating steel fibres recycled from post-consumer tyres. It is shown that the energy absorption capacity is generally overestimated by these methodologies, sometimes up to 60%, for both conventional and roller-compacted concrete. Tensile behaviour of fibre-reinforced-concrete is estimated in this paper by inverse analysis of bending test results, examining a variety of concrete mixes and steel fibres. A multilinear relationship is proposed which largely eliminates the overestimation problem and can lead to safer designs. [es

  4. Sustainable monitoring of concrete structures : strength and durability performance of polymer-modified self-sensing concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gonzalez, J.; Jalali, Said

    2012-01-01

    Concrete structures all over the world are reaching the end of their service life sooner than expected. This is due to the fact that ordinary Portland cement-based concrete deteriorates under environmental actions and also that structural inspections and conservation actions are expensive. Besides, as they consume energy and non-renewable resources, they have negative environmental impacts. Self-sensing concrete provides an alternative way of monitoring concrete-reinforced structures...

  5. Study on the effect of Shahin-Dezh green Tuff on the mechanical characteristics of roller compact concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Dardaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing popularity of concrete structure and increasing use of them, especially Roller compacted concrete, applying Pozzolan and replacing cement with Pozzolan is very important. Nowadays, the use of the additive for cement replacement is common in RCC mix design due to its technical advantages and economic benefits as there is large quantity of Pozzolan mineral resources in Iran. In this paper the impact of produced concrete has been fully considered as well as the effect of this Pozzolan on the compressive strength, tensile strength and permeability by using green Tuff obtained from available Pozzolan in western Azarbaijan. The due results prove that Shahin-Dezh green Tuff improves concretes quality.

  6. Distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete walls of a compact medical cyclotron vault room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Baba, Shingo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Komiya, Isao; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Compact medical cyclotrons have been set up to generate the nuclides necessary for positron emission tomography. In accelerator facilities, neutrons activate the concrete used to construct the vault room; this activation increases with the use of an accelerator. The activation causes a substantial radioactive waste management problem when facilities are decommissioned. In the present study, several concrete cores from the walls, ceiling and floor of a compact medical cyclotron vault room were samples 2 years after the termination of operations, and the radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides were estimated. Cylindrical concrete cores 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length were bored from the concrete wall, ceiling and floor. Core boring was performed at 18 points. The gamma-ray spectrum of each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The degree of activation of the concrete in the cyclotron vault room was analyzed, and the range and tendency toward activation in the vault room were examined. (60)Co and (152)Eu were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. (152)Eu and (60)Co are produced principally from the stable isotopes of europium and cobalt by neutron capture reactions. The radioactivity concentration did not vary much between the surface of the concrete and at a depth of 10 cm. Although the radioactivity concentration near the target was higher than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean radioactivity concentration in the walls and floor was lower than the clearance level. The radioactivity concentration of the inner concrete wall of the medical cyclotron vault room was not uniform. The areas exceeding the clearance level were in the vicinity of the target, but most of the building did not exceed the clearance levels.

  7. Effect of Waste Materials on Performance of Self Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Sevgi; ÖZ, Hatice Öznur

    2017-01-01

    Asustainable waste management approach is increasingly important in order toconserve natural resources and reduce industrial waste. Creating new areas andmethods for evaluating waste materials has become one of the important researchareas of the scientific world. Due to the limited natural resources, recyclingapplications have emerged as a potential source of raw materials, especially inthe construction industry. For example, the use of industrial wastes (fly ash,marble dust, waste glass and ...

  8. Self-compacting concrete for prestressed bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Bulent

    The purpose of this study was to examine social mobility as a motivation for first-generation college students in reaching attainment at two-year technical colleges. The research question was to what degree has the perception of social mobility influenced first generation college students at technical colleges to complete their career educational goals. Graduates of a two-year technical college were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding their past experiences and perceptions of attending and completing a two-year technical college program; their childhood perceptions of their social status; and experiences with family members regarding their change in social class status. These questions were designed to determine their feelings, viewpoints, reflections, experiences, struggles, and thoughts about attainment (completing their post-secondary education) and the extent to which social mobility influenced their decision to complete their education. The benefits of this research include an understanding of social mobility and educational attainment. Results of this study could be used to better understand the process that first generation college students go through in order to attain their educational goals. The information from this study may be useful for technical college administrations to help design programs and processes for future first-generation college students' success and aid in retention of these students.

  9. Experimental studies in Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of roller compacted concrete pavement containing fly ash and M-sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishna Rao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture. River sand, M-sand and combination of M-sand and River sand are used as fine aggregate in this experimental work. Three types of fly ash roller compacted concrete mixes are prepared using above three types of fine aggregates and they are designated as Series A (River sand, Series B (manufactured sand and Series C (combination of River sand and M-sand. In each series the fly ash content in place of cement is varied from 0% to 60%. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e 3, 7, 28 and 90 days forty two cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV results of fly ash containing roller compacted concrete pavement (FRCCP show lower values at all ages from 3 days to 90 days in comparison with control mix concrete (0% fly ash in all mixes. However, it is also observed that Series B and C mixes containing fly ash show better results in UPV values, compressive strength and Dynamic Elastic Modulus in comparison to Series A mixes with fly ash. Relationships between compressive strength of FRCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes. A new empirical equation is proposed to determine the Dynamic Elastic Modulus of FRCCP. Keywords: Compressive strength, Dynamic Elastic Modulus, Fly ash, Roller compacted concrete pavement, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

  10. Self-compacting paste system using secondary raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study has been carried out on self-compacting paste (SCP) systems using various cements and secondary raw materials (SRM's) including rice husk ash (RHA) and Silica Fume (SF). These systems were characterized by: SRM particle size, powder water demand (WD) and setting times, flow, strength, microstructure and early volume stability. The result show that WD increased by adding SRM's due to their smaller particle size, higher surface area and internal porosity. Inclusion of SRM's in SCP systems as cement replacements also increase strength of SCP systems due to filler, hydration and pozzolanic actions which translate into pore refinement. It is demonstrated that the resultant properties of self-compacting cementitious. System (SCCS) depend upon the nature of SRM used. (author)

  11. Self-Propagating Reactive Fronts in Compacts of Multilayered Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sraj, I.; Vohra, M.; Alawieh, L.; Weihs, T.P.; Knio, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive multilayered foils in the form of thin films have gained interest in various applications such as joining, welding, and ignition. Typically, thin film multilayers support self-propagating reaction fronts with speeds ranging from 1 to 20 m/s. In some applications, however, reaction fronts with much smaller velocities are required. This recently motivated Fritz et al. (2011) to fabricate compacts of regular sized/shaped multilayered particles and demonstrate self-sustained reaction fronts having much smaller velocities than thin films with similar layering. In this work, we develop a simplified numerical model to simulate the self-propagation of reactive fronts in an idealized compact, comprising identical Ni/Al multilayered particles in thermal contact. The evolution of the reaction in the compact is simulated using a two-dimensional transient model, based on a reduced description of mixing, heat release, and thermal transport. Computed results reveal that an advancing reaction front can be substantially delayed as it crosses from one particle to a neighboring particle, which results in a reduced mean propagation velocity. A quantitative analysis is thus conducted on the dependence of these phenomena on the contact area between the particles, the thermal contact resistance, and the arrangement of the multilayered particles.

  12. Self-Propagating Reactive Fronts in Compacts of Multilayered Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Sraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive multilayered foils in the form of thin films have gained interest in various applications such as joining, welding, and ignition. Typically, thin film multilayers support self-propagating reaction fronts with speeds ranging from 1 to 20 m/s. In some applications, however, reaction fronts with much smaller velocities are required. This recently motivated Fritz et al. (2011 to fabricate compacts of regular sized/shaped multilayered particles and demonstrate self-sustained reaction fronts having much smaller velocities than thin films with similar layering. In this work, we develop a simplified numerical model to simulate the self-propagation of reactive fronts in an idealized compact, comprising identical Ni/Al multilayered particles in thermal contact. The evolution of the reaction in the compact is simulated using a two-dimensional transient model, based on a reduced description of mixing, heat release, and thermal transport. Computed results reveal that an advancing reaction front can be substantially delayed as it crosses from one particle to a neighboring particle, which results in a reduced mean propagation velocity. A quantitative analysis is thus conducted on the dependence of these phenomena on the contact area between the particles, the thermal contact resistance, and the arrangement of the multilayered particles.

  13. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  14. A comparative study of physical and chemical properties of different pozzolanic materials used for roller compacted concrete RCC dams

    OpenAIRE

    Husein Malkawi Abdallah I.; Shatnawi Ehab; Husein Malkawi Dima A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the feasibility and the efficiency of using Natural Pozzolan and/or Rock flour in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) gravity dams. For this purpose, five identical mortar trial mixes were prepared using five different supplementary materials, i.e., fly ash produced in South Africa (proven to be effective in RCC construction), fly ash produced in Turkey, Jordanian natural pozzolan, Saudi natural pozzolan, and rock flour from Mujib Dam basalt quarry. The physical and chemical ...

  15. Application of the self-diagnosis composite into concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hideaki; Shin, Soon-Gi; Okuhara, Yoshiki; Nomura, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Hiroaki

    2001-04-01

    The function and performance of the self-diagnosis composites embedded in mortar/concrete blocks and concrete piles were investigated by bending tests and electrical resistance measurements. Carbon powder (CP) and carbon fiber (CF) were introduced in glass fiber reinforced plastics composites to obtain electrical conductivity. The CP composite has commonly good performances in various bending tests of block and pile specimens, comparing to the CF composite. The electrical resistance of the CP composite increases in a small strain to response remarkably micro-crack formation at about 200 (mu) strain and to detect well to smaller deformations before the crack formation. The CP composite possesses a continuous resistance change up to a large strain level near the final fracture of concrete structures reinforced by steel bars. The cyclic bending tests showed that the micro crack closed at unloading state was able to be evaluated from the measurement of residual resistance. It has been concluded that the self- diagnosis composite is fairly useful for the measurement of damage and fracture in concrete blocks and piles.

  16. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self-compacting mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Heru Ari Christianto; Ismail Ozgur Yaman [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Mortar serves as the basis for the workability properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and these properties could be assessed by self-compacting mortars (SCM). In fact, assessing the properties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral additives and chemical admixtures in producing SCMs. For this purpose, four mineral additives (fly ash, brick powder, limestone powder, and kaolinite), three superplasticizers (SP), and two viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA) were used. Within the scope of the experimental program, 43 mixtures of SCM were prepared keeping the amount of mixing water and total powder content (Portland cement and mineral additives) constant. Workability of the fresh mortar was determined using mini V-funnel and mini slump flow tests. The setting time of the mortars, were also determined. The hardened properties that were determined included ultrasonic pulse velocity and strength determined at 28 and 56 days. It was concluded that among the mineral additives used, fly ash and limestone powder significantly increased the workability of SCMs. On the other hand, especially fly ash significantly increased the setting time of the mortars, which can, however, be eliminated through the use of ternary mixtures, such as mixing fly ash with limestone powder. The two polycarboxyl based SPs yield approximately the same workability and the melamine formaldehyde based SP was not as effective as the other two.

  17. Rheological study of self-compacting mortars based on ternary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadja Dada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is able to provide the ability to be easily implemented without vibration and to achieve spectacular structures, by its high fluidity and its rheological stability. By against its formulation requires a large volume of cement, which is necessary to allow its flow. The current environmental considerations lead to reduce the production of clinker however, it is essential to use cementitious additions to replace cement, because of their high availability and their moderate price. Furthermore, their use contributes in a simple and economical way to solve the problems related to the environment. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of mineral additions such as: blast furnace slag of El-Hadjar (BFS, and marble powder (MP on the rheological parameters of selfcompacting mortars developed in different combinations in ternary system with a substitution rate ranging from 20% to 60%. According to this study, it been found that the substitution of cement by blast furnace slag and marble powder has negatively affected the rheological behavior of the mixtures. In addition, a considerable decrease in the rheological parameters has been achieved with a substitution rate of 20% of slag and 30% of marble powder. As well as an improvement of workability has been proven to self-compacting mortars and this is due to the increase of ternary cement replacement rate by marble powder from 20% to 30%.

  18. Proportioning and performance evaluation of self-consolidating concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhao

    A well-proportioned self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture can be achieved by controlling the aggregate system, paste quality, and paste quantity. The work presented in this dissertation involves an effort to study and improve particle packing of the concrete system and reduce the paste quantity while maintaining concrete quality and performance. This dissertation is composed of four papers resulting from the study: (1) Assessing Particle Packing Based Self-Consolidating Concrete Mix Design; (2) Using Paste-To-Voids Volume Ratio to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixtures; (3) Image Analysis Applications on Assessing Static Stability and Flowability of Self-Consolidating Concrete, and (4) Using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation to Monitor Stiffening Process of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Tests were conducted on a large matrix of SCC mixtures that were designed for cast-in-place bridge construction. The mixtures were made with different aggregate types, sizes, and different cementitious materials. In Paper 1, a modified particle-packing based mix design method, originally proposed by Brouwers (2005), was applied to the design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixs. Using this method, a large matrix of SCC mixes was designed to have a particle distribution modulus (q) ranging from 0.23 to 0.29. Fresh properties (such as flowability, passing ability, segregation resistance, yield stress, viscosity, set time and formwork pressure) and hardened properties (such as compressive strength, surface resistance, shrinkage, and air structure) of these concrete mixes were experimentally evaluated. In Paper 2, a concept that is based on paste-to-voids volume ratio (Vpaste/Vvoids) was employed to assess the performance of SCC mixtures. The relationship between excess paste theory and Vpaste/Vvoids was investigated. The workability, flow properties, compressive strength, shrinkage, and surface resistivity of SCC mixtures were determined at various ages

  19. Importance of using roller compacted concrete in techno-economic investigation and design of small dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissat, Bouchrit; Smail, N.; Zenagui, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, and under constraints caused by persistent drought, Algeria has launched a new mobilization strategy for surface water resources from small and medium dams. However, by making a review of the studies and achievements of twenty small dams in the west of Algeria, some deficiencies appeared. In addition to reservoir siltation assessment, operation spillways have been the major constraint on the reliability of these types of dams. The objective of this paper is to use the roller compacted concrete (RCC) for small dams' design for the benefit it offers and its ability to incorporate spillways. The development of this reflection was applied to the Khneg Azir earth dam situated in southwest of Algeria. Its uncontrolled lateral spillway has registered significant damage following the flood of October 2005, amounted, at that time, to more than 100 million Algerian dinars (1 million US Dollars). The present research encompasses a technical and economical comparative analysis concerning multiple criteria dam design types coupled with the conjugation of the spillways. Thus, on the basis of financial estimates calculated for all design types, the variant RCC remains competitive with that of the earth dam's spillway isolated (Less than 40% of the cost). To assess the mechanical behavior of the foundations for both types of dams, (earth and RCC dams), numerical modeling has been undertaken, according to the comparative analysis of deformations in the foundations. Analysis of deformations showed that the average foundation deformations was between (0.052-0.85) m for earth dam and (0.023-0.373) m for RCC dam. These economical and technical considerations open up important prospects for the use of RCC in the design of small dams.

  20. Application of self-consolidating concrete in bridge structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the feasibility and performance of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) made with local aggregates for use in cast-in-place and precast concrete applications and to develop draft specifications, acceptanc...

  1. Influence of mixing procedure on robustness of self-consolidating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Self-Consolidating Concrete is, in the fresh state, more sensitive to small variations in the constituent elements and the mixing : procedure compared to Conventional Vibrated Concrete. Several studies have been performed recently to identify robustn...

  2. Self-curing concrete types; water retention and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to compare among concretes without or with silica fume (SF along with chemical type of shrinkage reducing admixture, polyethylene-glycol (Ch, and leca as self-curing agents for water retention even at elevated temperature (50 °C and their durability. The cement content of 400 kg/m3, silica fume of 15% by weight of cement, polyethylene-glycol of 2% by weight of cement, pre-saturated lightweight aggregate (leca 15% by volume of sand and water with Ch/binder ratio of 0.4 were selected in this study. Some of the physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 28 days in case of exposure to air curing in temperature of (25 °C and (50 °C while up to 6 months of exposure to 5% of carbon dioxide and wet/dry cycles in 8% of sodium chloride for durability study. The concrete mass loss and the volumetric water absorption were measured, to evaluate the water retention of the investigated concretes. Silica fume concrete either without or with Ch gave the best results under all curing regimes; significant water retention and good durability properties.

  3. Application of experimental plans method to formulate a self compacting cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouki, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-compacting concrete formulation means to elaborate a self-compacting cement paste to which will be injected aggregates. The purpose of this work is to find the composition of this cement paste containing local materials (pozzolanic cement, limestone fillers, superplasticizer and water having self-compacting properties. The use of the experimental plans method shows that it is possible to delimit an experimental field bounded by the volumetric proportions of materials composing the paste. The field was transformed in equations form conditioned by implicit constraints, defining zones of minimal shearing threshold and maximum viscosity; numerical resolution submitted to the optimization criteria permitted to define the volumetric proportions of each mixing parameter contributing to the preparation of an optimal paste. After experimental checking to validate obtained results, conclusions are that, from results given by ternary diagrams and desirability’s functions, a composition of an optimal self-compacting cement pas was obtained.

    En este trabajo se estudia la constitución de una pasta autocompactante a base de materiales locales argelinos (cemento binario de base puzolánica natural de Beni Saf y filler calizo de cantera. La reología de la pasta se estudia en función de las dosificaciones de cemento, caliza, superplastificante y agua. La fluidez de las pastas así formadas se deducen de los ensayos de escurrimiento del mini cono y del tiempo de flujo en el cono de Marsh. Utilizando el diseño estadístico de mezclas, el número de ensayos se ha visto considerablemente reducido, el problema se transformó en ecuaciones y después se resolvió numéricamente. A partir de las curvas de los diagramas ternarios, uniendo las respuestas de escurrimiento y el tiempo de flujo de las pastas en función de las dosificaciones en constituyentes y estudiando las funciones de conveniencia para cada respuesta, se terminará por deducir una

  4. 42 CFR 137.32 - Is a compact required to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-governance? 137.32 Section 137.32 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.32 Is a compact required to participate in self-governance? Yes, Tribes must have a...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of compactness of concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes using piezoceramic transducers and time difference of arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Luo, Mingzhang; Hei, Chuang; Song, Gangbing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to its light weight and corrosion resistance, the concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) structure has a broad application prospect; the concrete compactness is key to the strength of CFFTs. To meet the urgent requirement of compactness monitoring of CFFTs, a quantitative method, which uses an array of four equally spaced piezoceramic patches and an ultrasonic time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm, is developed. Since the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material is about half of that in concrete material, the compactness condition of CFFT impacts the piezoceramic-induced wave propagation in the CFFT, and differentiates the TDOA for different receivers. An important condition is the half compactness, which can be judged by the Half Compactness Indicator (HCI) based on the TDOAs. To characterize the difference of stress wave propagation durations from the emitter to different receivers, which can be utilized to calculate the concrete infill compactness, the TDOA ratio (TDOAR) is introduced. An innovative algorithm is developed in this paper to estimate the compactness of the CFFT using HCI and TDOAR values. Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies based on a CFFT with seven different states of compactness (empty, 1/10, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 9/10, and full) are carried out in this research. Analyses demonstrate that there is a good agreement among the analytical, numerical, and experimental results of the proposed method, which employs a piezoceramic transducer array and the TDOAR for quantitative estimating the compactness of concrete infill in a CFFT.

  6. Self-desiccation mechanism of high-performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan-Bing; Zhang, Shu-Qing

    2004-12-01

    Investigations on the effects of W/C ratio and silica fume on the autogenous shrinkage and internal relative humidity of high performance concrete (HPC), and analysis of the self-desiccation mechanisms of HPC showed that the autogenous shrinkage and internal relative humidity of HPC increases and decreases with the reduction of W/C respectively; and that these phenomena were amplified by the addition of silica fume. Theoretical analyses indicated that the reduction of RH in HPC was not due to shortage of water, but due to the fact that the evaporable water in HPC was not evaporated freely. The reduction of internal relative humidity or the so-called self-desiccation of HPC was chiefly caused by the increase in mole concentration of soluble ions in HPC and the reduction of pore size or the increase in the fraction of micro-pore water in the total evaporable water (T(r)/T(te) ratio).

  7. The Effect of Using Sewage Sludge Ash with and without Nano Silica Particles on Properties of Self-compacting Cement Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Khoshravesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays using pozzolanic materials is crucial as a replacement of needed cement, improving properties of cement based materials and saving costs. On the other hand sewage sludge is harmful to the environment and human health. So in this research the sewage sludge ash has been used as an artificial pozzolan to produce self compacting cement based materials which could be evaluated as a revolution in the concrete industry. The objective of this research was to accelerate the performance of sewage sludge ash by utilizing nano silica particles. This research includes 10 mix designs for self compacting mortar and concrete made up of binary and ternary cementitious blends of sewage sludge ash (0%,5%,10%,15%,20% and nano silica (0%,1%. The results showed that by adding the sewage sludge ash, rheological and mechanical properties of the samples were reduced and for small percentages of sewage sludge ash, the durability characteristics were improved. The results also showed that adding nano silica improved the mechanical and durability properties of self compacting mortar and concrete. Finally in presence of nano silica, the reactivity of the sewage sludge ash was increased and its performance was improved.

  8. Compact passively self-tuning energy harvesting for rotating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lei; Livermore, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a compact, passive, self-tuning energy harvester for rotating applications. The harvester rotates in the vertical plane and is comprised of two beams: a relatively rigid piezoelectric generating beam and a narrow, flexible driving beam with a tip mass mounted at the end. The mass impacts the generating beam repeatedly under the influence of gravity to drive generation. Centrifugal force from the rotation modifies the resonant frequency of the flexible driving beam and the frequency response of the harvester. An analytical model that captures the harvester system's resonant frequency as a function of rotational speed is used to guide the detailed design. With an optimized design, the resonant frequency of the harvester substantially matches the frequency of the rotation over a wide frequency range from 4 to 16.2 Hz. A prototype of the passive self-tuning energy harvester using a lead zirconate titanate generating beam achieved a power density of 30.8 µW cm −3 and a more than 11 Hz bandwidth, which is much larger than the 0.8 Hz bandwidth calculated semi-empirically for a similar but untuned harvester. Passive tuning was also demonstrated using the more robust and reliable but less efficient polymer polyvinylidene fluoride for the generating beam

  9. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Soens, H.; Verstraete, W.; De Belie, N.

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing

  10. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.Y. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, TechnologieparkZwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Soens, H. [Devan Chemicals NV, Klein Frankrijk 18, 9600 Ronse (Belgium); Verstraete, W. [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Belie, N., E-mail: nele.debelie@ugent.be [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, TechnologieparkZwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing.

  11. Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities. Through tangible experiments the project...... specific for this to happen. And the knowledge and intention behind the drawing becomes specialised through the understanding of the fabrication processes and their affect on the materials.The structure Concrete is a result of a multi-angled kerf series in ash wood and a concrete base. The ash wood is cut...... using a 5-axis CNC router with a thin saw blade attached. The programming of the machining results in variations of kerfs that lets the ash wood twist into unique shapes.The shapes of the revolving ash ribbons continue into the concrete creating a cohesive shape. The form for the concrete itself is made...

  12. On the mechanism of polypropylene fibres in preventing fire spalling in self-compacting and high-performance cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Ye, G.; De Schutter, G.; Yuan, Y.; Taerwe, L.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing application of self-compacting concrete (SCC) in construction and infrastructure, the fire spalling behavior of SCC has been attracting due attention. In high performance concrete (HPC), addition of polypropylene fibers (PP fibers) is widely used as an effective method to prevent explosive spalling. Hence, it would be useful to investigate whether the PP fibers are also efficient in SCC to avoid explosive spalling. However, no universal agreement exists concerning the fundamental mechanism of reducing the spalling risk by adding PP fiber. For SCC, the reduction of flowability should be considered when adding a significant amount of fibres. In this investigation, both the micro-level and macro-level properties of pastes with different fiber contents were studied in order to investigate the role of PP fiber at elevated temperature in self-compacting cement paste samples. The micro properties were studied by backscattering electron microscopy (BSE) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests. The modification of the pore structure at elevated temperature was investigated as well as the morphology of the PP fibers. Some macro properties were measured, such as the gas permeability of self-compacting cement paste after heating at different temperatures. The factors influencing gas permeability were analyzed. It is shown that with the melting of PP fiber, no significant increase in total pore volume is obtained. However, the connectivity of isolated pores increases, leading to an increase of gas permeability. With the increase of temperature, the addition of PP fibers reduces the damage of cement pastes, as seen from the total pore volume and the threshold pore diameter changes. From this investigation, it is concluded that the connectivity of pores as well as the creation of micro cracks are the major factors which determine the gas permeability after exposure to high temperatures. Furthermore, the connectivity of the pores acts as a dominant factor

  13. Self healing phenomena in concretes and masonry mortars: A microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Lubelli, B.A.; Rooij, M.R. de

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic survey of over 1000 of samples of concrete and masonry mortars from structures in the Netherlands shows that, in practice, self healing occurs in historic lime and lime – puzzolana mortars, in contrast to modern cement bound concretes and mortars. Self healing may be effected by the

  14. New concrete materials technology for competitive house building

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The research project aims at investigating the potential of new concrete materials technology (high performance concrete, HPC and self-compacting concete, SCC) for competitive design, production and function of structural frames of cast in-situ concrete in house building.

  15. Modified Disk-Shaped Compact Tension Test for Measuring Concrete Fracture Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cifuentes, H.; Lozano, M.; Holušová, Táňa; Medina, F.; Seitl, Stanislav; Fernández-Canteli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2017), s. 215-228 ISSN 1976-0485 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18702S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * Fracture behaviour * Experimental techniques Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2016

  16. Modeling of Comparative Performance of Asphalt Concrete under Hammer, Gyratory, and Roller Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop predictive models using SPSS software (version 18 for Marshall Test results of asphalt mixtures compacted by Hammer, Gyratory, and Roller compaction. Bulk density of (2.351 gm/cc, at OAC of (4.7 % was obtained as a benchmark after using Marshall Compactor as laboratory compactive effort with 75-blows. Same density was achieved by Roller and Gyratory Compactors using its mix designed methods. A total of (75 specimens, for Marshall, Gyratory, and Roller Compactors have been prepared, based on OAC of (4.7 % with an additional asphalt contents of more and less than (0.5 % from the optimum value. All specimens have been subjected to Marshall Test. Mathematical models obtained indicated that variation of Marshall Stiffness is based on the variation of air voids. All of these models depend on asphalt cement content too.

  17. Influence Of The Gripping Fixture On The Modified Compact Tension Test Results: Evaluation Of The Experiments On Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holušová Táňa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified compact tension test (MCT might become in the future a stable test configuration for the evaluation of fracture-mechanics parameters or also for description of fatigue behavior of composites materials such as concrete. Core drilling is used for sampling of existing structures. These samples have cylindrical shape with the selected thickness to avoid the stress concentration. This contribution focuses on the evaluation of the fracture behavior during static and quasi static tests. Static tests are performed on standard specimen with diameter 150 mm and length 300 mm. The quasi-static tests are performed using two different gripping fixtures. The results for quasi-static tests are represented as L-COD diagrams (i.e. load vs. crack opening displacement measured on the loading axis. The comparison of results and discussion of advantages and disadvantages are introduced.

  18. Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities.Through tangible experiments the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect’s digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect th...

  19. Long-term thermal two- and three-dimensional analysis of roller compacted concrete dams supported by monitoring verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanovic, V.; Savic, L. [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Stefanakos, J. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the long-term thermal-field evolution of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams. Thermal computational analyses of the dams are needed as a result of the layer-based construction technologies used to build the dams. Two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D unsteady phased models of the RCC dams were used to determine the time evolution of thermal field in a dam based on the Platanovryssi dam in Greece. The finite element method (FEM) was used to account for the dam geometry, different types of concrete used; actual initial and boundary conditions; the thermal and mechanical properties of the dam as a function of aging and temperature; and the RCC construction technology. The influence of all the parameters on the thermal behaviour of the RCC gravity dam was analyzed. Results of the study showed that the 2-D model accurately described the RCC dam thermal field. The thermal behaviour of the dam was influenced primarily by the thermal properties of the mixture and the boundary conditions. Variations of layer thickness did not significantly influence the temperature field. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL SCHEME FOR ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAMS BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  1. Mechanical properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mohsen, Mostafa Abd; Anwar, Ahmed M.; Adam, Ihab A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) has been widely used in both practical and laboratory applications. Selection of its components and their ratios depends, mainly, on the target mechanical and physical properties recommended by the project consultant. Partial replacement of cement in SCC with cheap available industrial by-product could produce environmentally durable concrete with similar properties of normal concrete. In the current research, SCC was produced by blending Cement Kiln Dust (CK...

  2. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  3. Influence of superplasticizer on microstructure of a 40 MPa strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Sandra M.F.; Menezes, Raquel Maria R.O.; Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Aguilar, Maria Teresa P.; Franca, Fabricio Carlos; Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da S.

    2016-01-01

    The self compacting concrete has high fluidity and deformability. Studies analyze its performance through compressive strength, mortar content and / or water cement factor, which does not allow the evaluation of superplasticante influence the microstructure of these concretes. In this work, we evaluated the influence of superplasticizer comparing the phases present in a self-compacting concrete 40 MPa and at a same conventional compressive strength, same water / cement and mortar content. Therefore, scanning techniques were employed by electron microscope low vacuum using backscattered electrons and thermal analysis. The observed results show no significant differences in the microstructure of the two composites, ie the superplasticizer does not alter the microstructure of the self-compacting concrete. However, thermal analysis indicates that the present self-compacting concrete greater calcium hydroxide content which may suggest a lower content of such dry cement concrete. (author)

  4. Porous Network Concrete : A bio-inspired building component to make concrete structures self-healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.

    2015-01-01

    The high energy consumption, its corresponding emission of CO2 and financial losses due to premature failure are the pressing sustainability issues which must be tackled by the concrete infrastructure industry. Enhancement of concrete materials and durability of structures (designing new

  5. Review on Characterization and Mechanical Performance of Self-cleaning Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Siti Norsaffirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-cleaning concrete is an effective alternative to provide cleaner environment which contribute to sustainability and towards a green environment. It is in accordance with the requirements of environmental issues on huge energy consumption and air pollution from carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Photocatalyst in self-cleaning concrete accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates, hence pollution could be reduced through photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutants. Mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete were improved by adding photocatalytic materials. Self cleaning abilities were evaluated in the photocatalytic activity test under UV light and photocatalytic degradation of gaseous pollutant was measured by depollution test. This review aims to give an overview about the characteristics of photocatalytic materials and mechanical performances of self-cleaning concrete.

  6. Current challenges and future directions for bacterial self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Suk; Park, Woojun

    2018-04-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been widely explored and applied in the field of environmental engineering over the last decade. Calcium carbonate is naturally precipitated as a byproduct of various microbial metabolic activities. This biological process was brought into practical use to restore construction materials, strengthen and remediate soil, and sequester carbon. MICP has also been extensively examined for applications in self-healing concrete. Biogenic crack repair helps mitigate the high maintenance costs of concrete in an eco-friendly manner. In this process, calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP)-capable bacteria and nutrients are embedded inside the concrete. These bacteria are expected to increase the durability of the concrete by precipitating calcium carbonate in situ to heal cracks that develop in the concrete. However, several challenges exist with respect to embedding such bacteria; harsh conditions in concrete matrices are unsuitable for bacterial life, including high alkalinity (pH up to 13), high temperatures during manufacturing processes, and limited oxygen supply. Additionally, many biological factors, including the optimum conditions for MICP, the molecular mechanisms involved in MICP, the specific microorganisms suitable for application in concrete, the survival characteristics of the microorganisms embedded in concrete, and the amount of MICP in concrete, remain unclear. In this paper, metabolic pathways that result in conditions favorable for calcium carbonate precipitation, current and potential applications in concrete, and the remaining biological challenges are reviewed.

  7. Bio-reinforced self-healing concrete using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Sarmah, Ajit K; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Ghasemi, Younes; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2018-03-01

    Immobilization has been reported as an efficient technique to address the bacterial vulnerability for application in bio self-healing concrete. In this study, for the first time, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are being practically employed as the protective vehicle for bacteria to evaluate the self-healing performance in concrete environment. Magnetic IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized using different techniques. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show the efficient adsorption of nanoparticles to the Bacillus cells. Microscopic observation illustrates that the incorporation of the immobilized bacteria in the concrete matrix resulted in a significant crack healing behavior, while the control specimen had no healing characteristics. Analysis of bio-precipitates revealed that the induced minerals in the cracks were calcium carbonate. The effect of magnetic immobilized cells on the concrete water absorption showed that the concrete specimens supplemented with decorated bacteria with IONs had a higher resistance to water penetration. The initial and secondary water absorption rates in bio-concrete specimens were 26% and 22% lower than the control specimens. Due to the compatible behavior of IONs with the concrete compositions, the results of this study proved the potential application of IONs for developing a new generation of bio self-healing concrete.

  8. Bacteria-based self-healing concrete : An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mors, R.M.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crack formation in concrete is common, but a typical phenomenon related to durability. Percolation of cracks may lead to leakage problems or ingress of deleterious materials, causing deterioration of the concrete matrix or corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement. Durability can be enhanced by

  9. Influence of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive on physical and mechanical properties of bitumen and compaction of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadykina, V. V.; Akimov, A. E.; Trautvain, A. I.; Kholopov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the use of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive for the preparation and pouring of asphalt concrete mixes at reduced temperatures. It also shows positive influence of the modified bitumen on the efficiency of organo-mineral composite compaction at reduced temperatures. Physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete with the use of bitumen modified by DAD-TA additive including indicators characterizing road surfacing life are presented. Arguments to use this material from the point of view of its production technology and environmental impact are given.

  10. Design and testing of tubular polymeric capsules for self-healing of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M.; Van Tittelboom, K.; Feiteira, J.; Gruyaert, E.; Chatrabhuti, S.; Raquez, J.-M.; Šavija, B.; Alderete, N.; Schlangen, E.; De Belie, N.

    2017-10-01

    Polymeric healing agents have proven their efficiency to heal cracks in concrete in an autonomous way. However, the bottleneck for valorisation of self-healing concrete with polymeric healing agents is their encapsulation. In the present work, the suitability of polymeric materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as carriers for healing agents in self-healing concrete has been evaluated. The durability of the polymeric capsules in different environments (demineralized water, salt water and simulated concrete pore solution) and their compatibility with various healing agents have been assessed. Next, a numerical model was used to simulate capsule rupture when intersected by a crack in concrete and validated experimentally. Finally, two real-scale self-healing concrete beams were made, containing the selected polymeric capsules (with the best properties regarding resistance to concrete mixing and breakage upon crack formation) or glass capsules and a reference beam without capsules. The self-healing efficiency was determined after crack creation by 3-point-bending tests.

  11. A comparative study of physical and chemical properties of different pozzolanic materials used for roller compacted concrete RCC dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Malkawi Abdallah I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the feasibility and the efficiency of using Natural Pozzolan and/or Rock flour in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC gravity dams. For this purpose, five identical mortar trial mixes were prepared using five different supplementary materials, i.e., fly ash produced in South Africa (proven to be effective in RCC construction, fly ash produced in Turkey, Jordanian natural pozzolan, Saudi natural pozzolan, and rock flour from Mujib Dam basalt quarry. The physical and chemical properties of these pozzolanic materials were determined. The effectiveness of each one of these mineral admixtures used as a cement replacement material in controlling alkali silica reaction are studied and analyzed. Correlations were made between the mechanical properties for the five proposed mixes and a control mix using the Jordanian Portland Cement. The results demonstrate that the performance of Natural Pozzolana and/or rock flour as compared with that of fly ash and other pozzolanic material is very satisfactory and can be effectively used in RCC construction.

  12. Comparison of fracture toughness values of normal and high strength concrete determined by three point bend and modified disk-shaped compact tension specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Ríjos, J. D.; Cifuentes, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 42 (2017), s. 56-65 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18702S; GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * Stress intensity factors * T-stress * Compact tension test * Fracture behavior * Fracture toughness Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  13. Effect of Micro-Teaching Practices with Concrete Models on Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Using Concrete Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Melihan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of micro-teaching practices with concrete models on the pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about using concrete models and to determine the opinions of the pre-service teachers about this issue. In the current study, one of the mixed methods, the convergent design (embedded)…

  14. Self-sensing CF-GFRP rods as mechanical reinforcement and sensors of concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, F.; Auricchio, F.; Sarchi, F.; Forte, G.; Gusmano, G.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper testing carried out on concrete beams reinforced with self-sensing composite rods is presented. Such concrete beams, whose peculiarity is to be reinforced by self-sensing materials able to generate an alarm signal when fixed loads are reached, were designed, manufactured and tested. The reinforcing rods were manufactured by pultrusion and consisted of self-sensing hybrid composites containing both glass and carbon fibres in an epoxy resin. The experimentation was carried out by performing simultaneously mechanical tests on the reinforced beams and electrical measurements on the composite rods. The results showed that the developed system reached the target proposed, giving an alarm signal.

  15. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  16. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Yu, Xun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate. (paper)

  17. Bacteria-based self-healing concrete : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mors, R.M.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete in most structures is designed to crack in order to let embedded steel reinforcement take over tensile stresses. Crack formation is also a typical phenomenon related to durability. Percolation of cracks may lead to leakage problems or ingress of deleterious materials, causing deterioration

  18. Development of a self-compacting gypsum-based lightweight composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses experiments and theories of a self-compacting gypsum-based lightweight composite (SGLC). A ß-hemihydrate is used as binder and lightweight aggregate (LWA, 0–2 mm in different size ranges) is used as aggregate into this composite. The mix of the new composite is designed based

  19. Use of SCC in Prefabricated Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Lauritsen, Ib

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents observations made on the use of self-compacting concrete for pre-cast elements at Byggebjerg Beton A/S during the last 3 years. The elements include L- and sandwich elements and are mainly produced for agriculture purposes. In general, the flow properties and air content...... of the concrete to achieve a good surface quality with a limited number of blowholes. For horizontal castings it is important to keep the concrete flowing to avoid casting joints. Blocking is avoided by using the right type of spacers and a maximum size aggregate of 8mm. However, if the concrete has to flow over...

  20. Influence of superplasticizer on microstructure of a 40 MPa strength concrete; Influencia do aditivo superplastificante na microestrutura de um concreto de resistencia mecanica de 40 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Sandra M.F.; Menezes, Raquel Maria R.O.; Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Aguilar, Maria Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil); Franca, Fabricio Carlos [LafargeHolcim, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The self compacting concrete has high fluidity and deformability. Studies analyze its performance through compressive strength, mortar content and / or water cement factor, which does not allow the evaluation of superplasticante influence the microstructure of these concretes. In this work, we evaluated the influence of superplasticizer comparing the phases present in a self-compacting concrete 40 MPa and at a same conventional compressive strength, same water / cement and mortar content. Therefore, scanning techniques were employed by electron microscope low vacuum using backscattered electrons and thermal analysis. The observed results show no significant differences in the microstructure of the two composites, ie the superplasticizer does not alter the microstructure of the self-compacting concrete. However, thermal analysis indicates that the present self-compacting concrete greater calcium hydroxide content which may suggest a lower content of such dry cement concrete. (author)

  1. SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE USED IN THE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT TALL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of high-strength concrete based on experience both with domestic and foreign concretes has led to the production of a self-consolidating concrete (SCC formula. Method. Raw materials sourced from the Chechen Republic were used in the SUBconcrete formula, based on materials having different classes of compressive strength as well as the incorporation of polycarboxylate as an additive. Results. An investigation was carried out on natural and technogenic raw materials from the Chechen Republic and other regions of the country. Compositions of high-grade SCC with a compressive strength of B100 and higher are achieved with an integrated approach using both natural and man-made raw materials. The formulae of the basic concrete reinforcing technology are examined together with their physico-mechanical properties. The results of the study of locally sourced concrete, as well as that purchased from "Pavlovskgranit" and OOO "Progress" for testing from the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, are provided. Of the various manufacturers' cements investigated, the highest quality Portland cement CEM I 4.5N was selected from the Tula cement manufacturers in the town of Chiri-Yurt. The fillers used were microsilica sourced from the Novokuznetsk plant, inactivated MP-1 mineral powder produced in Kaluga and fly ash sourced from Nevinnomyssk. Conclusion. The results of the studies show that the raw material potential of our country allows for the production of self-consolidating concrete from class B 25 to B100 and higher for use in monolithic construction, including high-rise. The concrete compositions arrived at are characterised by their high physical and mechanical properties and can be used in high-rise concrete construction sites operating in earthquake-prone areas. 

  2. Steam Cured Self-Consolidating Concrete and the Effects of Limestone Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Mohammad A.

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect and the mechanisms associated with replacing 15% of the cement by limestone filler on the mechanical properties and durability performance of self-consolidating concrete designed and cured for precast/prestressed applications. This study investigates the role of limestone filler on the hydration kinetics, mechanical properties (12 hours to 300 days), microstructural and durability performance (rapid chloride permeability, linear shrinkage, sulfate resistance, freeze-thaw resistance and salt scaling resistance) of various self-consolidating concrete mix designs containing 5% silica fume and steam cured at a maximum holding temperature of 55°C. This research also examines the resistance to delayed ettringite formation when the concrete is steam cured at 70°C and 82°C and its secondary consequences on the freeze-thaw resistance. The effect of several experimental variables related to the concrete mix design and also the curing conditions are examined, namely: limestone filler fineness, limestone filler content, cement type, steam curing duration and steam curing temperature. In general, the results reveal that self-consolidating concrete containing 15% limestone filler, steam cured at 55°C, 70°C and 82°C, exhibited similar or superior mechanical and transport properties as well as long term durability performance compared to similar concrete without limestone filler. When the concrete is steam cured at 55°C, the chemical reactivity of limestone filler has an important role in enhancing the mechanical properties at 16 hours (compared to the concrete without limestone filler) and compensating for the dilution effect at 28 days. Although, at 300 days, the expansion of all concrete mixes are below 0.05%, the corresponding freeze-thaw durability factors vary widely and are controlled by the steam curing temperature and the chemical composition of the cement. Overall, the material properties indicate that the use

  3. Pull-Out Strength and Bond Behavior of Prestressing Strands in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jian Long

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC worldwide, it is important to ensure that such concrete can secure uniform in-situ mechanical properties that are similar to those obtained with properly consolidated concrete of conventional fluidity. Ensuring proper stability of SCC is essential to enhance the uniformity of in-situ mechanical properties, including bond to embedded reinforcement, which is critical for structural engineers considering the specification of SCC for prestressed applications. In this investigation, Six wall elements measuring 1540 mm × 2150 mm × 200 mm were cast using five SCC mixtures and one reference high-performance concrete (HPC of normal consistency to evaluate the uniformity of bond strength between prestressing strands and concrete as well as the distribution of compressive strength obtained from cores along wall elements. The evaluated SCC mixtures used for casting wall elements were proportioned to achieve a slump flow consistency of 680 ± 15 mm and minimum caisson filling capacity of 80%, and visual stability index of 0.5 to 1. Given the spreads in viscosity and static stability of the SCC mixtures, the five wall elements exhibited different levels of homogeneity in in-situ compressive strength and pull-out bond strength. Test results also indicate that despite the high fluidity of SCC, stable concrete can lead to more homogenous in-situ properties than HPC of normal consistency subjected to mechanical vibration.

  4. Pull-Out Strength and Bond Behavior of Prestressing Strands in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Xing, Feng

    2014-10-10

    With the extensive use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) worldwide, it is important to ensure that such concrete can secure uniform in-situ mechanical properties that are similar to those obtained with properly consolidated concrete of conventional fluidity. Ensuring proper stability of SCC is essential to enhance the uniformity of in-situ mechanical properties, including bond to embedded reinforcement, which is critical for structural engineers considering the specification of SCC for prestressed applications. In this investigation, Six wall elements measuring 1540 mm × 2150 mm × 200 mm were cast using five SCC mixtures and one reference high-performance concrete (HPC) of normal consistency to evaluate the uniformity of bond strength between prestressing strands and concrete as well as the distribution of compressive strength obtained from cores along wall elements. The evaluated SCC mixtures used for casting wall elements were proportioned to achieve a slump flow consistency of 680 ± 15 mm and minimum caisson filling capacity of 80%, and visual stability index of 0.5 to 1. Given the spreads in viscosity and static stability of the SCC mixtures, the five wall elements exhibited different levels of homogeneity in in-situ compressive strength and pull-out bond strength. Test results also indicate that despite the high fluidity of SCC, stable concrete can lead to more homogenous in-situ properties than HPC of normal consistency subjected to mechanical vibration.

  5. Distributed Long-Gauge Optical Fiber Sensors Based Self-Sensing FRP Bar for Concrete Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-02-25

    Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber (OF) sensing technique presents advantages for concrete structure monitoring. However, the existence of spatial resolution greatly decreases strain measurement accuracy especially around cracks. Meanwhile, the brittle feature of OF also hinders its further application. In this paper, the distributed OF sensor was firstly proposed as long-gauge sensor to improve strain measurement accuracy. Then, a new type of self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bar was developed by embedding the packaged long-gauge OF sensors into FRP bar, followed by experimental studies on strain sensing, temperature sensing and basic mechanical properties. The results confirmed the superior strain sensing properties, namely satisfied accuracy, repeatability and linearity, as well as excellent mechanical performance. At the same time, the temperature sensing property was not influenced by the long-gauge package, making temperature compensation easy. Furthermore, the bonding performance between self-sensing FRP bar and concrete was investigated to study its influence on the sensing. Lastly, the sensing performance was further verified with static experiments of concrete beam reinforced with the proposed self-sensing FRP bar. Therefore, the self-sensing FRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as reinforcing materials for concrete structures.

  6. Self-consolidating concrete, applications for slip-form paving : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a new type of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for slip-form paving to simplify construction and make smoother pavements. Developing the new SCC involved two phases: a feasibility study (Phase I sponsored by TP...

  7. Chloride transport under compressive load in bacteria-based self-healing concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binti Md Yunus, B.; Schlangen, E.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in this study to investigate the effect of compressive load on chloride penetration in self-healing concrete containing bacterial-based healing agent. Bacteria-based healing agent with the fraction of 2 mm – 4 mm of particles sizes were used in this contribution. ESEM

  8. Experimental testing of a self-sensing FRP-concrete composite beam using FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlei; Hao, Qingduo; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    A new kind of self-sensing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)-concrete composite beam, which consists of a FRP box beam combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using two embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of FRP box beam at mid-span section along longitudinal direction, respectively. The flexural behavior of the proposed self-sensing FRP-concrete composite beam was experimentally studied in four-point bending. The longitudinal strains of the composite beam were recorded using the embedded FBG sensors as well as the surfacebonded electric resistance strain gauges. Test results indicate that the FBG sensors can faithfully record the longitudinal strain of the composite beam in tension at bottom flange of the FRP box beam or in compression at top flange over the entire load range, as compared with the surface-bonded strain gauges. The proposed self-sensing FRP-concrete composite beam can monitor its longitudinal strains in serviceability limit state as well as in strength limit state, and will has wide applications for long-term monitoring in civil engineering.

  9. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the compressive strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self-compacting concrete with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles have been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 15 nm were added to self-compacting concrete and various properties of the specimens ...

  10. Influence of the gripping fixture on the modified compact tension test results: Evaluation of the experiments on cylindrical concrete specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, T.; Lozano, M.; Canteli, A.; Komárková, T.; Kocáb, D.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2015) ISSN 1804-4824 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Modified compact tension test * fracture parametr * Cementitious composites * Aramis measurement * grips Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. Correlation of the manual compaction hammer with mechanical hammers for the Marshall method of design for asphaltic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish, through a series of correlations, the compactive effort (number of blows) needed using the mechanical hammers to yield similar physical properties obtained with 75 blows of the manual hammer.

  12. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaiskos, G; Tsangouri, E; Aggelis, D G; Van Hemelrijck, D; Deraemaeker, A

    2015-01-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods. (paper)

  13. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  14. Field application of self-healing concrete with natural fibres as linings for irrigation canals in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water

  15. Distributed Long-Gauge Optical Fiber Sensors Based Self-Sensing FRP Bar for Concrete Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber (OF) sensing technique presents advantages for concrete structure monitoring. However, the existence of spatial resolution greatly decreases strain measurement accuracy especially around cracks. Meanwhile, the brittle feature of OF also hinders its further application. In this paper, the distributed OF sensor was firstly proposed as long-gauge sensor to improve strain measurement accuracy. Then, a new type of self-sensing fiber reinforced p...

  16. Effect of various supplementary cementitious materials on rheological properties of self-consolidating concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Ahari, Reza; Erdem, Tahir Kemal; Ramyar, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    In design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for a given application, the mixture's rheological parameters should be adjusted to achieve a given profile of yield stress and plastic viscosity. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) can be useful for this adjustment in addition to their other advantages. In this study, the rheological properties of 57 SCC mixtures with various SCM were investigated for a constant slump flow value. For this aim, various amounts of silica fume (SF), metakao...

  17. Mechanical properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abd El-Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC has been widely used in both practical and laboratory applications. Selection of its components and their ratios depends, mainly, on the target mechanical and physical properties recommended by the project consultant. Partial replacement of cement in SCC with cheap available industrial by-product could produce environmentally durable concrete with similar properties of normal concrete. In the current research, SCC was produced by blending Cement Kiln Dust (CKD with cement in different ratios. Four mixes incorporating cement kiln dust with partial cement replacement of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were produced and compared with a control mix of Normally Vibrated Concrete (NVC. Superplasticizer was used to increase the flow-ability of SCC mixes. The fresh and hardened mechanical properties of all mixes were determined and evaluated. Moreover, time-dependent behavior was investigated for all mixes in terms of drying shrinkage test. The shrinkage strain was measured for all specimens for a period of 120 days. Based on the experimental results, it was found that SCC mixture containing 20% cement replacement of CKD exhibited the highest mechanical strength compared to other SCC mixes and NVC mix as well. It was observed that the volumetric changes of specimens were directly proportional to the increase of the cement replacement ratio.

  18. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Alsubari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fuel ash (POFA has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC. POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  19. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubari, Belal; Shafigh, Payam; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC). POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  20. Reduced labor and condensed schedules with cellular concrete solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavis, D. [CEMATRIX Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of cellular concrete materials in oil sands tank base foundation systems, shallow buried utility insulation systems, roadways, slabs, and buried modules. The concrete is formed from Portland cement, water, specialized pre-formed foaming agents, and air mixed in controlled proportions. Fly ash and polypropylene or glass fibers can also be used as additions. Cellular concrete can often be used to speed up construction and minimize labour requirements. Cellular concrete can be cast-in-place, and has soil-stabilizing and self-compacting features. The concrete can be produced and placed on-site at rates exceeding 120 cubic meters per hour. Cellular concrete can be pumped into place over long distances through flexible hoses. A case study comparing the cellular concrete to traditional plastic foam insulation was used to demonstrate the equivalency and adequacy of insulation, structural properties and installation costs. The study showed that although the cellular concrete had a high installation cost, greater compressive strength was gained. The concrete was self-levelling and did not require compaction or vibration. The use of the cellular concrete resulted in an accelerated construction schedule. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Making concrete construals mindful: a novel approach for developing mindfulness and self-compassion to assist weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, J C

    2014-01-01

    Research on the usefulness of mindfulness and self-compassion for dieting has focused on meditative practices. However, meditation can be difficult to maintain, especially while dieting. Thus, the present research attempted to induce mindfulness and self-compassion by using food diaries that required the participant to either focus on concrete (i.e. how they are eating) construals or abstract (i.e. why they are eating) construals. The concrete construals were expected to increase mindfulness and self-compassion, as well as decrease avoidance and negative thoughts (which would further aid the development of mindfulness and self-compassion). Study 1 found that mindfulness and self-compassion mediated the inverse relationship of avoidance and negative thoughts with weight loss. Study 2 showed that concrete construal diaries increased mindfulness and self-compassion, decreased avoidance and negative thoughts, and supported weight loss significantly more than the abstract construal diaries. Study 3, then, compared the concrete construal diaries with a mindful self-compassionate meditation programme. There was no difference in weight loss at the end of the intervention, but at a three-month follow-up, the diaries performed better at weight maintenance. Thus, the concrete construal diaries may promote mindfulness and self-compassion and potentially promote long-term weight loss.

  2. Self-similar solutions with compactly supported profile of some nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Begout

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ``Sharp localized'' solutions (i.e. with compact support for each given time t of a singular nonlinear type Schr\\"odinger equation in the whole space $\\mathbb{R}^N$ are constructed here under the assumption that they have a self-similar structure. It requires the assumption that the external forcing term satisfies that $\\mathbf{f}(t,x=t^{-(\\mathbf{p}-2/2}\\mathbf{F}(t^{-1/2}x$ for some complex exponent $\\mathbf{p}$ and for some profile function $\\mathbf{F}$ which is assumed to be with compact support in $\\mathbb{R}^N$. We show the existence of solutions of the form $\\mathbf{u}(t,x=t^{\\mathbf{p}/2}\\mathbf{U}(t^{-1/2}x$, with a profile $\\mathbf{U}$, which also has compact support in $\\mathbb{R}^N$. The proof of the localization of the support of the profile $\\mathbf{U}$ uses some suitable energy method applied to the stationary problem satisfied by $\\mathbf{U}$ after some unknown transformation.

  3. Prediction of the impact of flow induced inhomogeneities in Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Roussel, N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    SCC is nowadays a worldwide used construction material. However, heterogeneities induced by casting may lead to variations of local properties and hence to a potential decrease of the structure’s load carrying capacity. The heterogeneities in SCC are primarily caused by static and dynamic segrega...

  4. Fully coupled Lattice Boltzmann simulation of fiber reinforced self compacting concrete flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    accurately the most important phenomena is introduced. A conventional Lattice Boltzmann method has been chosen as a fluid dynamics solver of the non-Newtonian fluid. A Mass Tracking Algorithm has been implemented to correctly represent a free surface and a modified Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) with direct...

  5. The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, Martin; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, Jos; Founti, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to come to a sustainable built environment the construction industry requires new energy saving concepts. One concept is to use Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have the ability to absorb and to release thermal energy at a specific temperature. This paper presents a set of experiments

  6. The behavior of self-compacting concrete containing micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Entrop, A.G.; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Founti, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to come to a sustainable built environment the construction industry requires new energy saving concepts. One concept is to use Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have the ability to absorb and to release thermal energy at a specific temperature. This paper presents a set of experiments

  7. Simulation and Verification of Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a form filling experiment and the corresponding 3D simulation. One side of the form is made of a transparent acrylic plate and to improve the visual observations of the flow behaviour, the first and second half of the form is cast with normal grey and red-pigmented SCC, respec...

  8. Hybrid fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete: fiber synergy at low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexural toughness tests were performed and results were extensively analysed to identify synergy, if any, associated with various fiber combinations. Based on various analysis schemes, the paper identifies fiber combinations that demonstrate maximum synergy in terms of flexural toughness. Journal of Civil Engineering ...

  9. Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the properties of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement using non-destructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S. Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problems related to roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement are high rigidity, lower tensile strength which causes a tendency of cracking due to thermal or plastic shrinkage, flexural and fatigue loads. Furthermore, RCC pavement does not support the use of dowel bars or reinforcement due to the way it is placed and compacted, these also aided in cracking and consequently increased maintenance cost. To address these issues, high volume fly ash (HVFA RCC pavement was developed by partially replacing 50% cement by volume with fly ash. Crumb rubber was used as a partial replacement to fine aggregate in HVFA RCC pavement at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement by volume. Nano silica was added at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cementitious materials to improve early strength development in HVFA RCC pavement and mitigate the loss of strength due to the incorporation of crumb rubber. The nondestructive technique using the rebound hammer test (RHT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were used to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the performance of HVFA RCC pavement. The results showed that the use of HVFA as cement replacement decreases both the unit weight, compressive strength, rebound number (RN. Furthermore, the unit weight, compressive strength, RN, UPV and dynamic modulus of elasticity of HVFA RCC pavement all decreases with increase in crumb rubber content and increases with the addition of nano-silica. Combined UPV-RN (SonReb models for predicting the 28 days strength of HVFA RCC pavement based on combining UPV and RN were developed using multivariable regression (double power, bilinear, and double exponential models. The exponential combined SonReb model is the most suitable for predicting the compressive strength of HVFA RCC pavement using UPV and RN as the independent variable with better predicting ability, higher correlation compared to the single variable models. Keywords: Crumb rubber, High volume fly ash, Nano

  10. Compact self-powered synchronous energy extraction circuit design with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Zhao, Caiyou; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Zhu, Qiao; Hu, Guangdi

    2018-04-01

    Synchronous switching circuit is viewed as an effective solution of enhancing the generator’s performance and providing better adaptability for load variations. A critical issue for these synchronous switching circuits is the self-powered realization. In contrast with other methods, the electronic breaker possesses the advantage of simplicity and reliability. However, beside the energy consumption of the electronic breakers, the parasitic capacitance decreases the available piezoelectric voltage. In this technical note, a new compact design of the self-powered switching circuit using electronic breaker is proposed. The envelope diodes are excluded and only a single envelope capacitor is used. The parasitic capacitance is reduced to half with boosted performance while the components are reduced with cost saved.

  11. Decontamination of the activation product based on a legal revision of the cyclotron vault room on the non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Isao; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the Nal scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed. (author)

  12. Compact self-Q-switched Tm:YLF laser at 1.91 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Li, L.; He, C. J.; Tian, F. J.; Yang, X. T.; Cui, J. H.; Zhang, J. Z.; Sun, W. M.

    2018-03-01

    We report self-Q-switching operation in a diode-pumped Tm:YLF bulk laser by exploiting saturable re-absorption under the quasi-three-level regime. Robust self-Q-switched pulse output at 1.91 μm in fundamental mode is demonstrated experimentally with 1.5 at.% doped Tm:YLF crystal. At maximum absorbed pump power of 4.5 W, the average output power and pulse energy are obtained as high as 610 mW and 29 μJ, respectively, with the corresponding slope efficiency of 22%. Pulse repetition rate is tunable in the range of 3-21 kHz with changing the pump power. The dynamics of self-Q-switching of Tm:YLF laser are discussed with the help of a rate equation model showing good agreement with the experiment. The compact self-Q-switched laser near 2 μm has potential application in laser radar systems for accurate wind velocity measurements.

  13. Amine-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a promising carrier for application in bio self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Ghasemi, Younes; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2018-01-01

    Self-healing mechanisms are a promising solution to address the concrete cracking issue. Among the investigated self-healing strategies, the biotechnological approach is distinguished itself by inducing the most compatible material with concrete composition. In this method, the potent bacteria and nutrients are incorporated into the concrete matrix. Once cracking occurs, the bacteria will be activated, and the induced CaCO 3 crystals will seal the concrete cracks. However, the effectiveness of a bio self-healing concrete strictly depends on the viability of bacteria. Therefore, it is required to protect the bacteria from the resulted shear forces caused by mixing and drying shrinkage of concrete. Due to the positive effects on mechanical properties and the high compatibility of metallic nanoparticles with concrete composition, for the first time, we propose 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-coated IONs) as a biocompatible carrier for Bacillus species. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of APTES-coated IONs on the bacterial viability and CaCO 3 yield for future application in the concrete structures. The APTES-coated IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the presence of 100 μg/mL APTES-coated IONs could increase the bacterial viability. It was also found that the CaCO 3 -specific yield was significantly affected in the presence of APTES-coated IONs. The highest CaCO 3 -specific yield was achieved when the cells were decorated with 50 μg/mL of APTES-coated IONs. This study provides new insights for the application of APTES-coated IONs in designing bio self-healing strategies.

  14. Formulating a low-alkalinity and self-consolidating concrete for the DOPASS-FSS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyet, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Touze, G.; Moth, J.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the DOPAS European project, the French agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA) has recently undertaken a research program aiming at proving the technological feasibility of deep repository sealing: the Full Scale Sealing experiment (FSS). This operation involves the fabrication of a massive plug (250 m 3 ) also called 'containment wall' made from low alkalinity and self-consolidating concrete (LA-SCC), the composition of which was designed in three consecutive steps. First, different (commercial) raw materials were selected and various binder compositions were designed in the laboratory to meet the requirements (mainly pH decrease versus time and value at equilibrium). Binary blends of CEM I or CEM III with silica fume as well as ternary blends of CEM I, silica fume and slag or fly ash were tested. Constantly agitated aqueous suspensions (binder diluted in deionized water in 50 ml test tubes) were used to monitor the pH evolution vs. time of all the binders. In a second time, LA-SCC mix compositions were designed using the software BetonLab Pro 3. Some of all the virtual LA-SCC compositions were produced in the laboratory (30 l batches) and the resulting properties were measured and compared to the specifications. Last, the most promising LA-SCC mix compositions were tested (batches volume around 1 m 3 ) using the concrete plant selected for the project to check the feasibility of the 'labcretes' at a larger scale and to adjust the admixture content and modus operandi to the real concrete plant. Comparing the properties of the different LA-SCC led to the selection of a formulation that was used for the fabrication of the massive concrete plug. (authors)

  15. A compact self-flowing lithium system for use in an industrial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor Kumar; Szott, Matthew; Jurczyk, Brian; Ahn, Chisung; Ruzic, David

    2016-10-01

    A compact trench module to flow liquid lithium in closed loops for handling high heat and particle flux have been fabricated and tested at UIUC. The module was designed to demonstrate the proof of concept in utilizing liquid metals for two principal objectives: i) as self-healing low Z plasma facing components, which is expected to solve the issues facing the current high Z components and ii) using flowing lithium as an MeV-level neutron source. A continuously flowing lithium loop ensures a fresh lithium interface and also accommodate a higher concentration of D, enabling advanced D-Li reactions without using any radioactive tritium. Such a system is expected to have a base yield of 10e7 n/s. For both the applications, the key success factor of the module is attaining the necessary high flow velocity of the lithium especially over the impact area, which will be the disruptive plasma events in fusion reactors and the incident ion beam for the neutron beam source. This was achieved by the efficient shaping of the trenches to exploit the nozzle effect in liquid flow. The compactness of the module, which can also be scaled as desired, was fulfilled by the use of high Tc permanent magnets and air cooled channels attained the necessary temperature gradient for driving the lithium. The design considerations and parameters, experimental arrangements involving lithium filling and attaining flow, data and results obtained will be elaborated. DOE SBIR project DE-SC0013861.

  16. R and D of control system of compact self-bunching RF gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Jian; Pei Yuanji; Huang Guirong; Wang Jinxiang

    2010-01-01

    An experimental device was recently constructed for testing the beam characteristics of a compact self-bunching RF gun at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It designs an independent monitor and control system for the experimental device so as not to disturb the operation of 200MeV LINAC. According to the three-level architecture of a general control scheme, the proposed system consists of circuits that execute kernel control, photosignal emission/reception, and switch values input/output, respectively. It performs timing control, device status monitoring as well as interlock protection, and it can be remotely operated with the assistance of PC software. Testing results show that our system achieves the specified performance and meets the requirement of experimental device stably and reliably. Our proposed system can also be applied to control other small-scale accelerators. (authors)

  17. Sound speeds, cracking and the stability of self-gravitating anisotropic compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, H; Hernandez, H; Nunez, L A

    2007-01-01

    Using the concept of cracking we explore the influence that density fluctuations and local anisotropy have on the stability of local and non-local anisotropic matter configurations in general relativity. This concept, conceived to describe the behavior of a fluid distribution just after its departure from equilibrium, provides an alternative approach to consider the stability of self-gravitating compact objects. We show that potentially unstable regions within a configuration can be identified as a function of the difference of propagations of sound along tangential and radial directions. In fact, it is found that these regions could occur when, at a particular point within the distribution, the tangential speed of sound is greater than the radial one

  18. Bacillus sphaericus LMG 22257 is physiologically suitable for self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyun; Jonkers, Henk M; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2017-06-01

    The suitability of using a spore-forming ureolytic strain, Bacillus sphaericus, was evaluated for self-healing of concrete cracks. The main focus was on alkaline tolerance, calcium tolerance, oxygen dependence, and low-temperature adaptability. Experimental results show that B. sphaericus had a good tolerance. It can grow and germinate in a broad range of alkaline pH. The optimal pH range is 7 ∼ 9. High alkaline conditions (pH 10 ∼ 11) slow down but not stop the growth and germination. Oxygen was strictly needed during bacterial growth and germination, but not an essential factor during bacterial urea decomposition. B. sphaericus also had a good Ca tolerance, especially at a high bacterial concentration of 10 8  cells/mL; no significant influence was observed on bacterial ureolytic activity of the presence of 0.9M Ca 2+ . Furthermore, at a low temperature (10 °C), bacterial spores germinated and revived ureolytic activity with some retardation. However, this retardation can be counteracted by using a higher bacterial concentration and by supplementing yeast extract. It can be concluded that B. sphaericus is a suitable bacterium for application in bacteria-based self-healing concrete.

  19. Self-repairing performance of concrete beams strengthened using superelastic SMA wires in combination with adhesives released from hollow fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yachuan; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    By taking advantage of the superelastic effect of shape memory alloy (SMA) and the cohering characteristic of repairing adhesive, a smart self-repairing concrete beam with damage self-repairing performance has been developed. In order to verify the potential self-repairing capacity of smart concrete beams reinforced with SMA wires and brittle fibers containing adhesives, static loading tests were conducted. Experimental results show that the superelastic SMA wires added self-restoration capacity to concrete beams, the deflection of the beams reversed and the crack closed almost completely after unloading. After the release of adhesive from the broken-open fibers into the cracks from the first loading, stress was redistributed to the uncracked section where a new crack was formed, while the sealed crack remained closed during reloading for the smart concrete beams reinforced with SMA wires and brittle fibers containing adhesives. While the original cracks experienced reopening, the load was carried directly by the wires during reloading for concrete beams reinforced with SMA wires

  20. An overview on the research on self-healing concrete at Politecnico di Milano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara Liberato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing cement based materials, by controlling and repairing cracks, could prevent “permeation of driving factors for deterioration”, thus extending the structure service life, and even provide partial recovery of engineering properties relevant to the application. The author’s group has undertaken a comprehensive investigation focusing on both experimental characterization and numerical modelling of the self-healing capacity of a broad category of cementitious composites, including high performance cementitious composites reinforced with different kinds of fibres. Both autogenous healing has been considered and self-healing engineered techniques, including the use of pre-saturated natural fibres and of crystalline admixtures. Tailored methodologies have been employed to characterize the healing capacity under different exposure conditions and for different time spans, ranging up to two years. The healing capacity has been quantified by means of suitably defined “healing indices”, based on the recovery of mechanical properties correlated to the amount of crack closure, measured by means of optical microscopy. A predictive modelling approach, based on modified micro-plane model, has been formulated. The whole investigation represents a step towards the reliable and consistent incorporation of self-healing concepts and effects into a durability-based design framework for engineering applications made of or retrofitted with self- healing concrete and cementitious composites.

  1. Shake-table testing of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete frame with shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xilin; Yang, Boya; Zhao, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The seismic performance of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete (RC) frame with shear walls was investigated in this paper. The lateral force resistance was provided by self-centering precast RC shear walls (SPCW), which utilize a combination of unbonded prestressed post-tensioned (PT) tendons and mild steel reinforcing bars for flexural resistance across base joints. The structures concentrated deformations at the bottom joints and the unbonded PT tendons provided the self-centering restoring force. A 1/3-scale model of a five-story self-centering RC frame with shear walls was designed and tested on a shake-table under a series of bi-directional earthquake excitations with increasing intensity. The acceleration response, roof displacement, inter-story drifts, residual drifts, shear force ratios, hysteresis curves, and local behaviour of the test specimen were analysed and evaluated. The results demonstrated that seismic performance of the test specimen was satisfactory in the plane of the shear wall; however, the structure sustained inter-story drift levels up to 2.45%. Negligible residual drifts were recorded after all applied earthquake excitations. Based on the shake-table test results, it is feasible to apply and popularize a self-centering precast RC frame with shear walls as a structural system in seismic regions.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Self-Sensing Hybrid GFRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructure with Embedded FBG Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanlei; Li, Yunyu; Ran, Jianghua; Cao, Mingmin

    2012-01-01

    A self-sensing hybrid GFRP-concrete bridge superstructure, which consists of two bridge decks and each bridge deck is comprised of four GFRP box sections combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using eight embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of the four GFRP box sections at midspan section of one bridge deck along longitudinal direction, respectively. The proposed self-sensing hybrid bridge superstructure was tested in 4-point loading to...

  3. Aeroacoustic power generated by a compact axisymmetric cavity: Prediction of self-sustained osciallation and influence of depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Manders, H.B.M.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Aeroacoustic power generation due to a self-sustained oscillation by an axisymmetric compact cavity exposed to a low-Mach-number grazing flow is studied both experimentally and numerically. The feedback effect is produced by the velocity fluctuations resulting from a coupling with acoustic standing

  4. Residual radioactivity investigation and radiological assessments for self-disposal of concrete waste in nuclear fuel processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Jeung Gun; Ryu, Jae Bong; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, Sung Hyun; Song, Jung Ho; Baek, Hoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Jin Seong; Park, Hyun Kyoun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, domestic regulatory requirement was investigated for self-disposal of concrete waste from nuclear fuel processing facility. And after self-disposal as landfill or recycling/reuse, the exposure dose was evaluated by RESRAD Ver. 6.3 and RESRAD BUILD Ver. 3.3 computing code for radiological assessments of the general public. Derived clearance level by the result of assessments for the exposure dose of the general public is 0.1071Bq/g (3.5% enriched uranium) for landfill and 0.05515 Bq/cm 2 (5% enriched uranium) for recycling/reuse respectively. Also, residual radioactivity of concrete waste after decontamination was investigated in this study. The result of surface activity is 0.01Bq/cm 2 for emitter and the result of radionuclide analysis for taken concrete samples from surface of concrete waste is 0.0297Bq/g for concentration of 238 U, below 2w/o for enrichment of 235 U and 0.0089Bq/g for artificial contamination of 238 U respectively. Therefore, radiological hazard of concrete waste by self-disposal as landfill and recycling/reuse is below clearance level to comply with clearance criterion provided for Notice No. 2001-30 of the MOST and Korea Atomic Energy Act

  5. Studying the Combination Effect of Additives and Micro Steel Fibers on Cracks of Self-Healing Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad Hussien Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the combination of micro steel fibers and additives (calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the size of cracks formation and healing them were investigated. This study aims to apply the use of self-healing phenomenon to repair cracks and to enhance the service life of the concrete structures. Micro steel fibers straight type were used in this research with 0.2% and 0.4% by volume of concrete. A weight of 20 and 30 kg/m3 of Ca(OH2 and 2 and 3 kg/m3 of Na2CO3 were used as a partial cement replacement. The results confirm that the concrete cracks were significantly self-healed up to 30 days re-curing. Cracks width up to 0.2 mm were completely self-healed after re-curing for 90 days by using the combination of micro steel fiber of 0.4% by volume of concrete and 25 kg/m3 of Ca(OH2 and 2.5 kg/m3 of Na2CO3 as a partial replacement of cement. Products of Self-healing are observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX. It was found that self-healing occurred mainly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate.

  6. Application of Nanomaterials in Production of Self-Sensing Concretes: Contemporary Developments and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horszczaruk E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years structural health monitoring (SHM has gathered spectacular attention in civil engineering applications. Application of such composites enable to improve the safety and performance of structures. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to development of new family of sensors - self-sensing materials. These materials enable to create the so-called “smart concrete” exhibiting self-sensing ability. Application of self-sensing materials in cement-based materials enables to detect their own state of strain or stress reflected as a change in their electrical properties. The variation of strain or stress is associated with the variation in material’s electrical characteristics, such as resistance or impedance. Therefore, it is possible to efficiently detect and localize crack formation and propagation in selected concrete element. This review is devoted to present contemporary developments in application of nanomaterials in self-sensing cement-based composites and future directions in the field of smart structures.

  7. Modeling Self-Healing of Concrete Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan Suleiman, Ahmed; Nehdi, Moncef L

    2017-02-07

    This paper presents an approach to predicting the intrinsic self-healing in concrete using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN). A genetic algorithm was implemented in the network as a stochastic optimizing tool for the initial optimal weights and biases. This approach can assist the network in achieving a global optimum and avoid the possibility of the network getting trapped at local optima. The proposed model was trained and validated using an especially built database using various experimental studies retrieved from the open literature. The model inputs include the cement content, water-to-cement ratio (w/c), type and dosage of supplementary cementitious materials, bio-healing materials, and both expansive and crystalline additives. Self-healing indicated by means of crack width is the model output. The results showed that the proposed GA-ANN model is capable of capturing the complex effects of various self-healing agents (e.g., biochemical material, silica-based additive, expansive and crystalline components) on the self-healing performance in cement-based materials.

  8. Application of waste glass in translucent and photocatalytic concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van B.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Container glass aggregates and glass powder are waste products of the glass recycling industry. In this research, these products are incorporated in self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures, replacing conventional aggregates and fine powders. The SCC mixtures were designed using a particle packing

  9. Simulation-Aided Design of Tubular Polymeric Capsules for Self-Healing Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavija, Branko; Feiteira, João; Araújo, Maria; Chatrabhuti, Sutima; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Gruyaert, Elke; De Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric capsules can have an advantage over glass capsules used up to now as proof-of-concept carriers in self-healing concrete. They allow easier processing and afford the possibility to fine tune their mechanical properties. Out of the multiple requirements for capsules used in this context, the capability of rupturing when crossed by a crack in concrete of a typical size is one of the most relevant, as without it no healing agent is released into the crack. This study assessed the fitness of five types of polymeric capsules to fulfill this requirement by using a numerical model to screen the best performing ones and verifying their fitness with experimental methods. Capsules made of a specific type of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were considered fit for the intended application, rupturing at average crack sizes of 69 and 128 μm, respectively for a wall thickness of ~0.3 and ~0.7 mm. Thicker walls were considered unfit, as they ruptured for crack sizes much higher than 100 μm. Other types of PMMA used and polylactic acid were equally unfit for the same reason. There was overall good fitting between model output and experimental results and an elongation at break of 1.5% is recommended regarding polymers for this application. PMID:28772370

  10. Capsules with evolving brittleness to resist the preparation of self-healing concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruyaert, E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsules for self-healing concrete have to possess multifunctional properties and it would be an enormous advantage in the valorization process when they could also be mixed in. Therefore, we aimed to develop capsules with evolving brittleness. Capsules with high initial flexibility were prepared by adding a plasticizer to an ethyl cellulose matrix. During hardening of the concrete, the plasticizing agent should leach out to the moist environment yielding more brittle capsules which break upon crack appearance. The tested capsules could easily be mixed in during concrete production. However, incompatibility issues between the capsule wall and the inner polymeric healing agent appeared. Moreover, the capsules became insufficiently brittle and the bond strength to the cementitious matrix was too weak. Consequently, multilayer capsules were tested. These capsules had a high impact resistance to endure concrete mixing and were able to break upon crack formation.Las cápsulas para la auto-reparación del hormigón tienen que poseer propiedades multifuncionales. Una enorme ventaja en el proceso para su valorización se obtendría si aquellas pudieran resistir con éxito el mezclado. Por lo tanto, nos propusimos desarrollar cápsulas cuya fragilidad evoluciona. Cápsulas con una alta flexibilidad inicial se prepararon mediante la adición de un plastificante a una matriz de etil celulosa. Durante el endurecimiento del hormigón, el agente plastificante debe filtrarse hacia el medio ambiente húmedo produciendo cápsulas más frágiles que se rompen con el surgimiento de fisuras. Las cápsulas pudieron ser fácilmente mezcladas durante la producción de hormigón. Sin embargo, aparecieron problemas de incompatibilidad entre la pared de la cápsula y el agente de curación polimérico interior. Por otra parte, las cápsulas se comportaron insuficientemente frágiles y con una baja adherencia hacia la matriz cementicia. En consecuencia, se probaron las c

  11. Durability and Strength of Sustainable Self-Consolidating Concrete Containing Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, O.; Hawat, W. Al

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the durability and strength of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is assessed through development and testing of six binary mixes at fixed water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.36. In each of the six SCC mixes, a different percentage of cement is replaced with fly ash. The development of compressive strength for each of the mixes is assessed by testing samples after 3, 7, and 28 days of curing. Durability of each of the six SCC mixes is assessed by measuring the charge passed in Rapid Chloride Permeability (RCP) test. Charge passed was measured in samples cured for 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 40 days of curing. All mixes out-performed the control mix in terms of resistance to chloride penetration. Binary mix in which 20% of cement is replaced with fly ash exhibited 28-day strength slightly surpassing the control mix.

  12. Self-consolidating concretes containing waste PET bottles as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya; Shahidan, Shahiron; Othman, Nor hazurina; Guntor, Nickholas Anting Anak

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) granules on the fresh, mechanical and water absorption properties. Fine aggregates were replaced from 0% to 8% by PET granules. The fresh properties of SCC containing PET granules were determined using slump flow and V-funnel flow time tests. The compressive and splitting tensile strength were evaluated. The results indicated that utilization of waste PET granules in production of SCC could be an effective way for recycling purpose. The maximum amount of PET replacement should be limited to 5%. Exceeding 5% of PET content may result in an increase of V-funnel flow time to overpass the limiting value, decrease in strength. The production of high performance SCC containing 5% PET granules satisfies all the requirements for SCC with satisfactory outputs.

  13. Improving the self-healing properties of concrete materials by using composite actions with fiber reinforced polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This research study is motivated by the need to reduce the costs of maintenance and repair of the aging transportation infrastructure in the US. The proposed approach is to use self-healing concrete. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate...

  14. Simulation of macroscopic behavior of a self-compacting mixture based on DEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornahad, H.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, the necessity of modeling and monitoring fresh concrete behavior has been recognized by the industry with the objective to ensure adequate mechanical properties and a proper durability of concrete structures. Due to the rapid development of computer technology, the

  15. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    You, Ilhwan; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Soonho; Kim, Min-Jae; Zi, Goangseup

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher ...

  16. Experimental Study of Self-Compacting Mortar Incorporating Recycled Glass Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awetehagn Tuaum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental research is focused on the development of self-compacting mortar incorporating recycled glass aggregate (SCM-RGA as partial substitution of fine aggregate (wt 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The fresh and hardened mechanical properties as well as durability of SCM-RGA mixes were investigated. Limestone powder (LP was used as filler that constitutes 20% of the powder volume to reduce the amount of cement. The SCM-RGA mixtures were designed based on Japanese mix design method. The experimental test results showed that the slump flow of SCM-RGA mixes decreased and V-funnel flow time increased when the content of recycled glass aggregate (RGA increased. The bulk density, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption and sorptivity of SCM-RGA mixes were decreased as RGA content increased. Moreover, the accelerated mortar bar test results showed that the expansion due to alkali–silica reaction (ASR of SCM-RGA mixes increased as the content of RGA increased although the expansion of all mixes were within acceptable limit and potentially innocuous. In conclusion, up to 30% of RGA can be successfully integrated in SCM mixes that offers comparable strength performance, sorptivity enhancement and without long term detrimental ASR effect, and thus, contributes towards sustainable solid waste management, conservation of natural resources and environmental protection.

  17. Bacteria-based self-healing concrete for application in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palin, D.; Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine concrete structures are exposed to one of the most hostile of natural environments. Many physical and chemical phenomena are usually interdependent and mutually reinforcing in the deterioration of marine exposed concrete: expansion and microcracking due to physical effects increases concrete

  18. Statistics of semiflexible self-avoiding trails on a family of two-dimensional compact fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Živić, I; Elezović-Hadžić, S; Milošević, S

    2011-01-01

    We have applied the exact and Monte Carlo renormalization group (MCRG) method to study the statistics of semiflexible self-avoiding trails (SATs) on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. Each fractal of the family is compact, that is, the fractal dimension d f is equal to 2 for all members of the PF family, which are enumerated by an odd integer b, 3≤b<∞. Varying values of the stiffness parameter s of trails from 1 to 0 (so that when s decreases the trail stiffness increases) we calculate exactly (for 3 ≤ b ≤ 7) and through the MCRG approach (for b ≤ 201) the sets of the critical exponents ν (associated with the mean squared end-to-end distances of SATs) and γ (associated with the total number of different SATs). Our results show that critical exponents are stiffness dependent functions, so that ν(s) is a monotonically decreasing function of s, for each studied b, whereas γ(s) displays a non-monotonic behavior for some values of b. On the other hand, by fixing the stiffness parameter s, our results show clearly that for highly flexible trails (with s = 1 and 0.9) ν is a non-monotonic function of b, while for stiffer SATs (with s ≤ 0.7) ν monotonically decreases with b. We also show that γ(b) increases with increasing b, independently of s. Finally, we compare the obtained SAT data with those obtained for the semiflexible self-avoiding walk (SAW) model on the same fractal family, and for both models we discuss behavior of the studied exponents in the fractal-to-Euclidean crossover region b→∞

  19. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  20. Performance-Based Specifications of Workability Characteristics of Prestressed, Precast Self-Consolidating Concrete-A North American Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Han, Ning-Xu

    2014-03-27

    Adequate selection of material constituents and test methods are necessary for workability specifications and performance of hardened concrete. An experimental program was performed to evaluate the suitability of various test methods for workability assessment and to propose performance specifications of prestressed concrete. In total, 33 self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixtures made with various mixture proportioning parameters, including maximum size and type of aggregate, type and content of binder, and w/cm were evaluated. Correlations among various test results used in evaluating the workability responses are established. It is recommended that SCC should have slump flow values of 635-760 mm. To ensure proper filling capacity greater than 80%, such concrete should have a passing ability that corresponds to L-box blocking ratio (h₂/h₁) ≥ 0.5, J-Ring flow of 570-685 mm, slump flow minus J-Ring flow diameter ≤75 mm. Moreover, Stable SCC should develop a column segregation index lower than 5%, and rate of settlement at 30 min of 0.27%/h for SCC proportioned with 12.5 or 9.5 mm MSA. It is recommended that SCC should have a plastic viscosity of 100-225 Pa·s and 100-400 Pa·s for concrete made with crushed aggregate and gravel, respectively, to ensure proper workability.

  1. The assessment of bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M. Z. A. Mohd; Muhamad, K.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC). Firstly, this paper presents the various steps taken to prepare the HPFRC with self-compacting property. The minimum targeted slump flow is 600 mm and minimum targeted compressive strength is 80 MPa. The key mix variables considered are such as type of superplasticizer, water cement ratio and silica fume content. Then, the bond strength between the heat damaged concrete with HPFRC was examined. The experimental parameters are heating temperature, surface treatment technique and curing method and the results show that, all experimental parameters are significantly affected the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and HPFRC.

  2. A Compact Self-Driven Liquid Lithium Loop for Industrial Neutron Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmley, Steven; Szott, Matt; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ahn, Chisung; Jurczyk, Brian; Ruzic, David

    2017-10-01

    A compact, closed liquid lithium loop has been developed at the University of Illinois to test and utilize the Li-7(d,n) reaction. The liquid metal loop is housed in a stainless steel trench module with embedded heating and cooling. The system was designed to handle large heat and particle fluxes for use in neutron generators as well as fusion devices, solely operating via thermo-electric MHD. The objectives of this project are two-fold, 1) produce a high energy, MeV-level, neutron source and 2) provide a self-healing, low Z, low recycling plasma facing component. The flowing volume will keep a fresh, clean, lithium surface allowing Li-7(d,n) reactions to occur as well as deuterium adsorption in the fluid, increasing the overall neutron output. Expected yields of this system are 107 n/s for 13.5 MeV neutrons and 108 n/s for 2.45 MeV neutrons. Previous work has shown that using a tapered trench design prevents dry out and allows for an increase in velocity of the fluid at the particle strike point. For heat fluxes on the order of 10's MW/m2, COMSOL models have shown that high enough velocities ( 70 cm/s) are attainable to prevent significant lithium evaporation. Future work will be aimed at addressing wettability issues of lithium in the trenches, experimentally determine the velocities required to prevent dry out, and determine the neutron output of the system. The preliminary results and discussion will be presented. DOE SBIR project DE-SC0013861.

  3. Integral procedure to assess crack filling and mechanical contribution of polymer-based healing agent in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilabert Villegas, Francisco Antonio; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Van Stappen, J.; Cnudde, Veerle; De Belie, Nele; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an experimental and numerical study to analyze the crack filling process in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete. A specimen consisting of two small concrete blocks has been designed containing capsules filled with a polyurethane-based healing agent. This design enables to

  4. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howser, R. N.; Dhonde, H. B.; Mo, Y. L.

    2011-08-01

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity.

  5. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howser, R N; Dhonde, H B; Mo, Y L

    2011-01-01

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity

  6. Mechanical properties of bio self-healing concrete containing immobilized bacteria with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Sarmah, Ajit K; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2018-05-01

    Concrete is arguably one of the most important and widely used materials in the world, responsible for the majority of the industrial revolution due to its unique properties. However, it is susceptible to cracking under internal and external stresses. The generated cracks result in a significant reduction in the concrete lifespan and an increase in maintenance and repair costs. In recent years, the implementation of bacterial-based healing agent in the concrete matrix has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to address the concrete cracking issue. However, the bacterial cells need to be protected from the high pH content of concrete as well as the exerted shear forces during preparation and hardening stages. To address these issues, we propose the magnetic immobilization of bacteria with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). In the present study, the effect of the designed bio-agent on mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength and drying shrinkage) is investigated. The results indicate that the addition of immobilized Bacillus species with IONs in concrete matrix contributes to increasing the compressive strength. Moreover, the precipitates in the bio-concrete specimen were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The characterization studies confirm that the precipitated crystals in bio-concrete specimen were CaCO 3 , while no precipitation was observed in the control sample.

  7. 25 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Model Compact of Self-Governance Between the Tribe and the Department of the Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model Compact of Self-Governance Between the Tribe and..., INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Pt. 1000, App. A Appendix A to Part 1000—Model...

  8. Behavior of reinforced concrete columns strenghtened by partial jacketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. FERREIRA

    Full Text Available This article presents the study of reinforced concrete columns strengthened using a partial jacket consisting of a 35mm self-compacting concrete layer added to its most compressed face and tested in combined compression and uniaxial bending until rupture. Wedge bolt connectors were used to increase bond at the interface between the two concrete layers of different ages. Seven 2000 mm long columns were tested. Two columns were cast monolithically and named PO (original column e PR (reference column. The other five columns were strengthened using a new 35 mm thick self-compacting concrete layer attached to the column face subjected to highest compressive stresses. Column PO had a 120mm by 250 mm rectangular cross section and other columns had a 155 mm by 250mm cross section after the strengthening procedure. Results show that the ultimate resistance of the strengthened columns was more than three times the ultimate resistance of the original column PO, indicating the effectiveness of the strengthening procedure. Detachment of the new concrete layer with concrete crushing and steel yielding occurred in the strengthened columns.

  9. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  10. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal; Meral, Cagla; Mancio, Mauricio; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on Self-Healing and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity Recovery of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham El-Newihy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate self-healing properties and recovered dynamic moduli of engineered polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete using non-destructive resonant frequency testing. Two types of polypropylene fibers (0.3% micro and 0.6% macro and two curing conditions have been investigated: Water curing (at ~25 Celsius and air curing. The Impact Resonance Method (IRM has been conducted in both transverse and longitudinal modes on concrete cylinders prior/post crack induction and post healing of cracks. Specimens were pre-cracked at 14 days, obtaining values of crack width in the range of 0.10–0.50 mm. Addition of polypropylene fibers improved the dynamic response of concrete post-cracking by maintaining a fraction of the original resonant frequency and elastic properties. Macro fibers showed better improvement in crack bridging while micro fiber showed a significant recovery of the elastic properties. The results also indicated that air-cured Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PFRC cylinders produced ~300 Hz lower resonant frequencies when compared to water-cured cylinders. The analyses showed that those specimens with micro fibers exhibited a higher recovery of dynamic elastic moduli.

  13. Self-assembled microporous Ti-6Al-4V implant compacts induced by electro-discharge-sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Lee, C.M.; Kim, S.J.; Lee, N.S.; Kim, K.B.; Jeon, E.C.; Sok, J.-H.; Park, J.S.; Kwon, H.; Lee, K.B.; Lee, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    A single pulse of 0.75-2.0 kJ/0.7 g atomized spherical Ti-6Al-4V powder using 150, 300 and 450 μF capacitors was applied in an Ar atmosphere. After discharge, the self-assembled solid core surrounded by a porous layer was composed of Widmanstaetten α + β grains. By manipulating the discharge conditions such as input energy and capacitance, including powder size, porous-surfaced Ti-6Al-4V implant-typed compacts with various porosities can be produced in short times less than 200 μs without changing the unique microstructure

  14. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  15. A numerical study of two different specimen fixtures for the modified compact tension test – their influence on concrete fracture parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, Táňa; Seitl, Stanislav; Cifuentes, H.; Canteli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 35 (2016), s. 242-249 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Modified Compact Tension Test * Fracture Parameters * Cementitious Composites * FEM Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  16. The direct incorporation of micro-encapsulated phase change materials in the concrete mixing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Entrop, A.G.; Mandilaras, I.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Founti, M.; Durmisevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study refers to a set of tests using different amounts of microencapsulated PCM directly mixed into self-compacting concrete. This SCC is investigated regarding its fresh and hardened properties. It will be shown that increasing PCM amounts lead to lower thermal conductivity and

  17. Towards an integrated simulation of casting and structural performance of flowable fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal Sarmiento, E.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Geiker, M. R.; Kanstad, T.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies on fibre-reinforced self-compacting concrete agree on the impact of the casting conditions on the fibre orientation and distribution, and its consequence thereof on the structural performance. A substantial number of investigations are continuously contributing to gain experience

  18. Efficiency and durability of a self-cleaning coating on concrete and stones under both natural and artificial ageing trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.; Viles, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to test the performance under long-term working conditions of a commercial self-cleaning coating, a water-based TiO2 sol, on three building materials important in recent and older European heritage; Portland limestone, Woodkirk sandstone and concrete. First, the compatibility of the coating (effect on petrophysical properties) with the substrates was demonstrated by examining aesthetic properties and water vapour permeability of the building materials and secondly, the self-cleaning ability of the TiO2 nanoparticles in degrading artificial stain (rhodamine B) under UV light was evaluated. Finally, the durability (lasting performance) of photocatalytic activity was assessed during one year of outdoor exposure trial and 2000 h of accelerated ageing in a chamber with UV radiation and condensation cycles. Results showed that photocatalytic activity was unaltered on concrete, whereas on sandstone, particularly after artificial ageing, it was reduced due to the removal of nanoparticles from the surface. On limestone, a decrease of TiO2 content was observed but photodegradation efficiency (ability to perform as self-cleaner) seemed not to be affected.

  19. SELF-HEALING CAPACITY OF CONCRETE - COMPUTER SIMULATION STUDY OF UNHYDRATED CEMENT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan He

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete's properties is large. The aggregate's influence on the non-hydrated part of the matured paste is assessed by concurrent algorithm-based computer simulation system SPACE in this paper. A distinction is made between interfacial zones (ITZs and bulk paste. Containers with rigid boundaries were employed for the production of series of cement pastes. They were subjected to quantitative microstructure analysis. Relevant gradient structures in the ITZ and bulk are presented and discussed. The relevance of this structure information for possible selfhealing of cracks is briefly discussed.

  20. How Concrete Is Concrete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, "manipulatives", in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own,…

  1. Special protective concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  2. Self-Consolidation Mechanism of Nanostructured Ti5Si3 Compact Induced by Electrical Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge using a capacitance of 450 μF at 7.0 and 8.0 kJ input energies was applied to mechanical alloyed Ti5Si3 powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti5Si3 with no compositional deviation was obtained in times as short as 159 μsec by the discharge. During an electrical discharge, the heat generated is the required parameter possibly to melt the Ti5Si3 particles and the pinch force can pressurize the melted powder without allowing the formation of pores. Followed rapid cooling preserved the nanostructure of consolidated Ti5Si3 compact. Three stepped processes during an electrical discharge for the formation of nanostructured Ti5Si3 compact are proposed: (a a physical breakdown of the surface oxide of Ti5Si3 powder particles, (b melting and condensation of Ti5Si3 powder by the heat and pinch pressure, respectively, and (c rapid cooling for the preservation of nanostructure. Complete conversion yielding a single phase Ti5Si3 is primarily dominated by the solid-liquid mechanism.

  3. Addressing Infrastructure Durability and Sustainability by Self Healing Mechanisms : Recent Advances in Self Healing Concrete and Asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Sangadji, S.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructures cover a very broad spectrum of different materials. This paper focuses on civil engineering structures, concrete and asphalt in particular. The public demand for such infrastructures is high level of service and performance, high durability and minimum negative ecological impact. New

  4. Assessing the Contribution of the CFRP Strip of Bearing the Applied Load Using Near-Surface Mounted Strengthening Technique with Innovative High-Strength Self-Compacting Cementitious Adhesive (IHSSC-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of load between concrete substrate and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP by the bonding agent is the key factor in any FRP strengthening system. An innovative high-strength self-compacting non-polymer cementitious adhesive (IHSSC-CA was recently developed by the authors and has been used in a number of studies. Graphene oxide and cementitious materials are used to synthesise the new adhesive. The successful implementation of IHSSC-CA significantly increases carbon FRP (CFRP strip utilization and the load-bearing capacity of the near-surface mounted (NSM CFRP strengthening system. A number of tests were used to inspect the interfacial zone in the bonding area of NSM CFRP strips, including physical examination, pore structure analysis, and three-dimensional laser profilometery analysis. It was deduced from the physical inspection of NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA that a smooth surface for load transfer was found in the CFRP strip without stress concentrations in some local regions. A smooth surface of the adhesive layer is very important for preventing localized brittle failure in the concrete. The pore structure analysis also confirmed that IHSSC-CA has better composite action between NSM CFRP strips and concrete substrate than other adhesives, resulting in the NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA sustaining a greater load. Finally, the results of three-dimensional laser profilometery revealed a greater degree of roughness and less deformation on the surface of the CFRP strip when IHSSC-CA was used compared to other adhesives.

  5. A review on self-healing in reinforced concrete structures in view of serving conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, H.; Ye, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, different mechanisms of self-healing, i.e. self-healing based on adhesive agents, self-healing based on bacteria, self-healing based on autogenous self-healing were described. Their required conditions were summarized. The previous investigations showed that all mechanisms of

  6. The effect of fly ash and limestone fillers on the viscosity and compressive strength of self-compacting repair mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burak Felekoglu; Kamile Tosun; Bulent Baradan; Akin Altun; Bahadir Uyulgan [Dokuz Eylul University (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Today, self-compacting mortars are preferred for repair purposes due to the application easiness and mechanical advantages. However, for self-compatibility, the paste phase must meet some certain criteria at fresh state. The cement as well as the ingredients of the paste, powders with cementitious, pozzolanic or inert nature and plasticizing chemical admixtures should be carefully chosen in order to obtain a suitable paste composition to enrich the granular skeleton of the mix. The physical properties of powders (shape, surface morphology, fineness, particle size distribution, particle packing) and physico-chemical (time-dependent hydration reactions, zeta potentials) interactions between cement powder and plasticizer should be taken into consideration. All these parameters affect the performance of fresh paste in different manners. There is no universally accepted agreement on the effect of these factors due to the complexity of combined action; thus, it is hard to make a generalization. This study deals with the selection of amount and type of powders from the viewpoint of fresh state rheology and mechanical performance. The influence of powder materials on self-compatibility, viscosity and strength were compared with a properly designed set of test methods (the mini-slump, V-funnel tests, viscosity measurements and compressive strength tests). It may be advised that, for each cement-powder-plasticizer mixture, a series of test methods can be used to determine the optimum content and type of materials for a specified workability.

  7. Feasibility of externally activated self-repairing concrete with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, Sanjay; Shrestha, Kshitij C; Araki, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of an externally activated self-repairing technique for concrete members with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy (SEA) reinforcing bars (rebars). Compared to existing crack self-repairing and self-healing techniques, the epoxy injection network has the following strengths: (1) Different from the self-repairing methods using brittle containers or tubes for adhesives, the proposed self-repair process can be performed repeatedly and is feasible for onsite concrete casting. (2) Different from the autogenic self-healing techniques, full strength recovery can be achieved in a shorter time period without the necessity of water. This paper attempts to enhance the self-repairing capability of the epoxy injection network by reducing residual cracks by using cost-effective Cu-based SEA bars. The effectiveness of the present technique is examined using concrete beam specimens reinforced by 3 types of bars. The first specimen is reinforced by steel deformed bars, the second by steel threaded bars, and finally by SEA threaded rebars. The tests were performed with a 3 point cyclic loading with increasing amplitude. From the test results, effective self-repairing was confirmed for small deformation levels irrespective of the reinforcement types. Effective self-repairing was observed in the SEA reinforced specimen even under much larger deformations. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to confirm the experimental findings. (paper)

  8. Early-Age Concrete Strength Estimation Technique using Embedded Piezoelectric self-sensing impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim , Junkyeong; Kim , Ju-Won; Park , Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Recently, demands for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using high strength concrete (HSC) has been increased. However, HSC might be susceptible to brittle fracture if the curing process is inadequate. To prevent unexpected collapse during and after the construction of HSC structures, it is essential to confirm the strength development of HSC during the curing process. However, several traditional strength-measuring methods are not effective and practical....

  9. Self-sensing concrete-filled FRP tube using FBG strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube is a type of newly developed structural column. It behaves brittle failure at its peak strength, and so the health monitoring on the hoop strain of the FRP tube is essential for the life cycle safety of the structure. Herein, the optic fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor was chosen as the strain measuring gauge and embedded in the inter-ply of fibers in the middle height and the hoop direction of the FRP tube. The compressive behaviors of the concrete-filled FRP tubes were experimentally studied. The hoop strain of the FRP tube was recorded in real time using the embedded FBG strain sensor as well as the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges. Results indicated that the FBG strain sensor can faithfully record the hoop strain ofthe concrete-filled FRP tubes in compression as compared with the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges, and the strain recorded can reach more than 7000μɛ.

  10. Compact bifluid hybrid stars: hadronic matter mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N. [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Atta, Debasis [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Government General Degree College, West Bengal (India); Imam, Kouser [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Aliah University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Samanta, C. [Virginia Military Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    The masses and radii of non-rotating and rotating configurations of pure hadronic stars mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter are calculated within the two-fluid formalism of stellar structure equations in general relativity. The Equation of State (EoS) of nuclear matter is obtained from the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. We consider the dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV. The EoS of self-interacting dark matter is taken from two-body repulsive interactions of the scale of strong interactions. We explore the conditions of equal and different rotational frequencies of nuclear matter and dark matter and find that the maximum mass of differentially rotating stars with self-interacting dark matter to be ∝1.94 M {sub CircleDot} with radius ∝10.4 km. (orig.)

  11. Study of technological features of tubular compressed concrete members in concreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskobiinyk Olena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological features of core concreting were analyzed as the main factor in ensuring of strength and reliability of compressed concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST members. We have conducted the analysis of existing concreting methods of CFST members. In this respect, the most dangerous types of possible technological defects of concrete core of CFST members are inhomogeneity along the height, voids, caverns, and concrete “weak spots”. The authors considered the influence of such technological factors of concreting: placeability, time, concrete mixture compaction method, concreting height on the concrete core strength of CFST members. Based on the experimental studies conducted we suggested the regression correlations for determining the concrete strength of CFST members of different length depending on the movability of concrete mixture and a time for its compaction. The authors performed the correlation analysis of technological factors of concreting on the strength of the concrete core. We carried out the comparison of data on the concrete core strength of CFST members, that were determined by non-destructive methods (sclerometer test results, ultrasonic method and direct compression strength tests. We experimentally proved that using movable mixtures with the slump of about 4 – 9 cm the overall variation coefficient of concrete core strength of CFST members along the height reaches nearly 13%. Based on the experimental studies conducted we suggested the guidelines on optimal regimes of concrete compaction during manufacturing CFST members at a construction site environment.

  12. Self-alignment of a compact large-area atomic Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, G; Berg, P; Schubert, C; Abend, S; Gilowski, M; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the realization of a compact atomic Mach-Zehnder-type Sagnac interferometer of 13.7 cm length, which covers an area of 19 mm 2 previously reported only for large thermal beam interferometers. According to Sagnac's formula, which holds for both light and atoms, the sensitivity for rotation rates increases linearly with the area enclosed by the interferometer. The use of cold atoms instead of thermal atoms enables miniaturization of Sagnac interferometers without sacrificing large areas. In comparison with thermal beams, slow atoms offer better matching of the initial beam velocity and the velocity with which the matter waves separate. In our case, the area is spanned by a cold atomic beam of 2.79 m s -1 , which is split, deflected and combined by driving a Raman transition between the two hyperfine ground states of 87 Rb in three spatially separated light zones. The use of cold atoms requires a precise angular alignment and high wave front quality of the three independent light zones over the cloud envelope. We present a procedure for mutually aligning the beam splitters at the microradian level by making use of the atom interferometer itself in different configurations. With this method, we currently achieve a sensitivity of 6.1×10 -7 rad s -1 Hz -1/2 . (paper)

  13. Fatigue crack behaviour: comparing three-point bend test and wedge splitting test data on vibrated concrete using Paris' law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Thienpont, T.; De Corte, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 39 (2017), s. 110-117 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack behaviour * Tree-point bending test * Wedge splitting test * Self-compacting concrete Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  14. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  15. Test of workability of concrete for PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadayoshi; Nagase, Tetsuo; Yoshimori, Yoshinari

    1987-01-01

    The construction of the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for Tsuruga No.2 plant of Japan Atomic Power Co. is the first case in Japan, and since the concrete having high strength and low slump is placed, the test of concrete placing by taking out a part of a full size test wall and the test of workability regarding the vibration compacting of concrete using a vibrator were carried out beforehand, and the results were reflected to the actual construction works. In this report, the workability test on the concrete is described. As difficulty is expected in the actual placing of the concrete having high strength and low slump, for the purpose of confirming the property of placing of the concrete in the cylindrical wall, and obtaining the basic data for the management of the actual concrete works and the quality control, the concrete placing test was carried out. At the time of concrete placing, the compacting of concrete is important, therefore, the basic data on the effect that the type, diameter, vibrating time and vibration propagation range of vibrators exert on the compacting of concrete were obtained, and reflected to the actual compacting. The purpose, testing method, results and the reflection to the actual works of these tests are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan You

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs. For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. The effects of fiber orientation and drying condition on the electrical conductivity became minor as sufficiently high amount of steel fibers, 3% by volume, was added. Including only steel fibers did not impart UHPFRC with piezoresistive properties. Addition of CNTs substantially improved the electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. Under compression, UHPFRC with a CNT content of 0.3% or greater had a self-sensing ability that was activated by the formation of cracks, and better sensing capacity was achieved by including greater amount of CNTs. Furthermore, the pre-peak flexural behavior of UHPFRC was precisely simulated with a fractional change in resistivity when 0.3% CNTs were incorporated. The pre-cracking self-sensing capacity of UHPFRC with CNTs was more effective under tensile stress state than under compressive stress state.

  17. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilhwan; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Sooho; Kim, Min-Jae; Zi, Goangseup

    2017-10-29

    This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. The effects of fiber orientation and drying condition on the electrical conductivity became minor as sufficiently high amount of steel fibers, 3% by volume, was added. Including only steel fibers did not impart UHPFRC with piezoresistive properties. Addition of CNTs substantially improved the electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. Under compression, UHPFRC with a CNT content of 0.3% or greater had a self-sensing ability that was activated by the formation of cracks, and better sensing capacity was achieved by including greater amount of CNTs. Furthermore, the pre-peak flexural behavior of UHPFRC was precisely simulated with a fractional change in resistivity when 0.3% CNTs were incorporated. The pre-cracking self-sensing capacity of UHPFRC with CNTs was more effective under tensile stress state than under compressive stress state.

  18. Mud concrete paving block for pedestrian pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    This is an attempt to search for alternative eco-friendly earth paving material for public walkways with both the strength and durable properties of concrete while ensuring pedestrian comfort. Approaches were made to change the fine particle percentage while keeping the sand and gravel constant, once the optimum most practical mixture was known, the standard tests were done. The results obtained revealed that the proposed self-compacting block can be produced by using soil with less than 5% fine particles, 55% of 65% sand particles and 18% of 22% cement by weight together with the moisture content between 14% and 15%The tested mud concrete paving blocks were already used in practical application in Sri Lankan urban context.

  19. Self-sensing concrete-filled FRP tubes using FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Hui

    2007-07-01

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube is a type of newly developed structural column. It behaves brittle failure at its peak strength, and so the health monitoring on the hoop strain of the FRP tube is essential for the life cycle safety of the structure. Herein, three types of FRP tubes including 5-ply tube, 2-ply tube with local reinforcement and FRP-steel composite tube were embedded with the optic fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors in the inter-ply of FRP or the interface between FRP and steel in the middle height and the hoop direction. The compressive behaviors of the concrete-filled FRP tubes were experimentally studied. The hoop strains of the FRP tubes were recorded in real time using the embedded FBG strain sensors as well as the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges. Results indicated that the FBG strain sensors can faithfully record the hoop strains of the FRP tubes in compression as compared with the embedded or surface electric resistance strain gauges, and the strains recorded can reach more than μɛ.

  20. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  1. Application of Nanomaterials in Production of Self-Sensing Concretes: Contemporary Developments and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Horszczaruk E.; Sikora P.; Łukowski P.

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years structural health monitoring (SHM) has gathered spectacular attention in civil engineering applications. Application of such composites enable to improve the safety and performance of structures. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to development of new family of sensors - self-sensing materials. These materials enable to create the so-called “smart concrete” exhibiting self-sensing ability. Application of self-sensing materials in cement-based materials enables to ...

  2. Investigation on the Rheological Behavior of Fly Ash Cement Composites at Paste and Concrete Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Hemalatha; Mapa, Maitri; Kushwaha, Rakhi

    2018-06-01

    Towards developing sustainable concrete, nowadays, high volume replacement of cement with fly ash (FA) is more common. Though the replacement of fly ash at 20-30% is widely accepted due to its advantages at both fresh and hardened states, applicability and acceptability of high volume fly ash (HVFA) is not so popular due to some adverse effects on concrete properties. Nowadays to suit various applications, flowing concretes such as self compacting concrete is often used. In such cases, implications of usage of HVFA on fresh properties are required to be investigated. Further, when FA replacement is beyond 40% in cement, it results in the reduction of strength and in order to overcome this drawback, additions such as nano calcium carbonate (CC), lime sludge (LS), carbon nano tubes (CNT) etc. are often incorporated to HVFA concrete. Hence, in this study, firstly, the influence of replacement level of 20-80% FA on rheological property is studied for both cement and concrete. Secondly, the influence of additions such as LS, CC and CNT on rheological parameters are discussed. It is found that the increased FA content improved the flowability in paste as well as in concrete. In paste, the physical properties such as size and shape of fly ash is the reason for increased flowability whereas in concrete, the paste volume contributes dominantly for the flowability rather than the effect due to individual FA particle. Reduced density of FA increases the paste volume in FA concrete thus reducing the interparticle friction by completely coating the coarse aggregate.

  3. Note: Self-biased voltage to suppress secondary electrons by a ZnO varistor in a compact pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Long, J. D.; Lan, C. H.; Wang, T.; Dong, P.; He, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    A large amount of back streaming electrons will bring about a part of current drain on power supply, cause sparking or high-voltage breakdowns, and affect the neutron yield and waveform for a compact sealed-tube pulsed neutron generator. A novel idea which uses a ZnO varistor to provide a constant self-biased voltage to suppress the secondary electrons is introduced. The I-V curve for the ZnO varistor was measured in the experiment. The effects of suppressing the secondary electrons were investigated using a ZnO varistor, linear resistors, and an independent power supply, respectively. The results show that the secondary electrons are suppressed effectively by the compact ZnO varistor, while not increasing the size and the component of the device. It is a promising design for compact sealed-tube neutron generators.

  4. Concrete portable handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not, you are on the job site or back in the office, this book will help you to avoid mistakes, code violations, and wasted time and money. The book's four part treatment begins with constituent materials followed by self contained parts on Concrete Properties, Processes, and Concrete Repair and Rehabilitation. Designed to be an ""all in one"" reference, the author includes a wealth information for the most popular types of testing. This includes: Analysis of Fresh Concrete; Testing Machines; Accelerated Testing Methods; Analysis of Hardened Concrete and Mortar; Core Sampl

  5. Influence of interface properties on fracture behaviour of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interface; concrete; bond strength; fracture toughness; stiffness; ductility. 1. Introduction .... behaviour of concrete using sandwich, and direct rock-mortar compact specimens under mode I and mode II ... pulse velocity technique. 4.2 Geometry of ...

  6. How Concrete is Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two diff...

  7. Compact development and VMT: environmental determinism, self-selection, or some of both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-running debate in the planning literature about the effects of the built environment on travel behavior and the degree to which apparent effects are due to the tendency of households to self-select into neighborhoods that reinforce their travel preferences. Those who want to walk will choose walkable neighborhoods, and those who want to use transit will choose transit-served neighborhoods. These households might have walked or used transit more than their neighbors wherever they lived. Most previous studies have shown that individual attitudes attenuate the relationship between the residential environment and travel choices, and so the effect of the built environment on travel may be overestimated. But there are other researchers who argue the reverse, claiming that residential preferences reinforce built environmental influences. This study assesses the relative importance of the built environment and residential preferences/travel attitudes for a sample of 962 households in the Greater Salt Lake region using structural equation modeling. For the sake of simplicity, we extracted two factors using principal component analysis, one representing the built environment and the other representing residential preferences/attitudes. Our findings are consistent with the view that the neighborhood built environment and residential preferences both influence household’s travel, that the built environment is the stronger influence, and that the built environment affects travel through two causal pathways, one direct and the other indirect, through attitudes.

  8. How Concrete is Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics

  9. Biochemical process of ureolysis-based microbial CaCO3 precipitation and its application in self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Xianzhi; Wang, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Urea hydrolysis has already been considered as the most effective pathway for microbially induced CaCO 3 precipitation (MICP). The present work first studied the combination of several key factors including initial pH, temperature, and dosage of urea, which contribute to the biochemical process of MICP. Under an amiable condition of pH and temperature, the dosage of urea has a significant impact on the rate of urea degradation and CaCO 3 precipitation. A bacteria-based self-healing system was developed by loading healing agents on ceramsite carriers. The self-healing efficiency was evaluated by visual inspection on crack closure, compressive strength regain, and capillary water absorption. A preferable healing effectiveness was obtained when the bacteria and organic nutrients were co-immobilized in carriers. Image analysis showed that cracks up to 273 μm could be healed with a crack closure ratio of 86% in 28 days. The compressive strength regain increased 24% and the water absorption coefficient decreased 27% compared to the reference. The findings indicated a promising application of ureolysis-based MICP in restoring the mechanical properties and enhancing the durability of concrete.

  10. Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a slotting construction strategy to avoid shear behavior of multistory masonry buildings. The aspect ratio of masonry piers increases via slotting between spandrels and piers, so that the limit state of piers under an earthquake may be altered from shear to rocking. Rocking piers with a structural concrete column (SCC form a self-centering earthquake-resistant system. The in-plane lateral rocking behavior of masonry piers subjected to an axial force is predicted, and an experimental study is conducted on two full-scale masonry piers with an SCC, which consist of a slotting pier and an original pier. Meanwhile, a comparison of the rocking modes of masonry piers with an SCC and without an SCC was conducted in the paper. Experimental verification indicates that the slotting strategy achieves a change of failure modes from shear to rocking, and this resistant system with an SCC incorporates the self-centering and high energy dissipation properties. For the slotting pier, a lateral story drift ratio of 2.5% and a high displacement ductility of approximately 9.7 are obtained in the test, although the lateral strength decreased by 22.3% after slotting. The predicted lateral strength of the rocking pier with an SCC has a margin of error of 5.3%.

  11. Simplified elastic-plastic analysis of reinforced concrete structures - design method for self-restraining stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, S.; Atsumi, K.; Ujiie, K.; Satoh, S.

    1981-01-01

    Self-restraining stresses generate not only moments but also axial forces. Therefore the moment and force equilibriums of cross section are considered simultaneously, in combination with other external forces. Thus, under this theory, two computer programs are prepared for. Using these programs, the design procedures which considered the reduction of self-restraining stress, become easy if the elastic design stresses, which are separated normal stresses and self-restraining stresses, are given. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the simplified elastic-plastic analysis and to study its effectiveness. First this method is applied to analyze an upper shielding wall in MARK-2 type's Reactor building. The results are compared with those obtained by the elastic-plastic analysis of Finite Element Method. From this comparison it was confirmed that the method described, had adequate accuracy for re-bar design. As a second example, Mat slab of Reactor building is analyzed. The quantity of re-bars calculated by this method, comes to about two third of re-bars less than those required when self-restraining stress is considered as normal stress. Also, the self-restraining stress reduction factor is about 0.5. (orig./HP)

  12. Materials and proportion's design of self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer in sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwase, Kazuhito; Sugihashi, Naoyuki; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure for the material selection and mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer cementitious material in the sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan. The low diffusion layer is required for reducing transportation by controlling diffusion of a radionuclide. Therefore the low diffusion, cracks control, and low leaching are the important matters in the mix design. The process to select mortar mix design of the low diffusion layer is explained in detail. Of 33 kinds mix proportions used in laboratory comparative testing, the combinations of low heat portland cement, fly ash, lime powder and expansive addition was provisionally set to the mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer. (author)

  13. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  14. Influence of casting conditions on durability and structural performance of HPC-AR : optimization of self-consolidating concrete to guarantee homogeneity during casting of long structural elements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report is a summary of the research done on dynamic segregation of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) including the casting of pre-stressed beams at Coreslab Structures. SCC is a highly flowable concrete that spreads into place with little to no ...

  15. The influence of main bar corrosion on bond strength in selfcompacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayop, S. S.; Emhemed, A. N. K.; Jamaluddin, N.; Sadikin, A.

    2017-11-01

    The experimental study was conducted to determine the influence of main bar corrosion on bond strength in self-compacting concrete (SCC). A total 16 tension pullout tests specimens reinforced with 10 mm and 14 mm diameter bar were used for the bond strength test. The properties of SCC were determined from the slump flow, T50cm, V-funnel and L box test. Reinforcing bars in the concrete were submitted to impressed current to accelerate the corrosion of the bar. It was found that the relationship between bond strength and concrete strength in un-corroded specimens differed from that of corroded specimens set in high-strength concrete because of brittleness in the corroded specimens, which caused a sudden loss of bond strength. The results revealed that specimens of un-corroded and corroded showed a higher percentage of bond strength degradation during the pullout tests.

  16. Fatigue behaviour of high performance concretes for wind turbines; Ermuedungsverhalten von Hochleistungsbetonen in Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohaus, Ludger; Oneschkow, Nadja; Elsmeier, Kerstin; Huemme, Julian [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Baustoffe

    2012-08-15

    New developments in the wind energy sector will lead to wind turbines with enormous capacities. As a result, the loads of the supporting structures are also increasing. For some time now, high performance concretes with self-compacting properties have been used in wind turbines for structural connections. Furthermore, slender foundations and prestressed concrete supporting structures made out of high-strength concrete are under development. In future, fatigue design of these high performance concretes is to be done according to the new fib-Model Code 2010. This code includes a new fatigue design model which enables a safe and economic fatigue design, even for high strength concrete. Extensive research with regard to the fatigue behaviour of different types of high performance concrete has been carried out at the Institute of Building Materials Science, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. As part of these research activities, the influences of steel fibre reinforcement on the fatigue behaviour of high performance concretes are being investigated. In this paper, interim results of these investigations are presented and the potential for the practical applications of high performance concrete is discussed. The results of the conducted investigations are presented in comparison with the new fatigue design model of the fib-Model Code 2010. (orig.)

  17. Eco-friendly GGBS Concrete: A State-of-The-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P.; Nagarajan, Praveen; Shashikala, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used material in the construction industry in which cement is its vital ingredient. Although the advantages of concrete are many, there are side effects leading to environmental issues. The manufacturing process of cement emits considerable amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore is an urgent need to reduce the usage of cement. Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) is a by-product from steel industry. It has good structural and durable properties with less environmental effects. This paper critically reviews the literatures available on GGBS used in cement concrete. In this paper, the literature available on GGBS are grouped into engineering properties of GGBS concrete, hydraulic action of GGBS in concrete, durability properties of GGBS concrete, self- compacting GGBS concrete and ultrafine GGBS are highlighted. From the review of literature, it was found that the use of GGBS in concrete construction will be eco-friendly and economical. The optimum percentage of replacement of cement by GGBS lies between 40 - 45 % by weight. New materials that can be added in addition to GGBS for getting better strength and durability also highlighted.

  18. Measurements and Monte-Carlo simulations of the particle self-shielding effect of B4C grains in neutron shielding concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cooper-Jensen, C. P.; Llamas-Jansa, I.; Kazi, S.; Bentley, P. M.

    2018-06-01

    A combined measurement and Monte-Carlo simulation study was carried out in order to characterize the particle self-shielding effect of B4C grains in neutron shielding concrete. Several batches of a specialized neutron shielding concrete, with varying B4C grain sizes, were exposed to a 2 Å neutron beam at the R2D2 test beamline at the Institute for Energy Technology located in Kjeller, Norway. The direct and scattered neutrons were detected with a neutron detector placed behind the concrete blocks and the results were compared to Geant4 simulations. The particle self-shielding effect was included in the Geant4 simulations by calculating effective neutron cross-sections during the Monte-Carlo simulation process. It is shown that this method well reproduces the measured results. Our results show that shielding calculations for low-energy neutrons using such materials would lead to an underestimate of the shielding required for a certain design scenario if the particle self-shielding effect is not included in the calculations.

  19. How Concrete is Concrete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics.Key words:  Conceret Learning Materials, School Math, Common Sense, Scaffolding, Communication DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.780.1-14

  20. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Dehghanian, Changiz; Kosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  1. Ultrafine particles in concrete: Influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties and application to concrete mix design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties was investigated. In the context of this work, ultrafine particles (reactive and inert materials) are particles finer than cement. Due to the development of effective superplasticizers, the incorporation of ultrafine particles in concrete is nowadays possible. Different minerals, usually considered inert, were tested. These minerals were also used in combination with reactive silica fume. The modified Andreassen model was used to optimise the particle size distribution and thus the packing density of the complete mix composition. Heat of hydration, compressive strength, shrinkage, frost resistance and the microstructure were investigated.The influence of different ultrafine inert materials on the cement hydration was investigated. The results show that most of the minerals have an accelerating effect. They provide nucleation sites for hydration products and contribute in that way to a faster dissolution of cement grains. Minerals containing calcium were found to influence the early stage of hydration as well. These minerals shortened the dormant period of the cement hydration, the effect is known from limestone filler in self-compacting concrete. In a first test series on concrete, different ultrafine inert particles were used to replace cement. That was done in several ways; with constant water content or constant w/c. The results from this test series show that the best effect is achieved when cement is replaced by suitable ultrafines while the w/c is kept constant. In doing so, the compressive strength can be increased and shrinkage can be reduced. The microstructure is improved and becomes denser with improved packing at microlevel. Efficiency factors (k values) for the ultrafine inert materials were calculated from the compressive strength results. The k values are strongly dependent on the mode of cement replacement, fineness and type of the replacement material and curing time. Drying

  2. Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Containing Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Jae Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced aerated lightweight concrete (FALC was developed to reduce concrete's density and to improve its fire resistance, thermal conductivity, and energy absorption. Compression tests were performed to determine basic properties of FALC. The primary independent variables were the types and volume fraction of fibers, and the amount of air in the concrete. Polypropylene and carbon fibers were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% volume ratios. The lightweight aggregate used was made of expanded clay. A self-compaction agent was used to reduce the water-cement ratio and keep good workability. A surfactant was also added to introduce air into the concrete. This study provides basic information regarding the mechanical properties of FALC and compares FALC with fiber reinforced lightweight concrete. The properties investigated include the unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and toughness index. Based on the properties, a stress-strain prediction model was proposed. It was demonstrated that the proposed model accurately predicts the stress-strain behavior of FALC.

  3. Early age behaviour of concrete supercontainers for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craeye, Bart [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Bart.Craeye@UGent.be; Schutter, Geert de [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Humbeeck, Hughes van [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Belgium); Cotthem, Alain van [Tractebel Development Engineering, Consulting Company (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Various types of radioactive waste were and are produced in Belgium. This waste originates from different producers: nuclear power plants, medical applications, industry, research centre, etc. During the past 25 years several preliminary repository designs were proposed. Today, the cylindrical supercontainer is considered to be the most promising Belgian design on the matter of enclosing the vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW) and the spent fuel assemblies and is based on the use of an integrated waste package composed of a carbon steel overpack surrounded by an Ordinary Portland Cement buffer. For the choice of this cementious buffer two compositions, a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a traditional vibrated concrete (TVC), are being considered, tested and compared by means of an intensive laboratory characterization program. Through-going cracks in the concrete buffer should, at all times, be avoided because they will considerably ease the transport mechanisms inside the supercontainer. Therefore, finite element simulations are performed, using a 2.5-D thermal and crack modelling program, to predict the mechanical and thermal behaviour of the concrete buffer at any time during hardening. Looking at the finite element simulation results of the first stage of manufacturing of the supercontainer (cast in one), and the emplacement of the heat-emitting waste canister (second stage), we experience no early age cracking of the concrete buffer. The impact of environmental conditions and shrinkage and creep behaviour on the simulation results are noticeable.

  4. Early age behaviour of concrete supercontainers for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craeye, Bart; Schutter, Geert de; Humbeeck, Hughes van; Cotthem, Alain van

    2009-01-01

    Various types of radioactive waste were and are produced in Belgium. This waste originates from different producers: nuclear power plants, medical applications, industry, research centre, etc. During the past 25 years several preliminary repository designs were proposed. Today, the cylindrical supercontainer is considered to be the most promising Belgian design on the matter of enclosing the vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW) and the spent fuel assemblies and is based on the use of an integrated waste package composed of a carbon steel overpack surrounded by an Ordinary Portland Cement buffer. For the choice of this cementious buffer two compositions, a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a traditional vibrated concrete (TVC), are being considered, tested and compared by means of an intensive laboratory characterization program. Through-going cracks in the concrete buffer should, at all times, be avoided because they will considerably ease the transport mechanisms inside the supercontainer. Therefore, finite element simulations are performed, using a 2.5-D thermal and crack modelling program, to predict the mechanical and thermal behaviour of the concrete buffer at any time during hardening. Looking at the finite element simulation results of the first stage of manufacturing of the supercontainer (cast in one), and the emplacement of the heat-emitting waste canister (second stage), we experience no early age cracking of the concrete buffer. The impact of environmental conditions and shrinkage and creep behaviour on the simulation results are noticeable

  5. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  6. Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Torsvik, Øyvind André Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a material with a high degree of permeability but generally low strength. The material is primarily used for paving applications but has shown promise in many other areas of usage. This thesis investigates the properties of pervious concrete using normal Norwegian aggregates and practices. An overview of important factors when it comes to designing and producing pervious concrete is the result of this investigation. Several experiments have been performed in the concrete ...

  7. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  8. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  9. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research...... in concrete hinges was more common different designs were proposed for the geometry and reinforcement. Previous research focused on fatigue, multi-axial stresses around the hinge throat, and the relation between rotation- and moment. But many different test-setups were proposed by different researchers...

  10. Concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  11. Guided self-help concreteness training as an intervention for major depression in primary care: a Phase II randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watkins, E R; Taylor, R S; Baeyens, C

    2012-01-01

    major depression in primary care, although the effect was not significantly different from an existing active treatment (RT) matched for structural and common factors. Because of its relative brevity and distinct format, it may have value as an additional innovative approach to increase......Background The development of widely accessible, effective psychological interventions for depression is a priority. This randomized trial provides the first controlled data on an innovative cognitive bias modification (CBM) training guided self-help intervention for depression. Method One hundred...... and twenty-one consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for current major depression were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus concreteness training (CNT) guided self-help or to TAU plus relaxation training (RT) guided self-help. CNT involved repeated practice at mental...

  12. The cause and influence of self-cementing properties of fine recycled concrete aggregates on the properties of unbound sub-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.-S.; Qiao, X.C.; Chan, Dixon

    2006-01-01

    The use of coarse recycled concrete aggregates (CRCA) in conjunction with fine recycled concrete aggregates (FRCA) as sub-base materials has been widely studied. Although research results indicate that it is feasible to employ both CRCA and FRCA as granular sub-base, the influence of the unhydrated cement in the adhered mortar of the RCA on the properties of the sub-base materials has not been thoroughly studied. Generally, it is known that the strength of the sub-base materials prepared with RCA increases over time. However, this mechanism, known as the self-cementing properties, is not well understood and is believed to be governed by the properties of the fine portion of the RCA (<5 mm). This paper presents an investigation on the cause of the self-cementing properties by measuring X-ray diffraction patterns, pH values, compressive strength and permeability of various size fractions of the FRCA obtained from a commercially operated construction and demolition waste recycling plant. Their influence on the overall sub-base materials was determined. The results indicate that the size fractions of <0.15 and 0.3-0.6 mm (active fractions) were most likely to be the principal cause of the self-cementing properties of the FRCA. However, the effects on the properties of the overall RCA sub-base materials were minimal if the total quantity of the active fractions was limited to a threshold by weight of the total fine aggregate

  13. Experimental Studies on the Behavior of a Newly-Developed Type of Self-Insulating Concrete Masonry Shear Wall under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Bakre Abdelmoneim Elamin Mohamad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the inelastic behavior of a newly-developed type of self-insulating concrete masonry shear wall (SCMSW under in-plane cyclic loading. The new masonry system was made from concrete blocks with special configurations to provide a stronger bond between units than ordinary concrete masonry units. A total of six fully-grouted SCMSWs were prepared with different heights (1.59 to 5.78 m and different vertical steel configurations. The developed masonry walls were tested under in-plane cyclic loading and different constant axial load ratios. In addition, the relationship between the amount of axial loading, the amount of the flexural reinforcement and the wall aspect ratios and the nonlinear hysteretic response of the SCMSW was evaluated. The results showed that the lateral load capacity of SCMSW increases with the amount of applied axial load and the amount of vertical reinforcement. However, the lateral load capacity decreases as the wall aspect ratio increases. The existence of the boundary elements at the SCMSW ends increases the ductility and the lateral load capacity. Generally, the SCMSW exhibited predominantly flexural behavior. These results agreed with those reported in previous research for walls constructed with ordinary units.

  14. Structural Health Monitoring and Time-Dependent Effects Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge with Extra-Wide Concrete Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangpan Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at studying the structural health status of Hunan Road Bridge, which is currently the widest concrete self-anchored suspension bridge in China. The monitoring data included the structural deformations, internal forces, and vibration characteristics from April 2015 to April 2016 were analyzed to evaluate the structural changes and safety. The influences brought by the ambient temperature changes and the dual effects composed of concrete shrinkage & creep (S&C and seasonal temperature changes were analyzed based on the measured data. The long-time effects of concrete S&C were predicted using the CEB-FIP 90 model and the age-adjusted effective modulus method based on the ANSYS beam finite element model. The measured data showed that the transverse displacements of towers were more significant than the longitudinal ones. The spatial effect of the extra-wide girder is significant, which performs as the longitudinal stresses change unevenly along the transverse direction. The seasonal ambient warming caused overall increases in girder compressive stresses, and the cooling resulted in decreases along with significant temperature gradient effects. The prediction results show that the cable anchoring positions at girder ends and tower tops will move towards the mid-span affected by concrete S&C. In terms of the middle region of mid-span girder, significant increases in longitudinal stresses of top plate and decreases in the ones of bottom plate will be caused by the significant deflection. Comprehensively, the increases in the girder compressive stresses of side-span bottom plate and mid-span top plate are worthy of attention when confronted with extreme high temperature during the bridge service life cycle.

  15. Post-cracking tensile behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced roller-compacted-concrete for FE modelling and design purposes; Comportamiento a tracción posterior a la fisuración del hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero compactado con rodillo para el diseño y modelado EF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarifar, N.; Pilakoutas, K.; Angelakopoulos, H.; Bennett, T.

    2017-07-01

    Fracture of steel-fibre-reinforced-concrete occurs mostly in the form of a smeared crack band undergoing progressive microcracking. For FE modelling and design purposes, this crack band could be characterised by a stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship. For industrially-produced steel fibres, existing methodologies such as RILEM TC 162-TDF (2003) propose empirical equations to predict a trilinear σ-ε relationship directly from bending test results. This paper evaluates the accuracy of these methodologies and their applicability for roller-compacted-concrete and concrete incorporating steel fibres recycled from post-consumer tyres. It is shown that the energy absorption capacity is generally overestimated by these methodologies, sometimes up to 60%, for both conventional and roller-compacted concrete. Tensile behaviour of fibre-reinforced-concrete is estimated in this paper by inverse analysis of bending test results, examining a variety of concrete mixes and steel fibres. A multilinear relationship is proposed which largely eliminates the overestimation problem and can lead to safer designs. [Spanish] La rotura del hormigón reforzado con fibra de acero se produce principalmente en forma de una banda de fisuración que sufre progresiva microfracturación. Para el diseño y modelado EF, esta banda se puede caracterizar por una relación tensión-deformación (σ-ε). Para fibras de acero industriales, existen metodologías (RILEM TC 162-TDF 2003) que proponen ecuaciones empíricas para predecir una relación σ-ε trilinear a partir de resultados de pruebas de flexión. En este artículo se evalúa la precisión de estas metodologías y su aplicación para hormigón compactado con rodillo y hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero recicladas provenientes de neumáticos usados. Se demuestra que estas metodologías generalmente sobreestiman la capacidad de absorción de (hasta un 60%) tanto para el hormigón convencional como para el compactado con rodillo. En este art

  16. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  17. Detecting the Activation of a Self-Healing Mechanism in Concrete by Acoustic Emission and Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tsangouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing in concrete is obtained when encapsulated healing agent is embedded into the material. Cracking damage in concrete elements ruptures the capsules and activates the healing process by healing agent release. Previously, the strength and stiffness recovery as well as the sealing efficiency after autonomous crack repair was well established. However, the mechanisms that trigger capsule breakage remain unknown. In parallel, the conditions under which the crack interacts with embedded capsules stay black-box. In this research, an experimental approach implementing an advanced optical and acoustic method sets up scopes to monitor and justify the crack formation and capsule breakage of concrete samples tested under three-point bending. Digital Image Correlation was used to visualize the crack opening. The optical information was the basis for an extensive and analytical study of the damage by Acoustic Emission analysis. The influence of embedding capsules on the concrete fracture process, the location of capsule damage, and the differentiation between emissions due to capsule rupture and crack formation are presented in this research. A profound observation of the capsules performance provides a clear view of the healing activation process.

  18. Concrete Fibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnan, Ruggero

    2017-01-01

    As far as we know, no notion of concrete fibration is available. We provide one such notion in adherence to the foundational attitude that characterizes the adoption of the fibrational perspective in approaching fundamental subjects in category theory and discuss it in connection with the notion of concrete category and the notions of locally small and small fibrations. We also discuss the appropriateness of our notion of concrete fibration for fibrations of small maps, which is relevant to a...

  19. A novel kind of concrete superplasticizer based on aryl isocyanate polycondensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bei; Qian, Shanshan; Qiu, Ying; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Chunyang; Wang, Gaoming

    2017-03-01

    A novel superplasticizer was synthesized by polycondensation of Alkyl phenol phosphate and toluene diisocyanate grafting with methoxy polyoxyethylene ether (MPEG). The chemical structure and molecular weight of polycondensates molecules were determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography respectively. The experimental results indicated that the polycondensates of Alkyl phenol phosphate and toluene diisocyanate grafting with MPEG not only exhibited good water-reducing properties but also demonstrated effective anti-clay abilities alone. Furthermore, the polycondensates showed good fluidity maintaining abilities within 1-3 h and good workability of concrete. The results of T500 Time experiments show that lower plastic viscosity of the polycondensates leads to fresh concrete much “looser” than conventional PCEs in self-compacting concrete.

  20. Concrete longevity overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.; Morreale, B.

    1991-01-01

    A number of compact host states and unaffiliated states are currently selecting appropriate disposal technology and construction materials for their planned low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Concrete is one of the candidate materials under consideration for the construction of LLW disposal facilities because of its strength, durability, abundant availability, and relatively low cost. The LLW disposal facilities must maintain intruder barrier integrity for up to 500 years, without active maintenance after the first 100 years. The ability of concrete to survive for such a long time as a construction material is a critical issue. This report provides a basic understanding of the composition and workings of concrete as a structural material in LLW disposal facilities and a description of degradation factors and state-of-the-art mitigative measures available to preserve the durability and longevity of concrete. Neither the paper nor the report is intended to be a design guidance document, and neither addresses using cement as a waste solidification agent. 5 refs., 1 tab