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Sample records for selenization technique yielded

  1. A novel selenization technique for fabrication of superconducting FeSex thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Qinglin; Tu Hailing; Hua Zhiqiang; Wang Lei; Qu Fei

    2011-01-01

    A novel selenization technique was applied to prepare superconducting FeSe x films with pre-set FeS films. The combination of reactive sputtering deposition with elemental diffusion technique would extend to prepare films of other iron-based superconductors. The results of transport measurement got close or greater than that of previous reports. T c,onset and T c,0 got to 10.2 K and 4 K respectively. We believe that increase of the content of Fe 7 Se 8 could not only reduce T c but also slow down the decline of resistivity. A combinative method with reactive sputtering deposition and selenization technique was applied to prepare superconducting FeSe x films on LaAlO 3 substrates successfully. The influence of selenizing temperature on film components was studied. FeSe 0.96 and FeSe films had similar and good performances in transport measurement but little difference in magnetic property. The critical onset temperature got to 11.2 K and T c,0 got to 4 K approximately. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the ratio of constituents and morphology of several selenized films. FeSe x film had a porous structure on surface and no well preferred orientation, which were confirmed to have little influence on superconducting properties.

  2. Learning Lunar Science Through the Selene Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.

  3. SELENE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration ... launch target is rescheduled for 2006 due to delay of completion of launch vehicle, H-IIA. ... Mapping of subsurface structure using active sounding, frequency 5MHz,.

  4. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  5. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, R.P., E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-15

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a {sup 60}Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I–V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  6. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar D. Hutagalung; Samsudi Sakrani; Yussof Wahab

    1994-01-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system

  7. Selene: A Videogame for Learning about the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. A.; Reese, D. D.

    2008-06-01

    The Selene game-based, metaphor-enhanced (GaME) learning object prepares players with concrete knowledge of basic lunar geology processes. Selene is embedded within an online research environment studying learning and assessment within videogames.

  8. The influence of temperature on selenate adsorption by goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, M.; Vlasova, N. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Geosciences Inst.

    2013-08-01

    Acid-base batch titration data up to 75 C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the surface protonation reactions of goethite. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH{sub PZC} (as determined using the two-term Van't Hoff extrapolation) yielded a negative value of -44.9 kJ/mol for the surface protonation enthalpy, and therefore a shift of the zero point of charge towards lower pH values with increasing temperature. Batch titrations at selenate concentrations of between 10 and 100 {mu}M showed an increased degree of adsorption in the acidic pH range, which appeared to be sensitive to the ionic strength of the solution. The selenate adsorption edges shifted towards more acidic pH values with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution multi-site surface complexation (CD-MUSIC) model was applied, assuming the formation of an outer-spheric surface complex together with an inner-spheric one, in agreement with published spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the intrinsic equilibrium constants were well represented by a linear Van't Hoff log K vs. 1/T plot, from which negative enthalpy values could be derived for both adsorption reactions. The adsorption of the selenate was therefore exothermic and became weaker with increasing temperature. The bidentate inner-spheric complex was more sensitive to rises in temperature (-70 kJ/mol), compared to the outer-spheric complex (-36 kJ/mol). The latter ultimately became the dominating adsorption process at the highest temperature studied. (orig.)

  9. The influence of temperature on selenate adsorption by goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, M.; Vlasova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-base batch titration data up to 75 C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the surface protonation reactions of goethite. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH PZC (as determined using the two-term Van't Hoff extrapolation) yielded a negative value of -44.9 kJ/mol for the surface protonation enthalpy, and therefore a shift of the zero point of charge towards lower pH values with increasing temperature. Batch titrations at selenate concentrations of between 10 and 100 μM showed an increased degree of adsorption in the acidic pH range, which appeared to be sensitive to the ionic strength of the solution. The selenate adsorption edges shifted towards more acidic pH values with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution multi-site surface complexation (CD-MUSIC) model was applied, assuming the formation of an outer-spheric surface complex together with an inner-spheric one, in agreement with published spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the intrinsic equilibrium constants were well represented by a linear Van't Hoff log K vs. 1/T plot, from which negative enthalpy values could be derived for both adsorption reactions. The adsorption of the selenate was therefore exothermic and became weaker with increasing temperature. The bidentate inner-spheric complex was more sensitive to rises in temperature (-70 kJ/mol), compared to the outer-spheric complex (-36 kJ/mol). The latter ultimately became the dominating adsorption process at the highest temperature studied. (orig.)

  10. Effect of harvesting techniques on cumulative yields of huckleberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) in the humid forest region of Cameroon. ... However, despite their relative importance, information on their management is ... first harvest on the subsequent fresh and dry shoot yields of Solanum scabrum.

  11. Double selenates of rare earths and ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakova, L.D.; Kozlova, N.P.; Makarevich, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Double selenates of rare earths with ammonium were prepared in result of crystallization. It is shown that NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) · nH 2 O crystalline hydrates are presented by penta-and trihydrates. Existance of two modifications was revealed for NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) · 5H 2 O: monoclinic form of NH 4 La(SeO 4 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, isostructural RbCe(SeO 4 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, and earlier unknown rhombic form of salts with Ln = Pr, Nd. Trihydrates with Ln = Sm-Yb belong to structural type of RbNd(SeO 4 ) 2 · 3H 2 O. Anhydrous salts NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) 2 are isostructural with monoclinic KNd(SO 4 ) 2 modification. Lattice parameters of binary selenates are presented

  12. Selen og vitamin E til svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. E.; Danielsen, V.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1975-01-01

    , kan der let opstå selenmangel. Vitamin E kan i nogen grad erstatte selen, men kun indenfor visse grænser. De senere års erfaringer har tydeligt vist, at der ofte opstår selenmangel, selvom der findes rigeligt E-vitamin i foderet. Resultaterne fra dette forsøg tyder på, at en nedsættelse af...

  13. The photoelectric yield technique for the characterization of the semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Di Gaspare, L.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of the photoelectric yield spectroscopy for investigating surface defects and interfaces. Few examples are presented that clearly show the usefulness of the techniques. The heterostructures discussed include crystalline/amorphous and crystalline/crystalline systems

  14. Influence of soil and water conservation techniques on yield of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the application of soil and water conservation techniques in relation to yield of small-holder swamp rice farmers in Imo State, Nigeria in 2009. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmer were described, their influence on the application of the techniques examined and relationship of ...

  15. SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this research effort (Phase I and Phase II) by Scientific Systems Company, Inc. and BBN Technologies is to develop the SELENE network --...

  16. Rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Poulson, Simon R

    2012-04-17

    The rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water was investigated at conditions of 10 to 80 °C and pH -0.6 to 4.4. Oxygen isotope exchange proceeds as a first-order reaction, and the exchange rate is strongly affected by reaction temperature and pH, with increased rates of isotope exchange at higher temperature and lower pH. Selenate speciation (HSeO(4)(-) vs SeO(4)(2-)) also has a significant effect on the rate of isotope exchange. The half-life for isotope exchange at example natural conditions (25 °C and pH 7) is estimated to be significantly in excess of 10(6) years. The very slow rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water under most environmental conditions demonstrates that selenate-δ(18)O signatures produced by biogeochemical processes will be preserved and hence that it will be possible to use the value of selenate-δ(18)O to investigate the biogeochemical behavior of selenate, in an analogous fashion to the use of sulfate-δ(18)O to study the biogeochemical behavior of sulfate.

  17. Influence of selenite and selenate supplementation on the chromium uptake and translocation in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuna Shanker; Setia, Seema; Srivastava, Shalini; Dass, Sahab; Srivastava, Rohit; Satya Prakash; Srivastava, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted on onion plant to study the effects of selenite and selenate treatments (0.5-6.0) μg ml -1 on the uptake and translocation of root absorbed chromium irrigated with 2 and 5 μg ml -1 of chromium in sand and soil. Both the form of selenium (SeO 3 2- , and SeO 4 2- ) were found equally effective in reducing the chromium burden of the plant. No significant difference (p>0.05) in dry matter yields among various selenium treatments exist suggesting no salt injury occurred in the plants under prevailing conditions. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  18. Determination of Proteinaceous Selenocysteine in Selenized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bierla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for the quantitation of proteinaceous selenocysteine (SeCys in Se-rich yeast was developed. The method is based on the reduction of the Se-Se and S-Se bridges with dithiotretiol, derivatization with iodoacetamide (carbamidomethylation, followed by HPLC-ICP MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized for the total recovery of the proteinaceous selenocysteine, the minimum number of peaks in the chromatogram (reduction of derivatization products of other Se-species present and the baseline separation. A typical chromatogram of a proteolytic digest of selenized yeast protein consisted of up to five peaks (including SeMet, carbamidomethylated (CAM-SeCys, and Se(CAM2 identified by retention time matching with available standards and electrospray MS. Inorganic selenium non-specifically attached to proteins and selenomethionine could be quantified (in the form of Se(CAM2 along with SeCys. Selenocysteine, selenomethionine, inorganic selenium, and the water soluble-metabolite fraction accounted for the totality of selenium species in Se-rich yeast.

  19. Self-consistent technique for estimating the dynamic yield strength of a shock-loaded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Lipkin, J.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating the dynamic yield stress in a shocked material. This method employs reloading and unloading data from a shocked state along with a general assumption of yield and hardening behavior to estimate the yield stress in the precompressed state. No other data are necessary for this evaluation, and, therefore, the method has general applicability at high shock pressures and in materials undergoing phase transitions. In some special cases, it is also possible to estimate the complete state of stress in a shocked state. Using this method, the dynamic yield strength of aluminum at 2.06 GPa has been estimated to be 0.26 GPa. This value agrees reasonably well with previous estimates

  20. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  1. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) double selenates were studied using common analytical methods, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction infra-red absorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These compounds were prepared from the mixture of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) selenates aqueous solution and basic beryllium selenates aqueous solution, obeying equimolar relation (1:1) to the cation

  2. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; Hamed, A. E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S.

    1994-11-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and γ-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat ( Cp) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of Cp on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order (γ-type) to a first order transition. After γ-irradiation, the behavior of Cp around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, Tc, decreased and Δ Cp depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of γ-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect.

  3. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Hamed, A.E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and γ-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat (C p ) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of C p on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order (λ-type) to a first order transition. After γ-irradiation, the behavior of C p around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, T c , decreased and ΔC p depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of γ-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect. (author)

  4. Calibration of the JET neutron yield monitors using the delayed neutron counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Belle, P.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; de Leeuw, S.; D'Hondt, P.; Pillon, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time-resolved neutron yield is routinely measured on the JET tokamak using a set of fission chambers. At present, the preferred technique is to employ activation reactions to determine the neutron fluence at a well-chosen position and to relate the measured fluence to the total neutron emission by means of neutron transport calculations. The delayed neutron counting method is a particularly convenient method of performing the activation measurement and the fission cross sections are accurately known. This paper outlines the measurement technique as used on JET

  5. Contribution of SELENE-2 geodetic measurements to constrain the lunar internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, F.; Yamada, R.; Iwata, T.; Kono, Y.; Tsuruta, S.; Hanada, H.; Goossens, S. J.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Sasaki, S.

    2012-12-01

    Internal structure and composition of the Moon provide important clue and constraints on theories for how the Moon formed and evolved. The Apollo seismic network has contributed to the internal structure modeling. Efforts have been made to detect the lunar core from the noisy Apollo data (e.g., [1], [2]), but there is scant information about the structure below the deepest moonquakes at about 1000 km depth. On the other hand, there have been geodetic studies to infer the deep structure of the Moon. For example, LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) data analyses detected a displacement of the lunar pole of rotation, indicating that dissipation is acting on the rotation arising from a fluid core [3]. Bayesian inversion using geodetic data (such as mass, moments of inertia, tidal Love numbers k2 and h2, and quality factor Q) also suggests a fluid core and partial melt in the lower mantle region [4]. Further improvements in determining the second-degree gravity coefficients (which will lead to better estimates of moments of inertia) and the Love number k2 will help us to better constrain the lunar internal structure. Differential VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique, which was used in the Japanese lunar exploration mission SELENE (Sept. 2007 - June 2009), is expected to contribute to better determining the second-degree potential Love number k2 and low-degree gravity coefficients. SELENE will be followed by the future lunar mission SELENE-2 which will carry both a lander and an orbiter. We propose to put the SELENE-type radio sources on these spacecraft in order to accurately estimate k2 and the low-degree gravity coefficients. By using the same-beam VLBI tracking technique, these parameters will be retrieved through precision orbit determination of the orbiter with respect to the lander which serves as a reference. The VLBI mission with the radio sources is currently one of the mission candidates for SELENE-2. We have conducted a preliminary simulation study on the

  6. Respiration of arsenate and selenate by hyperthermophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R; Sacher, M; Vollmann, A; Huber, H; Rose, D

    2000-10-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, facultative organotrophic archaeon was isolated from a hot spring at Pisciarelli Solfatara, Naples, Italy. The rod-shaped cells grew chemolithoautotrophically with carbon dioxide as carbon source, hydrogen as electron donor and arsenate, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as electron acceptor. H2S was formed from sulfur or thiosulfate, arsenite from arsenate. Organotrophically, the new isolate grew optimally in the presence of an inorganic electron acceptor like sulfur, selenate or arsenate. Cultures, grown on arsenate and thiosulfate or arsenate and L-cysteine, precipitated realgar (As2S2). During growth on selenate, elemental selenium was produced. The G+C content of the DNA was 58.3 mol%. Due to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with physiological and morphological criteria, the new isolate belongs to the Thermoproteales order. It represents a new species within the genus Pyrobaculum, the type species of which we name Pyrobaculum arsenaticum (type strain PZ6*, DSM 13514, ATCC 700994). Comparative studies with different Pyrobaculum-species showed, that Pyrobaculum aerophilum was also able to grow organotrophically under anaerobic culture conditions in the presence of arsenate, selenate and selenite. During growth on selenite, elemental selenium was formed as final product. In contrast to P. arsenaticum, P. aerophilum could use selenate or arsenate for lithoautotrophic growth with carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  7. Growth of Cu(In,Al)(Se,S)2 thin films by selenization and sulfurization for a wide bandgap absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, C.; Kawasaki, Y.; Sato, T.; Sugiyama, M.; Chichibu, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Chalcopyrite structure Cu(In 1 .xAlx)(S y Se 1 -y) 2 (CIASS) alloys are attracting attention as promising candidates for the light-absorbing medium of high conversion efficiency, low cost, and lightweight solar cells. In addition, according to the wide variation in the bandgap energy (1.0-3.5eV), multiple-junction or tandem solar cells able to be fabricated using CIASS films of different compositions, x and y. In fact, several research groups have recently fabricated Cu(In,Al)Se 2 -based solar cells, and a high μ of 16.9 percent has been demonstrated. The sulfurization following selenization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films is believed to be promising for bandgap engineering of absorber material. Furthermore, it has been reported that the controlled incorporation of sulfur into CIGS films reduces the carrier recombination in the space charge region due to the deep trap states. Therefore, the sulfurization following selenization is expected to be used as a method of growth of CIASS films. However, sulfurization condition following selenization for obtaining CIASS films has not been clarified. The crystal growth of CIASS must be studied for solar cell applications. In this study, the advantages of using sulfurization for the growth of CIASS will be presented. Cu-In-Al precursors were selenized using diethylselenide (DESe) at 515-570 degrees Celsium for 60- 90 min under atmospheric pressure. The flow rates of DESe and N 2 carrier gases were 35 imol/min and 2 L/min, respectively. The films were then sulfurized at 550 degrees Celsium using S vapor. These films were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and PL measurements. Using the selenization and sulfurization technique, polycrystalline Cu(In,Al)Se 2 , CuIn(Se,S) 2 , CuInS 2 films with thickness of approximately 2.0 im were formed without additional annealing. The films adhered well to the Mo/SLG substrate, which was confirmed by the peeling test. Phase separations, i.e. distinct peaks corresponding to CuInSe 2

  8. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  9. Yield strength, shear stress and toughness of YBCO samples textured by Bridgman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J J; Capdevila, X G; Martinez, M; Segarra, M; Jimenez-Pique, E

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the orthorhombic phase of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Y-123) at room temperature have been investigated at different applied loads using nanoindentation technique. The study was carried out for several monodomains on the (001) planes for textured Bridgman samples with dispersed Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y-211) particles as pinning centers. The yield strength (σ ys ), shear stress (τ m ) and toughness (K IC ) of Y123/Y211composite was determined at different applied loads. First and second mechanical properties have been calculated though the Hertz equations and the last one with Lawn et al. equations. Finally, the ultra-low imprints obtained by nanoindentation have been correlated with parameters obtained by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM)

  10. A Technique of Fuzzy C-Mean in Multiple Linear Regression Model toward Paddy Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan Wahab, Nur; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Mohamad, Mahathir; Amira Azmi, Nur; Che Him, Norziha; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model which is a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. This research involved a relationship between 20 variates of the top soil that are analyzed prior to planting of paddy yields at standard fertilizer rates. Data used were from the multi-location trials for rice carried out by MARDI at major paddy granary in Peninsular Malaysia during the period from 2009 to 2012. Missing observations were estimated using mean estimation techniques. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression model and a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. Analysis of normality and multicollinearity indicate that the data is normally scattered without multicollinearity among independent variables. Analysis of fuzzy c-means cluster the yield of paddy into two clusters before the multiple linear regression model can be used. The comparison between two method indicate that the hybrid of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method outperform the multiple linear regression model with lower value of mean square error.

  11. Inverse kinematics technique for the study of fission-fragment isotopic yields at GANIL energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, O.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the fission-products distributions result of dynamical and quantum properties of the deformation process of the fissioning nucleus. These distributions have also an interest for the conception of new nuclear power plants or for the transmutation of the nuclear wastes. Up to now, our understanding of the nuclear fission remains restricted because of experimental limitations. In particular, yields of the heavy fission products are difficult to get with precision. In this work, an innovative experimental technique is presented. It is based on the use of inverse kinematics coupled to the use of a spectrometer, in which a 238 U beam at 6 or 24 A MeV impinges on light targets. Several actinides, from 238 U to 250 Cf, are produced by transfer or fusion reactions, with an excitation energy ranges from ten to few hundreds MeV depending on the reaction and the beam energy. The fission fragments of these actinides are detected by the VAMOS spectrometer or the LISE separator. The isotopic yields of fission products are completely measured for different fissioning systems. The neutron excess of the fragments is used to characterise the isotopic distributions. Its evolution with excitation energy gives important insights on the mechanisms of the compound-nucleus formation and its deexcitation. Neutron excess is also used to determine the multiplicity of neutrons evaporated by the fragments. The role of the proton and neutron shell effects into the formation of fission fragments is also discussed. (author) [fr

  12. Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung von Selen-Spezies in human-biologischem Material

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selen ist essentieller Bestandteil von mehr als 25 physiologisch wichtigen menschlichen Enzymen. Der tägliche Bedarf wird überwiegend in Form von organischen Selenverbindungen wie Selenmethionin oder Selenocystein aus der Nahrung aufgenommen. Weitere Expositionswege sind die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln zur Selensupplementation sowie die inhalative oder dermale Aufnahme von in erster Linie anorganischen Selenverbindungen oder elementarem Selen an Arbeitsplätzen der Selen-verarbeiten...

  13. The chemical consequences of thermal neutron capture in alkali selenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplatre, G.; Vargas, J.I.

    1977-01-01

    The initial retention of the SeO 4 2- ion after thermal neutron capture has been studied in various matrices by chemical analysis. A comparison between the thermal behaviour of the chemically analyzed Sesup(IV) and the disappearance of the E.P.R. species SeO 3 - and SeO 4 3- showed that the retention fraction would include all species with oxidation state higher or equal to VI. The retentions observed in the different matrices show the existence of four families with respective retentions of: 2.6%[K 2 SeO 4 diluted in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ], 9.2% [anhydrous and hydrated Li and Ca selenates; K 2 SeO 4 diluted in NaIO 3 ; Se + implanted in K 2 SeO 4 ; Triglycine selenate], 21.5% [K 2 SeO 4 diluted in KNO 3 , K 2 SO 4 , Na 2 WO 4 and Na 2 WO 4 .2H 2 O] and 32.0% [Na,K and Cs selenates]. Whereas chemical considerations may be invoked for the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 matrix, a mechanical model is proposed for the three other groups. (author)

  14. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  15. The study of complex equilibria of uranium(VI) with selenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubal, P.; Havel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranyl (M)-selenate (L) complex equilibria in solution were investigated by spectrophotometry in visible range and potentiometry by means of uranyl ion selective electrode. The formation ML and ML 2 species was proved and the corresponding stability constants calculated were: log β 1 = 1.57 6 ± 0.01 6 , log β 2 = 2.42 3 ± 0.01 3 (I 3.0 mol 1 -1 Na(ClO 4 , SeO 4 ) (spectrophotometry) at 298.2 K. Using potentiometry the values for infinite dilution (I → 0 mol 1 -1 ) were: log β 1 = 2.64 ± 0.01, log β 2 ≤ 3.4 at 298.2 K. Absorption spectra of the complexes were calculated and analysed by deconvolution technique. Derivative spectrophotometry for the chemical model determination has also been successfully applied. (author)

  16. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.; Hamed, A.E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1994-11-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and {gamma}-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat (C{sub p}) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of C{sub p} on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order ({lambda}-type) to a first order transition. After {gamma}-irradiation, the behavior of C{sub p} around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, T{sub c}, decreased and {Delta}C{sub p} depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of {gamma}-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect. (author).

  17. Scaling Equation of State for Ferroelectric Triglycine Selenate at T ≈ Tc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias, T.; Noheda, B.; Gallego, B.; Fernández del Castillo, J.R.; Lifante, G.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Digital data of polarization vs. field on triglycine selenate at closely spaced temperature intervals (ΔT ≈ 0.015) in the vicinity of the quasi-tricritical point of triglycine selenate have been collected. These data fulfill very well the scaling equation of state ê± = ±p + (1/5)p5 (where ê- and ê+

  18. Thermal decomposition of double selenates of lanthanides (III), yttrium (III) and ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespi, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and ammonium were prepared by treating mixtures of simple selenates with equimolar amounts and then dried in a vacuum desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride, protected from light. The compounds were studied using the conventional analytical methods such as infrared absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and thermogravimetry (TG). (author)

  19. Modeling selenate adsorption behavior on oxides, clay minerals, and soils using the triple layer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenate adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous aluminum oxide, amorphous iron oxide, goethite, clay minerals: kaolinites, montmorillonites, illite, and 18 soil samples from Hawaii, and the Southwestern and the Midwestern regions of the US as a function of solution pH. Selenate adsorpti...

  20. Uptake and Distribution of Added Selenite and Selenate by Barley and Red Clover as Influenced by Sulphur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1973-01-01

    The uptake of added Se from selenite and selenate by barley and red clover was investigated in a pot experiment. Much more of selenate than of selenite was taken up but the Se concentrations in the plants declined more with time when selenate was the source. Increasing sulphate addition to the soil...

  1. Characteristics of CuInSe sub 2 thin films grown by the selenization method

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S D; Adurodija, F O; Yoon, K H; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    CuInSe sub 2 thin films were formed from a selenization of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy layers which consisted of only two phases, CuIn sub 2 and Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9. A linear dependence of the Cu-In alloy film composition on the Cu/In sputtering power was found. The metallic layers were selenized in vacuum or at 1 atm. A small number of Cu-Se and In-Se compounds was observed during the early stage of selenization, and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 was more easily formed in vacuum than at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, CuInSe sub 2 films selenized in vacuum showed larger grain sizes, smoother surfaces, and denser microstructures than those selenized at 1 atm.

  2. Characteristics of CuInSe2 thin films grown by the selenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Deok; Kim, Hyeong Joon; Adurodija, Frederick Ojo; Yoon, Kyeong Hoon; Song, Jin Soo

    1999-01-01

    CuInSe 2 thin films were formed from a selenization of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy layers which consisted of only two phases, CuIn 2 and Cu 11 In 9 . A linear dependence of the Cu-In alloy film composition on the Cu/In sputtering power was found. The metallic layers were selenized in vacuum or at 1 atm. A small number of Cu-Se and In-Se compounds was observed during the early stage of selenization, and single-phase CuInSe 2 was more easily formed in vacuum than at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, CuInSe 2 films selenized in vacuum showed larger grain sizes, smoother surfaces, and denser microstructures than those selenized at 1 atm

  3. Topologically and geometrically flexible structural units in seven new organically templated uranyl selenates and selenite-selenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Kovrugin, Vadim M.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Mikhaylenko, Pavel A.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2015-09-01

    Single crystals of seven novel uranyl oxysalts of selenium with protonated methylamine molecules, [C2H8N]2[(UO2)(SeO4)2(H2O)] (I), [C2H8N]2[(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (II), [C4H15N3][H3O]0.5[(UO2)2(SeO4)2.93(SeO3)0.07(H2O)](NO3)0.5 (III), [C2H8N]3[H5O2][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)2]2(H2O)5 (IV), [C2H8N]2[H3O][(UO2)3(SeO4)4(HSeO3)(H2O)](H2SeO3)0.2 (V), [C4H12N]3[H3O][(UO2)3(SeO4)5(H2O)] (VI), and [C2H8N]3(C2H7N)[(UO2)3(SeO4)4(HSeO3)(H2O)] (VII) have been prepared by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solutions. Their crystal structures have been solved by direct methods and their uranyl selenate and selenite-selenate units investigated using black-and-white graphs from the viewpoints of topology of interpolyhedral linkages and isomeric variations. The crystal structure of IV is based upon complex layers with unique topology, which has not been observed previously in uranyl selenates. Investigations of the statistics and local distribution of the U-Obr-Se bond angles demonstrates that shorter angles associate with undulations, whereas larger angles correspond to planar areas of the uranyl selenite layers.

  4. Selenate as a novel ligand for keplerate chemistry. New {W72Mo60} keplerates with selenates inside the cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Vladimir S; Abramov, Pavel A; Vicent, Cristian; Zhdanov, Artem A; Tsygankova, Alphiya R; Sokolov, Maxim N; Fedin, Vladimir P

    2015-05-21

    The synthesis and characterization of three novel keplerate-type compounds containing the {W72Mo60} mixed-metal core are reported. Complexes (NH4)72[{W6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo2O4(SeO4)}30]·150H2O·6(NH4)2SeO4 (1a) and (NH4)25(NH2Me2)47[{W6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo2O4(SeO4)}30]·130H2O·3(NH4)2SeO4 (1b) were prepared by ligand substitution from the acetate anionic complex [{W6O21(H2O)5(CH3COO)0.5}12{Mo2O4(CH3COO)}30](48-) and selenate. The selenate anions in keplerate ions [{W6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo2O4(SeO4)}30](72-) are very labile and easily aquate with the formation of [{W6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo2O4}30(SeO4)20(H2O)20](52-), which was isolated as (NH4)20(NH2Me2)32[{W6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo2O4}30(SeO4)20(H2O)20]·150H2O (2) and structurally characterized. In the crystal structure of 2 selenate has several coordination modes, preferentially bonding to the {Mo2O4}(2+) units, and, additionally, to the {(W)W5} pentagonal blocks. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, Raman, IR and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy, and by ESI mass spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis was used for characterization of keplerates in solution for the first time.

  5. Synthesis of crystalline Ce-activated garnet phosphor powders and technique to characterize their scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E.; Fedorov, A.; Radiuk, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Dosovitskiy, G.; Vashchenkova, E.; Kuznetsova, D.; Retivov, V.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.; Sandu, R.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on a process of preparation of garnet phosphor powders and a technique for light yield evaluation of strongly light scattering samples. Powders of scintillation compounds could be used as individual materials or as samples for express tests of scintillation properties. However, estimation of their light yield (LY) is complicated by strong light scattering of this kind of materials. Ce3+-activated yttrium-aluminum and gallium-gadolinium-aluminum garnet phosphor powders, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce) and Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (GGAG:Ce), were obtained using a modified coprecipitation technique. Ga tends to residue in mother liquor in ammonia media, but the modification allows to avoid the loss of components. We propose an approach for sample preparation and LY measurement setup with alpha particles excitation, allowing to decrease light scattering influence and to estimate a light yield of powder samples. This approach is used to evaluate the obtained powders.

  6. The simulation of lunar gravity field recovery from D-VLBI of Chang’E-1 and SELENE lunar orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Ping, Jingsong; Matsumoto, K.; Li, Fei

    2008-07-01

    The lunar gravity field is a foundation to study the lunar interior structure, and to recover the evolution history of the Moon. It is still an open and key topic for lunar science. For above mentioned reasons, it becomes one of the important scientific objectives of recent lunar missions, such as KAGUYA (SELENE) the Japanese lunar mission and Chang’E-1, the Chinese lunar mission. The Chang’E-1 and the SELENE were successfully launched in 2007. It is estimated that these two missions can fly around the Moon longer than 6 months simultaneously. In these two missions, the Chinese new VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) network will be applied for precise orbit determination (POD) by using a differential VLBI (D-VLBI) method during the mission period. The same-beam D-VLBI technique will contribute to recover the lunar gravity field together with other conventional observables, i.e. R&RR (Range and Range Rate) and multi-way Doppler. Taking VLBI tracking conditions into consideration and using the GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA [Rowlands, D.D., Marshall, J.A., Mccarthy, J., et al. GEODYN II System Description, vols. 1 5. Contractor Report, Hughes STX Corp. Greenbelt, MD, 1997; Ullman, R.E. SOLVE program: mathematical formulation and guide to user input, Hughes/STX Contractor Report, Contract NAS5-31760. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1994], we simulated the lunar gravity field recovering ability with and without D-VLBI between the Chang’E-1 and SELENE main satellite. The cases of overlapped flying and tracking period of 30 days, 60 days and 90 days have been analyzed, respectively. The results show that D-VLBI tracking between two lunar satellites can improve the gravity field recovery remarkably. The results and methods introduced in this paper will benefit the actual missions.

  7. Simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification by a consortium of enriched mine site bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Gaurav; Taylor, Jon; Hatam, Ido; Baldwin, Susan A

    2017-09-01

    Increasing selenium concentrations in aquatic environments downstream of mine sites is of great concern due to selenium's bioaccumulation propensity and teratogenic toxicity. Removal of selenium from mine influenced water is complicated by the presence of nitrate, which is also elevated in mine influenced water due to the use of explosives in mining. In many biological treatment processes, nitrate as a thermodynamically more preferable electron acceptor inhibits selenate reduction. Here we report on an enrichment of a bacterial assemblage from a mine impacted natural marsh sediment that was capable of simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification. Selenate reduction followed first order kinetics with respect to the concentration of total dissolved selenium. The kinetic rate constant was independent of initial nitrate concentration over the range 3-143 mg L -1 -NO 3 - -N. The initial concentration of selenate inhibited selenate reduction kinetics over the range 1-24 mg-Se L -1 . Dominant taxa that grew in selenate only medium were classified in the genera Pseudomonas, Lysinibacillus and Thauera. When nitrate was introduced in addition to selenate, previously rare taxa that became dominant were relatives of Exiguobacterium, Tissierella and Clostridium. Open reading frames (ORFs) associated with dissimilatory denitrification were identified for Pseudomonas, Thauera and Clostridium. In addition, ORFs were found that were homologous with known selenate reductase subunits (SerA and SerB). These findings suggest that native mine site bacteria can be used for removing selenate and nitrate from mine wastewater. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary observations on the effects of selenate on the development of the embryonic skate, Raja eglanteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, G. W.; Luer, C. A.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Funderburgh, J. L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria, was not significantly inhibited as a result of 7 days of exposure to 1-2 mM selenate in the sea water during Days 59-69 of embryonic development (hatching would normally have occurred at 82 +/- 4 days of incubation). Although corneal transparency appeared normal in the eye, preliminary measurements of the thickness of Bowman's layer of the cornea suggested that it was significantly thinner in the corneas of embryos exposed to 1-2 mM selenate. Selenate is an ion reported to inhibit sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissue.

  9. Optimization of MR fluid Yield stress using Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, S. K.; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Magneto rheological fluids belong to a class of smart materials whose rheological characteristics such as yield stress, viscosity etc. changes in the presence of applied magnetic field. In this paper, optimization of MR fluid constituents is obtained with on-state yield stress as response parameter. For this, 18 samples of MR fluids are prepared using L-18 Orthogonal Array. These samples are experimentally tested on a developed & fabricated electromagnet setup. It has been found that the yield stress of MR fluid mainly depends on the volume fraction of the iron particles and type of carrier fluid used in it. The optimal combination of the input parameters for the fluid are found to be as Mineral oil with a volume percentage of 67%, iron powder of 300 mesh size with a volume percentage of 32%, oleic acid with a volume percentage of 0.5% and tetra-methyl-ammonium-hydroxide with a volume percentage of 0.7%. This optimal combination of input parameters has given the on-state yield stress as 48.197 kPa numerically. An experimental confirmation test on the optimized MR fluid sample has been then carried out and the response parameter thus obtained has found matching quite well (less than 1% error) with the numerically obtained values.

  10. Observation of Possible Lava Tube Skylights by SELENE cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Junichi; Hiesinger, Harald; van der Bogert, Carolyn

    We have discovered three deep hole-structures on the Moon in the Terrain Camera and Multi-band Imager on the SELENE. These holes are large depth to diameter ratios: Marius Hills Hole (MHH) is 65 m in diameter and 88-90 m in depth, Mare Tranquillitatis Hole (MTH) is 120 x 110 m in diameter and 180 m in depth, and Mare Ingenii Hole (MIH) is 140 x 110 m in diameter and deeper than 90 m. No volcanic material from the holes nor dike-relating pit craters is seen around the holes. They are possible lava tube skylights. These holes and possibly connected tubes have a lot of scientific interests and high potentialities as lunar bases.

  11. Infrared absorption spectra of selenate compounds of indium (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Kadoshnikova, N.V.; Tananaev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Obtained and discussed are infrared absorption spectra (400-4000 cm -1 ) of the following indium selenates: In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x5H 2 O, In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x9H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x6H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O (M=NH 4 , K, Rb), CsIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O, Na 3 In(SeO 4 ) 3 x7H 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb, Cs), M 2 InOH(SeO 4 ) 2 xyH 2 O (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb) and K 2 InOD(SeO 4 ) 2 xyD 2 O

  12. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: A comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Atherton, C.A.; Dainty, J.R.; Lewis, D.J.; Langford, N.J.; Crews, H.M.; Luten, J.B.; Lorentzen, M.; Sieling, F.W.; Aken-Schneyder, P. van; Hoek, M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Dael, P. van; Firweather-Tail, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  13. Bioavailibility of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Atherton, C.A.; Luten, J.B.; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  14. Optimum Exploration for the Self-Ordering of Anodic Porous Alumina Formed via Selenic Acid Anodizing

    OpenAIRE

    Akiya, Shunta; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-01-01

    Improvements of the regularity of the arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed by selenic acid anodizing were investigated under various operating conditions. The oxide burning voltage increased with the stirring rate of the selenic acid solution, and the high applied voltage without oxide burning was achieved by vigorously stirring the solution. The regularity of the porous alumina was improved as the anodizing time and surface flatness increased. Conversely, the purity of the 99.5–99.999...

  15. Infrared thermometry: a remote sensing technique for predicting yield in water-stressed cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, P.J.; Fry, K.E.; Guinn, G.; Mauney, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A crop water stress index (CWSI) was derived from air temperatures, air vapor pressure deficits and the midday radiant leaf temperatures of cotton plants that were exposed to different early-season irrigation treatments at Phoenix, AZ, U.S.A. To calculate the CWSI, an infrared thermometer was used to measure leaf temperatures which were then scaled relative to minimum and maximum temperatures expected for no-stress (CWSI=0) and extreme drought-stress conditions (CWSI=1). Results showed the CWSI behaved as expected, dropping to low levels following an irrigation and increasing gradually as the cotton plants depleted soil moisture reserves. The final yield of seed cotton was significantly inversely correlated with the average CWSI observed over the interval from the appearance of the first square until two weeks following the final irrigation

  16. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening with nuclear techniques for yield and N2 fixation in mung bean in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkerd, N.; Wadisrisuk, P.; Siripin, S.; Murakami, T.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    For a farmer to reap benefit from mung bean's (Vigna radiata) capacity to fix N 2 , the crop's requirement for N must come mainly from the atmosphere through symbiotic fixation in the root nodules. The aim of this study was to evaluate recommended mung-bean cultivars and advanced breeding lines, and identify high fixers. Preliminary investigations with the 15 N natural-abundance method indicated its utility for measuring N 2 fixation, and the examination of five recommended cultivars and two advanced breeding lines of mung using the 15 N-dilution method showed diversity in N 2 fixation and yield. More than 400 lines of mung bean were screened in soil in cement containers for growth, nodulation, N accumulation and N 2 fixation at 35 days after planting, with the natural-abundance method used to determine N 2 fixation. Genetic variability was observed for all characteristics. Estimates of fixed N ranged from 0-300 mg N/plant. Whereas some lines obtained N mainly from fixation, recommended cultivars apparently obtained their N mainly from soil. The data are discussed in terms of reliability of the 15 N natural-abundance method

  18. Yield of Peas Treated with Compost and Chemical Fertilizer Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield of peas treated with organic compost and mineral N fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. The obtained results showed that all the tested vegetative growth parameters, i.e. fresh and dry weight of leaves, root and pods of pea plants, were significantly increased with increasing the levels of mineral N fertilizer from 20 up to 50 kg N ha-1 either solely or in combination with compost. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by pea plants were ranked as follow: chemical N fertilize > compost + chemical N fertilize > compost. Organic additives either alone or in combination with chemical fertilizer had enhanced Ndff uptake by pods over aerial parts and roots while reversible trend was noticed with sole application of chemical fertilizer. Nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) and uptake by aerial parts followed by pods were enhanced by addition of organic plus chemical fertilizers comparable to sole addition of organic compost. In other term, chemical fertilizer had enhanced the portion of N derived from organic compost

  19. The study of chromosome aberration yield in human lymphocytes as an indicator of radiation dose. 1. Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.

    1972-08-01

    Estimates of exposure to ionizing radiation can be obtained by determining the yield of chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes. Chromosomes can only be conveniently examined during cell division. The lymphocytes, which do not normally divide whilst circulating, are stimulated to divide during a 48-hour culture period. Two types of culture technique are described, one of which employs a lymphocyte-enriched inoculum and the other which uses whole blood. After culture the cells are harvested, dispensed onto slides and prepared for microscopic examination. An account is also given of the analysis of various types of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and of the construction of calibration curves for certain types and rates of radiation which are used to interpret the aberration yields in terms of dose. (author)

  20. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  1. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization; Saput tipis SnSe disediakan dengan kaedah penselenidan tertudung-tebat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabar, D Hutagalung [Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan (Indonesia). Dept. of Physics; Sakrani, Samsudi; Wahab, Yussof [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system.

  2. Studies on structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated by selenization of chemical bath deposited CdS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianyu; Gu, Han; Ge, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhicheng; Fang, Yong; Han, Zhida; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan [Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Wu, Wangping [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, high-photosensitive CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are synthesized by a two-step technique, which includes the chemical bath deposition of CdS films and a following selenization process. The structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films were investigated. With the substitution of selenium for sulfur atoms, grain sizes of the as-prepared CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are effectively enlarged and reach the scales of the films thickness when the selenization temperature exceeds 450 C. With increasing the selenization temperature from 350 to 550 C, the band gaps of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films gradually decrease from 2.37 to 1.82 eV. Under the co-action of the grain-size enlargement and band-gap decrease, the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated at 450 C show very pronounced photosensitivity. Noteworthy, the ratio of photo to dark conductivity of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} film selenized at 450 C reaches 1.1 x 10{sup 5}, suggesting a promising application potential in the photoelectric devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Broadband and polarization reflectors in the lookdown, Selene vomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulei; Brady, Parrish Clawson; Gao, Meng; Etheredge, Robert Ian; Kattawar, George W; Cummings, Molly E

    2015-03-06

    Predator evasion in the open ocean is difficult because there are no objects to hide behind. The silvery surface of fish plays an important role in open water camouflage. Various models have been proposed to account for the broadband reflectance by the fish skin that involve one-dimensional variations in the arrangement of guanine crystal reflectors, yet the three-dimensional organization of these guanine platelets have not been well characterized. Here, we report the three-dimensional organization and the optical properties of integumentary guanine platelets in a silvery marine fish, the lookdown (Selene vomer). Our structural analysis and computational modelling show that stacks of guanine platelets with random yaw angles in the fish skin produce broadband reflectance via colour mixing. Optical axes of the guanine platelets and the collagen layer are aligned closely and provide bulk birefringence properties that influence the polarization reflectance by the skin. These data demonstrate how the lookdown preserves or alters polarization states at different incident polarization angles. These optical properties resulted from the organization of these guanine platelets and the collagen layer may have implications for open ocean camouflage in varying light fields. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition of tetramethylammonium rare earth double selenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Sandesh K.; Achary, S. Nagabhusan; Ajgaonkar, Vishnu R.

    2018-06-01

    A series of double selenates, as (CH3)4NLn(SeO4)2rad 4H2O (Ln = Rare earth ion like La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) was crystallized from mixed solution and characterized in detail for their structure, vibrational and optical properties as well as thermal stabilities. The crystal structure of the praseodymium compound was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and revealed a monoclinic (C2/c) lattice with chains formed by PrO8 and SeO4 units. The chains with compositions [Pr(SeO4)4(H2O)4]- are stacked in three dimensions and the (CH3)4N+ ions located in between them provide charge neutrality to the structure. The characterization of other compounds were carried out from powder XRD data and revealed that they all are isostructural to Pr-compound. All the functional groups were identified by Raman and IR spectroscopic studies. Solid state 77Se NMR revealed noticeable changes in selenium environment in these compounds. The optical absorption studies on the compounds show strong band edge absorptions in UV region. Thermal stabilities of the compounds, as investigated by simultaneous TG-DTA techniques indicate their sequential decompositions due to loss of H2O, (CH3)4N+ group, SeO2 and finally leaving their corresponding rare earth oxides.

  5. Introducing a New Experimental Islet Transplantation Model using Biomimetic Hydrogel and a Simple High Yield Islet Isolation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ayenehdeh, Jamal; Niknam, Bahareh; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud; Rahavi, Hossein; Rezaei, Nima; Soleimani, Masoud; Tajik, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Islet transplantation could be an ideal alternative treatment to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). This clinical and experimental field requires a model that covers problems such as requiring a large number of functional and viable islets, the optimal transplantation site, and the prevention of islet dispersion. Hence, the methods of choice for isolation of functional islets and transplantation are crucial. The present study has introduced an experimental model that overcomes some critical issues in islet transplantation, including in situ pancreas perfusion by digestive enzymes through common bile duct. In comparison with conventional methods, we inflated the pancreas in Petri dishes with only 1 ml collagenase type XI solution, which was followed by hand-picking isolation or Ficoll gradient separation to purify the islets. Then we used a hydrogel composite in which the islets were embedded and transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. As compared to the yield of the classical methods, in our modified technique, the mean yield of isolation was about 130-200 viable islets/mouse pancreas. In vitro glucose-mediated insulin secretion assay indicated an appropriate response in isolated islets. In addition, data from in vivo experiments revealed that the allograft remarkably maintained blood glucose levels under 400 mg/dl and hydrogel composite prevents the passage of immune cells. In the model presented here, the rapid islet isolation technique and the application of biomimetic hydrogel wrapping of islets could facilitate islet transplantation procedures.

  6. A continuous on-line method for fission yield measurements with the combined GJTR-SISAK technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of a method for fission yield measurements with the combined GJRT-SISAK techniques are outlined. Only the simple case where parent effects can be neglected is considered in detail. The article includes derivation of a relation between the production rate and the counting rate of a nuclide. The expression contains various efficiency parameters and the system dependent delay probability function p(t). The way to experimentally determine these parameters and the delay probability curve, as well as the fitting of an analytical function to the curve are shown. The method is general in the sense that the main principles are independent upon the nuclide under study, fissile target material and bombarding particle used. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mara E M; Leal, Patrícia F; Carvalho, João E; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-10-22

    Turmeric extracts were obtained from two lots of raw material (M and S) using various techniques: hydrodistillation, low pressure solvent extraction, Soxhlet, and supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide and cosolvents. The solvents and cosolvents tested were ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and their mixture in equal proportions. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and UV. The largest yield (27%, weight) was obtained in the Soxhlet extraction (turmeric (S), ethanol = 1:100); the lowest yield was detected in the hydrodistillation process (2.1%). For the supercritical extraction, the best cosolvent was a mixture of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Sixty percent of the light fraction of the extracts consisted of ar-turmerone, (Z)-gamma-atlantone, and (E)-gamma-atlantone, except for the Soxhlet extracts (1:100, ethanol), for which only ar-turmeronol and (Z)-alpha-atlantone were detected. The maximum amount of curcuminoids (8.43%) was obtained using Soxhlet extraction (ethanol/isopropyl alcohol). The Soxhlet and low pressure extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities.

  8. Effect of Saline Water on Yield and Nitrogen Acquisition by Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Hamdy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet growth response to the interactive effects of salinity and N-fertilization was investigated using 15N tracer technique under greenhouse condition. Data showed that dry matter yield of sugar beet shoots and roots were frequently affected by N and water regime. Total N uptake by leaves was increased under almost water salinity treatments in spite of increasing salinity levels. It appears that in case of W I , N I I the N-uptake by roots was significantly decreased along with raising salinity levels from 4 to 8 dS/m. The portions of N derived from fertilizer (whole plant) showed that the trend was affected by salinity level of irrigation water, and fertilization treatments. The highest amount of N derived from fertilizer was obtained with the 4 dS/m level under N I I with the two water regimes. The efficient use of fertilizer-N was slightly but positively affected by raising salinity levels of irrigation water. Sugar percent was increased with increasing salinity levels of irrigation water under both N I and N I I treatments, but it was higher in case of N I than NII under different salinity levels. Generally, Irrigation with saline water in combination with water regime of 75-80% of field capacity and splitting nitrogen technique are better for enhancement of sugar beet production grown under such adverse conditions

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE YIELD OF COFFEE IN THE BASIC UNIT OF COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION (UBPC "LA JUBA" THROUGH ECONOMETRICS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Economic Program of the VI Congress of Comunist Party regarding the coffee agroindustry as agreement the following posittions: "To impel the development of the coffee activities to contribute to the gradual recovery of the traditional exportable funds". This sense, the process of planning the coffee harvest suggest the improvement of the fundamental indicators of this process. The coffee estimate is a primary indicator of harvest and other important indicators depend from him, among those the coffee production and the determination of other inputs of harvest. The objective of this work is to use econometrics technique, for the calculation of the coffee estimate in the Arabic variety in the UBPC "La Juba", belonging to the Coffee Company "Segundo Frente" It is demonstrated that using the econometrics technique the results comes closer to the real with more precision that the obtained by the  programmer, in 75 %. In a same way it is obtained as a result, the evaluation of the weight that it have in the yields the productive factors. In this case, when reconciling the analysis cost-benefit, with the study of the regression coefficients it was demonstrated that the most incident factor is the denominated Cultural Attentions. 

  10. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  11. Preparation, solubility, infrared spectra and radiolysis of tetramethylammonium hydrogenselenate monohydrate and lithium tetramethylammonium selenate tetrahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, D.; Turek, L.; Plocek, Jiří; Mička, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2006), s. 411-422 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : tetramethylammonium salts * hydrogenselenates * selenates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  12. Selenization of CIS and CIGS layers deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, B. J.; Egaas, B.; Velumani, S.

    2018-03-21

    Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) thin films with x=0 (CIS) and x=0.3 (CIGS) were prepared on Mo-coated glass substrate by using chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 350 degrees C, followed by selenization treatment at 550 degrees C in selenium environment under N2 gas flow. X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited CIGS layers on Mo showed polycrystalline chalcopyrite phase with an intense (112) plane. Splitting of (204)/(220) and (116)/(312) planes for the film with x=0.3 reveals deviation of tetragonal nature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of selenized films showed clear re-crystallization of grains. During the selenization process of the CIGS absorber, a thin interface layer of MoSe2 is formed. Line mapping of Mo/CIGS layer showed more gallium segregation at the interface of back contact resulting in band gap grading. Chemical composition and mapping of the as-deposited and selenized samples were determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. This work leads to fabrication of low cost and large scale Mo/CIGS/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al device structure.

  13. Global Lunar Gravity Field Determination Using Historical and Recent Tracking Data in Preparation for SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Namiki, N.; Hanada, H.; Iwata, T.; Tsuruta, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.

    2006-12-01

    In the near future, a number of satellite missions are planned to be launched to the Moon. These missions include initiatives by China, India, the USA, as well as the Japanese SELENE mission. These missions will gather a wealth of lunar data which will improve the knowledge of the Moon. One of the main topics to be addressed will be the lunar gravity field. Especially SELENE will contribute to improving the knowledge of the gravity field, by applying 4-way Doppler tracking between the main satellite and a relay satellite, and by applying a separate differential VLBI experiment. These will improve the determination of the global gravity field, especially over the far side and at the lower degrees (mostly for degrees lower than 30), as is shown by extensive simulations of the SELENE mission. This work focuses on the determination of the global lunar gravity field from all available tracking data to this date. In preparation for the SELENE mission, analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data, as well as Clementine data and historical data from the Apollo and Lunar Orbiter projects is being conducted at NAOJ. Some SMART-1 tracking data are also included. The goal is to combine the good-quality data from the existing lunar missions up to this date with the tracking data from SELENE in order to derive a new lunar gravity field model. The focus therefore currently lies on processing the available data and extracting lunar gravity field information from them. It is shown that the historical tracking data contribute especially to the lower degrees of the global lunar gravity field model. Due to the large gap in tracking data coverage over the far side for the historical data, the higher degrees are almost fully determined by the a priori information in the form of a Kaula rule. The combination with SELENE data is thus expected to improve the estimate for the lower degrees even further, including coverage of the far side. Since historical tracking data are from orbits with

  14. Potentiometric titration of selenic and telluric acids with titanium(III) chloride in nonaqueous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Chozo; Miyamoto, Kiyoshige

    1985-01-01

    Selenic and Telluric acids were titrated potentiometrically with titanium(III) chloride solution by using Pt-Cu · Hg bimetallic electrodes in nonaqueous solvents such as N, N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and the mixtures of these solvents. It was found that selenic and telluric acids were titrated directly at room temperature in DMF solution without hydrochloric acid. The molar ratios of selenic and telluric acids to titanium(III) chloride was 1 : 6. However, the corresponding reactions to SeO 4 2- → SeO 3 2- or TeO 4 2- → TeO 3 2- were not confirmed in the titration curve in DMF. In the titration of selenic acid in mixed solvents of DMF and IPA in 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 ratio, two steps were observed. The first and the second steps were appeared on the titration curve at molar ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 6, respectively. It was interpreted that the first step corresponded to the intermediate reaction of SeO 4 2- → SeO 3 2- . Mixed solution of selenic and telluric acids were determined by the proposed method. Three steps were observed on the titration curve. It was interpreted that the first, second and third steps corresponded to the reaction of SeO 4 2- → SeO 3 2- , SeO 3 2- → Se(0), and TeO 4 2- → Te(0), respectively. Less than 5 % of water gave no influence on the titration. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Biomass Yield and Water Treatment in Two Aquaponic Systems Using the Dynamic Root Floating Technique (DRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluates the food production and water treatment of TAN, NO2−–N, NO3−–N, and PO43− in two aquaponics systems using the dynamic root floating technique (DRF. A separate recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was used as a control. The fish cultured was Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The hydroponic culture in one treatment (PAK was pak choy (Brassica chinensis, and in the other (COR coriander (Coriandrum sativum. Initial and final weights were determined for the fish culture. Final edible fresh weight was determined for the hydroponic plant culture. TAN, NO2−–N, NO3−–N, and PO43− were measured in fish culture and hydroponic culture once a week at two times, morning (9:00 a.m. and afternoon (3:00 p.m.. The fish biomass production was not different in any treatment (p > 0.05 and the total plant yield was greater (p < 0.05 in PAK than in COR. For the hydroponic culture in the a.m., the PO43− was lower (p < 0.05 in the PAK treatment than in COR, and in the p.m. NO3−–N and PO43− were lower (p < 0.05 in PAK than in COR. The PAK treatment demonstrated higher food production and water treatment efficiency than the other two treatments.

  16. Evaluation of Image Processing Technique for Measuring of Nitrogen and Yield in Paddy Rice and Comparing it with Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Larijani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to use new and low cost methods in precision agriculture, nitrogen should be supplied for plants on time and precisely. For determining the required nitrogen of paddy rice in the clustering stage, a series of experiments were conducted using three different methods of: image processing, kjeldahl and chlorophyll meter set (SPAD-502, in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 at Rice Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran. Four experimental treatments were different level of fertilizer (Urea with 46% nitrogen. In the clustering stage, some images from rice plants were taken vertically by a digital camera and were analyzed using image processing technique. Simultaneously the chlorophyll index of plants was measured by SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter set and the percentage amount of nitrogen was measured using of the so called kjeldahl laboratory method. The results showed that the three methods of determining nitrogen of rice plant were highly correlated. Moreover, the correlation among the three methods and crop yield were almost the same. In general, the method of image processing could have a high potential for nitrogen management in the field, while this method was low-cost, faster and also nondestructive in comparison to the other methods.

  17. Comparison of Regression Techniques to Predict Response of Oilseed Rape Yield to Variation in Climatic Conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharif, Behzad; Makowski, David; Plauborg, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Statistical regression models represent alternatives to process-based dynamic models for predicting the response of crop yields to variation in climatic conditions. Regression models can be used to quantify the effect of change in temperature and precipitation on yields. However, it is difficult ...

  18. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,GaSe2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings.

  19. Dehydration-driven evolution of topological complexity in ethylamonium uranyl selenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V., E-mail: vladgeo17@mail.ru [Department of Crystallography, St. Petersburg State University, University Emb. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, Sergey V. [Department of Crystallography, St. Petersburg State University, University Emb. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tananaev, Ivan G. [Far Eastern Federal University, Suhanova st. 8, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of four novel uranyl selenate and selenite-selenate oxysalts with protonated ethylamine molecules, (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O) (I), (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N){sub 3}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HSeO{sub 4})] (II), (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N)[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4})(HSeO{sub 3})] (III), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N)(H{sub 3}O)[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (IV) have been prepared by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solutions. Uranyl-containing 1D and 2D units have been investigated using topological approach and information-based complexity measurements that demonstrate the evolution of structural units and the increase of topological complexity with the decrease of H{sub 2}O content. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of four novel uranyl selenate and selenite-selenate oxysalts with protonated ethylamine molecules have been prepared by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solutions. Structural analysis and information-based topological complexity calculations points to the possible sequence of crystalline phases formation, showing both topological and structural branches of evolution. - Highlights: • Single crystals of four novel uranyl oxysalts were prepared by evaporation method. • The graph theory was used for investigation of topologies of structural units. • Dehydration processes drives the evolution of topological complexity of 1D and 2D structural units.

  20. Uptake of selenate on hydrated and degraded cement: batch and dynamic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, I.; Rovira, I.; Marti, V.; Pablo, J. de; Duro, L.; Gaona, X.; Colas, E.; Grive, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of selenate sorption and retardation in batch and dynamic experiments on hydrated and degraded cement has been studied. Desorption studies have also been carried in order to assess the reversibility of the sorption process. Sorption data onto degraded cement have been treated assuming the formation of surface complexes, whereas sorption kinetics has been fitted by using a pseudo-first order kinetic equation. Dynamic flow experiments have also been modelled. (authors)

  1. Preparation of CIGS thin films by HiPIMS or DC sputtering and various selenization processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kšírová, Petra; Kment, Štěpán; Brunclíková, Michaela; Kohout, Michal; Čada, Martin; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2013), s. 314-319 ISSN 1203-8407 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CIGS * HIPIMS * selenization * nanocrystals * solar energy * sputtering * thin films Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2013 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/stn/jaots/2013/00000016/00000002/art00015

  2. Optimization of selenizing conditions for Seleno-Lentinan and its characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangming; Li, Koukou; Hu, Yang; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan; Xu, Xiuhong

    2015-11-01

    Lentinan was successfully modified with nitric acid-sodium selenite method based on L9(3(4)) orthogonal experiments. The optimum selenizing conditions were obtained according to selenium conversion rate as follows: Lentinan of 1.0g, pH of 4.5, temperature of 70°C and sodium selenite of 1.50g. The antioxidant activity assays in vitro (DPPH, reducing power, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals) proved that Lentinan had stronger antioxidant activity after selenizing. The elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the abnormal hepatic architecture, verified that oral administration of Seleno-Lentinan (SL2-1) markedly alleviated oxidative damage in the liver of mice induced by D-gal. In addition, SL2-1 significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, activities and protein expressions of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and lowered malondialdehyde levels in serum and liver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that selenium of SL2-1 was mostly existed as the formations of OSeO, SeO and SeOC. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the surface structure and elemental components of Lentinan significantly changed after selenizing. The results are instructive for the development of organic selenium-supplement resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The intensity of tyrosine nitration is associated with selenite and selenate toxicity in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Árpád; Feigl, Gábor; Trifán, Vanda; Ördög, Attila; Szőllősi, Réka; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2018-01-01

    Selenium phytotoxicity involves processes like reactive nitrogen species overproduction and nitrosative protein modifications. This study evaluates the toxicity of two selenium forms (selenite and selenate at 0µM, 20µM, 50µM and 100µM concentrations) and its correlation with protein tyrosine nitration in the organs of hydroponically grown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Selenate treatment resulted in large selenium accumulation in both Brassica organs, while selenite showed slight root-to-shoot translocation resulting in a much lower selenium accumulation in the shoot. Shoot and root growth inhibition and cell viability loss revealed that Brassica tolerates selenate better than selenite. Results also show that relative high amounts of selenium are able to accumulate in Brassica leaves without obvious visible symptoms such as chlorosis or necrosis. The more severe phytotoxicity of selenite was accompanied by more intense protein tyrosine nitration as well as alterations in nitration pattern suggesting a correlation between the degree of Se forms-induced toxicities and nitroproteome size, composition in Brassica organs. These results imply the possibility of considering protein tyrosine nitration as novel biomarker of selenium phytotoxicity, which could help the evaluation of asymptomatic selenium stress of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; He Qing; Li Fengyan; Li Changjian; Sun Yun; Tian Jianguo; Li Zubin

    2009-01-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga–Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses

  5. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jian-Guo; Li, Zu-Bin; He, Qing; Li, Feng-Yan; Li, Chang-Jian; Sun, Yun

    2009-03-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga-Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses.

  6. Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, A.; Ishiyama, K.; Feng, J.

    2016-12-01

    Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE have been compared. In Chang'E-3 mission, subsurface radar sounding at (19.51W, 44.12N) was performed by Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the Yutu rover. The LPR was pulse radar operated at two frequencies: 60 MHz and 500 MHz. During its operation period from December 2013 to January 2014, the LPR observed subsurface echoes along the rover's track with total distance of 114 m. From the observation in 60 MHz, the subsurface echoes from buried regolith layers at depths of 35, 50, 140, 240, and 360 m were reported (Xiao et al., 2015). In SELENE mission, global subsurface radar sounding of the moon was performed by Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft from the polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km. The LRS was chirp radar operated in a frequency range from 4-6 MHz. So the range resolution of LRS was 75 m in vacuum. During operation period from December 2007 to September 2008, subsurface echoes from all areas of the Moon was observed with a lateral resolution of 76 m. From the global observation, the subsurface echoes from the buried regolith layers in the neraside maria including Mare Imbrium at depths of several hundred meters were reported (Ono et al., 2009).In the present study, we focus on SELENE/LRS data obtained at (19.50W, 44.12N) which is the nearest to the Chang'E-3 landing site. While clear and large-scale subsurface reflectors, as found in Ono et al. (2009), are not found in it, we can identify some echo components from the depths of 140 ( 2000 ns), 240 ( 4000 ns), and 360 m ( 6000 ns). Further analyses utilizing high-resolution data from Chang'E-3/LPR and large-scale data from SELENE/LRS, we will be able to determine the thickness and large-scale structures of the buried regolith layers found by the both radars, and discuss their formation processes in volcanic history of Mare Imbrium.

  7. Deposition of CuIn(Se,S)2 thin films by sulfurization of selenized Cu/In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, C.J.; Alberts, V.; Bekker, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The relatively small band gap values (close to 1eV) of CuInSe 2 thin films limits the conversion efficiencies of completed CuInSe 2 /CdS/ZnO solar cell devices. In the case of traditional two-stage growth techniques, limited success has been achieved to increase the band gap by substituting indium with gallium. In this study, sputtered copper-indium alloys were exposed to a H 2 Se/Ar atmosphere under defined conditions in order to produce partially reacted CuInSe 2 structures. These films were subsequently exposed to a H 2 S/Ar atmosphere to produce monophasic CuIn(Se, S) 2 quaternary alloys. The homogeneous incorporation of S into CuInSe 2 led to a systematic shift in the lattice parameters and band gap of the ab- sorber films. From these studies optimum selenization/sulfurization conditions were determined for the deposition of homogeneous CuIn(Se,S) 2 thin films with an optimum band gap values between 1.15 and 1.2 eV. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Structure, vibrations and quantum chemical investigations of hydrogen bonded complex of bis(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-aminium)selenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, S.; Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogen bonded molecular complex bis(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-aminium)selenate (C8H24N2O6Se) has been prepared by the reaction of 2-amino-2-methyl propanol and selenic acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the intermolecular proton transfer from selenic acid (SeO4H2) to 2-amino-2-methylpropanol results in the formation of bis(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-aminium)selenate (HMPAS) salt and the fragments are connected through H-bonding and ion pairing. The N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O interactions between 2-amino-2-methylpropanol and selenic acid determine the supramolecular arrangement in three-dimensional space. The salt crystallises in the space group P121/n1 of monoclinic system. The complete vibrational assignments of HMPAS have been performed by FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The experimental data are correlated with the structural properties namely the energy, thermodynamic parameters, atomic charges, hybridization concepts and vibrational frequencies determined by quantum chemical studies performed with B3LYP method using 6-311++G*, 6-31+G* and 6-31G** basis sets.

  9. The effect of the extraction techniques on the kinetics, yield and antioxidative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana P.; Stanković, Mihajlo Z.; Veljković, Vlada; Cakić, Milorad D.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Ilić, Dušica P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of three extraction techniques (Reflux maceration, Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction) on the kinetics, yield and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L. was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids content was measured by spectrophotometric...

  10. Yield stress in metallic glasses: The jamming-unjamming transition studied through Monte Carlo simulations based on the activation-relaxation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, David; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    A Monte Carlo approach allowing for stress control is employed to study the yield stress of a two-dimensional metallic glass in the limit of low temperatures and long (infinite) time scales. The elementary thermally activated events are determined using the activation-relaxation technique (ART). By tracking the minimum-energy state of the glass for various applied stresses, we find a well-defined jamming-unjamming transition at a yield stress about 30% lower than the steady-state flow stress obtained in conventional strain-controlled quasistatic simulations. ART is then used to determine the evolution of the distribution of thermally activated events in the glass microstructure both below and above the yield stress. We show that aging below the yield stress increases the stability of the glass, both thermodynamically (the internal potential energy decreases) and dynamically (the aged glass is surrounded by higher-energy barriers than the initial quenched configuration). In contrast, deformation above the yield stress brings the glass into a high internal potential energy state that is only marginally stable, being surrounded by a high density of low-energy barriers. The strong influence of deformation on the glass state is also evidenced by the microstructure polarization, revealed here through an asymmetry of the distribution of thermally activated inelastic strains in glasses after simple shear deformation.

  11. Use of nuclear techniques for mutation and selection of fungi for high protein yield utilizing carbon from inexpensive agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopulos, S.

    1976-12-01

    The report briefly describes work carried out on the following subjects: Determination of protein in fungal strains (including Fusarium and Aspergillus niger); induction and selection of mutants (Aspergillus niger) giving higher yields of biomass and/or higher protein content; ability of fungi (Candida tropicalis) to utilize water extracts of carob bean pods; growth of Fusarium monoliforme at the expense of carob sugars; the use of alternate oxidase-negative mutants (of Ustilago maydis), for better utilization of substrates for growth (electron transport pathways in reoxidation of reduced coenzymes); kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation of Fusarium moniliforme (cultivated on aqueous carob extracts)

  12. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma...

  13. Determination of selenite and selenate in human urine by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2000-01-01

    The selenium species selenite, selenate and selenomethionine were separated in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The separation was performed on an IonPac AG11 in series with an AS11 anion exchange column by elution with 25 mM sodium hydroxide in 2% methanol. The Se-78 and Se-82 isotopes were...... monitored in the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector. When the chromatographic system was applied to analysis of urine samples diluted 1 + 1, the selenomethionine signal appeared in the front together with other unresolved selenium species, while the selenite and selenate signals...... and selenate, respectively, corresponding to absolute amounts of 8 and 16 pg, respectively. Calculations were based on peak height measurements of the Se-82 isotope. In 23 analysed urine samples, the concentration of selenite was in the range selenium...

  14. Effect of selenization conditions on the growth and properties of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Samaneh; Rajesh Menon, M.R.; Fernandes, P.A.; da Cunha, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    The opto-electronic properties of copper zinc tin sulfide can be tuned to achieve better cell efficiencies by controlled incorporation of selenium. In this paper we report the growth of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) using a hybrid process involving the sequential evaporation of Zn and sputtering of the sulfide precursors of Cu and Sn, followed by a selenization step. Two approaches for selenization were followed, one using a tubular furnace and the other using a rapid thermal processor. The effects...

  15. Separation of selenium compounds by CE-ICP-MS in dynamically coated capillaries applied to selenized yeast samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2004-01-01

    The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication and subs......The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication...

  16. The effect of hydrodistillation technique on the yield and composition of essential oil from the seed of petroselinum crispum (mill. Nym. Ex. A.W. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was isolated from the seed of Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nym. ex. A.W. Hill by using different techniques of Clevenger-type hydrodistillation. The highest yield of oil, after five consecutive hydrodistillation runs (3.9 mL/100 g of plant material, was obtained by the technique in which water from the still flask was separated by filtration and used together with fresh water for immersing the plant material in a subsequent distillation. Regardless of the technique used, the oil contained different amounts of α-pinene, ß-p/nene, limonene, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxy-1-allylbenzene, apiole and 1,2-benzenedicarbonic acid.

  17. Can deficit irrigation techniques be used to enhance phosphorus and water use efficiency and benefit crop yields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hannah R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Blackwell, Martin S. A.; Surridge, Ben W. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting (DRW) affects the forms and availability of phosphorus (P). Water soluble P has been reported to increase 1.8- to 19-fold after air-drying with the majority of the increase (56-100%) attributable to organic P. Similarly, in two contrasting soil types DRW increased concentrations of total P and reactive P in leachate, likely due to enhanced P mineralisation and physiochemical processes causing detachment of soil colloids, with faster rewetting rates related to higher concentrations of P. The intensity of drying as well as the rate of rewetting influences organic and inorganic P cycling. How these dynamics are driven by soil water status, and impact crop P acquisition and growth, remains unclear. Improving P and water use efficiencies and crop yields is globally important as both P and water resources become increasingly scarce, whilst demand for food increases. Irrigation supply below the water requirement for full crop evapotranspiration is employed by agricultural practitioners where water supply is limited. Regulated deficit irrigation describes the scheduling of water supply to correspond to the times of highest crop demand. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is applied in lowland irrigated rice production to avoid flooding at certain times of crop development, and has benefited P nutrition and yields. This research aims to optimise the benefits of P availability and uptake achieved by DRW by guiding deficit irrigation management strategies. Further determination of underlying processes driving P cycling at fluctuating soil moisture status is required. Presented here is a summary of the literature on DRW effects on soil P availability and plant P uptake and partitioning, in a range of soil types and cropping systems, with emphasis on alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD) compared to continuous flooding in lowland irrigated rice production. Soil water contents and matric potentials, and effects on P dynamics, are highly variable

  18. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  19. Selen og vitamin E til søer og pattegrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. E.; Danielsen, V.; Simesen, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Formålet med dette forsøg var at undersøge virkningen af foderets selen- og vitamin E indhold på søernes frugtbarhed og pattegrisenes levedygtighed og vækst. Endvidere at undersøge koncentrationen af selen (Se) og vitamin E i råmælk, somælk og blod i relation til foderet. Der forekom enkelte...... dødsfald blandt grisene, som kunne sættes i forbindelse med enten lavt Se-indhold eller lavt vitamin E indhold i foderet. Der blev desuden konstateret flere brunst- og drægtighedsproblemer hos søer, derfik foder med det lave indhold af vitamin E end hos søer i de andre grupper. En forøgelse af Se......-indholdet fra 30 til 60 µg pr. kg foder gav en fordobling af indholdet i råmælk og i somælk. En forøgelse af vitamin E indholdet i foderet fra ca. 20 mg til ca. 45 mg pr. kg foder gav 4 gange forøgelse i råmælk og somælk. Der blev konstateret tilsvarende virkninger af Se og vitamin E i foderet på indholdet i...

  20. Combination cancer treatment through photothermally controlled release of selenous acid from gold nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haoyan; Huo, Da; Zhu, Chunlei; Shen, Song; Wang, Wenxia; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Zhihong; Xia, Younan

    2018-04-03

    Selenite, one of the inorganic forms of selenium, is emerging as an attractive chemotherapeutic agent owing to its selectivity in eradicating cancer cells. Here we demonstrate a new formulation of nanomedicine based on selenous acid, which is mixed with lauric acid (a phase-change material with a melting point around 43 °C) and then loaded into the cavities of Au nanocages. The Au nanocages can serve as a carrier during cell endocytosis and then as a photothermal agent to melt the lauric acid upon the irradiation with a near-infrared laser, triggering the swift release of selenous acid. The photothermal and chemo therapies can also work synergistically, leading to enhanced destruction of cancer cells relative to normal cells. Our systematic study suggests that the impaired mitochondrial function arising from the ROS generated through combination treatment is responsible for the cell death. This study offers an appealing candidate that holds great promise for synergistic cancer treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  2. Effect of three pretreatment techniques on the chemical composition and on the methane yields of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Catalán, E; Folino, A; Sánchez, A; Komilis, D

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be used as substrate in anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of three pretreatment techniques (thermal, alkaline, acidic) on the chemical composition and the methane yield of OFI biomass. A composite experimental design with three factors and two to three levels was implemented, and regression modelling was employed using a total of 10 biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The measured methane yields ranged from 289 to 604 NmL/gVS added ; according to the results, only the acidic pretreatment (HCl) was found to significantly increase methane generation. However, as the experimental values were quite high with regards to the theoretical methane yield of the substrate, this effect still needs to be confirmed via further research. The alkaline pretreatment (NaOH) did not noticeably affect methane yields (an average reduction of 8% was recorded), despite the fact that it did significantly reduce the lignin content. Thermal pretreatment had no effect on the methane yields or the chemical composition. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed changes in the chemical structure after the addition of NaOH and HCl. Modelling of the cumulated methane production by the Gompertz modified equation was successful and aided in understanding kinetic advantages linked to some of the pretreatments. For example, the alkaline treatment (at the 20% dosage) at room temperature resulted to a μ max (maximum specific methane production rate [NmLCH 4 /(gVS added ·d)]) equal to 36.3 against 18.6 for the control.

  3. Detection of over 100 selenium metabolites in selenized yeast by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Dernovics, Mihaly; Moreno-González, David; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F

    2017-08-15

    The characterization of the selenometabolome of Selenized(Se)-yeast, that is the fraction of water soluble low-molecular weight Se-metabolites produced in Se-yeast is of paramount interest to expand the knowledge on the composition of this food supplement. In this work, we have applied liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) to search for Se-species from the low molecular weight range fraction of the selenized yeast used for food supplements. Prior to LC-TOFMS, sample treatment consisted of ultrasound assisted water extraction followed by size exclusion fractionation assisted with off-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection of isotope 82 Se. The fraction corresponding to low-molecular weight species was subjected to LC-TOFMS using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The detection of the suspected selenized species has been based on the information obtained from accurate mass measurements of both the protonated molecules and fragments from in-source CID fragmentation; along with the characteristic isotope pattern exhibited by the presence of Se. The approach enables the detection of 103 selenized species, most of them not previously reported, in the range from ca. 300-650Da. Besides the detection of selenium species, related sulphur derivate metabolites were detected based on the accurate mass shift due to the substitution of sulphur and selenium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic

  5. Investigation into the dehydration of selenate doped Na2M(SO4)2·2H2O (M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni): Stabilisation of the high Na content alluaudite phases Na3M1.5(SO4)3-1.5x(SeO4)1.5x (M = Mn, Co and Ni) through selenate incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, L. L.; Kendrick, E.; Knight, K. S.; Wright, A. J.; Slater, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report an investigation into the phases formed on dehydration of Na2M(SO4)2-x(SeO4)x·2H2O (0 ≤ x ≤ 1; M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni). For the Fe series, all attempts to dehydrate the samples doped with selenate resulted in amorphous products, and it is suspected that a side redox reaction involving the Fe and selenate may be occurring leading to phase decomposition and hence the lack of a crystalline product on dehydration. For M = Mn, Co, Ni, the structure observed was shown to depend upon the transition metal cation and level of selenate doping. An alluaudite phase, Na3M1.5(SO4)3-1.5x(SeO4)1.5x, was observed for the selenate doped compositions, with this phase forming as a single phase for x ≥ 0.5 M = Co, and x = 1.0 M = Ni. For M = Mn, the alluaudite structure is obtained across the series, albeit with small impurities for lower selenate content samples. Although the alluaudite-type phases Na2+2y(Mn/Co)2-y(SO4)3 have recently been reported [1,2], doping with selenate appears to increase the maximum sodium content within the structure. Moreover, the selenate doped Ni based samples reported here are the first examples of a Ni sulfate/selenate containing system exhibiting the alluaudite structure.

  6. Sorption mechanisms of selenium species (selenite and selenate) on copper-based minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoy, J.

    2001-09-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on the surface of minerals represents a process capable to delay the migration of the elements from a spent fuel deep repository towards the biosphere. In the framework of a deep underground repository, an engineered clay barrier has a high trapping capacity for cationic radio-elements, in particular because of the negative charge of clay surfaces. However, anionic radioelements like selenium species, would be only weakly retained by chemical processes. In order to optimize the trapping capacity of a clay barrier with respect to anionic species, prospective studies are carried out in order to find and evaluate some minerals with specific chemical trapping functions. Among radionuclides, the case of selenium has to be considered because its isotope 79 Se is present in radioactive wastes and has a half life time of 6.5 10 4 years. It is also judicious to find a mineral capable of trapping simultaneously several anionic radio-elements. Copper oxides and sulfides (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu 2 S, CuS, CuFeS 2 and Cu 5 FeS 4 ) are good adsorbents with respect to selenium species (selenite and selenate). These minerals, with their selenium retention properties, could be used also for the decontamination of soils and waters or to process industrial effluents. The sorption mechanisms have been studied in details for copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) with respect to selenite and selenate. Chalcomenite precipitates in acid pH conditions when selenite is added to a Cu 2 O and CuO suspension. Selenate, in contact with cuprite (Cu 2 O) leads also to a selenium-based precipitate in acid pH environment. For higher pH values, selenite and selenate are adsorbed on copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) and lead to internal and external sphere complexes, respectively. In the case of a selenite/cuprite mixture in basic pH environment and at the equilibrium, a chemical reaction occurs between the oxidation product of cuprite, Cu(OH) 2 and HSeO 3 . A preliminary study of

  7. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  8. Increased Yield of Biotransformation of Androsta-1, 4-Dien-3, 17-Dione from Β-Sitosterol by Using Sulfobutyl Ether-Β-Cyclodextrin Complexation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Substrate solubility in steroid biotransformation is critical for enhancing the biotransformation of hydrophobic compounds. In this study, the sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD complexation technique was used for the biotransformation of β-sitosterol to androsta-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione with Mycobacterium ATCC25795. The production yield was increased by 26.72%, and the biotransformation course was shortened by 24h using β-sitosterol/SBE-β-CD inclusion complexes as substrates (1.0 g/L. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that an inclusion complex was formed between SBE-β-CD and β-sitosterol. The complex significantly increased the solubility of β-sitosterol and improved the biotransformation efficiency of the substrate.

  9. Improvement of the yield of highly charged ions by a gas-pulsing technique and the current status of the NIRS Penning source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Mitsugu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Sato, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    The yields of highly charged ions have been improved by using a gas-pulsing technique in the pulsed Penning-ionized-gauge ion source (PIGIS) in the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba. So far, this pulsed PIGIS has been operated under a low-duty factor (10 -2 -10 -3 ), in which the gas flow is not being pulsed. A solenoid-type gas valve, having a simple structure compared to the piezo-electric type, was attached to the outside of the PIGIS chamber in order to control the gas flow into the PIGIS chimney. Beam tests for Ne with gas pulsing showed that the pressure response time should actually be a few tens ms, and the intensity of Ne 6+ was increased by ten times, from 20 to 200 eμA. The gas pulsing also improved the average vacuum in the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line by a factor of 4. When producing H 2 + , H 3 + , and He 1+ by PIGIS with gas pulsing, the beam loss of highly charged ions from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in the LEBT was reduced to be negligible; meanwhile, it was around 30% without gas pulsing. This paper describes the gas-pulsing technique and the preliminary results, as well as some recent developments in the NIRS-PIGIS

  10. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  11. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  12. Identifying the Impact of E-Selen on the Sterile Medfly Ceratitis capitata at the Genomic Level Using DNA Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant E-Selen is an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata in various concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg) prior to irradiation in order to obtain fully competent males. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at a dose rate of 90 Gy. Biological assessment of two E-Selen concentrations 0.3 and 0.5 mg were found to ameliorate the fitness of the sterile insects as well as to increase significantly most of their amino acids content. The study of the PCR patterns of normal and irradiated C. capitata undertaken or not different doses of E-Selen prior to irradiation and contained in the larval diets induced some modifications to the DNA profiles. The appearance of some new bands and disappearance of others were frequently encountered during this investigation. The appearance of bands was attributed to a repair mechanism that occurs in the irradiated DNA. However, the similarity in the DNA patterns of the homogenate pupal of C. capitata was due to the irradiation-induced damage may be in genome regions other than the regions of study

  13. Optical and structural properties of FeSe2 thin films obtained by selenization of sprayed amorphous iron oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouertani, B.; Ouerfelli, J.; Saadoun, M.; Zribi, M.; Rabha, M.Ben; Bessais, B.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report in this work the optical and structural properties of iron diselenide films (FeSe 2 ) obtained by selenization under vacuum of amorphous iron oxide films predeposited by spray pyrolysis. The structure of the FeSe 2 films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microprobe analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD and micro-probe analyses showed that FeSe 2 as well as FeSe 2-x phases begin to appear at a selenization temperature of 500 deg. C. As the selenization temperature rises, the iron diselenide films become more stoichiometric with a dominance of the FeSe 2 phase. At 550 deg. C, a single FeSe 2 phase having good crystallinity was obtained. At 600 deg. C, two phases were detected: the major one corresponds to Fe 3 O 4 , and the minor one to FeSe 2 . SEM surface views show that FeSe 2 films have granular structure with small spherical crystallites. However, layered and clustered FeSe 2 films were found, respectively, at 550 deg. C and 600 deg. C. Absorption measurements show that iron diselenide films have a direct and an indirect gaps of about 1.03 eV and 0.3 eV, which were suggested to be due to the stoichiometric FeSe 2 phase and to a Fe-rich non-stoichiometric phase, respectively

  14. Rapid fabrication of self-ordered porous alumina with 10-/sub-10-nm-scale nanostructures by selenic acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaga, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina is limited by the electrolyte during anodizing, the discovery of additional electrolytes would expand the applicability of porous alumina. In this study, we report a new self-ordered nanoporous alumina formed by selenic acid (H2SeO4) anodizing. By optimizing the anodizing conditions, anodic alumina possessing 10-nm-scale pores was rapidly assembled (within 1 h) during selenic acid anodizing without any special electrochemical equipment. Novel sub-10-nm-scale spacing can also be achieved by selenic acid anodizing and metal sputter deposition. Our new nanoporous alumina can be used as a nanotemplate for various nanostructures in 10-/sub-10-nm-scale manufacturing. PMID:24067318

  15. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  16. 东北春大豆优质高产栽培技术%Soybean High Yield Cultivation Techniques in Northeast in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is an important crop widely planted in China, and Northeast China is one of the main planting areas of soybeans. In view of the natural conditions and cropping system of Northeast soybean producing areas, this article reviewed the high quality and high yield cultivation techniques of spring soybeans in the northeast China in terms of species selection, seed treatment, soil preparation, sow-ing, field management, pest control and harvesting.%大豆是我国广泛种植的重要农作物,东北地区是我国大豆主要栽培区之一。针对东北大豆产区的自然条件与耕作栽培制度,从品种选择、种子处理、播前整地、播种、田间管理、病虫害防治及收获几方面进行总结,探讨东北春大豆优质高产栽培技术。

  17. Effects of processing parameters on the caffeine extraction yield during decaffeination of black tea using pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Saziye; Sat, Ihsan Gungor; Polat, Atilla

    2018-04-01

    In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO 2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62.5 °C temperature, 300 min extraction time, 2 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 5 mol% modifier concentration and the other was composed of same temperature, pressure and extraction time conditions with 3 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 2.5 mol% modifier concentration. Results showed that extraction time, pressure, CO 2 flow rate and modifier quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield.

  18. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured...... CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g = –106 + 2.26 WG + 200 BWB + 0.111 D – 1,414 WG/D + 0.0182 WG/BWB (R2 = 0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum...

  19. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  20. Abiotic pyrite reactivity versus nitrate, selenate and selenite using chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiadis, I.; Betelu, S.; Gaucher, E.; Tournassat, C.; Chainet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is part of ReCosy European project (www.recosy.eu), whose main objectives are the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to performance assessment/safety case. Redox is one of the main factor affecting speciation and mobility of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Thus, it is of a great importance to investigate the redox reactivity of the host radioactive waste formations, particularly when exposed to redox perturbations. Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx), a clay rock known as an anoxic and reducing system, was selected in France as the most suitable location to store nuclear waste. Iron (II) sulfide, mostly constituted of pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron (II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter are considered to account almost entirely for the total reducing capacity of the rock. We report here the redox reactivity of pyrite upon exposure to nitrate (N(V)), selenate (Se(VI)) and selenite (Se(IV)) that possibly occur in the nuclear storage. Both, chemical and electrochemical kinetic approaches were simultaneously conducted such as to (i) determine the kinetics parameters of the reactions and (ii) understand the kinetic mechanisms. In order to reach similar conditions that are encountered in the storage system, all experiments were realised in NaCl 0.1 M, near neutral pH solutions, and an abiotic glove box (O 2 less than 10 -8 M). Chemical approach has consisted to set in contact pyrite in grains with solutions containing respectively nitrate, selenate and selenite. Reactants and products chemical analyses, conducted at different contact times, allowed us to assess the kinetics of oxidant reduction. Electrochemical approach has consisted in the continuous or semi-continuous analysis of large surface pyrite electrodes immersed in solutions with or without oxidant (nitrate

  1. Syntheses, characterizations and crystal structures of three new organically templated or organically bonded zinc selenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Meiling; Mao Jianggao; Song Junling

    2004-01-01

    Three new organically templated or organically bonded zinc selenates, namely, {H 2 bipy}Zn(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 1 (bipy=4,4'-bipyridine), {H 2 pip}{Zn(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 }·2H 2 O 2 (pip=piprazine), and Zn(SeO 4 )(phen)(H 2 O) 2 3 (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The structure of compound 1 features a 1D chain composed of [Zn(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2- anions. Compound 2 has a 2D layer structure built from {Zn(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 } 2- anions that are cross-linked by doubly protonated piperazine cations via N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The structure of compound 3 contains a 1D chain of Zn(SeO 4 )(phen)(H 2 O) 2 , such chains are further interlinked by hydrogen bonds and π···π interactions to form a layer. The different roles the templates played have also been discussed

  2. Deletion of thioredoxin reductase and effects of selenite and selenate toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Boehler

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reductase-1 (TRXR-1 is the sole selenoprotein in C. elegans, and selenite is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase, so TRXR-1 may play a role in metabolism of selenium (Se to toxic forms. To study the role of TRXR in Se toxicity, we cultured C. elegans with deletions of trxr-1, trxr-2, and both in axenic media with increasing concentrations of inorganic Se. Wild-type C. elegans cultured for 12 days in Se-deficient axenic media grow and reproduce equivalent to Se-supplemented media. Supplementation with 0-2 mM Se as selenite results in inverse, sigmoidal response curves with an LC50 of 0.20 mM Se, due to impaired growth rather than reproduction. Deletion of trxr-1, trxr-2 or both does not modulate growth or Se toxicity in C. elegans grown axenically, and (75Se labeling showed that TRXR-1 arises from the trxr-1 gene and not from bacterial genes. Se response curves for selenide (LC50 0.23 mM Se were identical to selenite, but selenate was 1/4(th as toxic (LC50 0.95 mM Se as selenite and not modulated by TRXR deletion. These nutritional and genetic studies in axenic media show that Se and TRXR are not essential for C. elegans, and that TRXR alone is not essential for metabolism of inorganic Se to toxic species.

  3. Effect of Sodium Selenate on Hippocampal Proteome of 3×Tg-AD Mice-Exploring the Antioxidant Dogma of Selenium against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Zhang, Kaoyuan; Jin, Na; Zhao, Yuxi; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan; Shen, Liming

    2018-04-19

    Selenium (Se), an antioxidant trace element, is an important nutrient for maintaining brain functions and is reported to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. The present study has been designed to elucidate the protein changes in hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after supplementing sodium selenate as an inorganic source of selenium. By using iTRAQ proteomics technology, 113 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are found in AD/WT mice with 37 upregulated and 76 downregulated proteins. Similarly, in selenate-treated 3×Tg-AD (ADSe/AD) mice, 115 DEPs are found with 98 upregulated and 17 downregulated proteins. The third group of mice (ADSe/WT) showed 75 DEPs with 46 upregulated and 29 downregulated proteins. Among these results, 42 proteins (40 downregulated and 2 upregulated) in the diseased group showed reverse expression when treated with selenate. These DEPs are analyzed with different bioinformatics tools and are found associated with various AD pathologies and pathways. Based on their functions, selenate-reversed proteins are classified as structural proteins, metabolic proteins, calcium regulating proteins, synaptic proteins, signaling proteins, stress related proteins, and transport proteins. Six altered AD associated proteins are successfully validated by Western blot analysis. This study shows that sodium selenate has a profound effect on the hippocampus of the triple transgenic AD mice. This might be established as an effective therapeutic agent after further investigation.

  4. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of One-Step Selenization Process for Cu(In1-x Ga x )Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Lee, Po-Tsung; Luo, Chih Wei; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-12-01

    In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H 2 Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra. The surface morphologies examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) further suggested that voids and binary phase commonly existing in CIGS films could be successfully eliminated by the present one-step selenization process. The agglomeration phenomenon attributable to the formation of MoSe 2 layer was also observed. Due to the significant microstructural improvement, the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the devices made of the present CIGS films have exhibited the remarkable carrier transportation characteristics and photon utilization at the optimal location, resulting in a high conversion efficiency of 11.28%. Correlations between the defect states and device performance of the one-step selenized CIGS thin film were convincingly delineated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  6. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  7. Selenate reduction to elemental selenium by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and culture: biogeochemical significance of a novel, sulfate-independent respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial water profiles of SeO42−, SeO32−, SO42−, and Cl− in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42− occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3−, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42− or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.

  8. Studies of rubidium selenate with secondary phase of RbOH under humidified reducing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyribey, Berceste; Hallinder, Jonathan; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Mogensen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Degradation of Rb 2 SeO 3 and Rb 2 SeO 4 to form RbOH provide protonic conductivity. ► The conductivity increases by increasing temperature. ► The highest conductivity value of 2.01·10 −4 S cm −1 is observed at 317 °C. ► The work may state conductivity rise in solid acid electrolytes upon decomposition. - Abstract: The high temperature properties of Rb 2 SeO 4 have been studied by calorimetry, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. As synthesized, Rb 2 SeO 4 includes a second phase of Rb 2 SeO 3 , which can be eliminated upon heating the compound. As expected, no conductivity is observed in dry (pH 2 O 2 O = 0.1 bar) air at 176 °C, the conductivity increases sharply from 8.6·10 −8 to 1.7·10 −6 S cm −1 . Under humidified (pH 2 O = 0.1 bar) reducing atmosphere (9%H 2 in N 2 ), the conductivity increases to 2.0·10 −4 S cm −1 at 317 °C. Degradation of Rb 2 SeO 3 and Rb 2 SeO 4 to form RbOH, which is known as a proton conductor, are thought to be responsible for the observed conductivity in humidified atmospheres. Our observations may explain the conductivity rise in other solid acid electrolytes, including sulfate and selenate groups, around their decomposition temperatures, in humidified atmospheres.

  9. Behaviour of selenate in soils: experimental approach and modeling of hysteresis of sorption/desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of future storage of nuclear material in deep geological layers, the transfer of selenium-79 from groundwater to biosphere through irrigation is one of the scenarios considered by the ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). So, the soil would act as an interface between the geosphere and biosphere. Actually the model adopted to evaluate the element mobility in soil is based on a simple representation of its distribution between the quantity adsorbed on the soil and the amount remaining in the solution (KD model). Such distribution is considered as instantaneous, reversible and linear with the concentration of contamination. This model has some inadequacies with respect to selenium because this latter can be present in different redox states that control its mobility and whose transformation kinetics among states are poorly known (Se(-II), Se(0), Se(IV) and Se(VI)). In order to improve predictions on the mobility of selenium in soil, selenate (Se(VI)) - which is the most mobile form - has been used to study its interactions with respect to two different soils (soil B and soil R). A kinetic model, alternative to the K d model, has been developed to describe the evolution of stocks of Se(VI) in solution. This model considers that a fraction of selenium is associated with soil in a reversibly way (potentially mobile) and a portion of it is stabilized in soil (pseudo-irreversibly fixed). This model integrates on one hand, in the soil, kinetics of biotic and abiotic stabilization and on the other hand, in solution, a reduction kinetic. With the goal of acquiring the parameters of the models, various experiments using dialysis bags have been effectuated, both in batch and with open-flow reactors. The parameter acquisition has allowed kinetic and K d models to be compared in different realistic scenarios of contamination (chronic or sequential) of a surface soil with 79 Se(VI). In addition, the sorption mechanisms of Se(VI) have been

  10. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcoconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P

  11. Background electrolytes and pH effects on selenate adsorption using iron-impregnated granular activated carbon and surface binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Gang, Daniel Dianchen; McDonald, Louis; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2018-03-01

    Iron-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) has been shown effective for selenite adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions, but similar effectiveness was not observed with selenate. This study examined the effects of background electrolytes and pH on selenate adsorption on to Fe-GAC, and surface bindings to elucidate the selenate adsorption mechanisms. The decrease magnitude of selenate adsorption capacity under three background electrolytes followed the order: LiCl > NaCl > KCl, as ionic strength increased from 0.01 to 0.1 M. Larger adsorption capacity differences among the three electrolytes were observed under the higher ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 M) than those under 0.01 M. Multiplet peak fittings of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra for O1s and Fe2p 3/2 indicated the presence of iron (III) on adsorbent surface. pH variations during the adsorbent preparation within 3-8 in NaCl solutions did not cause appreciable changes in the iron redox state and composition. Raman spectra showed the formation of both monodentate and bidentate inner sphere complexes under pHs adsorption under alkaline conditions. Mechanisms for monodentate and bidentate formations and a stable six-member ring structure were proposed. Two strategies were recommended for modifying Fe-GAC preparation procedure to enhance the selenate adsorption: (1) mixed-metal oxide coatings to increase the point of zero charge (pH zpc ); and (2) ferrous iron coating to initially reduce selenate followed by selenite adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 resistance of selenite and selenate oxy-anions: accumulation, localisation and transformation of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoscan, L.

    2007-06-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for the living organisms but it is very toxic at high concentration. Selenite and selenate oxides, soluble forms, highly toxic and bio-assimilable, are the most prevalent forms in the environment. Some soil micro-organisms play a dominant role and contribute to the natural cycle of selenium. Our study model, Cupriavidus (formerly Ralstonia) metallidurans CH34, a telluric bacterium characteristic of metal-contaminated biotopes, is known to resist selenite by reducing it into elemental selenium, an insoluble and less toxic form of selenium. In order to better understand the mechanisms of selenium reduction in the bacteria, three methods of speciation were combined (XAS (XANES and EXAFS), HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGEPIXE). They were completed by the direct quantification of selenium accumulated in the bacteria. Speciation analyses highlighted the existence of two mechanisms of reduction of selenium oxides in C. metallidurans CH34. Assimilation transforms selenite and selenate into organic selenium, identified as seleno-methionine and leads to its non-specific incorporation into bacterial proteins (presence of selenious proteins). Detoxication precipitates selenite in nano-particles of elemental selenium. This way of detoxication is not set up after an exposure to selenate although it is nevertheless possible to detect elemental selenium but in very small amount compared to the exposure of selenite. Seleno-diglutathion is detected in bacteria stressed by an exposure to selenate in medium limited in sulphate. Bacteria exposed to selenite accumulate 25 times more selenium than when they are exposed to selenate. The study of mutants resistant to selenite, which do not express the membrane protein DedA, showed that the accumulation of selenium after exposure to selenite is decreased compared with the wild strain meaning probable link between the transport of selenite and the DedA protein. Finally, selenate would use the sulphate permease

  13. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  14. An optional focusing SELENE extension to conventional neutron guides: A case study for the ESS instrument BIFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.B., E-mail: uhansen@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bertelsen, M. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Stahn, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lefmann, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-04-21

    The high brilliance at the European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with much smaller samples than at present neutron facilities and in much more complex sample environments. However the higher flux also results in higher background from unwanted neutrons not originating from scattering of the sample. We here present a new design idea for beam delivery, where a 165 m ballistic guide system with good transport properties is followed by a 4–8 m SELENE guide system similar to Montel optics used for X-ray optics. We have investigated the system by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using McStas. We show that under certain conditions, this set-up works surprisingly well, with a brilliance transfer of 20–60% for neutrons of wavelength 4 Å and above. We demonstrate that the guide system is able to focus the beam almost perfectly onto samples sizes in the range of 0.1–2 mm. We furthermore show that our SELENE system is insensitive to gravity and to realistic values of guide waviness. We argue that this guide system can be useful as an optional guide insert when small samples are used in the vicinity of bulky sample environment, e.g. for high-field or high-pressure experiments.

  15. Investigation of stacked elemental layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film preparation by rapid thermal selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Christiane; Ohland, Joerg; Mikolajczak, Ulf; Madena, Thomas; Keller, Jan; Parisi, Juergen; Hammer, Maria; Riedel, Ingo [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Rapid thermal selenization of pure metallic (Cu-In-Ga) or selenium-containing (Cu-In-Ga-Se) precursors is a favorable method to fabricate Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films for application in thin film solar cells. Because of its upscaling potential and the short process time it is a promising approach for the fabrication of CIGSe photovoltaic modules on industrial scale. As a preliminary work for prospective plasma-enhanced selenization of stacked elemental layers (SEL) the elements copper, indium and gallium were sequentially deposited on molybdenum coated soda-lime glass by thermal evaporation. The stacking order was varied and the precursors were annealed with different heating rates. Morphology, elemental depth distribution and phases of the layers were investigated before and after annealing using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore the influence of different heating rates on phase transitions during annealing was studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction.

  16. Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, San; Sharma, Rahul; Sim, Jae-Kwan [Semiconductor Materials Processing Laboratory, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Deokjin-dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheul-Ro, E-mail: crlee7@jbnu.ac.kr [Semiconductor Materials Processing Laboratory, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Deokjin-dong 664-14, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Systematic band gap engineering to fabricate tandem Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorption layers. ► XRD shows prominent (1 1 2) reflection shift for attributed CIS, CIGS, and CGS phases. ► Optical transmittance and reflectance spectrum are improved towards infrared region. ► The Cu/In + Ga and Ga/In + Ga effect is matched with highest efficient solar cell. ► Tandem CIS/CIGS/CGS layer, the band gap is increased from 1.15 to 2.06 eV. -- Abstract: Band gap engineering was executed to fabricate a multi-junction stacked i.e. tandem Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorption layer. The CIGS absorption layers consist of multi-junction stacked CIS/CIGS/CGS thin films from bottom to top with increasing band gap. Tandem CIGS layers were fabricated by using three precursor of CuIn, In/CuGa/In, and CuGa onto the Mo coated soda-lime glass (SLG) by the sequential sputtering of CuIn, CuGa, and In targets. The CIG precursors were converted into CIGS absorption thin film by selenization process. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of CIS/CIGS/CGS tandem layer, with the prominent peak shift for (1 1 2) reflections was attributed to the individual CIS, CIGS, and CGS phases at 26.76°, 27.15°, and 27.65° diffraction angles, respectively. The morphologies and atomic (at%) composition uniformity onto the surface and along the depth were extensively analyzed with field effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) attached energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance and absorbance were found to improve in the infrared region for all the tandem CIGS layers. Near the fundamental absorption edge, the absorption coefficient was approached to 10{sup 5} cm{sup −1} for CIS/CIGS/CGS tandem layer. The straight-line behavior indicates that the films have a direct band gap. The band gap was found to increase from 1.15 to 1.74 eV with the Ga-grading along the depth of individual CIS, CIGS

  17. Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, San; Sharma, Rahul; Sim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Systematic band gap engineering to fabricate tandem Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorption layers. ► XRD shows prominent (1 1 2) reflection shift for attributed CIS, CIGS, and CGS phases. ► Optical transmittance and reflectance spectrum are improved towards infrared region. ► The Cu/In + Ga and Ga/In + Ga effect is matched with highest efficient solar cell. ► Tandem CIS/CIGS/CGS layer, the band gap is increased from 1.15 to 2.06 eV. -- Abstract: Band gap engineering was executed to fabricate a multi-junction stacked i.e. tandem Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorption layer. The CIGS absorption layers consist of multi-junction stacked CIS/CIGS/CGS thin films from bottom to top with increasing band gap. Tandem CIGS layers were fabricated by using three precursor of CuIn, In/CuGa/In, and CuGa onto the Mo coated soda-lime glass (SLG) by the sequential sputtering of CuIn, CuGa, and In targets. The CIG precursors were converted into CIGS absorption thin film by selenization process. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of CIS/CIGS/CGS tandem layer, with the prominent peak shift for (1 1 2) reflections was attributed to the individual CIS, CIGS, and CGS phases at 26.76°, 27.15°, and 27.65° diffraction angles, respectively. The morphologies and atomic (at%) composition uniformity onto the surface and along the depth were extensively analyzed with field effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) attached energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance and absorbance were found to improve in the infrared region for all the tandem CIGS layers. Near the fundamental absorption edge, the absorption coefficient was approached to 10 5 cm −1 for CIS/CIGS/CGS tandem layer. The straight-line behavior indicates that the films have a direct band gap. The band gap was found to increase from 1.15 to 1.74 eV with the Ga-grading along the depth of individual CIS, CIGS, and CGS thin films

  18. Effect of different rates of potassium fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and cotton yield using an 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Chamma'a, M.; Al-Ain, F.

    2005-03-01

    A field study was carried out during the 2003 growing season on a loamy to sandy clay loamy soil, located at the Lower Euphrate's Valley, 15 km southeast of Deir - Ezzor city to evaluate the effect of K fertilizer on nitrogen , potassium use efficiency and cotton yield. Three nitrogen ( N1 =120, N2 =180, and N3 = 240 kg N / ha ) and four potassium application rates ( K0 = 0 , K1 = 50, K2 = 100, K3 = 150 kg K2O / ha ) were employed. The cotton variety was Deir 22 sown on April 2003 at a spacing of 70 cm between rows and 20 cm between pits with 5 seeds per pit. The plants were thinned to 2 plants per pit 4 weeks after planting. Representative samples of aboveground portions of cotton plants were harvested from labeled subplots at 108 and 161 days after planting . Dry matter weight , N uptake, N fertilizer yield, N use efficiency, K use efficiency, seed cotton yield, earliness, leaf area, number of bolls / plant, and number of branches / plant were evaluated. The results showed that seed cotton yield increased with increasing K levels applied under each rate of N ( except N120 ). The highest seed cotton yield was obtained with the combined treatment N3K1 ( 6442 kg/ha ). This treatment gave also the optimum potassium use efficiency ( 42 % ). Nitrogen use efficiency (at 180 days of harvest ) increased with the increasing K application rate. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was decreased with increasing N rates . Increasing K application rate ( KUE ) decreased potassium use efficiency. A maximum N use efficiency ( 98% ) was obtained for combined treatment N2 K3. Also the results indicated that dry matter weight and N uptake increased with increasing K rates applied. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff ) was higher in combined treatments than the control treatments (K0 ). (Authors)

  19. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  20. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  1. Selenized milk casein in the diet of BALB/c nude mice reduces growth of intramammary MCF-7 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrington, Jenny M; Kim, Julie JM; Stahel, Priska; Cieslar, Scott RL; Moorehead, Roger A; Coomber, Brenda L; Corredig, Milena; Cant, John P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary selenium has the potential to reduce growth of mammary tumors. Increasing the Se content of cows’ milk proteins is a potentially effective means to increase Se intake in humans. We investigate the effects of selenized milk protein on human mammary tumor progression in immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice. Four isonitrogenous diets with selenium levels of 0.16, 0.51, 0.85 and 1.15 ppm were formulated by mixing low- and high-selenium milk casein isolates with a rodent premix. MCF-7 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c nude mice implanted with slow-release 17 β-estradiol pellets. Mice with palpable tumors were randomly assigned to one of the four diets for 10 weeks, during which time weekly tumor caliper measurements were conducted. Individual growth curves were fit with the Gompertz equation. Apoptotic cells and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were determined. There was a linear decrease in mean tumor volume at 70 days with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05), where final tumor volume decreased 35% between 0.16 and 1.15 ppm Se. There was a linear decrease in mean predicted tumor volume at 56, 63 and 70 days, and the number of tumors with a final volume above 500 mm 3 , with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05). This tumor volume effect was associated with a decrease in the proportion of tumors with a maximum growth rate above 0.03 day -1 . The predicted maximum volume of tumors (V max ) and the number of tumors with a large V max , were not affected by Se-casein. Final tumor mass, Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were not significantly affected by Se-casein. There was a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in high-Se tumors as compared to low-Se tumors. Taken together, these results suggest that turnover of cells in the tumor, but not its nutrient supply, were affected by dairy Se. We have shown that 1.1 ppm dietary Se from selenized casein can effectively reduce tumor progression in an MCF-7

  2. Effect of different rates of potassium fertilizer and soil moisture on nitrogen and potassium use efficiencies and tomato yield using an 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Chamma'a, M.

    2005-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of tomato to 4 potassium rates (0, 90, 120, 150 kg K 2 O/ha), one rate of N (150 kg/ha) and two irrigation regimes 65 % and 85 % of field capacity (FC) on yield and the efficient use of N and K fertilizers. Results showed that dry matter yield was positively correlated with the rate of K fertilizer applied under the two irrigation regimes. However the increase in production of fruits and dry matter was higher at the 85% FC. The K-uptake in fruit and whole plant increased with increasing K application levels and was higher at the 85 % but the opposite was observed in shoots and roots. Potassium use efficiency increased with increasing K levels at the two irrigation regimes and the values were higher at the 85 %. The nitrogen use efficiency in shoots, roots , fruits and the whole plant increased with increasing K levels and was highest at the 85 % FC and 150 kg K 2 O/ ha fertilizer rate. (Authors)

  3. [Pb2F2](SeO4): a heavier analogue of grandreefite, the first layered fluoride selenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Plokhikh, Igor V.; Zadoya, Anastasiya I.; Kazakov, Sergey M.; Zaloga, Alexander N.; Kozin, Michael S.; Depmeier, Wulf; Siidra, Oleg I.

    2018-01-01

    Co-precipitation of PbF2 and PbSeO4 in weakly acidic media results in the formation of [Pb2F2](SeO4), the selenate analogue of the naturally occurring mineral grandreefite, [Pb2F2](SO4). The new compound is monoclinic, C2/ c, a = 14.0784(2) Å, b = 4.6267(1) Å, c = 8.8628(1) Å, β = 108.98(1)°, V = 545.93(1) Å3. Its structure has been refined from powder data to R B = 1.55%. From thermal studies, it is established that the compound is stable in air up to about 300 °C, after which it gradually converts into a single phase with composition [Pb2O](SeO4), space group C2/ m, and lattice parameters a = 14.0332(1) Å, b = 5.7532(1) Å, c = 7.2113(1) Å, β = 115.07(1)°, V = 527.37(1) Å3. It is the selenate analogue of lanarkite, [Pb2O](SO4), and phoenicochroite, [Pb2O](CrO4), and its crystal structure was refined to R B = 1.21%. The formation of a single decomposition product upon heating in air suggests that this happens by a thermal hydrolysis mechanism, i.e., Pb2F2SeO4 + H2O (vapor) → Pb2OSeO4 + 2HF↑. This relatively low-temperature process involves complete rearrangement of the crystal structure—from a 2D architecture featuring slabs [Pb2F2]2+ formed by fluorine-centered tetrahedra into a structure characterized by 1D motifs based on [OPb2]2+ chains of oxocentered tetrahedra. The comparative crystal chemistry of the obtained anion-centered structural architectures is discussed.

  4. Growth and yield of cucumber as influenced by compost and nitrogen fertilizer in sandy soils using the nuclear technique for determination of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, M.F.A.

    2005-01-01

    this study was carried out during the period from 2002 to 2003 seasons, at the department of plant research, Nuclear Research Center (NRC,) Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Egypt, on cucumber plants c.v. dp007 F1 (wafer). the main objective of this work was to study the effect of compost type, application level and nitrogen rate on vegetative growth, chemical composition, early and total yield and to determine the fertilizer nitrogen uptake and utilization by the cucumber plant and its parts, i.e., shoots and fruits . results revealed that the sugar cane bagasse compost (SC) gave a significantly higher response with most vegetative growth expressed as plant length, leaf number and dry weight of cucumber plant, compared with beet compost (BC). the application of compost from 2 up to 6 ton/fed

  5. Formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films from metal sulfide and selenide precursor nanocrystals by gas-phase selenization, an in-situ XRD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, B., E-mail: boris.capon@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dierick, R. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hens, Z. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Center for Nano and Biophotonics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-08-01

    In this work phase pure CuInSe{sub 2} thin flms were obtained by selenization of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals and mixtures of binary nanocrystals such as CuS, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. The temperature of the selenium source was kept at 400 °C during selenization. Monitoring the process using in-situ x-ray diffraction, the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor film was investigated. Whereas CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibit little grain growth, we found that mixtures of binary nanocrystals can show significant sintering depending on the reaction conditions. For the mixture of CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals, the crystallinity and the morphology of the obtained fims strongly depends on the Cu/In ratio, with a Cu excess strongly promoting grain growth. With mixtures of Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals the selenium partial pressure plays a crucial role. Selenium evaporation from the mixed compounds results in CuInSe{sub 2} films composed of relatively small crystallites. Higher selenium partial pressures however resulted in improved sintering. Incomplete propagation of the selenization reaction through the layer was observed though, only leading to a well sintered CuInSe{sub 2} top layer above a fine grained bottom layer. - Highlights: • Different types of colloidal nanocrystals were used as precursors to obtain CuInSe{sub 2} films by gas-phase selenization. • In-situ XRD was used to study the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor films. • For a mixture of binary metal sulfides the crystallinity and the morphology strongly depend on the Cu/In ratio. • Higher selenium partial pressures result in improved sintering for a mixture of binary metal selenides.

  6. Moisture content prediction in poultry litter using artificial intelligence techniques and Monte Carlo simulation to determine the economic yield from energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Contreras, José Octavio; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto Alfonso; Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Andrés, Jhony Josué; Cid-Chama, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process. Estimates of poultry litter production and heating value are made based on 4 different moisture content percentages (scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%), and then a risk analysis is proposed using the Monte Carlo simulation to select the best investment alternative and to estimate the environmental impact for greenhouse gas mitigation. The results show that dry poultry litter (25%) is slightly better for combustion, generating 3.20% more energy. Reducing moisture from 40% to 25% involves considerable economic investment due to the purchase of equipment to reduce moisture; thus, when calculating financial indicators, the 40% scenario is the most attractive, as it is the current scenario. Thus, this methodology proposes a technology approach based on the use of advanced tools to predict moisture and representation of the system (Monte Carlo simulation), where the variability and uncertainty of the system are accurately represented. Therefore, this methodology is considered generic for any bioenergy generation system and not just for the poultry sector, whether it uses combustion or another type of technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} solar cells by low-temperature co-evaporation and following selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao, E-mail: chao.gao@kit.edu; Hetterich, Michael [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schnabel, Thomas; Abzieher, Tobias; Ahlswede, Erik [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, Michael [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Light Technology Institute (LTI), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films are prepared by a two-step method which involves co-evaporation of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se on molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass at low substrate temperature and a following selenization. Solar cells with efficiencies of up to 6.5% can be achieved. The influence of the selenium deposition rates during co-evaporation and the nitrogen pressure during selenization on the properties of the CZTSe films are investigated. It is found that these two parameters can significantly affect the morphology and crystallinity of the CZTSe films. The possible reasons for the experimental results are discussed.

  8. Selenium deficiency occurs in some patients with moderate-to-severe cirrhosis and can be corrected by administration of selenate but not selenomethionine: a randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Raymond F; Hill, Kristina E; Motley, Amy K; Byrne, Daniel W; Norsworthy, Brooke K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selenomethionine, which is the principal dietary form of selenium, is metabolized by the liver to selenide, which is the form of the element required for the synthesis of selenoproteins. The liver synthesizes selenium-rich selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and secretes it into the plasma to supply extrahepatic tissues with selenium. Objectives: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether cirrhosis is associated with functional selenium deficiency (the lack of selenium for the process of selenoprotein synthesis even though selenium intake is not limited) and, if it is, whether the deficiency is associated with impairment of selenomethionine metabolism. Design: Patients with Child-Pugh (C-P) classes A, B, and C (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively) cirrhosis were supplemented with a placebo or supranutritional amounts of selenium as selenate (200 or 400 μg/d) or as selenomethionine (200 μg/d) for 4 wk. Plasma SEPP1 concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the latter due largely to the selenoprotein GPX3 secreted by the kidneys, were measured before and after supplementation. Results: GPX activity was increased more by both doses of selenate than by the placebo in C-P class B patients. The activity was not increased more by selenomethionine supplementation than by the placebo in C-P class B patients. Plasma selenium was increased more by 400 μg Se as selenate than by the placebo in C-P class C patients. Within the groups who responded to selenate, there was a considerable variation in responses. Conclusion: These results indicate that severe cirrhosis causes mild functional selenium deficiency in some patients that is associated with impaired metabolism of selenomethionine. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00271245. PMID:26468123

  9. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic Moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW and 23º05'S, 44º30'W, Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91% specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957 was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955 showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  10. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: llrrtt@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • We present a highly efficient method for preparing WSe{sub 2} film by rapid selenization. • The W film phase composition has little effect on WSe{sub 2} film orientation. • W film density is a critical factor that influences the WSe{sub 2} orientation. • A growth model was proposed for two kinds of WSe{sub 2} film textures. - Abstract: The tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe{sub 2} is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe{sub 2} film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe{sub 2} film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe{sub 2} films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe{sub 2} film orientation. The WSe{sub 2} orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe{sub 2} film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe{sub 2} films. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor

  11. Report on the consultants meeting on identification of crop species/cultivars for drought and salinity tolerance for sustained crop yields by using nuclear techniques, in particular the carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants Meeting on Identification of Crop Species/Cultivars for Drought and Salinity Tolerance for Sustained Crop Yields by Using Nuclear Techniques, in Particular the Carbon Isotope Discrimination. was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 12-16 November 2001. This meeting was conducted in conjunction with a Group Meeting on Novel Approaches for Improving Crop Tolerance to Salinity and Drought. Five consultants from Australia, Mexico, Pakistan, UK and the USA and one representative from FAO attended the Consultant Meeting and nine participants from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Israel, Pakistan, South Africa and the USA attended the Group Meeting. First two days of the meeting consisted of five technical sessions during which the participants presented papers on various approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and the role of nuclear techniques in identification of plants tolerant to the above abiotic stresses. After the presentations, two working groups were formed: one consisting of the participants of the Consultants Meeting and the other the participants of the Group Meeting. The consultants proposed various strategies for using the carbon isotope discrimination technique as a selection tool for identifying higher yielding crop genotypes especially in wheat and rice cropping systems under drought and saline conditions. A proposal was formulated to address the above issues in a framework of a CRP. The participants of the Group Meeting reviewed conventional and molecular approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and research priorities were identified for future work on crop productivity improvement under the above stress factors. Recommendations of both working groups were presented at the final session of the meeting. This report provides the details of the proposal formulated by the consultants. Refs

  12. The Effect of E-Selen Antioxidant on the Fatty Acids Content of the Homogenate of Unirradiated and Irradiated Pupae of Ceratitis Capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.; Abbassy, S.A.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    As antioxidant E-selen was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90 Gy. The fatty acid contents of the normal and irradiated insects were analyzed to test to what extent, the uptake of the antioxidant will ameliorate the physiological damage induced to the medfly pupae, as a result of their exposure to irradiation. The results obtained by using Gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters, showed the palmitic and oleic acids to be the most predominant fatty acids in all pupal homogenates in both normal and irradiated pupae, either by the uptake of doses of the E-selen or without. The uptake of E-Selen with a dose of 0.3 mg led to a complete absence of the lauric and myristic acids in the homogenates of the unirradiated pupae of the medfly. This absence of lauric and myristic acids was accompanied by a decrease in the concentrations of the palmitic and linoleic acids reaching 25.17% and 32.98%, respectively as compared to pupae without the uptake of antioxidant. The concentrations of both the stearic and oleic acids showed an obvious increment reaching 199.22% and 58.94%, respectively, relative to those reared on the defined media and no added E.Selen. Exposure of the pupae to a dose of 90 Gy, resulted in an increment in the concentrations of the saturated lauric and myristic acid reaching 96.77% and 34.07%, respectively, relative to the untreated ones. While, at the same dose level, there were decrements in the concentrations of the palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids with percentages reaching 6.4, 9.22, 3.65 and 1.15%, respectively as compared to unirradiated controls. Irradiation of the pupae with sterilizing dose (90 Gy) after up taking the E-Selen in their larval diets, led to the increase of the concentrations of lauric, oleic and linoleic acids by ratios of 16.82, 8.84 and 29.26%, respectively as compared to their

  13. Study of Pitch Attitude Estimation Using a High-Definition TV (HDTV) Camera on the Japanese Lunar Explorer SELENE (KAGUYA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Konishi, Hisahiro; Maejima, Hironori; Sasaki, Susumu; Kato, Manabu; Mitsuhashi, Seiji; Tachino, Junichi

    The lunar explorer SELENE (also called KAGUYA) carried thirteen scientific mission instruments to reveal the origin and evolution of Moon and to investigate the possible future utilization of Moon. In addition to the scientific instruments, a high-definition TV (HDTV) camera provided by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) was carried on KAGUYA to promote public outreach. We usually use housekeeping telemetry data to derive the satellite attitude along with orbital determination and propagated information. However, it takes time to derive this information, since orbital determination and propagation calculation require the use of the orbital model. When a malfunction of the KAGUYA reaction wheel occurred, we could not have correct attitude information. This means that we don’t have a correct orbital determination in timely fashion. However, when we checked HDTV movies, we found that horizon information on the lunar surface derived from HDTV moving images as a horizon sensor was very useful for the detection of the attitude of KAGUYA. We then compared this information with the attitude information derived from orbital telemetry to validate the accuracy of the HDTV derived estimation. As a result of this comparison, there are good pitch attitude estimation using HDTV derived estimation and we could estimate the pitch angle change during the KAGUYA mission operation simplify and quickly. In this study, we show the usefulness of this HDTV camera as a horizon sensor.

  14. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  15. Sneaking of the Solar Wind Ions Into the Lunar Anti-subsolar Region Revealed by SELENE (Kaguya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M. N.; Fujimoto, M.; Saito, Y.; Shoichiro, Y.; Asamura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Maezawa, K.; Terasawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    The moon spends more than 80 percent of its life staying in the solar wind (SW), where a quasi-vacuum region called the lunar wake is formed on the night side. The SW electrons with higher energy can come to the lunar night-side surface, while it has been thought that the SW ions are unlikely to approach the low altitude region on the night side because their thermal speed is much lower than the SW bulk speed. Here we show detection of SW ions sneaking into the anti-subsolar region at ~100 km altitude, using recent comprehensive measurement by a Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya). The sneaking of SW ions into the deepest lunar wake was accompanied by an enhancement of counter-streaming electrons along the SW magnetic field. A part of the ions detected in the anti-subsolar region came from the lunar surface, which means that the ions of solar wind origin reflected at the night-side surface. One possibility is that electron- rich wake environment strengthened the bipolar electric field at the wake boundary to let solar-wind ions approach the lunar night side, and the other scenario is that enhancement of ions in the wake let ambient electrons to come in. The sneaking mechanism of the solar wind ions in terms of plasma and electromagnetic environment around/inside the lunar wake will be discussed.

  16. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  17. Coupled Effect of Ferrous Ion and Oxygen on the Electron Selectivity of Zerovalent Iron for Selenate Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hejie; Li, Jinxiang; Yang, Hongyi; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Guan, Xiaohong

    2017-05-02

    Although the electron selectivity (ES) of zerovalent iron (ZVI) for target contaminant and its utilization ratio (UR) decide the removal capacity of ZVI, little effort has been made to improve them. Taking selenate [Se(VI)] as a target contaminant, this study investigated the coupled influence of aeration gas and Fe(II) on the ES and UR of ZVI. Oxygen was necessary for effective removal of Se(VI) by ZVI without Fe(II) addition. Due to the application of 1.0 mM Fe(II), the ES of ZVI was increased from 3.2-3.6% to 6.2-6.8% and the UR of ZVI was improved by 5.0-19.4% under aerobic conditions, which resulted in a 100-180% increase in the Se(VI) removal capacity by ZVI. Se(VI) reduction by Fe 0 was a heterogeneous redox reaction, and the enrichment of Se(VI) on ZVI surface was the first step of electron transfer from Fe 0 core to Se(VI). Oxygen promoted the generation of iron (hydr)oxides, which facilitated the enrichment of Se(VI) on the ZVI particle surface. Therefore, the high oxygen fraction (25-50%) in the purging gas resulted in only a slight decrease in the ES of ZVI. Fe(II) addition resulted in a pH drop and promoted the generation of lepidocrocite and magnetite, which benefited Se(VI) adsorption and the following electron transfer from underlying Fe 0 to surface-located Se(VI).

  18. Selenium Accumulation Characteristics and Biofortification Potentiality in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Supplied with Selenite or Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans. About 70% of the regions in China, including most of the Tibetan Plateau, are faced with Se deficiency problems. Turnip is mainly distributed around the Tibetan Plateau and is one of the few local crops. In the present study, we compared the absorption and translocation differences of Se (IV selenite and Se (VI selenate in turnip. The results showed that Se treatment, either by soil addition (0.2–2 mg Se kg−1 dry soil or by foliar spraying (50–200 mg L−1 Se, could significantly increase the Se concentrations in turnips, and 0.5 mg Se (IV or Se (VI kg−1 dry matter in soils could improve the biomasses of turnips. Moreover, turnip absorbed significantly more Se (VI than Se (IV at the same concentration and also transferred much more Se (VI from roots to leaves. Based on the Se concentrations, as well as the bioconcentration factors and translocation coefficients, we considered that turnip might be a potential Se indicator plant. Subsequently, we estimated the daily Se intake for adults based on the Se concentrations in turnip roots. The results indicated that Se (IV should be more suitable as an artificial Se fertilizer for turnips, although the levels found in most samples in this study could cause selenosis to humans. In addition, we also estimated the optimum and maximum Se concentrations for treating turnips based on the linear relations between Se concentrations in turnip roots and Se treatment concentrations. The results provided preliminary and useful information about Se biofortification in turnips.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM SELENITE AND SELENIZED YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION INTO DIET FOR LAYING HENS ON SELECTED QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIETA ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with sodium selenite (SS or selenized yeast (SY on whole egg and egg shell quality of layers were studied. The chickens of Shaver Starcross 288 strain were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 4 groups (n=12; in each. The birds were fed from Day 1 of life to 9 months of age with diets differing in amounts and/or forms of selenium. Control group received basal diet (BD containing selenium naturally occurring in feeds (0.1 mg Se/kg of dry matter (DM. First and second experimental group of chickens were fed with a same BD enriched with equivalent dose of Se 0.4 mg/kg DM in form of sodium selenite or selenized yeast, respectively. The feed for third experimental group of birds consisted of BD supplemented with selenized yeast to the final amount of selenium 1.0 mg/kg DM. The egg weight was significantly higher in the groups with SY supplementation only. On the contrary the egg shell ratio was significantly lower in the groups with SY supplementation in both amounts. The width of egg was significantly increased in the groups with selenium supplementation in both forms. The value of egg shell strength was significantly decreased in group with SY in the highest amount 0.9 mg/kg DM The average egg shell thickness was the highest in the experimental group with Se-yeast in amount 0.9 mg/kg DM, however different was not significant compared with control group. The results showed that the most of selected parameters of egg quality appeared to be significantly influenced by selenium supplementation into laying hen’s basal diet.

  20. Effect of selenization time on the structural and morphological properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films absorber layers using two step growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Peter C.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work two step growth process was used to prepare Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film for solar cell applications. The first step involves deposition of Cu-In-Ga precursor films followed by the selenization process under vacuum using elemental selenium vapor to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film. The growth process was done at a fixed temperature of 515 °C for 45, 60 and 90 min to control film thickness and gallium incorporation into the absorber layer film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film for all the three samples and no secondary phases were observed. A shift in the diffraction peaks to higher 2θ (2 theta) values is observed for the thin films compared to that of pure CuInSe2. The surface morphology of the resulting film grown for 60 min was characterized by the presence of uniform large grain size particles, which are typical for device quality material. Photoluminescence spectra show the shifting of emission peaks to higher energies for longer duration of selenization attributed to the incorporation of more gallium into the CuInSe2 crystal structure. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the surface of the film. The elemental ratio of Cu/(In + Ga) and Se/Cu + In + Ga strongly depends on the selenization time. The Cu/In + Ga ratio for the 60 min film is 0.88 which is in the range of the values (0.75-0.98) for best solar cell device performances.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure of hydrogen selenates K(HSeO4)(H2SeO4) and Cs(HSeO4)(H2SeO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, S.I.; Morozov, I.V.; Zakharov, M.A.; Kemnitz, E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen selenates of the compositions K(HSeO 4 )(H 2 SeO 4 ) and Cs(HSeO 4 )(H 2 SeO 4 ) are synthesized by the reaction of alkali metal carbonates with an excess of the concentrated selenic acid. The X-ray diffraction study showed that both compounds are isostructural to the corresponding hydrogen sulfates. The difference in the systems of hydrogen bonding are caused by various combinations of the acceptor functions of the oxygen atoms in the HSeO 4 and H 2 SeO 4 groups

  2. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  3. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  4. Selenization of mixed metal oxides for dense and ZnSe-free Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} absorber films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yitao; Chen, Guilin; Pan, Bin; Li, JianMin; Jiang, Guoshun; Liu, Weifeng, E-mail: liuwf@ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, Changfei, E-mail: cfzhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • ZnSe-free CZTSe films with large grains was prepared from mixed oxides nanopraticles. • Appearance of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} in mixed oxides precursors leads to the absence of ZnSe secondary phrase. • To obtain pure CZTSe phase, different treating temperature was used. -- Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) films were prepared by direct selenization of Cu{sub 2}O, SnO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} precursors. Oxides precursors were prepared by baking hydroxides precipitation. In order to obtain ZnSe-free CZTSe films, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} was used to replace separated ZnO and SnO{sub 2} as one of the precursors. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was found that CZTSe films, with micron-sized dense grains, were obtained in our work. From Raman spectra, it was also found that the ZnSe secondary phase was absent after the selenization. An energy bandgap about 0.86 eV was obtained in our work, which confirmed the Stannite-CZTSe structure.

  5. Estimates of matter yield and N-uptake in sorghum grown on saline and non-saline soils manured with dhaincha (sesbania aculeata) plant residues utilizing 15N tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-11-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of manuring with three types of plant residues (roots, shoots or roots plus shoots) of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata Pers.) on the yield and N-uptake of Sorghum bicolor grown in saline and non-saline soils. For measuring various sources of N-uptake, two isotopic dilution techniques were utilized by adding to these soils either 15 N-labelled inorganic N-fertilizer (indirect method) or 15 N-labelled sesbania leaves (direct method). For the indirect method, both soils manured with each type of sesbania residue, received four split applications of 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate. Results indicated that each type of sesbania residue, applied as a green manure, resulted in significant increases in both dry matter yield and N-uptake of sorghum as compared with the un manured control. Moreover, sesbania residues decreased the harmful effect of salinity on plant growth. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum grown in non saline soil ranged between 3.9 and 33%; whereas, in saline soil, the observed values ranged between 4.9 and 19.8%. N recoveries in sorghum grown in non saline soil were 61, 45 and 37% of the total amount contained in the sesbania root, shoot and root plus shoot; whereas, values in sorghum grown in saline soils were 48, 14,8 and 15.7%, respectively. The beneficial effects of sesbania residues have been attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to its effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake. Percentages and amounts of Ndfr calculated using the indirect method were not significantly different from those obtained by the direct method indicating that the indirect method used herein is feasible and simple for measuring N release from organic residues. It is suggested that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, particularly the shoots, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. Moreover, the use of sesbania green manure in

  6. Controlled formation of MoSe{sub 2} by MoN{sub x} thin film as a diffusion barrier against Se during selenization annealing for CIGS solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chan-Wook [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Core Research Facilities, DaeguGyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hangil [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Su [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Mo/MoN{sub x}/Mo multilayer was investigated as a back contact for CIGS solar cell. • The MoN{sub x} protected the underlying Mo layer during high temperature selenization. • The formation of MoSe{sub 2} layer was precisely controlled. • The diffusion barrier performance of MoN{sub x} against Se was evaluated using TEM analysis. - Abstract: This study investigated the interfacial reactions and electrical properties of a Mo single layer and Mo/MoN{sub x}/Mo multilayer during high temperature selenization annealing. The Mo single layer was converted easily to MoSe{sub 2}, which was 7 times thicker than the Mo layer consumed ∼900 nm, by selenization at 460 °C for 10 min and the sheet resistance increased 8 fold compared to that of the as-deposited Mo film. On the other hand, in the Mo/MoN{sub x}/Mo structure, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the MoSe{sub 2} transformation was localized only in the top Mo layer and the bottom Mo layer was completely unaffected, even after selenization at 560 °C. The sheet resistance of the multilayer was relatively unchanged by selenization. This suggests that the MoN{sub x} layer performed well as a diffusion barrier against Se and the thickness of MoSe{sub 2} can be controlled precisely by adjusting the top Mo layer thickness. Furthermore, TEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the selenized multilayer consisted of MoSe{sub 2}/Mo/MoN{sub x}/Mo, in which the top Mo layer of 60 nm was not fully converted to MoSe{sub 2} and 20 nm was left unreacted. The residual Mo interlayer located at the interface of MoSe{sub 2} and MoN{sub x} is believed to be beneficial for the ohmic contact of the selenized multilayer.

  7. Syntheses, structures, and IR spectroscopic characterization of new uranyl sulfate/selenate 1D-chain, 2D-sheet and 3D-framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Jie; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Ward, Matthew; Roback, Nancy; Burns, Peter C. [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Science, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Three uranyl sulfates, (C{sub 6}H{sub 20}N{sub 4})[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2} . (SO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](H{sub 2}O){sub 6} (TETAUS), (C{sub 15}H{sub 14}N{sub 3})[(UO{sub 2}) . (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (TPUS), and K{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] . H{sub 2}O (KUS), and two uranyl selenates, K(H{sub 3}O)[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2} . (SeO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O){sub 6} (KUSe) and (H{sub 3}O){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3} . (H{sub 2}O)] (USe), were synthesized by slow evaporation of aqueous solutions at room temperature. TETAUS crystallizes in space group P anti 1, a = 6.7186(5) A, b = 9.2625(7) A, c = 13.1078(9) A, {alpha} = 72.337(2) , {beta} = 89.198(2) , {gamma} = 70.037(1) , V = 726.89(9) A{sup 3}, Z = 1. TPUS is triclinic, P anti 1, a = 6.9732(7) A, b = 13.569(1) A, c = 13.641(1) A, {alpha} = 111.809(2) , {beta} = 102.386(2) , {gamma} = 93.833(2) , V = 1150.0(2) A{sup 3}, Z = 2. KUS is orthorhombic, Cmca, a = 12.171(2) A, b = 16.689(3) A, c = 10.997(2) A, V = 2233.8(6) A{sup 3}, Z = 8. These uranyl sulfates are built from infinite one-dimensional uranyl sulfate chains with different topologies. KUSe is monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n, a = 14.715(1) A, b = 10.1557(7) A, c = 15.833(1) A, {beta} = 114.415(1) , V = 2154.5(3) A{sup 3}, Z = 4. Its structure is based on a two-dimensional uranyl selenate sheet. USe crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 10.6124(2) A, b = 14.7717(3) A, c = 13.7139(3) A, {beta} = 96.989(1) , V = 2133.86(8) A{sup 3}, Z = 4, with a complex three-dimensional uranyl selenate framework containing channels extending in three directions. (orig.)

  8. Structure of caesium selenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, F.J.; Breczewski, T.; Arnaiz, A.

    1991-01-01

    Cs 2 SeO 4 , M 4 =408.77, orthorhombic, Pnam, a=8.3777 (8), b=11.276 (2), c=6.434 (2) A, V=607.8 (2) A 3 , Z=4, D x =4.46 Mg m -3 , MoKα, λ=0.71069 A, μ=185.06 cm -1 , F(000)=704, T=293 K, R=0.048, 3348 observed reflections. Average values of the Se-O and Cs-O distances are 1.637 (4) and 3.387 (3) A, respectively [range 3.038 (5)-3.872 (6) A with 9 and 11 coordination of caesium by oxygen]. (orig.)

  9. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  10. Chiral speciation and determination of selenomethionine enantiomers in selenized yeast by ligand-exchange micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jiankun; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2012-12-14

    A new phenylalanine derivative (L-N-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-phenylalanine, L-HP-Phe) was synthesized and its chelate with Cu(II) (Cu(II)-(L-HP-Phe)(2)) was used as the chiral selector for the ligand-exchange (LE) chiral separation of D,L-selenomethionine (SeMet) in selenized yeast samples by micelle electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). In order to improve the sensitivity of MEKC-UV, two-step preconcentration strategy was employed, off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and on-line large volume sample stacking (LVSS). D,L-SeMet was first retained on the Cu(II) loaded mesoporous TiO(2), then eluted by 0.1 mL of 5 mol L(-1) ammonia, and finally introduced for MEKC-UV analysis by LVSS injection after evaporation of NH(3). With the enrichment factors of 1400 and 1378, the LODs of 0.44 and 0.60 ng mL(-1) for L-SeMet and D-SeMet was obtained, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of D,L-SeMet in a certified reference material of SELM-1 and a commercial nutrition yeast, and the results showed that most of SeMet in the SELM-1 selenized yeast was l isomer and the recovery for L and D isomers in the spiked commercial nutrition yeast was 96.3% and 103%, respectively. This method is featured with low running cost, high sensitivity and selectivity, and exhibits application potential in chiral analysis of seleno amino acids in real world samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  12. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  13. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  14. Studies on production techniques of some herb plants: I Effect of Agryl P17 mulching on herb yield and volatile oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hälvä

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Agryl P17 fiber-mulching of cold-sensitive herbal plants, basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and marjoram (Origanum majorana L., were studied at three locations in Finland (1984—1985. The growing sites were Helsinki (60° 14' N, Sahalahti (61° 28' N, and Inari (69° 04' N for both species in 1984, and Helsinki for marjoram in 1985. Agryl P17 mulching increased basil yield at all locations. The uncovered basil yielded approximately 54 kg/100 m2 and when grown under the mulch, more than three fold, 191 kg/ 100m2. In the north (Inari, however, basil and marjoram did not give practically any yield. Marjoram did not benefit from mulching either in the south: the yield was 96 kg without and 80 kg/100m2 with mulching. The vegetation under the mulch was severely affected by fungus diseases. The volatile oil content in the dried basil herb ranged from 0.46 to 0.93 %. There were no significant differences in the total oil content whether basil was grown with or without Agryl P17. The oil content in marjoram ranged from 1.94 to 2.55 % the total content being significantly higher when grown under the cover.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Cu(In,GaSe2 Thin Films by Selenization of Cu0.8Ga0.2 and In2Se3 Precursor Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se-containing precursor films with two different compositions were prepared by magnetron sputtering from and targets, and then were selenized using Se vapor. The effects of precursor composition and selenization temperature on the film properties were investigated. The results show that Se phase plays a critical role in film growth and electrical properties of CIGS films. The Cu-rich films exhibit different surface morphology and better crystallinity, as compared to the Cu-poor films. All the CIGS films exhibit p-type conductivity. The resistivity of the Cu-rich films is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Cu-poor films, which is attributed to the presence of p-type highly conductive Se phase.

  16. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new neodymium(III) selenate-selenite: Nd2(SeO4)(SeO3)2(H2O)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Meiling; Mao Jianggao

    2005-01-01

    The title new neodymium(III) selenate-selenite was obtained by hydrothermal reactions of neodymium(III) oxide, H 2 SeO 4 and 1,10-phenanthroline at 140 o C. Its structure was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with cell parameters of a = 12.258(2) A, b 7.1024(15) A, c = 13.391(3) A, β = 104.250(2) o . The structure of Nd 2 (SeO 4 )(SeO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 is isomorphous with that of Er 2 (SeO 4 )(SeO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 , which was refined in the monoclinic space group C2 with the disordered selenate group. It features an ordered 3D network with channels along b-axis. The selenate or selenite groups alone can form a 2D layer with the Nd(III) ions. IR spectrum, TGA and luminescent studies have also been performed

  17. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  18. Comparing the influence of selenite (Se4+) and selenate (Se6+) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to pak choi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Dinh, Quang Toan; Cui, Zeiwei; Huang, Jie; Wang, Dan; Wei, Tianjiao; Liang, Dongli; Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Selenite (Se (IV)) and selenate (Se (IV)) have recently been demonstrated to be equally effective in inhibiting mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to plants. This assertion is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effects of Se species (Se 4+ and Se 6+ ) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) bioavailability to pak choi in dry land. Pot experiments with exposure to different dosages of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) or selenate (Na 2 SeO 4 ) were treated. To compare the influence of Se (IV) and Se (VI) on the bioaccumulation and bioavailability of Hg, the levels of total Hg in different pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues (roots and shoots) and the distribution changes of Hg fractions in soil before planting and after harvest were determined as well as the Hg I R values in soils (relative binding intensity) were analyzed. Results showed that application Se (IV) reduced the concentrations of Hg in pak choi roots more than Se (VI). Hg concentrations were also decreased in pak choi shoots in Se (IV) treatments, while which notably increased in Se (VI) treatments. Thus, Se (IV) plays a more important role than Se (VI) in limiting the absorption and bioaccumulation of Hg in pak choi. Moreover, this inhibition may only significantly occur when Se (IV) is at an appropriate level (2.5mg/kg). In addition, the good correlations between the proportions of mobile Hg fractions (soluble and exchangeable fractions), I R values with the Hg concentrations in plants were observed. This affirmed the importance of the Hg fractions transformation and the I R indicator of Hg in the assessment of their bioavailability. Our findings regarding the importance of Se (IV) influence in reducing Hg bioaccumulation not only provided the correct appraisal about the effect of Se species on the inhibition of the Hg phytotoxicity to pak choi in dry land, but also be a good reference for selecting Se fertilizer forms (Se 4+ or Se 6+ ). Copyright © 2017

  19. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers with a higher affinity for arsenate and a competitive removal capacity towards fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, selenite, arsenite and borate

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-12-01

    Highly selective materials and effective technologies are needed to meet the increasingly stronger drinking water standards for targeted ionic species. Inorganic ion exchangers based on individual and mixed-metal hydrous oxides (or mixed adsorbents that contain inorganic ion exchangers in their composition) are adsorptive materials that are capable of lowering the concentrations of anionic contaminants, such as H 2AsO 4 -, H 3AsO 3, F -, Br -, BrO 3 -, HSeO 4 -, HSeO 3 - and H 3BO 3, to 10 μg/L or less. To achieve a higher selectivity towards arsenate, a new ion exchanger based on Mg-Al hydrous oxides was developed by a novel, cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method via a non-traditional (alkoxide-free) sol-gel approach. The exceptional adsorptive capacity of the Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H 2AsO 4 - (up to 200 mg[As]/gdw) is due to the high affinity of this sorbent towards arsenate (steep equilibrium isotherms) and its fast adsorption kinetics. Because of the mesoporous (as determined by N 2 adsorption and SEM) and layered (as determined by XRD and FTIR) structure of the ion-exchange material as well as the abundance of anion exchange sites (as determined by XPS and potentiometric titration) on its surface the material demonstrated very competitive (or very high) removal capacity towards other targeted anions, including fluoride, bromide, bromate, selenate, selenite, and borate. © 2011 IWA Publishing.

  20. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  1. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  2. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  3. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL REARING DIET ACIDITY ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wied.) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FOR ITS CONTROL BY STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.; EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The biological effects of larval rearing diet acidity on the developmental stages of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) were studied at the laboratory scale. Diets were formulated at five different initial pH ranging from 4.59 to 2.09 together with the control group currently used in our laboratory (5.26). These effects were evaluated on larval period, percent pupal recovery, pupal weight, percent adult emergence, percent male production and adult flight ability. The results showed that the shortest larval development occurred at pH 3.48 and 3.75, the highest pupal recovery at pH 3.75, the best pupal weight at pH 2.09, 3.48, 3.75 and 4.59, the highest percent adult emergence at pH 3.75, the highest percentage male production at pH 3.48, and the best percentage of fliers at pH 4.59. The obtained data referred to the optimizing physiochemical factors such as pH can improve the overall yield of mass reared medfly in the laboratory to be irradiated by gamma radiation and released in the field for controlling the insect

  4. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  5. A comparative evaluation of the ultrastructure and protein yields of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... efficient as the detergent solubilized technique. Additionally some axial filaments were also released. The protein yield of L. hardjo from the two techniques of leptospire protein preparation was significantly lower than the other test serovars (P<0.01). Overall, the protein yield of antigens produced by the SDS solubilization ...

  6. Fabrication of selenization-free superstrate-type CuInS{sub 2} solar cells based on all-spin-coated layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshme khavar, Amir Hossein [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box. 14155-4383, Gisha Bridge, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjoub, Alireza, E-mail: mahjouba@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box. 14155-4383, Gisha Bridge, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samghabadi, Farnaz Safi [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 14588 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavinia, Nima, E-mail: taghavinia@sharif.edu [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 14588 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 14588 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Today manufacturing of high efficiency chalcogenide thin film solar cells is based on high cost vacuum-based deposition processes at high temperature (>500 °C) and in chalcogen -containing atmosphere. In this paper, we introduce a simple vacuum-free and selenization-free, solution processing for fabricating a superstrate-type CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) solar cell. The absorber, buffer and blocking layers were all deposited by spin coating of molecular precursor inks. We demonstrate the deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer by sol-gel spin casting for the first time. The rapid sintering process of CIS layer was carried out at 250 °C that is considered a very low temperature in CIGS thin-film technologies. A novel molecular-ink route to deposit In{sub 2}S{sub 3} type buffer layer is presented. For the back contact we employed carbon, deposited by simple knife coating method. Different parameters including type of buffer, thickness of absorber layer, CIS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} annealing temperature and morphology were optimized. Our air stable simple device structure consisting of showed promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.67%. - Highlights: • This work is an effort on the fabrication of all spin-coated CIS solar cells. • A novel molecular-ink route to deposit In{sub 2}S{sub 3} type buffer layer is presented. • The best devices showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.67%.

  7. Selenization of Cu2ZnSnS4 Enhanced the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Improved Zinc-Site Catalytic Activity for I3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuwen; Xie, Ying; Bateer, Buhe; Pan, Kai; Jiao, Yanqing; Xiong, Ni; Wang, Song; Fu, Honggang

    2017-11-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) and Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) as promising photovoltaic materials have drawn much attention because they are environmentally benign and earth-abundant elements. In this work, the monodispersed, low-cost Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 nanocrystals with small size have been controllably synthesized via a wet chemical routine. And CZTSSe could be easily prepared after selenization of CZTS. When they are employed as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been improved from 3.54% to 7.13% as CZTS is converted to CZTSSe, which is also compared to that of Pt (7.62%). The exact reason for the enhanced catalytic activity of I 3 - is discussed with the work function and density functional theory (DFT) when CZTSSe converted from CZTS. The results of a Kelvin probe suggest that the work function of CZTSSe (5.61 eV) is closer to that of Pt (5.65 eV) and higher than that of CZTS, which matched the redox shuttle potential better. According to the theory calculation, all the atomic and bond populations changed significantly when Se replaced partly the S on the CZTS system, especially in the Zn site. During the catalytic process as CEs, the adsorption energy obviously increased compared to those at other sites when I 3 - adsorbed on the Zn site in CZTSSe. So, Zn plays an important role for the reduction of I 3 - after CZTS is converted to CZTSSe. Based on above analysis, the reason for enhanced performance of DSSCs when CZTS converted to CZTSSe is mainly due to the enhancement of Zn-site activity. This work is beneficial for understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism of CZTS(Se) as CEs of DSSCs.

  8. Selenizing Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides induces dendritic cells maturation through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Ren, Zhe; Huang, Yifan; Song, Yulong; Lin, Dandan; Li, Jian; Ma, Yufang; Wu, Xiuqin; Qiu, Fuan; Xiao, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus were modified to obtain its nine selenium derivatives, sHEP 1 -sHEP 9 . Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms were compared taking unmodified HEP as control. The results revealed that the selenylation were successful. sHEP 1 , sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 treatment of DCs increased their surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 and indicated that sHEP 1 , sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 induced DC maturation. Furthermore, sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 also significantly decreased DCs endocytosis and significantly enhanced cytokine (IL-12 and IFN-γ) production. In line with TLR4 activation, sHEP 2 increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. sHEP 2 also activated NF-κB signaling, as evidenced by degradation of IκBα/β and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Together, these results suggest that sHEP is a strong immunostimulant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  10. Study of the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 resistance of selenite and selenate oxy-anions: accumulation, localisation and transformation of selenium; Etude de la resistance de Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 aux oxyanions selenite et seleniate: accumulation, localisation et transformation du selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L

    2007-06-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for the living organisms but it is very toxic at high concentration. Selenite and selenate oxides, soluble forms, highly toxic and bio-assimilable, are the most prevalent forms in the environment. Some soil micro-organisms play a dominant role and contribute to the natural cycle of selenium. Our study model, Cupriavidus (formerly Ralstonia) metallidurans CH34, a telluric bacterium characteristic of metal-contaminated biotopes, is known to resist selenite by reducing it into elemental selenium, an insoluble and less toxic form of selenium. In order to better understand the mechanisms of selenium reduction in the bacteria, three methods of speciation were combined (XAS (XANES and EXAFS), HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGEPIXE). They were completed by the direct quantification of selenium accumulated in the bacteria. Speciation analyses highlighted the existence of two mechanisms of reduction of selenium oxides in C. metallidurans CH34. Assimilation transforms selenite and selenate into organic selenium, identified as seleno-methionine and leads to its non-specific incorporation into bacterial proteins (presence of selenious proteins). Detoxication precipitates selenite in nano-particles of elemental selenium. This way of detoxication is not set up after an exposure to selenate although it is nevertheless possible to detect elemental selenium but in very small amount compared to the exposure of selenite. Seleno-diglutathion is detected in bacteria stressed by an exposure to selenate in medium limited in sulphate. Bacteria exposed to selenite accumulate 25 times more selenium than when they are exposed to selenate. The study of mutants resistant to selenite, which do not express the membrane protein DedA, showed that the accumulation of selenium after exposure to selenite is decreased compared with the wild strain meaning probable link between the transport of selenite and the DedA protein. Finally, selenate would use the sulphate permease

  11. Effect of sheep manure and phosphorus application on growth, yield, and N2 - fixation of inoculated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) grown on Syrian arid soils using the 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2003-10-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Syrian arid soils at Deir Al-Hajar research station to study the effect of different rates of sheep manure (0, 20, and 40 ton/ha) and levels of P- fertilizer (0, 40 and 80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) on dry matter production and N 2 fixation by Soybean [(Glycine max) (SB171 variety)], of which seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum-FA3 bacterial. Sorghum bicolor L. was employed as a reference crop ti evaluate N 2 -fixation using the 15 N-isotope dilution technique. In general, results indicated that, a positive effects were found to adding Sheep Manure or P-fertilizer on D.M production in different plants parts of soybean (shoots, roots, pods). This effect was more pronounced when adding sheep manure and phosphorus together especially under the optimum M40P80 treatment. Quantity of N-fixed by Soybean responds positively to sole application of Sheep Manure or P-fertilizer. Moreover, the optimum combined treatment showed significant increases in the quantity of nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Qndfa), which were (3.29, 25.54, 53.49 kg N/ha) in roots, shoots, and pods respectively. P-fertilization resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) with increasing phosphorus levels added to Sorghum plants; However, an adverse effect was noticed for the NUE when using sheep manure solely or in combination with P-fertilizer. (author)

  12. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  13. Microbial volatilization of inorganic selenium from landfill leachate; Mikrobiologische Volatilisierung von anorganischem Selen aus Deponiesickerwaessern bei umweltrelevanten Konzentrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Kremer, Daniel; Kersten, Michael [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    2010-04-15

    Background, aim, and scope: Determination of the rates of microbial alkylation are of interest with respect to natural attenuation of harmful selenium concentrations or selenium charges in contaminated ecosystems. Materials and methods: Landfill gas and the headspace of microbial microcosm incubation vessels were sampled in Tedlar {sup registered} bags. On-line hyphenation of an efficient enrichment method (cryotrapping-cryofocusing), a gaschromatographic separation technique, and the sensitive ICP-MS detection system was used for speciation of volatile organoselenium compounds. A detection limit at the ultra trace level (pg Se) was achieved with this CT-CF-GC-ICP-MS technique. Results: Incubation of landfill leachate with Alternata alternata as an active methylating organism showed a production of volatile selenium compounds (DMSe, DMDSe, EMDSe, DEDSe) over the whole range of applied inorganic selenium concentrations (10 {mu}gL{sup -1} to 10 mgL{sup -1}), with volatilization rates of up to 10 mg m{sup -3}d{sup -1}. For selenium concentrations of 1 mgL{sup -1} in the nutrient broth, up to 7 % of the inorganic selenium was volatilized after one week. The same volatile selenium compounds were observed in landfill gas. Discussion: The amount of volatilized selenium was comparable to that found in other studies with microbial pure cultures as well as isolates from waters or soils, but at much lower initial concentrations used in the incubations. Conclusions: The alkylation of selenium in the enriched mixed culture from landfill leachate at environmentally relevant concentrations indicates that the organoselenium compounds of same species composition and distribution determined in landfill gas are produced by microorganisms. Recommendations and perspectives: The microbial alkylation of toxic inorganic selenium species to less toxic or non-toxic, volatile compounds is an efficient method for bioremediation of contaminated sites even at relatively low Se concentrations.

  14. Experimental thin-target and thick-target yields for natOs(α, xn)Pt, natOs(α, X)Os, Ir and natMo(p, xn)Tc nuclear reactions from threshold up to 38 and 45 MeV, by combined single and stacked foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, Claudio; Bonardi, Mauro; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia; Menapace, Enzo

    2002-01-01

    The experimental values of thin-target excitation functions for the nuclear reactions: nat Os(α, X) 188,189,191 Pt, 192g,194m Ir in the energy range 11 - 38 MeV and nat Mo(p, xn) 94g,95g,95m,96(m+g) Tc in the energy range 5 - 44 MeV are presented. The experimental values were obtained by cyclotron activation followed by off-line HPGe γ-spectrometry and corrected at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment, EOIB. In different cases use was made of single foil and stacked foil techniques, which present significantly different advantages and disadvantages. The thin-target yield values can be easily either numerically or analytically integrated, as a function of both incoming particle energy and energy loss in target itself, in order to calculate apriori the thick-target yield of various radionuclides under any different experimental condition. Moreover, the thin-target yields are directly related to the effective cross-sections of various nuclear reaction channels involved. The data are of relevant interest for optimizing cyclotron production of platinum and technetium radionuclides to be used as radiotracers for metallo-biochemical, biomedical, toxicological and environmental studies. (author)

  15. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  16. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Film Solar Cell with Depth Gradient Composition Prepared by Selenization of Sputtered Novel Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I; Yang, Jui-Fu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2017-11-22

    In this study, we proposed a new method for the synthesis of the target material used in a two stage process for preparation of a high quality CZTSe thin film. The target material consisting of a mixture of Cu x Se and Zn x Sn 1-x alloy was synthesized, providing a quality CZTSe precursor layer for highly efficient CZTSe thin film solar cells. The CZTSe thin film can be obtained by annealing the precursor layers through a 30 min selenization process under a selenium atmosphere at 550 °C. The CZTSe thin films prepared by using the new precursor thin film were investigated and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that diffusion of Sn occurred and formed the CTSe phase and Cu x Se phase in the resultant CZTSe thin film. By selective area electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy images, the crystallinity of the CZTSe thin film was verified to be single crystal. By secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, it was confirmed that a double-gradient band gap profile across the CZTSe absorber layer was successfully achieved. The CZTSe solar cell with the CZTSe absorber layer consisting of the precursor stack exhibited a high efficiency of 5.46%, high short circuit current (J SC ) of 37.47 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.31 V, and fill factor (F.F.) of 47%, at a device area of 0.28 cm 2 . No crossover of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) curves of the CZTSe solar cell was observed, and also, no red kink was observed under red light illumination, indicating a low defect concentration in the CZTSe absorber layer. Shunt leakage current with a characteristic metal/CZTSe/metal leakage current model was observed by temperature-dependent I-V curves, which led to the discovery of metal incursion through the CdS buffer layer on the CZTSe absorber layer. This leakage current, also known as space charge-limited current, grew larger as the measurement temperature increased and

  17. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  18. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  19. Global and Local Refinement Techniques Yielding Nonobtuse Tetrahedral Partitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 1105-1113 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : elliptic equations * parabolic equations * discrete maximum principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2005

  20. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  1. Cutting-edge gene editing techniques for increased vaccine yields ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... Experiments show that reducing the level of IFITMs in chicken cells infected with influenza leads to increased levels of the virus in the ... Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus through synthetic biology.

  2. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  3. Yield fracture mechanics. Report colloquium of the DFG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 17 lectures, which were given at the Report Colloquium of the DFG at Bonn on November 5th 1992. The main points of yield fracture mechanics were: Theory, experiment technique, transferability, material and structure. (MM) [de

  4. Pollination and yield responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Key words: Apis mellifera adansonii, Vigna unguiculata, bee plant, foraging, pollination, increased yield. INTRODUCTION. There are ... several techniques such as fire-prone, crop rotations, ..... Inventory of melliferous plants.

  5. Diagnostics of Shiva Nova produced high yield thermonuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Banner, D.L.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.W.; Koppel, L.N.; Kornblum, H.N. Jr.; Rienecker, F.; Severyn, J.R.; Slivinsky, V.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with the Shiva Nova laser facility which produce yield levels of scientific breakeven and above will result in neutron, x-ray and particle fluxes which will require specific attention to the survivability of diagnostic instrumentation. These yield levels will also allow the utilization of new diagnotics techniques which can provide detailed information on the state of the imploded fuel and pusher shells

  6. Improving crop yields for Sahelian Women | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    Jun 7, 2016 ... Less is more: Improving yields for Sahelian women with tiny dozes of fertilizer Farmers living in the semi-arid Sahel belt of West Africa are increasing the yields and income earned from their crops, thanks to a simple technique that combines small quantities of fertilizers (microdosing) with improved ...

  7. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  8. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  9. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  10. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  11. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  12. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  13. Sorption mechanisms of selenium species (selenite and selenate) on copper-based minerals; Mecanismes de sorption des especes du selenium (selenite et seleniate) sur des mineraux a base de cuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoy, J

    2001-09-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on the surface of minerals represents a process capable to delay the migration of the elements from a spent fuel deep repository towards the biosphere. In the framework of a deep underground repository, an engineered clay barrier has a high trapping capacity for cationic radio-elements, in particular because of the negative charge of clay surfaces. However, anionic radioelements like selenium species, would be only weakly retained by chemical processes. In order to optimize the trapping capacity of a clay barrier with respect to anionic species, prospective studies are carried out in order to find and evaluate some minerals with specific chemical trapping functions. Among radionuclides, the case of selenium has to be considered because its isotope {sup 79}Se is present in radioactive wastes and has a half life time of 6.5 10{sup 4} years. It is also judicious to find a mineral capable of trapping simultaneously several anionic radio-elements. Copper oxides and sulfides (Cu{sub 2}O, CuO, Cu{sub 2}S, CuS, CuFeS{sub 2} and Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) are good adsorbents with respect to selenium species (selenite and selenate). These minerals, with their selenium retention properties, could be used also for the decontamination of soils and waters or to process industrial effluents. The sorption mechanisms have been studied in details for copper oxides (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) with respect to selenite and selenate. Chalcomenite precipitates in acid pH conditions when selenite is added to a Cu{sub 2}O and CuO suspension. Selenate, in contact with cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) leads also to a selenium-based precipitate in acid pH environment. For higher pH values, selenite and selenate are adsorbed on copper oxides (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) and lead to internal and external sphere complexes, respectively. In the case of a selenite/cuprite mixture in basic pH environment and at the equilibrium, a chemical reaction occurs between the oxidation product of cuprite, Cu

  14. EXAFS and FTIR studies of selenite and selenate sorption by alkoxide-free sol–gel generated Mg–Al–CO 3 layered double hydroxide with very labile interlayer anions

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Current research on Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs, also known as hydrotalcites, HTs) is predominantly focused on their intercalations, but the industrial application of LDHs for anion exchange adsorption has not yet been achieved. It was recently recognized that, to develop LDH applications, these materials should be produced using methods other than direct co-precipitation. Mg-Al-CO3LDH produced using an alkoxide-free sol-gel synthesis showed exceptional removal properties for aqueous selenium species. Se K-edge EXAFS/XANES and FTIR studies (supporting the data by XRD patterns) were performed to explain the unusual adsorptive performance of Mg-Al LDH by revealing the molecular-level mechanism of HSeO3 -, SeO4 2-and {HSeO3 -+ SeO4 2-} uptake at pH 5, 7 and 8.5. The role of inner-sphere complexation (exhibited by inorganic adsorbents with good performance) in adsorption of both selenium aqueous species was not confirmed. However, Mg-Al LDH fully met the other expectations regarding the involvement of the interlayer anions. The interlayer carbonate (due to its favorable speciation and generous HT hydration) gave a "second breath" to selenite sorption and was the only mechanism that controlled the removal of Se(vi). Because inner sphere complexation was the leading mechanism for selenite removal, ion exchange via surface OH-and interlayer CO3 2-species was the only mechanism for selenate removal; both of these species were easily bound to Mg-Al LDH (on its surface and gently parked into the interlayer forming a multilayer without violation of the structure of Mg-Al-CO3LDH). This work provides the first theoretical explanation of why it is more difficult to sorb selenate than selenite and which material should be used for this purpose. This journal is

  15. EXAFS and FTIR studies of selenite and selenate sorption by alkoxide-free sol–gel generated Mg–Al–CO 3 layered double hydroxide with very labile interlayer anions

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2014-08-08

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Current research on Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs, also known as hydrotalcites, HTs) is predominantly focused on their intercalations, but the industrial application of LDHs for anion exchange adsorption has not yet been achieved. It was recently recognized that, to develop LDH applications, these materials should be produced using methods other than direct co-precipitation. Mg-Al-CO3LDH produced using an alkoxide-free sol-gel synthesis showed exceptional removal properties for aqueous selenium species. Se K-edge EXAFS/XANES and FTIR studies (supporting the data by XRD patterns) were performed to explain the unusual adsorptive performance of Mg-Al LDH by revealing the molecular-level mechanism of HSeO3 -, SeO4 2-and {HSeO3 -+ SeO4 2-} uptake at pH 5, 7 and 8.5. The role of inner-sphere complexation (exhibited by inorganic adsorbents with good performance) in adsorption of both selenium aqueous species was not confirmed. However, Mg-Al LDH fully met the other expectations regarding the involvement of the interlayer anions. The interlayer carbonate (due to its favorable speciation and generous HT hydration) gave a "second breath" to selenite sorption and was the only mechanism that controlled the removal of Se(vi). Because inner sphere complexation was the leading mechanism for selenite removal, ion exchange via surface OH-and interlayer CO3 2-species was the only mechanism for selenate removal; both of these species were easily bound to Mg-Al LDH (on its surface and gently parked into the interlayer forming a multilayer without violation of the structure of Mg-Al-CO3LDH). This work provides the first theoretical explanation of why it is more difficult to sorb selenate than selenite and which material should be used for this purpose. This journal is

  16. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  19. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  20. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  1. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  2. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  3. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  4. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  5. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  6. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  7. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  8. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  9. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  10. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  11. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  13. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  14. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  15. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  16. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  17. Genetic basis of yield and some yield related traits in basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.; Mirza, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Additive, dominance and epistasis components of genetic variation for yield and some yield related traits were assessed through modified triple test cross technique in Basmati rice. Epistasis was found an important part of genetic variation for plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant except primary branches per panicle and panicle length. Bifurcation of epistasis showed that additive x additive (i) type and additive x dominance + dominance x dominance (j + l) types of non-allelic interactions were involved in the expression of these traits. Additive and dominance type of gene action influenced the expression of primary branches per panicle and panicle length. No evidence of directional dominance was observed for these two traits. For plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant, recurrent selection or bi parental mating may be exercised in F2 and following generations however, selection of desired plants may be postponed till F5 or F6 generations to permit maximum obsession of epistatic effects to develop desired cultivar(s) in Basmati rice.(author)

  18. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  19. Simultaneous detection of selenium by atomic fluorescence and sulfur by molecular emission by flow-injection hydride generation with on-line reduction for the determination of selenate, sulfate and sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, J.F., E-mail: tyson@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Palmer, C.D. [Lead Poisoning Trace Elements Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ICP-AFS) instrument, was modified so that it was capable of monitoring transient chromatographic or flow-injection profiles and that sulfur molecular emission and selenium atomic fluorescence could be monitored simultaneously in an argon-hydrogen diffusion flame on a glass burner. The analytes were introduced as hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide, generated on a flow-injection manifold. Selenate was reduced to hydride-forming selenite by microwave-assisted on-line reaction with hydrochloric acid, and sulfate, or sulfite, was reduced to hydride-forming sulfide by a mixture of hydriodic acid, acetic acid and sodium hypophosphite. The effects of the nature of reducing agent, flow rate, microwave power and coil length were studied. The limit of detection (3 s) for selenium was 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and for sulfide was 70 {mu}g L{sup -1} (200-{mu}L injection volume). The calibration was linear for selenium up to 2 mg L{sup -1} and to 10 mg L{sup -1} for sulfide. The throughput was 180 h{sup -1}. The three sulfur species could be differentiated on the basis of reactivity at various microwave powers.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl, the first iron compound with selenate(IV) and tellurate(IV) groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrorov, Akhmad Yu; Kuznetsova, Elena S.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2017-12-01

    During the search for selenium analogues of FeTe2O5Cl, the new iron (III) tellurate(IV) selenate(IV) chloride with the composition Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl was synthesized by chemical vapor transport (CVT) reaction and characterized by TGA-, EDX-,SCXRD-analysis, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unitcell parameters a = 5.183(3) Å, b = 15.521(9) Å, c = 7.128(5) Å and β = 107.16(1)°. The crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl represents a new structure type and contains electroneutral heteropolyhedral layers formed by dimers of the [FeO5Cl]8- octahedra, linked via common O-O edges, and mixed [Te3SeO10]4- tetramers. Adjacent layers are stacked along the b axis and linked by weak residual bonds. The new compound is stable up to 420 °C. DFT calculations predict Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl to be a wide-gap semiconductor with the band gap of ca. 2.7 eV.

  1. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  2. growth and yield parameters of sorghum genotypes as affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Field trial was conducted at Bayero University, Kano research farm with the aim of determining the effect of stem injection artificial inoculation technique on the growth and yield parameters of one hundred and four sorghum genotypes against head smut. The trial was laid on a randomized complete block design ...

  3. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  4. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  5. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  6. Geoelectrical parameter-based multivariate regression borehole yield model for predicting aquifer yield in managing groundwater resource sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a GIS-based multivariate regression (MVR yield rate prediction model of groundwater resource sustainability in the hard-rock geology terrain of southwestern Nigeria. This model can economically manage the aquifer yield rate potential predictions that are often overlooked in groundwater resources development. The proposed model relates the borehole yield rate inventory of the area to geoelectrically derived parameters. Three sets of borehole yield rate conditioning geoelectrically derived parameters—aquifer unit resistivity (ρ, aquifer unit thickness (D and coefficient of anisotropy (λ—were determined from the acquired and interpreted geophysical data. The extracted borehole yield rate values and the geoelectrically derived parameter values were regressed to develop the MVR relationship model by applying linear regression and GIS techniques. The sensitivity analysis results of the MVR model evaluated at P ⩽ 0.05 for the predictors ρ, D and λ provided values of 2.68 × 10−05, 2 × 10−02 and 2.09 × 10−06, respectively. The accuracy and predictive power tests conducted on the MVR model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach, coupled with the sensitivity analysis results, confirmed the model yield rate estimation and prediction capability. The MVR borehole yield prediction model estimates were processed in a GIS environment to model an aquifer yield potential prediction map of the area. The information on the prediction map can serve as a scientific basis for predicting aquifer yield potential rates relevant in groundwater resources sustainability management. The developed MVR borehole yield rate prediction mode provides a good alternative to other methods used for this purpose.

  7. Creating high yield water soluble luminescent graphene quantum dots via exfoliating and disintegrating carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2012-10-21

    We have developed an effective method to exfoliate and disintegrate multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes. With this technique, high yield production of luminescent graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and low oxidization can be achieved.

  8. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  9. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  10. Chemical and structural evolution in the Th-SeO3(2-)/SeO4(2-) system: from simple selenites to cluster-based selenate compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Langer, Eike; Dellen, Jakob; Schlenz, Hartmut; Bosbach, Dirk; Suleimanov, Evgeny V; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2015-03-16

    While extensive success has been gained in the structural chemistry of the U-Se system, the synthesis and characterization of Th-based Se structures are widely unexplored. Here, four new Th-Se compounds, α-Th(SeO3)2, β-Th(SeO3)2, Th(Se2O5)2, and Th3O2(OH)2(SeO4)3, have been obtained from mild hydrothermal or low-temperature (180-220 °C) flux conditions and were subsequently structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The crystal structures of α-Th(SeO3)2 and β-Th(SeO3)2 are based on ThO8 and SeO3 polyhedra, respectively, featuring a three-dimensional (3D) network with selenite anions filling in the Th channels along the a axis. Th(Se2O5)2 is a 3D framework composed of isolated ThO8 polyhedra interconnected by [Se2O5](2-) dimers. Th3O2(OH)2(SeO4)3 is also a 3D framework constructed by octahedral hexathorium clusters [Th6(μ3-O)4(μ3-OH)4](12+), which are interlinked by selenate groups SeO4(2-). The positions of the vibrational modes associated with both Se(IV)O3(2-) and Se(VI)O4(2-) units, respectively, were determined for four compounds, and the Raman spectra of α- and β-Th(SeO3)2 are compared and discussed in detail.

  11. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  12. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  13. Sensitivities of selenite, selenate, selenomethionine and trimethylselenonium ion in aqueous solution and in blood plasma - ETAAS compared with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using ETAAS, the sensitivities for Se(IV), SeMet and TMSe in aqueous solution were similar, whereas the sensitivity of Se(VI) was 63% of that value. In blood plasma, the ETAAS sensitivities of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were equal, whereas the sensitivities of Se......Met and TMSe were 87 and 56%, respectively, of that value. In contrast, the ICP-MS sensitivities obtained for Se(VI), TMSe and SeMet were between 96 and 98% of that obtained for Se(IV) in aqueous solution and in blood plasma. It is concluded, that ICP-MS is superior to ETAAS as the problem of differences...... in sensitivity of the selenium species when using ETAAS are not prevalent when using the ICP-MS technique....

  14. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.; Abbassy, S.A.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  16. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  17. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  18. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  19. modelling relationship between rainfall variability and yields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , S. and ... factors to rice yield. Adebayo and Adebayo (1997) developed double log multiple regression model to predict rice yield in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The general form of .... the second are the crop yield/values for millet and sorghum ...

  20. The Impact of Statistical Leakage Models on Design Yield Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouwaida Kanj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device mismatch and process variation models play a key role in determining the functionality and yield of sub-100 nm design. Average characteristics are often of interest, such as the average leakage current or the average read delay. However, detecting rare functional fails is critical for memory design and designers often seek techniques that enable accurately modeling such events. Extremely leaky devices can inflict functionality fails. The plurality of leaky devices on a bitline increase the dimensionality of the yield estimation problem. Simplified models are possible by adopting approximations to the underlying sum of lognormals. The implications of such approximations on tail probabilities may in turn bias the yield estimate. We review different closed form approximations and compare against the CDF matching method, which is shown to be most effective method for accurate statistical leakage modeling.

  1. Genetic basis of some yield components in gossypium hirsutum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Azhar, F.M.; Khan, I.A.; Rana, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 diallel analysis was conducted to study the inheritance of seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight in Gossypium hirsutum L. using combining ability technique. The analysis of the data revealed that variance due to specific combining ability was significant for all the three traits signifying the importance of non additive gene action. The comparison of the parents showed that NF-801-2-37 was the best general combiner for seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight followed by Acala-63-75. Best hybrid combinations identified were Acala-63-75 * NF-801-2-37 for seed cotton yield and DPL-61 * NF-801-2-37 for number of bolls and boll weight. Higher proportion of dominance variance in all three traits suggested delayed selection or use of heterosis breeding in crop improvement programs. (author)

  2. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  3. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  4. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  5. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  6. Next generation initiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

  7. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  8. Yields of products from thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagaard, P.; Rudstam, G.; Zwicky, H.U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for fission yield determinations at an ISOL-system connected nuclear reactor have been developed. The present report contains detailed descriptions both of the experimental techniques and of the method used to correct the experimental yields for the decay of short-lived nuclear species in the delay between production and measurement. (Authors)

  9. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  10. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  11. Temperature impact on the primary radiolysis yields concerning the hydrous electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Vigneron, G.; Pommeret, St.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the impact of temperature on the water radiolysis formation rate of the hydrous electron in presence of selenate di-anion SeO 4 2+ . We have used a high temperature (up to 500 Celsius degrees) optical cell coupled to the electron accelerator Alienor. It appears that the capture of the hydrous electron by selenate follows an Arrhenius law till the sub-critical range, beyond this range the kinetics of the reaction seems more erratic. We have also studied the capture of the hydrous electron by methyl-viologen (MV 2+ ) at 20 and 380 Celsius degrees. It seems that at high temperature more hydrous electrons are produced, it might be interpreted as a consequence of the shift toward the right of the following equilibrium reaction: OH - + H . ↔ e - (aq) + H 2 O. All these results need to be confirmed. (A.C.)

  12. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z F = 90 thru 98, mass number A F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru ∼200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from ∼ 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (∼ fission spectrum) induced fission reactions

  13. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  14. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  15. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  16. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  17. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  18. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  19. Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, C. M.; Levin, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres...... that broader ecosystem, economic, and social objectives are addressed. We investigate how the principles of a “pretty good yield” range of fishing mortalities assumed to provide >95% of the average yield for a single stock can be expanded to a pretty good multispecies yield (PGMY) space and further to pretty...

  20. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  1. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  2. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiossi, F., E-mail: federico.chiossi@studenti.unipd.it [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brylew, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Borghesani, A.F. [CNISM Unit and Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C.; Carugno, G. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Drozdowski, W. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Guarise, M. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-05-21

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  3. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiossi, F.; Brylew, K.; Borghesani, A.F.; Braggio, C.; Carugno, G.; Drozdowski, W.; Guarise, M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu_0_._7_5Y_0_._2_5)_3Al_5O_1_2 sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  4. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  5. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  6. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  7. Local yield stress statistics in model amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Armand; Lerbinger, Matthias; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; García-García, Reinaldo; Falk, Michael L.; Vandembroucq, Damien; Patinet, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    We develop and extend a method presented by Patinet, Vandembroucq, and Falk [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 045501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.045501] to compute the local yield stresses at the atomic scale in model two-dimensional Lennard-Jones glasses produced via differing quench protocols. This technique allows us to sample the plastic rearrangements in a nonperturbative manner for different loading directions on a well-controlled length scale. Plastic activity upon shearing correlates strongly with the locations of low yield stresses in the quenched states. This correlation is higher in more structurally relaxed systems. The distribution of local yield stresses is also shown to strongly depend on the quench protocol: the more relaxed the glass, the higher the local plastic thresholds. Analysis of the magnitude of local plastic relaxations reveals that stress drops follow exponential distributions, justifying the hypothesis of an average characteristic amplitude often conjectured in mesoscopic or continuum models. The amplitude of the local plastic rearrangements increases on average with the yield stress, regardless of the system preparation. The local yield stress varies with the shear orientation tested and strongly correlates with the plastic rearrangement locations when the system is sheared correspondingly. It is thus argued that plastic rearrangements are the consequence of shear transformation zones encoded in the glass structure that possess weak slip planes along different orientations. Finally, we justify the length scale employed in this work and extract the yield threshold statistics as a function of the size of the probing zones. This method makes it possible to derive physically grounded models of plasticity for amorphous materials by directly revealing the relevant details of the shear transformation zones that mediate this process.

  8. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  9. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    communication shocks have a significant impact, with intermediate maturities being affected the most; (ii) positive (negative) communication shocks significantly lower (raise) the yield spread between the peripheral and core countries; (iii) this cross-sectional difference arises after the 2008 financial crises......-for-yield investors....

  10. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  11. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  12. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  13. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  14. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  15. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  16. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  17. Soodusrenoveerimine kogub hoogu / Selene-Rete Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Selene-Rete

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna kultuuriväärtuste ameti poolt koos erafirmadega käivitatud projekti "Vana maja korda" raames restaureeritakse puitmajde uksi ning väljastatkse värvipasse, mille alusel saab soodushinnaga fassaadivärve osta

  18. Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields components of sole early maturing maize ( Zea mays ) and bambaranut ( Vigna subterranean Thour. ) and in intercrop under southern guinea savannah ecology zone.

  19. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  20. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  1. Evaluation of yield and N2 fixation of mutant lines of groundnut in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, I.; Harun, A.R.; Rahman, K.A.; Shamsuddin, S.; Rahim, K.A.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The 15 N-dilution technique was used to evaluate N 2 fixation in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in three field trials of cultivars Matjan and V-13 (parents), their selected mutant lines, and a other local and foreign genotypes. Matjan mutant MJ/40/42 consistently produced the highest pod yields, at above 4 t ha -1 , 14-22% higher yields than the parent. In contrast, none of the V-13 mutants had consistently better yields than the parent. The mutant lines did not show consistent agronomic performance from year to year. Total dry matter yield did not correlate with pod yield, and pod yield did not correlate with amount of N fixed

  2. Photofission observations in reactor environments using selected fission-product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for the observation of photofission in reactor environments is advanced. It is based on the in-situ observation of fission product yield. In fact, at a given in-situ reactor location, the fission product yield is simply a weighted linear combination of the photofission product yield, Y/sub gamma/, and the neutron induced fission product yield, Y/sub n. The weight factors arising in this linear combination are the photofission fraction and neutron induced fission fraction, respectively. This method can be readily implemented with established techniques for measuring in-situ reactor fission product yield. For example, one can use the method based on simultaneous irradiation of radiometric (RM) and solid state track recorder (SSTR) fission monitors. The sensitivity and accuracy and current knowledge of fission product yields. Unique advantages of this method for reactor applications are emphasized

  3. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  4. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exclusive nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Bhubaneswar-751007 (India); Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R{sub L}) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R{sub perpendicular}) for B{yields}D*D{sub (s)}* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  6. yield and yield componemts of extra early maize (zea mays l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHARIFAI

    maize crop and improve the soil structures and chemical nutrients of the soil. The significant interaction between intra-row spacing and poultry manure on cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield showed the importance of poultry manure on yield and yield components of maize crop. Poultry manure increases both ...

  7. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  8. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  9. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  10. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  11. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  12. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  13. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  14. On the yield stress of complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderas, F.; Herrera-Valencia, E. E.; Sanchez-Solis, A.; Manero, O.; Medina-Torres, L.; Renteria, A.; Sanchez-Olivares, G.

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the yield stress of complex materials is analyzed and modeled using the Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) constitutive equation, consisting of the upper-convected Maxwell equation coupled to a kinetic equation to account for the breakdown and reformation of the fluid structure. BMP model predictions for a complex fluid in different flow situations are analyzed and compared with yield stress predictions of other rheological models, and with experiments on fluids that exhibit yield stresses. It is shown that one of the main features of the BMP model is that it predicts a real yield stress (elastic solid or Hookean behavior) as one of the material parameters, the zero shear-rate fluidity, is zero. In addition, the transition to fluid-like behavior is continuous, as opposed to predictions of more empirical models.

  15. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  16. Accelerated yield learning in agressive lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Ashkenaz, Scott M.; Chen, Xing; Lord, Patrick J.; Merrill, Mark A.; Quattrini, Rich; Wiley, James N.

    2000-06-01

    As exposure wavelengths decrease from 248 nm to 193, 157, and even 13 nm (EUV), small process defects can cause collapse of the lithographic process window near the limits of resolution, particularly for the gate and contact structures in high- performance devices. Such sensitivity poses a challenge for lithography process module control. In this work, we show that yield loss can be caused by a combination of macro, micro, CD, and overlay defects. A defect is defined as any yield- affecting process variation. Each defect, regardless of cause, is assumed to have a specific 'kill potential.' The accuracy of the lithographic yield model can be improved by identifying those defects with the highest kill potential or, more importantly, those that pose the highest economic risk. Such economic considerations have led us to develop a simple heuristic model for understanding sampling strategies in defect metrology and for linking metrology capability to yield and profitability.

  17. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  18. Enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about muon-catalyzed fusion since the last conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Here the authors consider what they have learned about enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion energy yield

  19. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of new uranyl selenite(IV)-selenate(VI) [C5H14N][(UO2)3(SeO4)4(HSeO3)(H2O)](H2SeO3)(HSeO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Kalenberg, V.

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of new uranyl selenite(IV)-selenate(VI) [C 5 H 14 N][(UO 2 ) 3 (SeO 4 ) 4 (HSeO 3 )(H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 3 )(HSeO 4 ) are obtained by the method of evaporation from aqueous solutions. Compound has triclinic lattice, space group P1-bar, a=11.7068(9), b=14.8165(12), c=16.9766(15), α=73.899(6), β=76.221(7), γ=89.361(6) Deg, V=2743.0(4) A 3 , Z=2. Laminated complexes (UO 2 ) 3 (SeO 4 ) 4 (HSeO 3 )(H 2 O)] 3- are the basis of the structure. [HSe(VI)O 4 ] - , [H 2 Se(IV)O 3 ] complexes and protonated methylbutylamine cations are disposed between layers [ru

  1. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB’s private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication affects the aggregate...... demand due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  2. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    versus peripheral countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB's private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication can...... induce demand shocks for bonds due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  3. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  4. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  5. N-acetylcysteine increased rice yield

    OpenAIRE

    NOZULAIDI, MOHD; JAHAN, MD SARWAR; KHAIRI, MOHD; KHANDAKER, MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN; NASHRIYAH, MAT; KHANIF, YUSOP MOHD

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) biosynthesized reduced glutathione (GSH), which maintains redox homeostasis in plants under normal and stressful conditions. To justify the effects of NAC on rice production, we measured yield parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) content, minimum Chl fluorescence (Fo), maximum Chl fluorescence (Fm), quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and relative water content (RWC). Four treatments, N1G0 (nitrogen (N) with no NAC), ...

  6. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  7. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  8. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  9. Applications of pressurized cation exchange chromatography for fission yield determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuheng; Lin Fa; Zhang Hongdi; Li Xueliang; Zhang Shulan

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the fission yields of lanthanides precisely, lanthanides with carriers of 1-2 mg per element are separated from each other by means of pressurized cation exchange chromatography - αHIBA concentration gradient elution. The effect of initial loading technique, concentration gradient, flow rate, and temperature on separation were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions adapted according to the results given in this work, all the lanthanides can be completely separated within about 90 minutes with a recovery of more than 95% and purity higher than 99%. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etc

    2015-05-06

    . Combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) for yield and yield components revealed highly significant .... yield stability among varieties, multi-location trials with ... Mean grain yield (kg/ha) of 17 Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes ...

  11. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  12. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  13. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  14. Determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity of cereals. A method for the determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, A; Hoppe, W

    1957-01-01

    A laboratory method is reported for the determination of the alcohol yielding capacity of starch-containing distillery raw materials. The starch is inverted with dilute HCl under pressure, after which the material is fermented with yeast at pH 5.4. After distillation, the alcohol is determined pyknometrically. The influence of such factors as amount of yeast was determined experimentally. Analysis of the time curves for the hydrolysis of starch (by paper-chromatographic techniques) in relation to pH showed glucose to be the principal reaction product, with only slight amounts of maltose and higher sugars being formed.

  15. Overlapped flowers yield detection using computer-based interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture has always dealt with the accuracy and timely information about agricultural products. With the help of computer hardware and software technology designing a decision support system that could generate flower yield information and serve as base for management and planning of flower marketing is made so easy. Despite such technologies, some problem still arise, for example, a colour homogeneity of a specimen which cannot be obtained similar to actual colour of image and overlapping of image. In this paper implementing a new ‘counting algorithm’ for overlapped flower is being discussed. For implementing this algorithm, some techniques and operations such as colour image segmentation technique, image segmentation, using HSV colour space and morphological operations have been used. In this paper used two most popular colour space; those are RGB and HSV. HSV colour space decouples brightness from a chromatic component in the image, by which it provides better result in case for occlusion and overlapping.

  16. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  17. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  18. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  19. Yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system using different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Jordan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the aquaponic system, the characteristics of the materials used as substrate directly affect plant development, because besides acting as a support base, they must present a surface to fix microorganisms, responsible for the conversion of nutrients into forms more easily available to plants. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of four growing substrates on the yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, which corresponded to the substrates, and six replicates. Plants were grown using the nutrient film technique (NFT system. The substrates used in the experiment were: coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3, expanded vermiculite, zeolite and phenolic foam. The treatment with phenolic foam was considered as the least suitable for lettuce cultivation in aquaponic system, because it caused lower yield (20.8 t ha-1. The treatment using coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3 was considered as the most adequate, since it led to higher yield (39.9 t ha-1 compared with the other substrates analyzed.

  20. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  1. Particle debonding using different yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2004-01-01

    Effects of plastic anisotropy in relation to debonding of rigid inclusions embedded in an elastic-viscoplastic metal are studied. Full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane cells assuming plane stress or plane strain. The overall stress strain response is calculated, when the cell......-matrix debonding. Keeping all material parameters fixed, the material response of the plane strain cell is considerably affected, due to debonding at a much reduced overall plastic strain compared to the corresponding plane stress cell. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved....... extent and shape of the particular yield function considered. The required overall straining of the cell for debonding initiation is related to the extent of the yield surfaces, since a high yield stress promotes debonding. Additionally, the maximum overall stress level for the cell is lower for the Hill...

  2. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ibrahim; Manzoor Hussain; Ahmad Khan; Yousaf Jamal; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is a structural component of chlorophyll and protein therefore adequate supply of nitrogen is beneficial for both carbohydrates and protein metabolism as it promotes cell division and cell enlargement, resulting in more leaf area and thus ensuring good seed and dry matter yield. Theexperiment entitled effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of sesame were conducted at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar during kharif 2013. Randomiz...

  3. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, S N Contreras; Ospino, E Mejía; Cabanzo, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum. (paper)

  4. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...... that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...

  5. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  6. Calculation of Bremsstrahlung yield for thin target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, N.; Akkurt, I.; Tekin, H. O.; Cakirli, R. B.; Akkus, B.; Kupa, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Bremsstrahlung photon is created by de-accelerating electron beam in an electric field which is usually a thin material so-called radiator. The obtained Bremsstrahlung yield depends on some parameter such as incoming electron beam energy, the thickness and also Z number of the radiator. The main aim of this work is to obtain optimum radiator to be used at Bremsstrahlung photon beam facility at TAC. For this purposes the Bremsstrahlung photon yield has been obtained using FLUKA code for different types materials.

  7. Systematics of neutron-induced fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Brissot, R.

    1983-10-01

    The main characteristics of the mass and charge distributions for thermal neutron induced fission of actinides are reviewed. We show that these distributions can be reasonably reproduced with only 24 data as input. We use a representation where the element yields together with the most probable mass Ap(Z) play the dominant role. The ability of this model to calculate mass yields for the fission of not yet measured actinides is also shown. The influence of the excitation energy of the fissile system on charge and mass distribution is also discussed

  8. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  9. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  10. Neutron yield measurements on a TMX endplug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron yield measurements were made on the east endplug of TMX using a calibrated recoil proton counter. The detector consists of a liquid scintillator (NE 213) with a pulse shape discrimination property that allows for identifying photon and neutron interactions. An energy threshold is established to suppress the response to scattered neutrons with energies lower than 1 to 2 MeV. Results indicate there are typical neutron yields of 2 to 3 x 10 11 n/s during a 25-ms discharge with 200 A of 20-keV neutral beam injection into the endplug

  11. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  12. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  13. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  14. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  15. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  16. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  17. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  18. Yields of products from thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aagaard, P.; Zwicky, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for fission yield determinations at an ISOL-system connected to a nuclear reactor have been developed. The present report contains detailed descriptions both of the experimental techniques and of the method used to correct the experimental yields for the decay of short-lived nuclear species in the delay between production and measurement. The methods have been applied to the determination of the fission yields of 40 fission products including 2 isometric pairs in the light mass region and those of 99 fission products including 25 isometric pairs or triplets in the heavy mass region. For 64 cases this is the first determination published. (author)

  19. Isotope techniques in studies of selenium deficiency and toxicity syndromes in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the Se deficiency syndrome in ruminants, studies using non-isotopic methods are applied to an introductory description of the disease. They include methods currently applied for determining Se deficiency status in feed and in ruminant animals. Detection of potential white muscle disease in lambs and calves is discussed. The application of 75 Se in studies on absorption, tissue distribution and excretion under feeding regimes with different Se levels and partly with addition of SO 4 ions or vitamin E is reviewed. In vitro studies with 75 Se include a description of the 75 Se uptake test with red blood cells, the metabolism of selenite, selenate and selenomethionine in rumen microorganisms, and the distribution of 75 Se in cow's and goat's milk. Methods of Se supplementation in Se-deficient areas are summarized and tests with 75 Se-labelled ruminal pellets in sheep and cattle are described. The Se toxicity syndrome is surveyed with respect to causative agents, symptomatology and gross pathology. Special reference is made to the blind staggers and the alkali disease types of selenosis. Isotope techniques are found to be less frequently applied in studies on Se toxicity than in Se deficiency studies. (author)

  20. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  1. Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ...

  2. Yield improvement of Kenyan sesame varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayiecho, P.O.; Nyabundi, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to improve the yield of Kenyan sesame cultivars the seeds of three cultivars, SPS SIK6, SIK 096 and SPS SIK 50/1 were subjected to 300Gy, 400Gy and 600Gy of gamma rays. A first batch of seeds were subjected to these treatments in March 1994 (Experiment I) while the second batch was treated in March 1995 (Experiment II). The M 1 , M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations of experiment I and M 1 generation of Experiment II were raised at the University of Nairobi Dryland Research Field Station, Kibwezi from 1994 to 1996. The M 6 and M 7 generations of Experiment I and M 2 of Experiment II were raised at Siaya Farmer's Training Centre in 1997. The effects of radiation in M 1 generation were expressed in reduced and delayed seedling emergence, reduced plant height, sectorial deformed plants, delayed flowering and extremely low yield. There was increased variation in M 2 for most evaluated traits. Plants in M 2 and subsequent generations were scored for a number of yield related morphological traits and days to flowering. Selection was done in the early generations for increased capsule number and earliness. As a result of selection, a total of 88 lines from M 4 generation were used to derive M 5 generation. Further selection in M 6 generation lead to 35 lines being retained for preliminary yield trials in M 7 generations. (author)

  3. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Michiel; Morley, Tomas; Jongeneel, Roel; Ittersum, van Martin; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  4. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  5. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios...

  6. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  7. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  8. Yielding and flow of sheared colloidal glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petekidis, G; Vlassopoulos, D; Pusey, P N

    2004-01-01

    We have studied some of the rheological properties of suspensions of hard-sphere colloids with particular reference to behaviour near the concentration of the glass transition. First we monitored the strain on the samples during and after a transient step stress. We find that, at all values of applied step stress, colloidal glasses show a rapid, apparently elastic, recovery of strain after the stress is removed. This recovery is found even in samples which have flowed significantly during stressing. We attribute this behaviour to 'cage elasticity', the recovery of the stress-induced distorted environment of any particle to a more isotropic state when the stress is removed. Second, we monitored the stress as the strain rate dot γ of flowing samples was slowly decreased. Suspensions which are glassy at rest show a stress which becomes independent of dot γ as dot γ →0. This limiting stress can be interpreted as the yield stress of the glass and agrees well both with the yield stress deduced from the step stress and recovery measurements and that predicted by a recent mode coupling theory of sheared suspensions. Thus, the behaviours under steady shearing and transient step stress both support the idea that colloidal glasses have a finite yield stress. We note however that the samples do exhibit a slow accumulation of strain due to creep at stresses below the yield stress

  9. Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae

  10. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  11. Understanding the rheology of yield stress materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Rojas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on the flow behavior of yield stress materials, using rheological measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Experiments are performed in dispersed systems, such as emulsions, gels and foams; for these, when the amount of the dispersed phase is high

  12. Seed yield and some yield components of sesame as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation, N and superabsorbent levels on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment was conducted in Khosf Region, Birjand, Iran in 2009 as a split-split plot design based on a randomized complete block design. The treatments included irrigation interval at three levels ...

  13. Effect of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... per plant. Interaction between water stress and combination of iron and sulfur fertilizers had significant .... Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of water stress (W), sulfur (B) and iron (C), and their interaction with gain yield, yield components and ... the soil structure and it increased the usefulness of other.

  14. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    yield and yield components of fresh market(Bishola) and processing (Cochoro) tomato cultivars. ... row spacing had a significant effect on plan canopy width, above ground dry biomass, ... Poor varietal performance and management practices that includeinter and intra-row spacing ..... of assimilate export from the leaves.

  15. An adapted yield criterion for the evolution of subsequent yield surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, N.; Brosius, A.

    2017-09-01

    In numerical analysis of sheet metal forming processes, the anisotropic material behaviour is often modelled with isotropic work hardening and an average Lankford coefficient. In contrast, experimental observations show an evolution of the Lankford coefficients, which can be associated with a yield surface change due to kinematic and distortional hardening. Commonly, extensive efforts are carried out to describe these phenomena. In this paper an isotropic material model based on the Yld2000-2d criterion is adapted with an evolving yield exponent in order to change the yield surface shape. The yield exponent is linked to the accumulative plastic strain. This change has the effect of a rotating yield surface normal. As the normal is directly related to the Lankford coefficient, the change can be used to model the evolution of the Lankford coefficient during yielding. The paper will focus on the numerical implementation of the adapted material model for the FE-code LS-Dyna, mpi-version R7.1.2-d. A recently introduced identification scheme [1] is used to obtain the parameters for the evolving yield surface and will be briefly described for the proposed model. The suitability for numerical analysis will be discussed for deep drawing processes in general. Efforts for material characterization and modelling will be compared to other common yield surface descriptions. Besides experimental efforts and achieved accuracy, the potential of flexibility in material models and the risk of ambiguity during identification are of major interest in this paper.

  16. Effects of heterosis for yield and yield components obtained by crossing divergent alfalfa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When breeding alfalfa for yield performance, it is necessary to use high-yielding parents obtained by different breeding methods. The assumption at the onset of this research was that crossing highest-yielding domestic cultivars with divergent populations from geographically distant breeding centers could result in the expression of heterotic effects in their hybrids contributing to increased alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to determine yield and yield components and heterotic effects in hybrid progenies obtained by crossing the domestic cultivars NS Banat ZMS II and NS Mediana ZMS V with the cultivars Pella, Dolichi and Hyliki from Greece, UMSS 2001 from Bolivia and Jogeva 118 from Estonia in two series. The field trial planted in 2006, included 13 F1 hybrids and 6 of 7 initial parents in both series. Heterotic effects for yields of forage and hay were observed in 4 combinations (C NS Banat ZMS II x E Hyliki; C NS Banat ZMS II x E UMSS 2001; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Hyliki; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Dolichi. The populations that exhibited heterosis in a set of crossings are recommended for use as parent components for development of high-yielding synthetic alfalfa cultivars. .

  17. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of confectionery sunflower. 36 confectionery sunflower populations originated from different regions of Northwest Iran were characterized using 11 agromorphological traits ...

  18. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  19. Influences of nitrogen and potassium top dressing on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... (K) top dressing on grain yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Tarrom) and to ... positive reciprocal effect on crops, and was an important approach in ..... dressing fertilization (Figures 2a, b and c), but nitrogen levels of upper fully .... (Brassica napus L.)–rice (Oryza sativa L.) rotation. Plant Soil ...

  20. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... average yield of wheat in China is 4.75 t ha-1, which is low compared to other .... Analysis of variance for combining ability for grain yield plant-1. Source of variation ..... Hayman BI (1954). The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. .... Analysis and prospect of China wheat market in 2011. Food and Oil.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT FORMATION OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva CANDRÁKOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 and 2006, the influence of fertilization was investigated on forming of yield components and yield of three soybean varieties in sugar beet growing area. Varieties Korada, Supra and OAC Vision were grown. Number of plants per m2, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pod, thousand seeds weight, yield of seeds, yield of stems and harvest index were examined. Variants of fertilization: I. non-fertilized control, II. LAV 27 % (40 kg ha-1 net nutrient of N in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded, III. Humix komplet (rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded (4 l.ha-1 and in growing stage of first flower buds visible (4 l.ha-1, IV. Humix komplet in rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded. The yields of seeds and stems were high significantly influenced by variety, fertilization and year. The significantly highest yield of seeds was achieved by Korada variety (4,04 t.ha-1. Varieties OAC Vision and Supra reached yields in interval 3,74-3,84 t.ha-1. Split rate of Humix komplet (III var significantly influenced yield of seeds and stems. The fertilization have increased weight of seeds in proportion to aboveground phyto-mass weight, what was expressed by harvest index.

  2. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  3. Comparison of first quadrant yield loci for Ti--6Al--4V with those predicted by Knoop hardness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amateau, M.F.; Hanna, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Knoop hardness impressions were used to construct biaxial yield loci in Ti--6A l--4V for a variety of textures. These results were compared with partial yield loci in the first quadrant, determined from flow stress measurements at three stress ratios. In each case, the Knoop hardness technique was not sufficiently sensitive to predict the shape of the yield locus, the largest discrepancy occurring for the most anisotropic sample. (U.S.)

  4. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  5. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  6. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  7. Effect of Biofertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khorramdel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application of biological fertilizers is one of the most important methods for plant nutrition in ecological agriculture. In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2007 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included: (A Azotobacter paspali, (B Azospirillum brasilense, (C the fungus of Glomus intraradaices, C+A, C+B, A+B, A+B+C, and control without no biofertilizers. In all treatments except control, the amounts of 15 mg of each biofertilizer were applied to 110 g of seeds. Results indicated that application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and yield components and decreased percentage of hollow capsules. Plant performance was better with application of Azospirillum plus mycorrhiza and a mixture of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and mycorrhiza in terms of yield determining criteria. The maximum and minimum amounts of seed yield were recorded in the B+C treatment with 41.4 gm-2, and control with 24.1 gm-2, respectively. There was no significant correlation between number of capsules per plant and seed yield, but the positive and significant correlation between number of branches per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000-seed weight and seed yield was observed. This study showed that application of suitable biofertilizers could increase yield and yield components of black cumin. Keywords: Biofertilizer, Ecological agriculture, Medicinal plants, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

  8. Cotton yield estimation using very high-resolution digital images acquired on a low-cost small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield estimation is a critical task in crop management. A number of traditional methods are available for crop yield estimation but they are costly, time-consuming and difficult to expand to a relatively large field. Remote sensing provides techniques to develop quick coverage over a field at any sc...

  9. Comparison of the compressive yield response of aggregated suspensions: Pressure filtration, centrifugation, and osmotic consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Melant, R.M.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The compressive rheological responses of suspensions containing flocculated kaolin, alumina (average particle sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 microm), and hydrous zirconia (average particle sizes of 8, 57, and 139 nm) particles have been measured using three different techniques: pressure filtration, volume fraction profile during centrifugation, and sediment height during centrifugation at multiple spinning speeds. While the volume fraction profile technique appears to be experimentally most robust, equivalent responses are found using the different techniques, indicating that the compressive yield stress is a material property of a given suspension. The compressive yield stress of each suspension increases rapidly with volume fraction but cannot be generally described using simple power-law or exponential fits. The compressive yield stress also increases with the inverse square of particle size. The packing behavior of the suspensions undergoing osmotic consolidation is compared with the mechanical compressive yield response. Some suspensions exhibited the same packing behavior as in the mechanical techniques, while others consistently packed to higher densities during osmotic consolidation. Although equivalent osmotic and mechanical loads do not always result in the same volume fractions, the similar increases in volume fraction with applied driving force suggest that both the osmotic and mechanical techniques are controlled by the force needed to rearrange the particle network

  10. Track models and radiation chemical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Magee, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are concerned only with systems in which single track effects dominate and radiation chemical yields are sums of yields for individual tracks. The authors know that the energy deposits of heavy particle tracks are composed of spurs along the particle trajectory (about one-half of the energy) and a more diffuse pattern composed of the tracks of knock-on electrons, called the penumbra (about one-half of the energy). The simplest way to introduce the concept of a unified track model for heavy particles is to consider the special case of the track of a heavy particle with an LET below 0.2-0.3eV/A, which in practice limits us to protons, deuterons, or particles with energy above 100 MeV per nucleon. At these LET values, to a good approximation, spurs formed by the main particle track can be considered to remain isolated throughout the radiation chemical reactions

  11. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  13. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  14. Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions and Estimating Their Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Myers, S. C.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.; Rodgers, A. J.; Hauk, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Seismology plays a key national security role in detecting, locating, identifying and determining the yield of explosions from a variety of causes, including accidents, terrorist attacks and nuclear testing treaty violations (e.g. Koper et al., 2003, 1999; Walter et al. 1995). A collection of mainly empirical forensic techniques has been successfully developed over many years to obtain source information on explosions from their seismic signatures (e.g. Bowers and Selby, 2009). However a lesson from the three DPRK declared nuclear explosions since 2006, is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, and accurately estimate their yield, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Goals of current research are to improve our physical understanding of the mechanisms of explosion generation of S- and surface-waves, and to advance our ability to numerically model and predict them. As part of that process we are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative location and amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at NNSS. The SPE chemical explosions are explicitly designed to improve our understanding of emplacement and source material effects on the generation of shear and surface waves (e.g. Snelson et al., 2013). Finally we are also exploring the value of combining seismic information with other technologies including acoustic and InSAR techniques to better understand the source characteristics. Our goal is to improve our explosion models

  15. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  16. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  17. Science yield estimation for AFTA coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mennesson, Bertrand; Savransky, Dmitry; Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John

    2014-08-01

    We describe the algorithms and results of an estimation of the science yield for five candidate coronagraph designs for the WFIRST-AFTA space mission. The targets considered are of three types, known radial-velocity planets, expected but as yet undiscovered exoplanets, and debris disks, all around nearby stars. The results of the original estimation are given, as well as those from subsequently updated designs that take advantage of experience from the initial estimates.

  18. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  19. Deep enteroscopy - indications, diagnostic yield and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Moeschler, Oliver; Mueller, Michael Karl

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in 2001 capsule endoscopy opened up the small bowel for diagnostic approaches followed by double balloon enteroscopy which enabled the endoscopic community to perform therapeutic interventions in the whole small intestine. In this review the scientific developments related to indications, diagnostic yield and complications of the last years between the competing devices double ballon enteroscopy, single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy are illustrated.

  20. Colonoscopy: Evaluating indications and diagnostic yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shamali, Mohammed A.; Hasan, F.; Siddiqe, I.; Al-Nakeeb, B.; Kalaoui, M.; Khajah, A.

    2001-01-01

    Colonoscopic procedure is an accepted modality for the evaluation ofcolonic disease. Open-access versus restricted-access colonoscopy has beenargued over in the recent literature. The aim of this retrospective analysisis to identify the yield of the major indications for the procedure, and thepattern of colon pathology in our community. We retrospectively analyzed ourexperience in 3000 colonoscopies over a five-year period. The patientscomprised 1145 females (38%) and 1855 males (62%) and their ages ranged from9 months to 95 years (mean 39.2). There were 2283 patients (76%) who wereaged less than 55 years. Complete examination to the cecum was possible in2850 cases (95%). Pathological findings were identified in 640 patients(21%). The diagnostic yield of patients referred for lower abdominal pain andsurveillance was low, at 7% and 17%, respectively. The yield was high forthose with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), non-bloody diarrhea (35%),iron deficiency anemia (30%), mass lesions identified by radiology (53%) andpolyps identified by radiology (70%). Inflammatory bowel disease wasdiagnosed in 220 patients, carcinoma in 64 patients and colonic polyps in 139patients. Colonic diseases are not uncommon in our part of the world.Colonoscopy is a rewarding procedure in those patients referred with lowergastrointestinal bleeding, mass lesions, polyps and diarrhea. The procedureis less rewarding in patients with lower abdominal pain and in thoseundergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Patient selection on the basis of thepresenting complaint may help to utilize the limited resource available togastroenterologists. About 63% of the procedures were done for indicationsfound to have a low yield. Inflammatory bowel disease is seen with increasingfrequency in our population. (author)

  1. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  2. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 51 - 59 ... Yield being a quantitative trait has complex inheritance, which is ... Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 53 ..... The financial assistance of Canadian.

  3. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION ... to control weeds in conjunction with cultural practices. Jarwar et al. (1999) .... Wheat grain yield is an interplay of yield components especially ... The biological yield expresses the overall growth of crop.

  4. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  5. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Khorasanian Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most region of Khorasan, sesame ecotypes have been planted for many years, but there is little information about seed yield and yield components of them. Therefore a field experimental was conducted to investigation of yield parameters of 14 sesame ecotypes (MSC1, MSC2, MSC3, MSC4, MSC5, MSC6, MSC7, MSC8, MSC9, MSC10, MSC11, MSC12, MSC13 and MSC14 in randomized complete block design with three replications at experimental station, Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2009. Results showed that there were significant difference (P

  7. Jojoba - an oil-yielding desert shrub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Jojoba is being cultivated in many arid areas including India. Brief descriptions are given of the properties and uses of its oil, nursery and planting techniques, irrigation and fertilization, flowering and fruiting, water requirements, and pests and diseases.

  8. Neck ultrasound in staging squamous oesophageal carcinoma - a high yield technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.F.; Chan, A.C.W.; Ahuja, A.T.; Leung, S.F.; Chow, L.T.C.; Chung, S.C.S.; Metreweli, C.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: This study evaluates the use of neck ultrasound in staging squamous oesophageal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis of the clinical, neck ultrasound (US) and thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings in 121 patients with squamous oesophageal carcinoma at presentation was performed. The relationship between malignant neck nodes, mediastinal and abdominal adenopathy, location and size of the primary tumour was analysed. RESULTS: Ten of 121 patients (8%) had clinically palpable neck nodes which were deemed malignant in six (5%) following US and fine-needle aspiration for cytology. Of those 111 patients with no palpable neck nodes, 31 (28%) had malignant nodes shown on US. The more cephalad the location of the primary tumour, the higher the frequency of malignant neck nodes which were found in 80%, 52%, 29% and 9% of cervical, upper thoracic, mid-thoracic and lower thoracic oesophageal tumours, respectively. Eleven (29%) of the 38 patients with malignant neck nodes shown on US had no CT evidence of additional adenopathy in the mediastinum or upper abdomen. Neck US altered TNM staging in 22/121 (18%) patients at presentation. CONCLUSION: Neck US frequently detects clinically impalpable metastatic nodes leading to altered TNM staging in patients with squamous oesophageal carcinoma. We advocate its routine use when staging squamous oesophageal carcinoma. Griffith, J.F. 2000

  9. Determination of the compressive yield strength for nano-grained YAG transparent ceramic by XRD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Huang, Z.Y.; Chen, Y.; Liu, K.; Lu, Z.W.; Qi, J.Q.; Li, F.; He, D.W.; Lu, T.C.; Wang, Q.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Nano-grained ceramics have their unique mechanical characteristics that are not commonly found in their coarse-grained counterparts. In this study, nano-grained YAG transparent ceramics (NG-YAG) were prepared by low-temperature high-pressure technique (LTHP). The peak profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the compressive yield strength of NG-YAG. During the temperature at 450 °C, the residual micro-strain (RMS) increased with increasing loading pressure. However when the loading pressure was exceeded to 4.0 GPa the RMS exhibited a severe negative slop. The temperature effects on the compressive yield strength were also studied. It shows that the compressive yield strength of NG-YAG is 4.0 GPa and 5.0 GPa respectively at 450 °C and 350 °C. More importantly according to this investigation, a feasible technique to study the nano-grained ceramics is provided. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 2 shows the significant slope changes of calculated residual micro-strain (RMS) associated with five selected pressure-temperature conditions. Another the grain size estimated from Scherrer's formula, especially when it changes with the pressure-temperature condition is also plotted in Fig. 2. - Highlights: • Prepared the nano-grained YAG transparent ceramic by high pressure technique. • Obtained the compressive yield with different temperature. • Obtained the compressive yield of nano-grained YAG transparent ceramic.

  10. Climate Change Modelling and Its Roles to Chinese Crops Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Hui; LIN Er-da; Tim Wheeler; Andrew Challinor; JIANG Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Climate has been changing in the last fifty years in China and will continue to change regardless any efforts for mitigation. Agriculture is a climate-dependent activity and highly sensitive to climate changes and climate variability. Understanding the interactions between climate change and agricultural production is essential for society stable development of China. The first mission is to fully understand how to predict future climate and link it with agriculture production system. In this paper, recent studies both domestic and international are reviewed in order to provide an overall image of the progress in climate change researches. The methods for climate change scenarios construction are introduced. The pivotal techniques linking crop model and climate models are systematically assessed and climate change impacts on Chinese crops yield among model results are summarized. The study found that simulated productions of grain crop inherit uncertainty from using different climate models, emission scenarios and the crops simulation models. Moreover, studies have different spatial resolutions, and methods for general circulation model (GCM) downscaling which increase the uncertainty for regional impacts assessment. However, the magnitude of change in crop production due to climate change (at 700 ppm CO2 eq correct) appears within ±10%for China in these assessments. In most literatures, the three cereal crop yields showed decline under climate change scenarios and only wheat in some region showed increase. Finally, the paper points out several gaps in current researches which need more studies to shorten the distance for objective recognizing the impacts of climate change on crops. The uncertainty for crop yield projection is associated with climate change scenarios, CO2 fertilization effects and adaptation options. Therefore, more studies on the fields such as free air CO2 enrichment experiment and practical adaptations implemented need to be carried out.

  11. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... levels at different growth stages of rice on yield and its components. Treatments included ... Therefore, irrigation with saline water at the early growth stages has more negative effect on ...... diversification. Land Degrad. Dev.

  12. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 2University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Mechanization, ... Key words: Fuzzy cotton seed, seed coating, yield components. .... gin turnout (%) characteristics are statistically important.

  13. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  14. Improving the Yield and Nutritional Quality of Forage Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Capstaff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being some of the most important crops globally, there has been limited research on forages when compared with cereals, fruits, and vegetables. This review summarizes the literature highlighting the significance of forage crops, the current improvements and some of future directions for improving yield and nutritional quality. We make the point that the knowledge obtained from model plant and grain crops can be applied to forage crops. The timely development of genomics and bioinformatics together with genome editing techniques offer great scope to improve forage crops. Given the social, environmental and economic importance of forage across the globe and especially in poorer countries, this opportunity has enormous potential to improve food security and political stability.

  15. SCS-CN based time-distributed sediment yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, J. V.; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Ranvir; Singh, V. P.

    2008-05-01

    SummaryA sediment yield model is developed to estimate the temporal rates of sediment yield from rainfall events on natural watersheds. The model utilizes the SCS-CN based infiltration model for computation of rainfall-excess rate, and the SCS-CN-inspired proportionality concept for computation of sediment-excess. For computation of sedimentographs, the sediment-excess is routed to the watershed outlet using a single linear reservoir technique. Analytical development of the model shows the ratio of the potential maximum erosion (A) to the potential maximum retention (S) of the SCS-CN method is constant for a watershed. The model is calibrated and validated on a number of events using the data of seven watersheds from India and the USA. Representative values of the A/S ratio computed for the watersheds from calibration are used for the validation of the model. The encouraging results of the proposed simple four parameter model exhibit its potential in field application.

  16. Fast pyrolysis of linseed. Product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, C.; Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Iki Eylul Campus, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    Fixed-bed fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to determine particularly the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their compositions. The maximum oil yield of 57.7wt.% was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 550C, particle size range 0.6mmtechniques. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on oil showed that it can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock, with a calorific value of 38.45MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH{sub 1.64}O{sub 0.11}N{sub 0.03}.

  17. NEST: a comprehensive model for scintillation yield in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydagis, M; Barry, N; Mock, J; Stolp, D; Sweany, M; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Walsh, N; Woods, M [University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kazkaz, K, E-mail: mmszydagis@ucdavis.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A comprehensive model for explaining scintillation yield in liquid xenon is introduced. We unify various definitions of work function which abound in the literature and incorporate all available data on electron recoil scintillation yield. This results in a better understanding of electron recoil, and facilitates an improved description of nuclear recoil. An incident gamma energy range of O(1 keV) to O(1 MeV) and electric fields between 0 and O(10 kV/cm) are incorporated into this heuristic model. We show results from a Geant4 implementation, but because the model has a few free parameters, implementation in any simulation package should be simple. We use a quasi-empirical approach with an objective of improving detector calibrations and performance verification. The model will aid in the design and optimization of future detectors. This model is also easy to extend to other noble elements. In this paper we lay the foundation for an exhaustive simulation code which we call NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique).

  18. NEST: a comprehensive model for scintillation yield in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydagis, M; Barry, N; Mock, J; Stolp, D; Sweany, M; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Walsh, N; Woods, M; Kazkaz, K

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive model for explaining scintillation yield in liquid xenon is introduced. We unify various definitions of work function which abound in the literature and incorporate all available data on electron recoil scintillation yield. This results in a better understanding of electron recoil, and facilitates an improved description of nuclear recoil. An incident gamma energy range of O(1 keV) to O(1 MeV) and electric fields between 0 and O(10 kV/cm) are incorporated into this heuristic model. We show results from a Geant4 implementation, but because the model has a few free parameters, implementation in any simulation package should be simple. We use a quasi-empirical approach with an objective of improving detector calibrations and performance verification. The model will aid in the design and optimization of future detectors. This model is also easy to extend to other noble elements. In this paper we lay the foundation for an exhaustive simulation code which we call NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique).

  19. Terapascal static pressure generation with ultrahigh yield strength nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Solopova, Natalia A; Abakumov, Artem; Turner, Stuart; Hanfland, Michael; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Chuvashova, Irina; Gasharova, Biliana; Mathis, Yves-Laurent; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Studies of materials' properties at high and ultrahigh pressures lead to discoveries of unique physical and chemical phenomena and a deeper understanding of matter. In high-pressure research, an achievable static pressure limit is imposed by the strength of available strong materials and design of high-pressure devices. Using a high-pressure and high-temperature technique, we synthesized optically transparent microballs of bulk nanocrystalline diamond, which were found to have an exceptional yield strength (~460 GPa at a confining pressure of ~70 GPa) due to the unique microstructure of bulk nanocrystalline diamond. We used the nanodiamond balls in a double-stage diamond anvil cell high-pressure device that allowed us to generate static pressures beyond 1 TPa, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Outstanding mechanical properties (strain-dependent elasticity, very high hardness, and unprecedented yield strength) make the nanodiamond balls a unique device for ultrahigh static pressure generation. Structurally isotropic, homogeneous, and made of a low-Z material, they are promising in the field of x-ray optical applications.

  20. Effects of commercial organic fertilizers on the yield and yield structure of potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work has dealt with investigations of two type commercial organic fertilizers (DCM ECO-MIX 4 NPK 7:7:10 i GUANITO NPK 6:15:3 effects on the yield and yield structure of three potato cultivars (Cleopatra, Carrera and Sylvana. The control variant was used in plots without the use of organic fertilizers. The field experiment was performed in 2012. in a populated area Dobrica (N 45° 13’, E 20° 51’, 78 m.s.l. at the experimental farm plot Belča on which is certified organic production, on anthropogenic soil subtype chernozem on carbonate terrace. The results of research showed that the lowest tuber yield was determined in the control treatment (20,87 t ha-1, while the highest yield was achieved with a commercial organic fertilizer DCM ECO-MIX 4 (23,96 t ha-1. Number of tubers per plant corresponded to the characteristics of the studied cultivars. The largest number of tubers per plant was correlated with yield. Specifically, individual variants of the two greatest yields had the highest average number of tubers per plant. Cultivar Cleopatra of variant with GUANITO achieved 17,51 tubers per plant, while cultivar Sylvana of variant with DCM ECO-MIX 4 achieved 17,38 tubers per plant.

  1. Effect of Application of Pseudomonas fluorescent Strains on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to enhance plant growth and yield directly and indirectly. Use of rhizosphere free living bacteria is one of the methods for crop production and leads to improvement of resources absorption. In order to study of yield, yield components and radiation use efficiency, under application of PGPR condition, an experiment was carried out in 2008 growing season at Agriculture and natural resources research station of Mashhad. The cultivars selected from three rapeseed species belong to Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea (landrace, BP.18، Goldrush، Parkland، Hyola330، Hyola401. Experimental factorial design was randomized in complete block with three replications. Treatments included six varieties of Rapeseed and inoculations were four levels as non–inoculation, inoculation with P. fluorescens169, P. putida108 and use then together. Results showed that strains of fluorescent pseudomonas bacteria had greatest effects on yield and yield components cultivars. A significant difference in the number of pods per plant and 1000 seed weight observed. The cultivars were different in all treats except 1000 seed weight. Overall results indicated that application of growth stimulating bacteria in combination with different cultivars, had a positive effect growth, yield characteristics of plant varieties of rapeseed plants.

  2. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  3. Fission yield covariance generation and uncertainty propagation through fission pulse decay heat calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, L.; Diez, C.J.; Cabellos, O.; Stankovskiy, A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Labeau, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fission yield data and uncertainty comparison between major nuclear data libraries. • Fission yield covariance generation through Bayesian technique. • Study of the effect of fission yield correlations on decay heat calculations. • Covariance information contribute to reduce fission pulse decay heat uncertainty. - Abstract: Fission product yields are fundamental parameters in burnup/activation calculations and the impact of their uncertainties was widely studied in the past. Evaluations of these uncertainties were released, still without covariance data. Therefore, the nuclear community expressed the need of full fission yield covariance matrices to be able to produce inventory calculation results that take into account the complete uncertainty data. State-of-the-art fission yield data and methodologies for fission yield covariance generation were researched in this work. Covariance matrices were generated and compared to the original data stored in the library. Then, we focused on the effect of fission yield covariance information on fission pulse decay heat results for thermal fission of 235 U. Calculations were carried out using different libraries and codes (ACAB and ALEPH-2) after introducing the new covariance values. Results were compared with those obtained with the uncertainty data currently provided by the libraries. The uncertainty quantification was performed first with Monte Carlo sampling and then compared with linear perturbation. Indeed, correlations between fission yields strongly affect the uncertainty of decay heat. Eventually, a sensitivity analysis of fission product yields to fission pulse decay heat was performed in order to provide a full set of the most sensitive nuclides for such a calculation

  4. Measurements of barium photocathode quantum yields at four excimer laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loy, M.D.; Young, A.T.; Leung, K.N.

    1992-06-01

    The electron quantum yields from barium cathodes excited by excimer laser radiation at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm have been determined. Experiments with different cathode surface preparation techniques reveal that deposition of barium film a few microns thick on a clean copper surface under moderate vacuum conditions achieves relatively high quantum efficiencies. Quantum yields measured from surfaces prepared in this manner are 2.3 x 10 -3 at 193 nm, 7.6 x 10 - 4 at 248 nm, 6.1 x 10 -4 at 308 nm, and 4.0 x 10 -4 at 351 nm. Other preparation techniques, such as laser cleaning of a solid barium surface, produced quantum yields that were at least an order of magnitude lower than these values

  5. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  6. Measurement of L sub(III) subshell fluorescence yields in Pb, Th and U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1981-01-01

    L sub(III) subshell fluorescence yields in Pb, Th and U have been measured using photoionization for creating vacancies. The results have been compared with the available data and are found to agree with the recent measurements of Price made using K-L coincidence technique but higher than those of Stephenson made using fluorescent excitation of L sub(III) subshell.

  7. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    fruit fibre proved a better substrate for the production of mushrooms with higher yields and protein content (30.10 g/kg ... techniques which in turn affect the chemical compositions ... potentials of this group of fungi, there is need for better.

  8. The journey from safe yield to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Leake, Stanley A

    2004-01-01

    Safe-yield concepts historically focused attention on the economic and legal aspects of ground water development. Sustainability concerns have brought environmental aspects more to the forefront and have resulted in a more integrated outlook. Water resources sustainability is not a purely scientific concept, but rather a perspective that can frame scientific analysis. The evolving concept of sustainability presents a challenge to hydrologists to translate complex, and sometimes vague, socioeconomic and political questions into technical questions that can be quantified systematically. Hydrologists can contribute to sustainable water resources management by presenting the longer-term implications of ground water development as an integral part of their analyses.

  9. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  10. Neutron yield of medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding calculations for medical electron accelerators above about 10 MeV require some knowledge of the neutron emission from the machine. This knowledge might come from the manufacturer's specifications or from published measurements of the neutron leakage of that particular model and energy of accelerator. In principle, the yield can be calculated if details of the accelerator design are known. These details are often not available because the manufacturer considers them proprietary. A broader knowledge of neutron emission would be useful and it is the purpose of this paper to present such information

  11. Increasing alcohol yield in sugar fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1962-02-20

    The yield of alcohol from yeast fermentations of sugar solutions is increased 1.5 to 5% by the addition of 0.1 to 0.5 parts by volume of a monohydric saturated aliphatic alcohol of at least 6 C atoms in a straight chain such as hexanol or heptanol, or branched chain, such as 2-ethylbutanol or 2-ethylhexanol, or a mixture consisting mostly of C/sub 7/, C/sub 8/, C/sub 9/, or C/sub 10/ alcohols.

  12. FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI RISIKO KREDIT DAN YIELD OBLIGASI PADA PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Widajati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investing in bonds was preferred by investors with the reason that the bonds offer the returns that arepositive with fixed income so that more bond guarantee from the stock. Investors choose the bonds withrank considered (rating of bonds and bond return (expressed in yield. This study aimed to analyze theinfluence. corporate governance of credit risk, the influence of corporate governance on bond yield, theeffect of credit risk on the bond yield. The used data was secondary data. The research population was banksthat issue bonds from 2008 to 2010. Sampling was done by using purposive sampling technique so thatthere were 7 banks that meet the condition sets in the sample. Tests analysis used path analysis. The resultsshowed that corporate governance the effect to credit risk and yield bonds. The results showed that bondwas the choice of investors to invest.

  13. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  14. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  15. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  16. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  17. Three metonyms for Critical Practice: Jig, Foam and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Bradfield

    2017-08-01

    is produced (yield. Together, jig, foam and yield indicate some of the ways that Critical Practice has sustained its organisational reproduction, honing the methods, protocols, structures, techniques, processes, qualities and more that set the cluster apart. We have a longstanding interest - more than a decade - in public goods, spaces, services and knowledge, and a track record of producing original participatory events. Critical Practice seeks to avoid the passive reproduction of art and uncritical cultural production. Our research, projects, exhibitions, publications and funding, our very constitution and administration, are legitimate subjects of critical enquiry. All art is organised, so we try to be sensitive to issues of governance. Governance emerges whenever there is a deliberate organisation of interactions between people. We are striving to be an 'open' organisation and we post all agendas, minutes, budget and decision-making processes online for public scrutiny.

  18. Semi-empirical formulas for sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi

    1994-01-01

    When charged particles, electrons, light and so on are irradiated on solid surfaces, the materials are lost from the surfaces, and this phenomenon is called sputtering. In order to understand sputtering phenomenon, the bond energy of atoms on surfaces, the energy given to the vicinity of surfaces and the process of converting the given energy to the energy for releasing atoms must be known. The theories of sputtering and the semi-empirical formulas for evaluating the dependence of sputtering yield on incident energy are explained. The mechanisms of sputtering are that due to collision cascade in the case of heavy ion incidence and that due to surface atom recoil in the case of light ion incidence. The formulas for the sputtering yield of low energy heavy ion sputtering, high energy light ion sputtering and the general case between these extreme cases, and the Matsunami formula are shown. At the stage of the publication of Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1984, the data up to 1983 were collected, and about 30 papers published thereafter were added. The experimental data for low Z materials, for example Be, B and C and light ion sputtering data were reported. The combination of ions and target atoms in the collected sputtering data is shown. The new semi-empirical formula by slightly adjusting the Matsunami formula was decided. (K.I.)

  19. PREDICTION MODELS OF GRAIN YIELD AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Ysac Avila Serrano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to characterize the grain yield of five cowpea cultivars and to find linear regression models to predict it, a study was developed in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. A complete randomized blocks design was used. Simple and multivariate analyses of variance were carried out using the canonical variables to characterize the cultivars. The variables cluster per plant, pods per plant, pods per cluster, seeds weight per plant, seeds hectoliter weight, 100-seed weight, seeds length, seeds wide, seeds thickness, pods length, pods wide, pods weight, seeds per pods, and seeds weight per pods, showed significant differences (P≤ 0.05 among cultivars. Paceño and IT90K-277-2 cultivars showed the higher seeds weight per plant. The linear regression models showed correlation coefficients ≥0.92. In these models, the seeds weight per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, cluster per plant and pods length showed significant correlations (P≤ 0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that grain yield differ among cultivars and for its estimation, the prediction models showed determination coefficients highly dependable.

  20. On the design and implementation of a wafer yield editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Jess, J.A.G.

    1989-01-01

    An interactive environment is presented for the analysis of yield information required on modern integrated circuit manufacturing lines. The system estimates wafer yields and wafer-yield variations, quantifies regional yield variations within wafers, identifies clusters in wafers and/or in lots, and

  1. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, .... separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% ... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat.

  2. Study on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Genotypes under Different Moisture Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mogtader

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study grain yield and yield components of 16 advanced wheat lines under rainfed and supplementary irrigation conditions, this research was conducted in randomized block design with 3 replications at Maragheh Research Station during 2008-09 seasons. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for date to heading, plant height, 1000 kernel weight, tiller number, spike length, seed number per spike, spikelet number per spike, peduncle length, harvest index, leaf, sheath length and grain yield. Results also showed that the lines No. 4 (91-142 a 61/3/F35.70/MO73//1D13.1/MLT and 16 (Azar2 with 1895 and 1878 Kg/ha, lines No. 4 and 7 (YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441 with 2132 and 2285 Kg/ha had highest grain yield under rainfed and supplementary irrigated conditions respectively. Based on results these 16 lines and cultivars were grouped in 4 and 3 distinct classes using Ward’s Method of cluster analysis under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Path analysis indicated that vigor at shooting stage, seed number per spike and HI were positive important traits to select lines for high yielding potential in this study. HI and TKW had also positive effects on grain under supplementary irrigation.

  3. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  4. Complications, disease profile and histological yield from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The objective of the study was to evaluate (i) the technique used at Universitas Hospital in comparison with other international centres also performing renal biopsies, (ii) the disease profile in patients undergoing renal biopsies, (iii) the complications experienced during and/or after the procedure, and (iv) the ...

  5. The influence of aging stress on the yield point phenomenon in the zirconium alloy, ozhennite 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.I.; Sayar, A.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of aging stress on the occurrence of yield points during interrupted tensile tests was studied in the temperature range 423 to 623 K for aging times of 2 to 10 min. The results indicate that at the lower temperatures the yield points are produced by dislocation rearrangements, with a minimum yield drop resulting from an aging close to the internal stress estimated by an unloading to zero stress relaxation technique. Above approximately 458 K, solute atoms can play an important role in the formation of the yield points. When this solute strain-aging occurs strongly, a maximum yield drop is at times obtained by aging at a stress close to the measured internal stress. At the higher deformation temperatures, the yield drop decreases more rapidly with increasing plastic strain, which result appears related to the greater amount of tangling of dislocations produced at the higher temperatures. (Auth.)

  6. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Tanveer, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  7. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Sources with cobalt-60 are treated marginally, because most probably, there will be no installation of technically meaningful activity in Poland before the year 2000. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energetical yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of twenty years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 150 kV input power from the mains, only 5 kV of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, sometimes only a few percent, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of losses at the edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of losses during the dead time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical in case of objects of optimum type. At the first stage, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of the low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of these technologies, which make it possible to control the shape of the processed object are stressed. Ten parameters necessary for a proper calculation of technological yields of radiation processing are listed. Additional conditions which must be taken into account in the comparison of the cost of radiation processing with the cost of other technologies are also

  8. Path coefficient and correlation of yield and yield associated traits in candidate bread wheat (triticum aestivum l)lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, T.; Haider, S.; Qureshi, M. J.; Shah, G. S.; Zamir, R.

    2005-01-01

    Yield and yield contributing traits were studied in candidate bread wheat lines to find out the genetic contribution of the different characters towards grain yield at NIFA, Peshawar during 2001-02. All the characteristics studied differed significantly from each other. Days to heading showed negative and significant correlation with harvest index and grain yield but was negative and non-significant with the biological yield. Days to maturity were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with biological yield; harvest index and grain yield and level of correlations were significant with harvest index and grain yield. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with harvest index and grain yield. Biological yield had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index and grain yield. Harvest index had positive and highly significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients revealed that important characters influencing grain yield are harvest index and biological yield. Path analysis showed the importance in order of harvest index, biological yield, plant height, days to maturity and days to heading with grain yield. (author)

  9. Responsiveness of cold tolerant chickpea characteristics in fall and spring planting: II. yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in Mashhad collection chickpeas (MCC has shown that there are some cold tolerant genotypes for fall planting in the highlands. To obtain more detailed information about the reaction of these genotypes to fall and spring planting, the yield and yield component responses of 33 chickpea genotypes (32 cold tolerant genotypes and one susceptible genotypes to four planting dates (28 Sep., 16 Oct., 2 Nov., and 7 Mar. were evaluated in 2000-2001 growing season. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot design with two replications. The planting dates were imposed as main plot and chickpea genotypes as subplot. Effects of planting date and genotype on percent of plant survival (PPS after winter, number. of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, yield and Harvest Index (HI were significant (p

  10. Estimation of rice yield affected by drought and relation between rice yield and TVDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.

    2016-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change. As the adaptation, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. The Government started a pilot project in 2013 and this year the pilot project has been extended to 22 provinces. Having the above as background, we conducted research on development of new damage assessment method for rice using remote sensing data which could be used for evaluation of damage ratio caused by drought in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield affected by drought in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT 7 data taken in 2015, and the validation result was 0.8t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data of the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. In addition, TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) which was calculated from Landsat8 data in heading season indicated the dryness in low yield area. The result suggests that rice yield was affected by irrigation water shortage around heading season as a result of the decreased precipitation by El Nino. Through our study, it becomes clear that the utilization of remote sensing data can be promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production precisely, quickly and quantitatively, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  11. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  12. Estimation of heterosis in yield and yield attributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season from 6th October, 2015 to 5th March 2016 to estimate different heterosis on single cross maize hybrids . Thirteen maize hybrids were tested randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid namely RML-98/RL-105 gave the highest standard heterosis (57.5% for grain yield over CP-666 followed by RML-4/NML-2 (32.6%, RML-95/RL-105 (29% and RML-5/RL-105 (20.6%. The hybrid RML-98/RL-105 produced the highest standard heterosis (75.1% for grain yield over Rajkumar followed by RML-4/NML-2(50.2%, RML-95/RL-105(46.6%, RML-5/RL-105 and (35.7%. Mid and better parent heterosis were significantly higher for yield and yield attributes viz. ear length, ear diameter, no of kernel row per ear, no of kernel per row and test weight. The highest positive mid-parent heterosis for grain yield was found in RML-98/RL-105 followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. For the grain yield the better parent heterosis was the highest in RML-98/RL-105, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. These results suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating hybrids namely RML-98/RL-105, RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2 .

  13. Higgs production in vector boson fusion in the H{yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} ll + 4{nu} final state with ATLAS. A sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Martin

    2011-05-15

    A study of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment to discover the Standard Model Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion (VBF) and its decay to H{yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} ll + 4{nu} is presented. The study is based on simulated proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. For the rst time the discovery potential is evaluated in the presence of additional proton-proton interactions (pile-up) to the process of interest in a complete and consistent way. Special emphasis is placed on the development of background estimation techniques to extract the main background processes Z{yields} {tau}{tau} and t anti t production using data. The t anti t background is estimated using a control sample selected with the VBF analysis cuts and the inverted b-jet veto. The dominant background process Z {yields} {tau}{tau} is estimated using Z{yields} {mu}{mu} events. Replacing the muons of the Z{yields} {mu}{mu} event with simulated {tau}-leptons, Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events are modelled to high precision. For the replacement of the Z boson decay products a dedicated method based on tracks and calorimeter cells is developed. Without pile-up a discovery potential of 3{sigma} to 3.4{sigma} in the mass range 115 GeV

  14. Yield strength of attached copper film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Zhang Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Variation of stress in attached copper film with an applied strain is measured by X-ray diffraction combined with a four-point bending method. A lower slope of the initial elastic segment of the curve of X-ray measured stress versus applied strain results from incomplete elastic strain transferred from the substrate to the film due to insufficiently strong interface cohesion. So the slope of the initial elastic segment of the X-ray stress (or X-ray strain directly) of the film against the substrate applied strain may be used to measure the film-substrate cohesive strength. The yield strength of the attached copper film is much higher than that of the bulk material and varies linearly with the inverse of the film thickness. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  15. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  16. Impact of Inter-Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of several Annual Medics Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz BAGHERI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran to evaluate the effects of three within-row spacing treatments (20, 30 and 40 cm on forage and seed production of five species of annual medics (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava; M. littoralis cv. Herald; M. polymorpha cv. Santiago; M. minima cv. Orion and M. truncatula cv. Mogul. The experiment was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The results of the experiment indicated that M. polymorpha had the highest forage yield out of the highest plant population. Latter with average 443.09 Kg ha-1 and M. scutellata with average 409.99 Kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield. Also, the last species with 1306.78 Kg ha-1 had the highest pod yields. The highest seed yield and pod yield were produced at 20 cm within-row spacing because there were not adequate plants for maximum seed and pod yields in 30 and 40 cm within-row spacing. The tested plant densities did not affect on seeds number per pod, 1000 seeds weight and seeds to burr pod weight ratio. The M. truncatula and M. minima have the highest seeds number per pod. In addition, M. scutellata had the highest 1000 seeds weight with an average of 12.57 g. The highest seeds to burr pod ratio was observed in M. polymorpha. The most pod numbers were obtained in 20 and 30 cm within-row spacing and M. polymorpha while, the least pod numbers was observed in M. scutellata. Plant densities did not affect on pod numbers of the mentioned species. The highest dry forage yield was produced in 20 cm within-row spacing. Among the tested tested species, M. truncatula had the highest forage yield with average 870.07 Kg ha-1. This experiment indicated that there is possibility for seed and forage production of tested annual medics in the mentioned zone with the considering suitable plant densities.

  17. Effects of mulch practices on fresh ear yield and yield components of sweet corn

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Burhan; ATAR, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in the vegetation seasons of 2010 and 2011. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects of mulch practices (a control-unmulched treatment, a plastic mulch treatment, and a straw mulch treatment) on fresh ear yield and some yield-related traits of sweet corn according to 3 sowing dates: 1 April, 15 April, and 1 May, respectively. The main effects of sowing dates were significant for the harvest period, the emerging rate from soil, the fresh ear yie...

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  19. A mathematical framework for yield (vs. rate) optimization in constraint-based modeling and applications in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    The optimization of metabolic rates (as linear objective functions) represents the methodical core of flux-balance analysis techniques which have become a standard tool for the study of genome-scale metabolic models. Besides (growth and synthesis) rates, metabolic yields are key parameters for the characterization of biochemical transformation processes, especially in the context of biotechnological applications. However, yields are ratios of rates, and hence the optimization of yields (as nonlinear objective functions) under arbitrary linear constraints is not possible with current flux-balance analysis techniques. Despite the fundamental importance of yields in constraint-based modeling, a comprehensive mathematical framework for yield optimization is still missing. We present a mathematical theory that allows one to systematically compute and analyze yield-optimal solutions of metabolic models under arbitrary linear constraints. In particular, we formulate yield optimization as a linear-fractional program. For practical computations, we transform the linear-fractional yield optimization problem to a (higher-dimensional) linear problem. Its solutions determine the solutions of the original problem and can be used to predict yield-optimal flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models. For the theoretical analysis, we consider the linear-fractional problem directly. Most importantly, we show that the yield-optimal solution set (like the rate-optimal solution set) is determined by (yield-optimal) elementary flux vectors of the underlying metabolic model. However, yield- and rate-optimal solutions may differ from each other, and hence optimal (biomass or product) yields are not necessarily obtained at solutions with optimal (growth or synthesis) rates. Moreover, we discuss phase planes/production envelopes and yield spaces, in particular, we prove that yield spaces are convex and provide algorithms for their computation. We illustrate our findings by a small

  20. The effects of the regulated deficit irrigation on yield and some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... human diet and environment, its production requires a significant amount of water due to its relatively shallow root system. Thus, the amount of ... should be applied. Drip irrigation, reduces deep percolation and evaporation ..... processing tomato yield, water table depth, soil salinity and profitability. Agric.

  1. Setting maximum sustainable yield targets when yield of one species affects that of other species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Reid, David; Mackinson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    species. But how should we prioritize and identify most appropriate targets? Do we prefer to maximize by focusing on total yield in biomass across species, or are other measures targeting maximization of profits or preserving high living qualities more relevant? And how do we ensure that targets remain...

  2. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  3. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  4. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Whereas grain yield, which was the highest component was ... land application, many studies have been performed ... grain. Analysis of variance was used to compare treatment ... een 17.0 - 164.0 cm depending on the environmental .... municipal sewage sludge for the stabilization of soil contaminated by.

  5. Global evaluation of a semiempirical model for yield anomalies and application to within-season yield forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Bernhard; Gornott, Christoph; Wechsung, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying the influence of weather on yield variability is decisive for agricultural management under current and future climate anomalies. We extended an existing semiempirical modeling scheme that allows for such quantification. Yield anomalies, measured as interannual differences, were modeled for maize, soybeans, and wheat in the United States and 32 other main producer countries. We used two yield data sets, one derived from reported yields and the other from a global yield data set deduced from remote sensing. We assessed the capacity of the model to forecast yields within the growing season. In the United States, our model can explain at least two-thirds (63%-81%) of observed yield anomalies. Its out-of-sample performance (34%-55%) suggests a robust yield projection capacity when applied to unknown weather. Out-of-sample performance is lower when using remote sensing-derived yield data. The share of weather-driven yield fluctuation varies spatially, and estimated coefficients agree with expectations. Globally, the explained variance in yield anomalies based on the remote sensing data set is similar to the United States (71%-84%). But the out-of-sample performance is lower (15%-42%). The performance discrepancy is likely due to shortcomings of the remote sensing yield data as it diminishes when using reported yield anomalies instead. Our model allows for robust forecasting of yields up to 2 months before harvest for several main producer countries. An additional experiment suggests moderate yield losses under mean warming, assuming no major changes in temperature extremes. We conclude that our model can detect weather influences on yield anomalies and project yields with unknown weather. It requires only monthly input data and has a low computational demand. Its within-season yield forecasting capacity provides a basis for practical applications like local adaptation planning. Our study underlines high-quality yield monitoring and statistics as critical

  6. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  7. Predictive ability of machine learning methods for massive crop yield prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gonzalez-Sanchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for agricultural planning purposes is the accurate yield estimation for the numerous crops involved in the planning. Machine learning (ML is an essential approach for achieving practical and effective solutions for this problem. Many comparisons of ML methods for yield prediction have been made, seeking for the most accurate technique. Generally, the number of evaluated crops and techniques is too low and does not provide enough information for agricultural planning purposes. This paper compares the predictive accuracy of ML and linear regression techniques for crop yield prediction in ten crop datasets. Multiple linear regression, M5-Prime regression trees, perceptron multilayer neural networks, support vector regression and k-nearest neighbor methods were ranked. Four accuracy metrics were used to validate the models: the root mean square error (RMS, root relative square error (RRSE, normalized mean absolute error (MAE, and correlation factor (R. Real data of an irrigation zone of Mexico were used for building the models. Models were tested with samples of two consecutive years. The results show that M5-Prime and k-nearest neighbor techniques obtain the lowest average RMSE errors (5.14 and 4.91, the lowest RRSE errors (79.46% and 79.78%, the lowest average MAE errors (18.12% and 19.42%, and the highest average correlation factors (0.41 and 0.42. Since M5-Prime achieves the largest number of crop yield models with the lowest errors, it is a very suitable tool for massive crop yield prediction in agricultural planning.

  8. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  9. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  10. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Conservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature. Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region. Materials and Methods A split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus, rocket salad (Eruca sativa, triticale (X Triticosecale witmack, barley (Hordeum vulgaris and control (no cover crop was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage

  11. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  12. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  13. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  14. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  15. Efficiency and yield spectra of inorganic scintillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodnyi, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of energy loss in inorganic scintillators are reviewed. The main parameters, which control the fundamental limit of the scintillator energy efficiency, are determined. It is shown that together with simple cascade processes one should take into account the production of plasmons to estimate the energy efficiency of scintillators or other phosphors excited by an ionizing radiation. Core-to-valence luminescence related to 5pCs→3pCl transitions is investigated in some chlorides: CsCl, KCl, RbCl, NaCl, KCaCl 3 , RbCaCl 3 . The yield spectra of the crystals in the VUV and X-ray regions are also studied. It is shown that the 4pRb-core states are involved in the process of creation of holes in the 5pCs-core band in Rb-based crystals. The formation of holes in the potassium core band acts as a competing process and suppresses the radiative core-to-valence transitions

  16. Feature Selection for Wheat Yield Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruß, Georg; Kruse, Rudolf

    Carrying out effective and sustainable agriculture has become an important issue in recent years. Agricultural production has to keep up with an everincreasing population by taking advantage of a field’s heterogeneity. Nowadays, modern technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and a multitude of developed sensors enable farmers to better measure their fields’ heterogeneities. For this small-scale, precise treatment the term precision agriculture has been coined. However, the large amounts of data that are (literally) harvested during the growing season have to be analysed. In particular, the farmer is interested in knowing whether a newly developed heterogeneity sensor is potentially advantageous or not. Since the sensor data are readily available, this issue should be seen from an artificial intelligence perspective. There it can be treated as a feature selection problem. The additional task of yield prediction can be treated as a multi-dimensional regression problem. This article aims to present an approach towards solving these two practically important problems using artificial intelligence and data mining ideas and methodologies.

  17. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  18. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  19. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Key words: Sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, salinity, stem yield, ... The effect of salinity on the stem yield and sucrose was .... growth and polyamine metabolism in two citrus rootstocks with ... Growth and osmoregulation in two.

  20. growth and yield response of carrot (daucus carota l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Mampong Campus to investigate the growth and yield responses of carrot to different rates of soil amendments ... quires a deep and well-drained loamy soil with high amount of ... The factors considered in the ..... processing carrot root yields.

  1. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  2. Yield constraint analysis of rainfed lowland rice in Souteast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Fertilizer application, field hydrology, plant nutrient uptake, toposequence, weed control, yield loss. Rainfed lowland rice yields are low and unstable due to uncertain water supply, low soil fertility, and pest infestation. To design management interventions aimed at increasing

  3. correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance DAC

    1Adamawa State College of Agriculture, Ganye, Nigeria. ... seed yield (39.872%) followed by number of pods/plant which contributed 12.809%. ... Therefore, the most important yield determinants of bambara groundnut which should be.

  4. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  5. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  6. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... statistics and yield indicated that only TOP method would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and ... metric stability methods; i) they reduce the bias caused by outliers, ii) ...... Biometrics, 43: 45-53. Sabaghnia N ...

  7. Assessment of genotype x environment interaction on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... yield and yield components of durum wheat genotypes ... The results of combined analysis of variance showed a strong influence of the ... Stability is defined as the early prediction of environmental im- ... Many resear-.

  8. The evaluation for reference fission yield of 238U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    In the fission yield data evaluation and measurement, the reference yield is very important, good or poor recommended or measurement values depend upon the reference data to a great extent. According to the CRP's requirement, the evaluation of reference fission yields have been and will be carried out in CNDC, as a part of the whole work (contract No.9504/R 0 /Regular Budget Fund), the evaluation for 29 reference fission yields of 15 product nuclides from 238 U fission have been completed

  9. High yield CTMP fibres as a possibility of the more efficient yield of wood raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The evident shortage of wood as a raw material has become a limiting factor in the pulp and paper industry which is the greatest consumer of wood in Europe. The situation in our country is similar. During the few past years, the production of poplar and willow pulpwood was 220.000 m3 per year, which is insufficient for the planned increase in the production of sulphate pulp (175.000 tons till 2005. This paper deals with the aspects of the more efficient yield of raw material, based on the significantly higher yield of CTMP fibres, as well as with the significance of the lower adverse effect on the environment. It also analyses the conditions of production and the quality of the obtained fibres, as a possible substitute for chemical pulp and secondary fibres in papers of different quality. The main reasons for the production and use of CTMP fibres in our country are reported.

  10. Dispersive analysis of {omega}{yields}3{pi} and {phi}{yields}3{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niecknig, Franz; Kubis, Bastian; Schneider, Sebastian P. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We study the three-pion decays of the lightest isoscalar vector mesons, {omega} and {phi}, in a dispersive framework that allows for a consistent description of final-state interactions between all three pions. Our results are solely dependent on the phenomenological input for the pion-pion P-wave scattering phase shift. We predict the Dalitz plot distributions for both decays and compare our findings to recent measurements of the {phi}{yields}3{pi} Dalitz plot by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. Dalitz plot parameters for future precision measurements of {omega}{yields}3{pi} are predicted. We also calculate the {pi}{pi} P-wave inelasticity contribution from {omega}{pi} intermediate states. (orig.)

  11. Methane Yield Database: Online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and related metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murovec, Boštjan; Kolbl, Sabina; Stres, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a community supported online infrastructure and bioresource for methane yield data and accompanying metadata collected from published literature. In total, 1164 entries described by 15,749 data points were assembled. Analysis of data collection showed little congruence in reporting of methodological approaches. The largest identifiable source of variation in reported methane yields was represented by authorship (i.e. substrate batches within particular substrate class) within which experimental scales (volumes (0.02-5l), incubation temperature (34-40 °C) and % VS of substrate played an important role (p 63%). This calls for reconsideration of accepted approaches to reporting data in currently published literature to increase capacity to service industrial decision making to a greater extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relations between soil factors and herbage yields of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cation exchange capacity; Correlation matrix; Nitrogen supplies; Root mass; Root measurements; Soil acidity; Soil variables; Soil water content; Soil water measurements; Yield measurements; nitrogen supply; ph; herbage yield; grassland; soils; productivity; soil depth; dry matter yield; grasses; water content; n; ...

  13. Forage yield and quality of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate 40 kenaf accessions for forage yield and quality at Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2009. Forage yield and quality traits were measured at the initial flowering stage. The kenaf accessions showed highly significant variation for most of trait studied. Plant dry matter yield ranged from 5286 kg ...

  14. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) values varied from 93.1 to 466.3 mm for the treatments. The highest yield was obtained from the S3 and S4 treatments. A significant polynomial correlation was obtained between the yield and irrigation water, and between the yield and ET (P < 0.01). This indicated that when irrigation water and ET ...

  15. Performance of a procedure for yield estimation in fruit orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravena Zamora, Felipe; Potin, Camila; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio

    Early estimation of expected fruit tree yield is important for the market planning and for growers and exporters to plan for labour and boxes. Large variations in tree yield may be found, posing a challenge for accurate yield estimation. We evaluated a multilevel systematic sampling procedure...

  16. Influence of gamma rays on the yield of Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of various acute doses of gamma-rays has been studied in an oil yielding Indian variety, Neelum of Linum usitatissimum. It has been found that gamma irradiation brings about an increase in the yield of the crop at lower doses upto 75 krads, while the higher ones like 125 and 150 krads reduce the yield to half. (auth.)

  17. simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The effects of climate change on rice production and yield cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase production and yield. The CERES-Rice (Ver. 4.0) model was calibrated and evaluated for use in simulating rice yields under different climate change scenarios in Ghana using data from the Anum Valley ...

  18. Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And Productivity Of Component Crops In Cowpea/Cassava Intercropping System. ... Similarly, fresh root yield (t/ha) of cassava was influenced by cropping system and population density in 2005/2006, but not in 2004/2005 cropping season. Cassava tuber yield was ...

  19. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  20. Growth and yield responses of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... The effects of varying levels (0, 110, 220, 330, 440, and 550 kg P/ha) of phosphate application on some growth and yield parameters of African yam bean were studied. Plant dry weight ... of the control treatment, (12.79 g). Grain yield was ... Key word: Fertilizer, phosphate, Sphenostylis stenocarpa, yield.