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Sample records for selenga river pool

  1. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  2. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  3. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  4. Geochemical disturbance of soil cover in the nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan V; Kosheleva, Natalia E

    2017-08-01

    The anthropogenic geochemical transformation of soil cover in large nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin was assessed. The results of the geochemical survey of 2010-2012 revealed the spatial distribution patterns and abundances of 18 hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of Erdenet (Mongolia) and Zakamensk (Buryat republic, Russian Federation). In both cities, mining activities disturbed soil cover which accumulates Mo, Cu, As, Sb, W in Erdenet and Bi, W, Cd, Be, Pb, Mo, Sb in Zakamensk. Maximum accumulation of elements in Erdenet is restricted to the industrial zone. In Zakamensk, it has spread on ½ of the territory with the degree of multielemental pollution exceeding the extremely dangerous level by 16 times. The effect of mining centers on the state of the river system is local and does not spread to the Selenga River. Downstream from Erdenet, an artificial pool intercepts heavy metal and metalloid flows of the Erdenetii-Gol River. By contrast, downstream from the tailing dumps of the Dzhida tungsten-molybdenum plant the concentrations of ore elements W and Mo and their accessories Bi and Cd in the Modonkul River exceed background values by 146, 20, 57, and 21 times, respectively, decreasing by an order of magnitude 30 km downstream.

  5. Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use

  6. SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED MATTER FLUXES IN THE UPPER SELENGA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized recent field-based estimates of the dissolved ions (K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Cl- SO42- HCO3-, biogens (NO3-, NO2-, PO43-(C, mg/l, heavy metal (Fesum, Mn, Pb and dissolved load (DL, kg/day, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l and suspended load (SL, kg/day along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on literature review and preliminary results of our 2011 field campaign. The crucial task of this paper is to provide full review of Russian, Mongolian and English-language literature which concern the matter fluxes in the upper part of Selenga river (within Mongolia. The exist estimates are compared with locations of 3 main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga River where Mongolia capital Ulanbaatar, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines are located. In measurement campaigns conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2008 the increase directly after the Zaamar mining site was between 167 to 383 kg/day for Fe, between 15 and 5260 kg/day for Mn. Our field campaign indicated increase of suspended load along Tuul river from 4280 kg/day at the upstream point to 712000 kg/day below Ulaanbaatar and Zaamar. The results provide evidence on a potential connection between increased dissolved and suspended matter fluxes in transboundary rivers and zones of matter supply at industrial and mining centers, along eroded river banks and pastured lands. The gaps in the understanding of matter load fluxes within this basin are discussed with regards to determining further goals of hydrological and geochemical surveys.

  7. Impact of atmospheric blocking events on the decrease of precipitation in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antokhina, O.; Antokhin, P.; Devyatova, E.; Vladimir, M.

    2017-12-01

    The periods of prolonged deficiency of hydropower potential (HP) of Angara cascade hydroelectric plant related to low-inflow in Baikal and Angara basins threaten to energy sector of Siberia. Since 1901 was recorded five such periods. Last period began in 1996 and continues today. This period attracts the special attention, because it is the longest and coincided with the observed climate change. In our previous works we found that the reason of observed decrease of HP is low water content of Selenga River (main river in Baikal Basin). We also found that the variations of Selenga water-content almost totally depend of summer atmospheric precipitation. Most dramatic decrease of summer precipitation observed in July. In turn, precipitation in July depends on location and intensity of atmospheric frontal zone which separates mid-latitude circulation and East Asia monsoon system. Recently occur reduction this frontal zone and decrease of East Asia summer monsoon intensity. We need in the understanding of the reasons leading to these changes. In the presented work we investigate the influence of atmospheric blocking over Asia on the East Asian summer monsoon circulation in the period its maximum (July). Based on the analysis of large number of blocking events we identified the main mechanisms of blocking influence on the monsoon and studied the properties of cyclones formed by the interaction of air masses from mid latitude and tropics. It turned out that the atmospheric blockings play a fundamental role in the formation of the East Asia monsoon moisture transport and in the precipitation anomalies redistribution. In the absence of blockings over Asia East Asian monsoon moisture does not extend to the north, and in the presence of blockings their spatial configuration and localization completely determines the precipitation anomalies configuration in the northern part of East Asia. We also found that the weakening monsoon circulation in East Asia is associated with

  8. Long-term hydro-climatic changes in the Selenga river basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Asokan, Shilpa M.; Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Climatic changes can lead to altered hydrological conditions, which in turn can impact pollutant loading patterns to the terminal recipient of a considered basin. Lake Baikal is the deepest and largest freshwater reservoir on Earth. The lake and its surroundings have been declared an UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its unique ecosystem with numerous endemic animal and plant species. The Selenga river basin, which is located in northern Mongolia and southern Siberia in Russia, is the largest sub-basin of the Lake Baikal. Mining is well developed in the region and has been identified to be the main pollution source for the water system in the sparsely populated region. We investigate long-term historic and projected future hydro-climatic conditions in the Selenga river basin with the aim to improve the understanding of such underlying conditions in the basin. This understanding is fundamental for preventing degradation of Lake Baikal's unique ecosystem from for instance mining activities. Specifically, our objective is to identify observed historical hydro-climatic changes during the 72-year period of 1938-2009. In addition, we assess multi-model ensemble means of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) in order to also consider future projections of hydro-climatic changes for a near future period (2010-2039) and a more distant future period (2070-2099). The results show that there has been an observed increase in mean annual temperature in the basin by about 1.5°C during the period 1938-2009. Moreover, a longer seasonal period of temperatures above zero (especially due to increasing spring temperatures) is detected. For the annual water balance components of precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff, relatively small temporal changes are observed. However, in recent years there has been a detected decrease in runoff, with 10-year running averages reaching their lowest levels within the whole investigation period. In particular, there has

  9. [The parasite fauna and structures of parasite communities of Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski, 1889 from Ust-Nur Lake (Selenga River basin) and Tuin-Gol River (Goby Lakes Valley)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batueva, M D

    2011-01-01

    The parasite fauna of Oreoleuciscus humilis from the Ust-Nur Lake (Selenga River basin), Tuin-Gol River (Goby Lakes Valley) are given for the first time. We found 9 species of Oreoleuciscus humilis parasites, 5 species is revealed for the first time for this host. Infracommunities of parasites of Oreoleuciscus humilis in the Tuin-Gol River are balanced and mature, in the Ust-Nur Lake are not balaced and not mature.

  10. Sediment Dispersal on the Topset of a Tectonically Active Shelf-edge Delta: an Interplay Between Sediment Supply and Subsidence, as Demonstrated for the Selenga River, Lake Baikal, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Dong, T. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Selenga River delta (Lake Baikal, Russia), located adjacent to an active rift margin and filling the world's deepest lake, represents one of the few examples of a modern shelf-edge system. Research into sediment dispersal on the Selenga delta was undertaken with the aim of linking topset morphodynamics and sediment accumulation patterns with the production of stratigraphy. The subaerial delta is constructed of three active lobes that receive varying amounts of water and sediment, distributed among a nine-order bifurcating channel network. Data from multiple expeditions include bathymetric and water-discharge measurements, side-scan images of the bed and banks, sediment samples, and bankline composition (including sediment type and vegetation). This information is analyzed to evaluate spatial variability in: 1. channel geometry, 2. boundary shear stress, 3. bedform size, and 4. bed sediment composition. The delta possesses downstream sediment fining, whereby median channel bed size decreases by two orders of magnitude over thirty kilometers, from a predominantly gravel and sand mixture near the delta apex to silt and fine sand at the lake interface. The location of gravel termination among distributary channels coincides with a reduction in sediment-transport capacity, as assessed by measurements of boundary shear stress. Interestingly, backwater hydrodynamics, which operate as important influences on bed grain size for many deltas, is not a major influence on the Selenga system. Instead, a non-linear downstream decrease in boundary shear stress arises due to partitioning of water among the bifurcating channel network. As has been documented in previous studies, gravel and coarse sand are absent on the delta foreset and bottomset (i.e., the rift axis), despite a continuous sediment feed from upstream that should provide the supply necessary to increase bed slope and enhance transport capacity over the delta. To reconcile this discrepancy, a tectonic timescale is

  11. Impact of riverine suspended particulate matter on the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether composition of lakes: The outflow of the Selenga River in Lake Baikal (Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Fedotov, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids found in several environments, including soils, rivers and lakes, whose distribution varies with temperature and pH, although this dependence is apparently not the same for the different environments. Mixing of

  12. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.60 Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation of the pool created by the Federal dam at Troy, N.Y...

  13. Characterization of pool thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature is a critical water quality parameter for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawystcha) and is a potentially limiting factor for the successful reintroduction of Chinook into the San Joaquin River system. When ambient stream water temperatures exceed salmon thermal tolerances, salmon seek out cooler water in pools as thermal refuge. While current models of the San Joaquin River can estimate ambient surface water temperature, vertical variations in pool temperature are unknown and not modeled. This study measured river pool thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system to assess available thermal refuge and identify the key drivers of thermal stratification in this system. During July 2012, daytime vertical water temperature profiles were measured in 53 river pools to survey the prevalence of thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system from the Mariposa Bypass to the its confluence with the Merced River. Between September and November 2012 six of the pools that exhibited thermal stratification during July were instrumented with water temperature sensor arrays and piezometers. The water temperature sensor arrays were constructed by attaching sensors at regular intervals to the exterior of a PVC pipe to measure the vertical water temperature in the pool and into the sediment. Additionally, piezometers determined pool water head along with pressure head at two different depths into the sediment. Sensor arrays were setup for a minimum of two weeks at each site with sensors recording data every 15 minutes. Thermal stratification occurred in 82% of the 53 pools surveyed in the San Joaquin River during July. Pool depths ranged from 0.64 m to 6.37 m with an average depth of 2.09 m. Differences in vertical water temperature ranged from less than 3 °C to 11.4 °C with an average water temperature difference of 4.2 °C. Vertical water temperature differences did not correlate with pool depth. In the six pools instrumented for two weeks, thermal

  14. Response of Vegetation and Fish During an Experimental Drawdown in Three Pools, Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wlosinski, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    An experiment to improve ecological conditions while maintaining a 9-foot (2.74-m) navigation channel was continued in 1995 and 1996 on the three pools of the Upper Mississippi River managed by the St...

  15. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamooh, F.; Van den Meersche, K.; Meysman, F.; Marwick, T.R.; Borges, A.V.; Merckx, R.; Dehairs, F.; Schmidt, S.; Nyunja, J.; Bouillon, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya), in February 2008 (dry season), September–November 2009 (wet season), and June–July 2010 (end of wet season), covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent

  16. LAKE GUSINOE TO BAIKAL VIA SELENGA DELTA: PROTECTION-DESTRUCTION SPIRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Naganawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Gusinoe is the largest water body in the Buryat Republic (South Siberia, Russia and still the only source of both drinking and industrial water supply. All the wastewater is thrown away into the same lake. Most of the tributaries, concentrated on the western lakeshore, disappear into the coarse deposits of alluvial fans soon after they emerge from the mountains. Anthropogenic impacts on the lake ecosystem increased during the 20th century. The biggest environmental polluters are the Gusinoozersk coal mine, the Kholboldzhinsky opencut coal mine, and the Gusinoozersk State Regional Power Plant (Gusinoozersk SRPP. The Gusinoozersk SRPP takes a large amount of freshwater from the Zagustai River, the longest influent of Lake Gusinoe, to produce hot water and steam for the turbines. The warm wastewater is discharged back into the lake. As a result of this, an unfrozen patch of water measuring about 2 km2 is formed on the lake in winter, and the water temperature in the upper layer is 13–14°C higher than the lower ones. Some chemical components (e.g., sulfate, phenol, iron ions of both the lake water and surface/groundwater of the Lake Gusinoe Basin are with constant excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC. The Gusinoozersk SRPP is also the main air polluter. Now Lake Gusinoe is constantly polluted and in the state of degradation. Lake Gusinoe might be possible one of the largest pollution sources in the Baikal region, because the connecting transboundary Selenga River is the main inflow of Lake Baikal

  17. Source Water Identification and Chemical Typing for Nitrogen at the Kissimmee River, Pool C, Florida--Preliminary Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, G. G

    2002-01-01

    As part of the South Florida Water Management District's Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Study, a project was undertaken to identify the ages and sources of water in the area of Pool C, Kissimmee River, Florida...

  18. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington

    2010-01-01

    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  19. Quality of water in the Red River alluvial aquifer; Pool 1, Red River waterway area, Vick, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, C.W.; Seanor, R.C.; Huff, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality changes in the Red River alluvial aquifer within the area affected by pool 1 near Vick, Louisiana, were monitored during pre-construction (1974-78) and post-construction (1984-92) of Lock and Dam 1. Changes greater or less than background values have occurred in an area within 2 miles of Lock and Dam 1, and in one well located about 10 miles west of Lock and Dam 1. Comparison between the pre-construction and post-construction water-quality analyses indicated the total hardness as calcium carbonate and concentrations of dissolved chloride, iron, and manganese generally have decreased in the Red River alluvial aquifer south of the Red River and near Lock and Dam l. The maximum decrease of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 730 to 330 mg/L (milligrams per liter), dissolved chloride from 77 to 46 mg/L, dissolved iron from 18 to 6.9 mg/L, and dissolved manganese from 1.4 to 0.56 mg/L. Analyses of water from wells west of Lock and Dam 1 indicated an increase of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 200 to 260 mg/L, and dissolved iron concentration was from 0.33 to 1.4 mg/L. North of the river and 1 mile west of Lock and Dam l, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 45 to 130 mg/L in water from one well, and median total hardness as calcium cabonate and concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese also increased. Because well Ct-74 is completed in a sand that is in contact with a saltwater sand of Tertiary age, this increase is probably a temporal increase due to upconing after lowering the water level in the alluvial aquifer by pumping of dewatering wells during construction of Lock and Dam 1.

  20. Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the

  1. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  2. An evaluation of the relative quality of dike pools for benthic macroinvertebrates in the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Allert, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A habitat-based aquatic macroinvertebrate study was initiated in the Lower Missouri River to evaluate relative quality and biological condition of dike pool habitats. Water-quality and sediment-quality parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure were measured from depositional substrates at 18 sites. Sediment porewater was analysed for ammonia, sulphide, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Whole sediments were analysed for particle-size distribution, organic carbon and contaminants. Field water-quality parameters were measured at subsurface and at the sediment-water interface. Pool area adjacent and downstream from each dike was estimated from aerial photography. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were determined by integrating the following indicator response metrics: % of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), % of Oligochaeta worms, Shannon Diversity Index and total taxa richness. Regression models were developed for predicting macroinvertebrate scores based on individual water-quality and sediment-quality variables and a water/sediment-quality score that integrated all variables. Macroinvertebrate scores generated significant determination coefficients with dike pool area (R2=0.56), oxidation–reduction potential (R2=0.81) and water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.71). Dissolved oxygen saturation, oxidation-reduction potential and total ammonia in sediment porewater were most important in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate scores. The best two-variable regression models included dike pool size + the water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.84) and dike pool size + oxidation-reduction potential (R2=0.93). Results indicate that dike pool size and chemistry of sediments and overlying water can be used to evaluate dike pool quality and identify environmental conditions necessary for optimizing diversity and productivity of important aquatic macroinvertebrates. A combination of these variables could be utilized for measuring the success of habitat enhancement

  3. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    and acuatic species, especially the annual plants. Re-seeding occurred during periods of floods in the spring and fall, but good aquatic I beds were...The locks and dams have also had beneficial effects. By impounding the river, they have increased the water surace per linear mile of river, thus...increasing the total photosynthetic area of the river. As a con- sequence, the river now produces many times more pounds of fish per linear mile than it

  4. The importance of the regional species pool, ecological species traits and local habitat conditions for the colonization of restored river reaches by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on 'biotic' variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on 'abiotic' variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, 'biotic' variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while 'abiotic' variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by 'biotic' (38%) compared to 'abiotic' (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches.

  5. A river basin as a commom-pool resource: a case study fot the Jaguaribe basin in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies 'common-pool resource' concepts to analyse to which extent the physical characteristics of a river basin facilitate or impede good management of water in different parts of a river basin. In addition, we compare the apparent manageability of water in the different parts of the

  6. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    used in the study are: (1) the benchmark point in time, (2) data collection and anlysis on the natural systems, and (3) data collection and anlysis on...collection were possible with this approach. The initial data for each pool were collected and then were submitted for review and updating to the investigator...sediment. Source.-The bed-load sentiment in Pool 4 above Lake Pepin is derived from sediment sources in the tributary basins of the Mississippi. This

  7. Heterogeneity of soil carbon pools and fluxes in a channelized and a restored floodplain section (Thur River, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaritani, E.; Shrestha, J.; Fournier, B.; Frossard, E.; Gillet, F.; Guenat, C.; Niklaus, P. A.; Pasquale, N.; Tockner, K.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Luster, J.

    2011-06-01

    Due to their spatial complexity and dynamic nature, floodplains provide a wide range of ecosystem functions. However, because of flow regulation, many riverine floodplains have lost their characteristic heterogeneity. Restoration of floodplain habitats and the rehabilitation of key ecosystem functions, many of them linked to organic carbon (C) dynamics in riparian soils, has therefore become a major goal of environmental policy. The fundamental understanding of the factors that drive the processes involved in C cycling in heterogeneous and dynamic systems such as floodplains is however only fragmentary. We quantified soil organic C pools (microbial C and water extractable organic C) and fluxes (soil respiration and net methane production) in functional process zones of adjacent channelized and widened sections of the Thur River, NE Switzerland, on a seasonal basis. The objective was to assess how spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of these pools and fluxes relate to physicochemical soil properties on one hand, and to soil environmental conditions and flood disturbance on the other hand. Overall, factors related to seasonality and flooding (temperature, water content, organic matter input) affected soil C dynamics more than soil properties did. Coarse-textured soils on gravel bars in the restored section were characterized by low base-levels of organic C pools due to low TOC contents. However, frequent disturbance by flood pulses led to high heterogeneity with temporarily and locally increased C pools and soil respiration. By contrast, in stable riparian forests, the finer texture of the soils and corresponding higher TOC contents and water retention capacity led to high base-levels of C pools. Spatial heterogeneity was low, but major floods and seasonal differences in temperature had additional impacts on both pools and fluxes. Soil properties and base levels of C pools in the dam foreland of the channelized section were similar to the gravel bars of

  8. Heterogeneity of soil carbon pools and fluxes in a channelized and a restored floodplain section (Thur River, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samaritani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their spatial complexity and dynamic nature, floodplains provide a wide range of ecosystem functions. However, because of flow regulation, many riverine floodplains have lost their characteristic heterogeneity. Restoration of floodplain habitats and the rehabilitation of key ecosystem functions, many of them linked to organic carbon (C dynamics in riparian soils, has therefore become a major goal of environmental policy. The fundamental understanding of the factors that drive the processes involved in C cycling in heterogeneous and dynamic systems such as floodplains is however only fragmentary.

    We quantified soil organic C pools (microbial C and water extractable organic C and fluxes (soil respiration and net methane production in functional process zones of adjacent channelized and widened sections of the Thur River, NE Switzerland, on a seasonal basis. The objective was to assess how spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of these pools and fluxes relate to physicochemical soil properties on one hand, and to soil environmental conditions and flood disturbance on the other hand.

    Overall, factors related to seasonality and flooding (temperature, water content, organic matter input affected soil C dynamics more than soil properties did. Coarse-textured soils on gravel bars in the restored section were characterized by low base-levels of organic C pools due to low TOC contents. However, frequent disturbance by flood pulses led to high heterogeneity with temporarily and locally increased C pools and soil respiration. By contrast, in stable riparian forests, the finer texture of the soils and corresponding higher TOC contents and water retention capacity led to high base-levels of C pools. Spatial heterogeneity was low, but major floods and seasonal differences in temperature had additional impacts on both pools and fluxes. Soil properties and base levels of C pools in the dam foreland of the channelized section

  9. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River... high water, the discharge past the dam shall be regulated in such manner as he may direct until he...

  10. River restoration success depends on the species pool of the immediate surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies evaluating the success of river restorations have rarely found any consistent effects on benthic invertebrate assemblages. In this study, we analyzed data from 24 river restoration projects in Germany dating back 1 to 12 years and 1231 data sets from adjacent river reaches that lie within 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 km rings centered on the restored sites. We calculated restoration success and recolonization potential of adjacent river reaches based on stream-type-specific subsets of taxa indicative for good or bad habitat quality. On average, the restorations did not improve the benthic invertebrate community quality. However, we show that restoration success depends on the presence of source populations of desired taxa in the surrounding of restored sites. Only where source populations of additional desired taxa existed within a 0-5 km ring around the restored sites were benthic invertebrate assemblages improved by the restoration. Beyond the 5-km rings, this recolonization effect was no longer detected. We present here the first field results to support the debated argument that a lack of source populations in the areas surrounding restored sites may play an important role in the failure to establish desired invertebrate communities by the means of river restorations. In contrast, long-range dispersal of invertebrates seems to play a subordinate role in the recolonization of restored sites. However, because the surroundings of the restored sites were far from good ecological quality, the potential for improvement of restored sites was limited.

  11. The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches. PMID:24404187

  12. Seasonal Variation in Flocculation Potential of River Water: Roles of the Organic Matter Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Joon Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in the water environment can enhance either flocculation or stabilization and, thus, controls the fate and transportation of cohesive sediments and causes seasonal variation in the turbidity of river water, determining floc morphology and settling velocity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the way that biological factors change the organic matter composition and enhances either flocculation or stabilization in different seasons. Jar test experiments were performed using a mixture of standard kaolinite and the filtered river water samples collected (bi-weekly or monthly from April to December 2015 upstream a constructed weir in Nakdong River, to estimate the flocculation potential of the seasonal river water samples. Chlorophyll-a concentration, algae number concentration, and the fluorescence characteristics of organic matter were used to represent the biological factors. Our results revealed that flocculation potential depended not only on the algal population dynamics, but also the origins (or chemical composition of organic matter in the river water. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, as algal organic matter, enhanced flocculation, while humic substances (HS, as terrestrial organic matter, enhanced stabilization, rather than flocculation. Since flocculation potential reached its maximum around the peaks of algal population, algae-produced EPS likely enhanced flocculation by binding sediment particles in the flocs. This observation supports previous findings of seasonal variation in EPS production and EPS-mediated flocculation. However, when HS was transported from the surrounding basin by a heavy rainfall event, cohesive sediments tended to be rather stabilized. Supplementary flocculation potential tests, which were performed with artificial water containing refined EPS and HS, also showed the opposing effects of EPS and HS.

  13. Assessing Water Temperature Zones in Idealized Holding Pools for Chinook Salmon: A Hypothetical Study Based on the Regulated Lower San Joaquin River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Pai, H.; Aguilar, A.; Harmon, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    In regulated rivers such as the Lower San Joaquin River (LSJR) in California, environmental policy requires releasing adequate flows to maintain habitat quality for flora and fauna. The prescribed reservoir releases on the LSJR are tied to water year classifications in order to help satisfy competing water demands in dry years. The question remains as to whether relatively low releases will be adequate to maintain habitat quality for key aquatic species under current and projected climate conditions. This work examines one critical determinant of anadromous fish habitat suitability, water temperature, as a function of reservoir release conditions. More specifically, we study idealized pools subject to the conditions of the LSJR using an established 2D (longitudinal and vertical) flow and heat transport model (CE-QUAL-W2). We assessed the releases in the context of the spring run Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) life cycle (the key species in an ongoing restoration effort), focusing on summer holding conditions. Our objective was to determine the conditions under which pools provide sufficiently cool havens for the holding salmon under current and projected climate conditions. Using river bathymetry from measured cross-sections and a high-resolution DEM lidar product, we created a range of ideal pool size representative of LSJR conditions. After calibrating hydraulic and heat transfer parameters using available temperature profiles, we simulated temperature profiles in the pools for scheduled flow releases, at different downstream locations from the reservoir. Results include modeled temperature profiles in holding pools, and derived estimates of suitable holding capacity under a range of pool, releases and climate conditions. Potential engineering modifications are explored as potential mitigation strategies, such as modified flow schedules, riparian shading, pool sizes and pool relocations.

  14. Source Water Identification and Chemical Typing for Nitrogen at the Kissimmee River, Pool C, Florida--Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    As part of the South Florida Water Management District's Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Study, a project was undertaken to identify the ages and sources of water in the area of Pool C, Kissimmee River, Florida. Twenty-two water samples were collected along two transects: at a remnant river oxbows (Site D) and in the dredged part of the channel (Site C). The samples were analyzed for concentrations of fluoride and strontium, and for isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Selected samples were analyzed for one or more additional isotopes (carbon-14, the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86, tritium, and tritium-helium-3). Delta nitrogen-15 values for nitrate at Site C can be explained by soil nitrogen and fertilizer sources; at Site D soil nitrogen accounts for most values, although animal wastes may explain higher values. Some of the isotopic data seem to be contradictory: carbon-14 data apparently indicate that shallow ground water is younger at Site D than at Site C, whereas strontium-87/86 ratios lead to the opposite conclusion. More detailed analysis of major ions and nutrients for all sampling points, along with flow measurements, could allow more definitive interpretation of isotope data and provide additional insight into mixing of ground water and surface water at the sites.

  15. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    sport fishermen observed 150 46 View of narrow islands created north of Lansing 156 47 View from dredge spoil looking north 157 48 View of deposited...the two Iowa Rivers towns in this area, Lansing and New Albin (Polk, 1922): Lansing has a population of 1,500. Settled in 1850, it now is supported by a...works, first-class hotels,13 banks, a moving picture theatre and two weekly news- papers, the Allamakee Journal and the Lansing Mirror. New Albin has

  16. Seasonal effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on sediment denitrification rates in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bernot, Melody J.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have altered the structure of invaded ecosystems and exhibit characteristics that suggest they may influence ecosystem processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling. We measured denitrification rates seasonally on sediments underlying zebra mussel beds collected from the impounded zone of Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River. Denitrification assays were amended with nutrients to characterize variation in nutrient limitation of denitrification in the presence or absence of zebra mussels. Denitrification rates at zebra mussel sites were high relative to sites without zebra mussels in February 2004 (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA), p = 0.005), potentially because of high NO3-N variability from nitrification of high NH4+ zebra mussel waste. Denitrification rates were highest in June 2003 (RM ANOVA, p 3-N concentrations during the study (linear regression, R2 = 0.72, p p ≤ 0.01). Examining how zebra mussels influence denitrification rates will aid in developing a more complete understanding of the impact of zebra mussels and more effective management strategies of eutrophic waters.

  17. [Genetic Variation of the mtDNA cyt b Locus in Graylings (Thymalus sp.: Thymalidae, Pisces) Introduced into the Baydrag Gol River of the Valley of Lakes Basin (Mongolia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, Yu V; Stolbunova, V V; Mendsaykhan, B

    2015-06-01

    Based on sequence variation of the mtDNA cyt b gene, an analysis of graylings introduced from the Arctic Ocean basin (Selenga River basin) into one of the rivers of Central Asian inland basin (Baydrag Goal River of the Valley of Lakes basin) was carried out. Morphological and molecular genetic identification was performed, and it was established that the introduced species corresponded to the Baikal grayling. The relationships among Central Asian grayling species are discussed.

  18. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Pool 26 Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The 1993-1996 water quality data for the Pool 26 area show long-term declines in the concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and soluble reactive phosphorus after the large flood in 1993...

  19. Premature Mobility of Boulders in Constructed Step-pool River Structures in the Carmel River, CA: The Role of Fish-centric Design Constraints, and Flow on Structural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. P.; Chow, K.; Luna, L.

    2017-12-01

    The 32 m tall San Clemente Dam (Carmel River, CA) was removed in 2015 to eliminate seismic risk and to improve fish passage for all life stages of steelhead (O. mykiss). Reservoir sediment was sequestered in place, rather than released, and a new 1000 m long channel/floodplain system was constructed to circumvent the stored sediment. The channel comprised a 250 m long, meandering low-gradient reach and a 750 m reach with alternating step-pool sections, plane beds, and resting pools. The floodprone surfaces were compacted, wrapped in geotechnical fabric and vegetated. This study analyzes the geomorphic evolution of the new channel system during its first two years of service based upon detailed field inspection, SfM photogrammetry, orthophoto analysis, and 2d hydraulic modeling. A significant proportion of the step-pool structures experienced premature mobility and several reaches of engineered stream banks were eroded in the first year. Individual, six-tonne boulders were mobilized despite experiencing less than the 3 yr flow. The channel and floodplain were fully repaired following the first year. Strong flows (two 10-yr floods and a 30-yr flood) during the second year catastrophically altered the constructed channel and floodplain. While the low-gradient reach remained intact, each of the original step-pool structures was either completely mobilized and destroyed, buried by gravel, or bypassed by the subsequent channel. Despite the overall structural failure of the constructed channel, the new channel does not block steelhead migration, and can be serendipitously considered an ecological success. Step-pool design was constrained by a fish-centric requirement that steps be 1 ft tall or less. Some constructed "resting pools" filled rather than transport sediment. Using fish-centric constraints in the design, rather than strictly fluvial geomorphic principles may have contributed to early failure of the step-pool structures and other parts of the system.

  20. Coupling channel evolution monitoring and RFID tracking in a large, wandering, gravel-bed river: Insights into sediment routing on geomorphic continuity through a riffle-pool sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Margot; Dufour, Simon; Provansal, Mireille; Couvert, Bernard; de Linares, Matthieu

    2015-02-01

    Bedload transport and bedform mobility in large gravel-bed rivers are not easily monitored, especially during floods. Large reaches present difficulties in bed access during flows for flow measurements. Because of these logistical issues, the current knowledge about bedload transport processes and bedform mobility lacks field-based information, while this missing information would precisely match river management needs. The lack of information linking channel evolution and particle displacements is even more striking in wandering reaches. The Durance River is a large, wandering, gravel-bed river (catchment area: 14,280 km2; mean width: 240 m), located in the southern French Alps and highly impacted by flow diversion and gravel mining. In order to improve current understanding of the link between sediment transport processes and river bed morphodynamics, we set up a sediment particle survey in the channel using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and topographic surveys (GPS RTK and scour chains) for a 4-year recurrence interval flood. By combining topographic changes before and after a flood, intraflood erosion/deposition patterns from scour chains, differential routing of tracer particles, and spatial distribution of bed shear stress through a complex reach, this paper aims to define the critical shear stress for significant sediment mobility in this setting. Gravel tracking highlights displacement patterns in agreement with bar downstream migration and transport of particles across the riffle within this single flood event. Because no velocity measurements were possible during flood, a TELEMAC three-dimensional model helped interpret particle displacements by estimating spatial distribution of shear stresses and flow directions at peak flow. Although RFID tracking in a large, wandering, gravel-bed river does have some technical limitations (burial, recovery process time-consuming), it provides useful information on sediment routing through a riffle-pool

  1. Juvenile salmon and steelhead occupancy of stream pools treated and not treated with restoration structures, Entiat River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Polivka; E. Ashley Steel; Jenni L. Novak; Bror Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    We observed habitat occupancy by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at in-stream habitat restoration structures constructed in the Entiat River, Washington, USA. In 2009–2013, fish abundance measurements during rearing (July–October) showed high temporal variability in...

  2. Spatial and temporal trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish fillets and water collected from pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Holem, Ryan; Hohenstein, Gary; Lange, Cleston; Ellefson, Mark; Reagen, William; Wolf, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in surface water and fish fillet samples taken from Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River, a 33-mile stretch inclusive of the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota (USA) metropolitan area. Approximately 100 each of bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were sampled within the study area. Surface water samples were also collected from each of the 10 sampling reaches established for the study. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was observed with the greatest frequency in fish fillets and ranged from 3.0 to 760 ng/g wet weight. Mean (geometric) PFOS concentrations in bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were 20, 28, 29, and 58 ng/g wet weight, respectively. When compared with fish data collected in 2009, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in PFOS concentrations was noted. This finding was confirmed based on data from studies conducted in 2012 and 2013. Overall, between 2009 and 2013, PFOS concentrations decreased by 65, 76, and 50% for bluegill, freshwater drum, and white bass, respectively (44% decrease for smallmouth bass from 2009 to 2012). These declines in fish PFOS concentrations are consistent with ongoing efforts to effectively control sources of PFASs to the Mississippi River. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3138-3147. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  4. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  5. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  6. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  7. Mechanisms of Resilience in Common-pool Resource Management Systems: an Agent-based Model of Water Use in a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Schlüter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is widely promoted as a promising notion to guide new approaches to ecosystem and resource management that try to enhance a system's capacity to cope with change. A variety of mechanisms of resilience specific for different systems have been proposed. In the context of resource management those include but are not limited to the diversity of response options and flexibility of the social system to adaptively respond to changes on an adequate scale. However, implementation of resilience-based management in specific real-world systems has often proven difficult because of a limited understanding of suitable interventions and their impact on the resilience of the coupled social-ecological system. We propose an agent-based modeling approach to explore system characteristics and mechanisms of resilience in a complex resource management system, based on a case study of water use in the Amudarya River, which is a semiarid river basin. Water resources in its delta are used to sustain irrigated agriculture as well as aquatic ecosystems that provide fish and other ecosystem services. The three subsystems of the social-ecological system, i.e., the social system, the irrigation system, and an aquatic ecosystem, are linked by resource flows and the allocation decision making of actors on different levels. Simulation experiments are carried out to compare the resilience of different institutional settings of water management to changes in the variability and uncertainty of water availability. The aim is to investigate the influence of (1 the organizational structure of water management, (2 information on water availability, and (3 the diversity of water uses on the resilience of the system to short and long-term water scarcity. In this paper, the model concept and first simulation results are presented. As a first illustration of the approach the performances of a centralized and a decentralized regime are compared under different

  8. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  9. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  10. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  11. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  12. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  13. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  14. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  15. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  16. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  17. Four Pools | Four Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu, Christopher Louis

    2018-01-01

    Programatically, this thesis takes the form of a bath house, carved into the side of the Palisades that run along the New River, near Eggleston, VA. Natural springs were formed within the cliffs, that run off into the New River below. The bath house becomes place for patrons to bathe in the mineral baths in a meditative setting. This thesis investigates qualities of light and shadow, and how these elements activate the interior surfaces of form. The architecture is formed by the introduction ...

  18. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  19. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  20. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  2. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  3. Large molten pool heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This workshop on large molten pool heat transfer is composed of 5 sessions which titles are: feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling; experiments on molten pool heat transfer; calculational efforts on molten pool convection; heat transfer to the surrounding water, experimental techniques; future experiments and ex-vessel studies (RASPLAV, TOLBIAC, BALI, SULTAN, CORVIS, VULCANO, CORINE programs)

  4. COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Price, J.; Horlacher, V.; Sheridan, P. F.; Vosper, S. B.; Brown, A. R.; Mobbs, S. D.; Ross, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based sensors including turbulence towers, automatic weather stations, Doppler lidar, radiation sensors and soil temperature probes. We also hope to deploy an instrumented car and a tethered balloon facility for limited periods. Data from the field campaign will be used for a number of purposes. Firstly, to increase our understanding of how the valley cold pools form and why, for instance, some valleys offer a more favourable environment for their formation than others. Secondly, to investigate the formation and dissipation of fog in complex terrain. Thirdly, the data set will also be used to help validate and develop the Met Office Unified Model at high resolution. An area for the experiment has been identified in the Shropshire/Powis area of the UK where a network of valleys and low hills exist with a typical valley width of ~1.5km and hill top to valley floor heights of 75-200m. 0m.

  5. Biota of the upper Mississippi River ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, James G.; Naimo, Teresa J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Dahlgren, Robert; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Lubinski, Kenneth S.; Rogers, Sara J.; Brewer, Sandra; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi River is one of the world's major river systems in size, habitat and biotic diversity, and biotic productivity. The navigable Upper Mississippi River, extending 1,370 km (850 mi) from St. Anthony Falls (Minnesota) to the confluence with the Ohio River, has been impounded by 27 locks and dams to enhance commercial navigation. The reach between two consecutive locks and dams is termed a "pool." The upstream portions of many pools are similar to the unimpounded river, whereas the downstream reaches are similar to reservoirs.

  6. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  7. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  8. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  9. Spent fuel storage pool and reactor well pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchisawa, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    An overflow device is disposed to a water draining channel communicating a spent fuel storage pool, a well pool and a cask cleaning pit, and a cleaning treatment system is connected to the cask cleaning pit. In addition, a tank chamber having an overflow device communicating with the well pool is disposed to the inside of the spent fuel storage pool, and a cleaning system is connected to the tank chamber. Namely, water overflow from the spent fuel storage pool and the well pool flows down to the cask cleaning pit directly, the water level can be kept to a predetermined value without disposing a skimmer serge tank, and the overflow water is transported to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. In addition, the overflow water flow to the tank chamber directly is transferred to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. The cost for the reactor building can be reduced, and interference with the building and adjustment for the steps upon installation of the skimmer serge tank are no more necessary to shorten the terms for the building construction. (N.H.)

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  11. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  12. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  13. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  14. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; May, Thomas W.; Choijil, J.; Komov, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was to conduct a reconnaissance-level assessment of potential inputs of toxicologically important metals and metalloids to Lake Baikal, Russia, that might originate from mining and urban activities within tributaries of the Selenga River in Mongolia. Samples were collected in triplicate from all sites, then dried, and sieved to <2 mm for analysis by portable X-ray florescence spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after digestion with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. Arsenic, copper, and mercury were greatly elevated in sediment and floodplain soil collected from tributary streams located near two major mining operations. Lead and zinc were moderately elevated in streambed sediment and in floodplain soil obtained from a small tributary in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, but those concentrations were considerably less than probable effects benchmarks. Historical and possibly present mining activities have led to considerable metal contamination in certain tributaries of the Orkhon River in north-central Mongolia; however, metals originating from those sources did not appear to be accumulating in sediments at our downstream-most sampling sites located near the border between Mongolia and Russia.

  15. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  16. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  17. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  18. Elevation - LiDAR Survey - Mississippi River Lower Pool 4 and Pool 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data set comprises an ArcInfo floating point GRID file with elevations in feet. Breakline data was converted to a polygon layer and used to mask water areas...

  19. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  20. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  1. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  2. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  3. Pool power control in remelting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rodney L [Albuquerque, NM; Melgaard, David K [Albuquerque, NM; Beaman, Joseph J [Austin, TX

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  4. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    The structure of the warm pool (region with temperature greater than 28 degrees C) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is examined and compared with its counterpart in the Pacific Ocean using the climatology of Levitus. Though the Pacific warm pool...

  5. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  6. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  7. Dry season fish survival in isolated pools and within sand-beds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four isolated pools in the otherwise dry Mzingwane River, Zimbabwe, were sampled in December 1985 and a total of 4 547 specimens of 23 species were collected. The dominant species, by number, were Chiloglanis paratus, followed by Barbus toppini, Mesobola brevianalis and Labeobarbus marequensis; the dominant ...

  8. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  9. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  10. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  11. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  12. From antidunes to step-pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, Alain; Leduc, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Step-pools are bed morphologies that are typical in high-gradient streams , recognizable by a staircase-like longitudinal profile resulting from accumulation of cobbles and boulders that are transverse to the channel and alternating with pools containing finer sediments. Within the last two decades step-pools have been the subject of increased efforts to characterize their nature; however their origin is still in debate. Researchers have very soon suspected step-pools to be the residual form of antidunes produced during flooding, but this hypothesis was continuously contested. Other theories has been proposed, considering, that step-pool profile develops a maximum flow resistance, or that pools geometry is controlled by the energy of a falling jet, or that steps form by boulders accumulation in a channel-spanning manner. All these theories gave very satisfying results when compared with experimental data, but does it mean that the antidune theory should we abandoned? We performed new flume experiments on steep slopes to investigate the antidune origin for step-pools. Our experiments showed that step-pools can have several origins, depending on the flow conditions and sediment mixture used. In some circumstances antidunes were well observed but did not produce stable step-pools morphology. In many occasions, step-pools obtained in the flume were isolated step-pools, with no real apparent periodicity. Only a few flow and sediment conditions allowed us to reproduce trains of antidunes which stabilized at the flow recession to produce stable periodical step-pools. These conditions are presented and discussed.

  13. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  14. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  15. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 3). These rivers seem to have maintained ... the river cuts a deep can- yon with practically vertical walls (valley slopes). ... furiously at work, cutting channel beds, eroding slopes, and denuding watersheds. This ever-youthfulness of the.

  16. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably

  17. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.; Datry, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are

  18. Formation and maintenance of a forced pool-riffle couplet following loading of large wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Fixler, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Pool-riffle maintenance has been documented in numerous studies, but it has been almost impossible to characterize detailed natural pool-riffle formation mechanisms because of the lack of baseline data prior to pool establishment. In 2013, a study was conducted on the Blackledge River in Connecticut to document the formation of a new pool-riffle couplet on a section of river that had previously been studied from 1999 to 2001. In 2001, the study reach contained a scour hole with a residual depth of 0.08 ± 0.09 m downstream of a 1930s paired deflector with no identifiable riffle immediately downstream. At this time, a large, severely undercut, hemlock tree was noted along the left bank. Sometime between fall 2001 and 2004, the tree fell perpendicular to flow across the channel and formed a large wood (LW) jam and new pool-riffle couplet several meters downstream of the old scour hole. Pool spacing along the reach decreased from 4.47 bankfull widths (BFW) in 1999 to 3.83 BFW after the new pool-riffle couplet formed. The new pool has a residual depth, the water depth of the streambed depression below the elevation of the immediate downstream hydraulic control, of 1.36 ± 0.075 to 1.59 ± 0.075 m, which resulted from a combination of 1.32 ± 0.09 m or less of incision below the old scour hole (95.6% or less of the depth increase) and up to 0.18 ± 0.09 m of downstream deposition and associated backwater formation (13.2% or less of the depth increase). To assess dynamic stability of the pool-riffle couplet over several flood cycles, surficial fine-sediment and organic material along the reach were quantified. The 23-m-long pool stores 25.7% of the surficial fine grained sediments and 15.4% of organic material along a 214-m-long reach that includes one additional artificially created pool. An adjacent 50-m-long secondary channel impacted by the LW jam stores 65.3% of the surficial fine-grained sediments and 54.8% of organic material along the full reach.

  19. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  20. Temporal variations of groundwater salinity and temperature in a tidal flat in front of a tide pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashita, Shinya; Hibino, Tadashi; Komai, Katsuaki; Narong, Touch

    2016-07-01

    A tidal flat in an estuary is a complex hydrological system, which is characterized by interactions between surface water in river and groundwater and is particularly driven by tides. Small-scale variability in the discharge or inflow could lead to variable results of surface groundwater salinity and temperature. In particular, there is a high possibility that a hydraulic head difference due to the presence of a tide pool, lagoon, or seep would cause the generation of small-scale spatial submarine groundwater discharge. This study investigates the spatio-temporal variations in surface groundwater salinity and temperature (0-50 cm depth) and the groundwater table in a tidal flat in the presence and absence of a tide pool. A tide pool formed in the Ota River diversion channel at the study observation site following the construction of a masonry revetment in the intertidal zone. We established observation sites at three locations to consider the effects of the presence or absence of a tide pool. Specifically, we measured the surface water in river and groundwater salinity, temperature, and level in the presence and absence of a tide pool in 2007 and 2009. Reviewing the past data based on these results, we found the characteristic variation of groundwater salinity around the tide pool during flood event in 2004. Groundwater salinity and temperature were directly measured by setting conductivity-temperature meters in the tidal flat. We conclude that the groundwater table in the presence of the tide pool was 20 cm higher than in areas where no tide pool existed. The temporal variation of groundwater salinity in the presence of the tide pool was 5 psu lower than those where a tide pool was absent. Moreover, we confirmed the increase in groundwater salinity up to 8 psu in the tidal flat during flood, when river water salinity was at 0 psu and groundwater salinity in the tide pool was at 10 psu. We consider that the high groundwater table, the low salinity, and the increase

  1. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the water shall be provided to maintain the residual chlorine in the pool water at not less than 0.4 part per...

  2. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  3. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  4. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  5. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  6. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  7. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    FABACEAE ( LEGUMINOSAE ) Amorpha fruiticosa False indigo P Robinia pseudo-acacia Black locust P P FAGACEAE I Quercus alba White oak Quercus macroccrypa Bur...AA BB.CC AA BB YY CC I Trees & Shrubs (Cont’d.) JUGLANDACEAE Carya cordiformis Bitternut hickory P P I LEGUMINOSAE : see FABACEAE MORACEAE Morus rubra...Euphorbia glyptosperma Engraved-seed spurge Euphorbia nutans IEyebane FABACEAE ( LEGUMINOSAE ) Amorpha canescens Prairie lead-plant Astragalus

  8. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Shrubs (Cont’d.) JUGLANDACEAE I Carya cordifo2ViS Bitternut hickory P P LEGUMINOSAE : see FABACEAE MORACEAE i Morus rubra Red mulberry P OLEACEAE... LEGUMINOSAE Amorpha canescens (Prairie Lead Plant) Astragalus crassicarpus (Ground Plum) Melilotus alba (White Sweet Clover) Petalosternum candidum

  9. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  11. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  12. Longevity of Wood-Forced Pools in an Old-Growth Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Woodsmith, R. D.; Johnson, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Wood debris plays an important role in scouring pools in forest channels and providing resultant habitat for aquatic organisms. We investigated the longevity of such pools in a gravel-bed river flowing through old-growth forest in southeastern Alaska by aging trees and “bear’s bread” fungi (Ganoderma applanatum, Fomitopsis pinicola) growing on pool-forming wood debris. Ages were determined by counting annual growth rings from cores and cross sections of trees and fungi growing on the wood debris. These ages are minimum values because they do not account for lag time between debris recruitment and seedling/spore establishment on the debris, nor do they account for flood scour that may periodically reset tree and fungi growth on the debris. The study stream has a gradient of about 1%, bankfull width and depth of 13.3 and 0.78 m, respectively, median grain size of 18 mm, a high wood loading (0.8 pieces/m), and a correspondingly low pool spacing (0.3 bankfull widths/pool), with 81% of the pools forced by wood debris. The size of wood debris in the study stream is large relative to the channel (average log length of 7.6 m and diameter of 0.35 m), rendering most debris immobile. Eighty-one pool-forming pieces of wood were dated over 1.2 km of stream length, with 28% of these pieces causing scour of more than one pool. In all, 122 wood-forced pools were dated, accounting for 38% of all pools at the site and 47% of the wood-forced pools. Fifty-three percent of the wood-forced pools lacked datable wood because these pieces either: were newly recruited; had been scoured by floods; or were contained below the active channel elevation, prohibiting vegetation establishment on the wood debris (the most common cause). The debris age distribution declined exponentially from 2 to 113 yrs., with a median value of 18 yrs. Similar exponential residence time distributions have been reported in other studies, but our analysis focused specifically on the ages of pool-forming wood

  13. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  14. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  15. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  16. Elwha River Restoration: Sediment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, S.; Bountry, J.; Randle, T. J.; Ritchie, A.; Huginin, H.; Torrance, A.

    2013-12-01

    The removal of Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams on the Elwha River relies on controlled reservoir drawdown increments and natural river flows to erode and redistribute the reservoir sediment, estimated to be a total of 23 (× 3) million m3. To mitigate for the predicted sediment effects, facilities have been constructed for water quality and flood protection. A sediment monitoring program is being implemented by an interdisciplinary team from Reclamation and National Park Service to integrate real-time measurements with continually updated numerical model predictions. The most recent numerical reservoir modeling and monitoring results indicate about 20 to 25 percent of the reservoir sediment has been released since the start of dam removal. Monitoring results in 2012 and early 2013 confirmed that controlled reservoir drawdown increments have induced sufficient vertical and lateral erosion of delta surfaces behind both dams. Predam channel and floodplain surface has been exposed in numerous portions of Lake Aldwell, with the release of coarse and fine sediment in the first few pools below Elwha Dam. The material released from Lake Aldwell has included organic material. With the removal of about three quarters of Glines Canyon Dam and the disappearance of Lake Mills, coarse bedload sediment has been continually released into the downstream river since late fall 2012. Field measurements and numerical modeling are being used to track the progression of the sediment wave downstream to the Elwha River mouth. Initial findings are that the aggradation was greatest immediately downstream of Glines Canyon Dam, and filled pools and transformed river planform from step-pool to glide for most of the 7 mile reach between Lake Mills and Lake Aldwell. Although there has not been a major flood, winter flows and spring snowmelt have significantly reworked the released sediment and remnants of the pre-sediment release pools and rapids have re-emerged. Large wood and organics have also

  17. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  18. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  19. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    Swimming pools are used around the world for recreational, rehabilitation and physical activity and therefore it is imperative that the water and air quality are safe for the health of the bathers. Chlorination is by far the most widely applied method to control pool water quality and to prevent...... spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...

  20. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  1. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant located within the... order in this part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  7. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  8. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  9. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  10. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  11. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Skvárová, J; Cerva, L; Nebáznivá, D

    1980-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri was isolated from water during a hygienic inspection of a swimming pool in December 1977. This swimming pool was identified as a source of the infectious agent in the years 1962-1965, when a large outbreak of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) occurred. First two strains of N. fowleri, pathogenic for white mice after intracerebral and intranasal inoculation, were isolated from water of outlet troughs, additional strains were then isolated from various places; particularly from a cavity in the damaged wall of the pool. The incubation temperature did not inhibit a simultaneous growth of amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Flabellula, Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia in the primocultures. Epidemiological investigations did not reveal any new case of PAME in relation with the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri in the swimming pool.

  12. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy.

  13. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  14. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  15. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  16. Aging management of nuclear fuel pool structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookham, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The long-term operations of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are currently impacted by the utility's capabilities with respect to spent fuel storage. Available options for the safe, long-term storage of spent fuel are quite limited; as such, maximized usage of existing on-site storage capacity (NPP) is quite important. The service life of existing fuel pool structures may be determined by a number of operations or age-related events. Management of these events is often critical to the structure's integrity and durability. From an operations vantage point, aging management relates to such characteristics as storage capacity, performance of pool water treatment systems, and physical liner damage. Primary issues related to structural integrity include materials degradation and environmental enclosure factors. The development of an effective aging management program should address both operational and structural issues. The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations for pool structure aging management, with benefits to both short and long-term, or extended life, operations. Because of their critical nature, the report will focus on spent fuel pools. Many of the concepts generated in this report may also be applied to other NPP pool structures (i.e., new fuel pools, reactor internals pits and transfer canals) because of similar physical/environmental effects

  17. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  18. Topography Battles Surface Texture: An Experimental Study of Pool-riffle Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, S. M.; Hassan, M. A.; Jellinek, M.

    2016-12-01

    Pool-riffles are perhaps the most common streambed shape found in streams and rivers, and not surprisingly, they are essential to salmon ecology, and are a central focus of many restoration actions. Yet, when an applied earth scientist or engineer is faced with developing a pool-riffle design, there is a lack of clear and rigorously developed design guidelines. Given the volumes of money spent annually within the restoration industry, this is a real problem. Recognition of this problem is growing, however, and an increasing level of attention has been directed to questions of pool-riffle formation in the past decade. At this point and given certain landscape characteristics, it is well established that streamwise gradients in channel width are associated with pool-riffles. Specifically, pools are associated with negative gradients in width, and riffles with positive gradients. Importantly, these associations have now been documented from field-derived data, as well as via experimental and numerical investigations. There is much to build from the present knowledge base, and central to this are questions related to (a) how pool-riffles evolve during the formative process, (b) what are the basic set of ingredients necessary for pool-riffle formation within systems characterized by relatively non-erodible channel margins, and (c) do pool-riffles persist, once formed, under a broad range of forcing conditions? We have completed four physical experiments examining the process and evolution of pool-riffle formation under a large range of upstream boundary, as well as physical channel conditions. We will report on two of the completed experiments. Our work will highlight two new non-dimensional channel evolution numbers, derived to help describe and characterize bedform development, as well as response to perturbations from near-equilibrium conditions. The channel evolution numbers lay the foundation for development of a new regime diagram, which quantifies the basic

  19. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  1. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    systems at all river stages (Schramm and Pennington 1981; Pennington, Baker, and Bond 1983; Nailon and Pennington 1984). The pools contained in dike fields...Field Guide to Animal Tracks, Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass. Nailon , R. W., and Pennington, C. H. 1984. "Fish of Two Dike Pools in the Lower

  2. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  3. An appraisal of river erosion mitigation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aban, T. K. S.; Omuso, W. O.

    1999-01-01

    River erosion processes in the Niger Delta and the effectiveness of locally applied remedial measures is appraised, using information on channel geometry, flow velocity distribution, soil type, stratification, bank height and steepness, state of compaction, together with pool level variation in river channels. High flow velocity and bank height were identified as the major erosion causative factors. Local responses towards erosion mitigation have involved structural methods to varying degree of success. River training has been recommended as a long - term regional approach to mitigate river bank erosion. However, in the short -term revetments, concrete and sheets piles may be applied cautiously

  4. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  5. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  6. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  7. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  8. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35...

  9. Rank-based pooling for deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zenglin; Ye, Yangdong; Wu, Yunpeng

    2016-11-01

    Pooling is a key mechanism in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which helps to achieve translation invariance. Numerous studies, both empirically and theoretically, show that pooling consistently boosts the performance of the CNNs. The conventional pooling methods are operated on activation values. In this work, we alternatively propose rank-based pooling. It is derived from the observations that ranking list is invariant under changes of activation values in a pooling region, and thus rank-based pooling operation may achieve more robust performance. In addition, the reasonable usage of rank can avoid the scale problems encountered by value-based methods. The novel pooling mechanism can be regarded as an instance of weighted pooling where a weighted sum of activations is used to generate the pooling output. This pooling mechanism can also be realized as rank-based average pooling (RAP), rank-based weighted pooling (RWP) and rank-based stochastic pooling (RSP) according to different weighting strategies. As another major contribution, we present a novel criterion to analyze the discriminant ability of various pooling methods, which is heavily under-researched in machine learning and computer vision community. Experimental results on several image benchmarks show that rank-based pooling outperforms the existing pooling methods in classification performance. We further demonstrate better performance on CIFAR datasets by integrating RSP into Network-in-Network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  11. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  12. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . There is allusion to the disappearance of the river in Van. Parva of the Mahabharat, and also in the Siddhant Shiromani. Great Betrayal. The Aravali continued to rise. The newly formed Yamuna was forced to migrate progressively eastward.

  13. Soil properties of mangroves in contrasting geomorphic settings within the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Stringer; Carl C. Trettin; Stan Zarnoch

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are well-known for their numerous ecosystem services, including sequestering a significant carbon stock, with soils accounting for the largest pool. The soil carbon pool is dependent on the carbon content and bulk density. Our objective was to assess the spatial variability of mangrove soil physical and chemical properties within the Zambezi River Delta and...

  14. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess the ben...

  15. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  16. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  17. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  18. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  19. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  20. Measurements of fluid flow in weld pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fluid flow in weld pools contributes significantly toward controlling the heat distribution in the base material and the mass distribution of molten base and additive materials. Currently, most investigations focus primarily on numerical models, due to the experimental difficulties

  1. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...

  2. Storage device for fuel elements in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjean, J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel elements are stored in compartments set at the bottom of the pools and separated by water spaces; the walls of the cells are coated on the external side with a cadmium liner acting as a neutronic protection associated with the water space [fr

  3. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... magazines and newspapers; and (4) All media in the local community where the institution is located. If no... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  4. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  5. Airway dysfunction and inflammation in pool- and non-pool-based elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil; Lindley, Martin R; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, Will R; Pavord, Ian D

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the levels of airway dysfunction and inflammation in a large cohort of symptomatic international athletes from pool- and non-pool-based sporting backgrounds. In total, 118 athletes were recruited. All subjects had symptoms of exercise asthma and were steroid naïve. They completed baseline spirometry, a symptom score, exhaled nitric oxide, a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test, and a postchallenge induced sputum and urine test. Pool-based athletes had better lung function (FEV1 = 110% vs 102% predicted, mean difference = 8.200 ± 2.339, P = 0.0006 and FVC = 5.64 vs 4.75 L, mean difference = 0.8855 ± 0.1951, P < 0.0001) and more marked airways hyper-reactivity (AHR) (percent drop in FEV1 after EVH = 18.14 vs 11.47, mean difference = 6.67, 95% confidence interval = 2.89-10.53, P = 0.0009). More pool-based athletes had a positive EVH test (72% pool vs 39% nonpool), but there was no difference between groups with respect to eosinophilic inflammation (sputum eosinophil percentage: pool = 2.07, nonpool = 2.28, P = 0.77; exhaled nitric oxide: pool = 32.54, nonpool = 35.77, P = 0.60). Athletes with a positive EVH test had less neutrophilic inflammation (P = 0.01) and more epithelial cells (P = 0.03) in their sputum. Pool-based endurance athletes have greater evidence of AHR than non-pool-based athletes but no evidence of greater eosinophilic airway inflammation. Athletes who test positive on EVH are more likely to be eosinophilic and have higher levels of epithelial cells in their sputum.

  6. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  7. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  8. Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Howard, H.D.; Betsill, J.D.; Matthews, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Radyuk, R.I.; Vdovina, E.D.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Poznyak, V.L.; Vasiliev, I.A.; Alekhina, V.M.; Juraev, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of salinity of water, alfa- and beta-activity of water, bottom, water plants, and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on the distance form the source is discussed. The major life-providing arteries for the great region of Central Asia are Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. There are many countries next to the pools of these rivers: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. There is a great concern caused by the shortage of supply of fresh water, severe epidemiological situation, and radiation conditions along of the pools of these rivers. Such conditions have developed as a result of intensive economic and industrial activities, and also of geological and geochemical features of this region. One of the most serious aspects of this problem is the weak scrutiny level of influence of large deposits of natural uranium and consequences of technological and industrial activities. Since November, 2000 Scientifics of four of the listed countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) have come to an agreement carrying out the teamwork on studying and monitoring the environment in the pools of Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers [1]. Collaborator of these works is Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA. During three expeditions each country in 15 control sites on their territory has conducted field researches and has obtained the samples of elements of the environment. Laboratory researches were carried out in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The first results were obtained in (2,3) and later in [4].Currently, the analysis of the data on salinity of water and alpha- and beta- activities of samples along Syr-Darya River is presented

  9. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... after running through the Thai-Burmese border. In 2003, a cascade of up to 13 dams were approved by the Chinese government, however, as of yet no dams have been built due to a prolonged controversy between Chinese government officials, Chinese and international environmental NGOs, the media, social...

  10. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  11. Sodium pool fire model for CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The modeling of sodium pool fires constitutes an important ingredient in conducting LMFBR accident analysis. Such modeling capability has recently come under scrutiny at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) within the context of developing CONACS, the Containment Analysis Code System. One of the efforts in the CONACS program is to model various combustion processes anticipated to occur during postulated accident paths. This effort includes the selection or modification of an existing model and development of a new model if it clearly contributes to the program purpose. As part of this effort, a new sodium pool fire model has been developed that is directed at removing some of the deficiencies in the existing models, such as SOFIRE-II and FEUNA

  12. Suppression pool in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakumo, Sunao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of vapour condensation for the sake of steam-load depression at the time of blowdown, and to prevent the quake of supression pool water at the time of earthquake. Constitution: Double branching plates having a function of a branching vapor stream in two directions when blowing down the vapor and operating the vent safety valve are provided on the central line of the vent tube disposed radially from the center of a reactor housing in a dry well. Further, a vent safety valve exhaust device is provided between the branching plates. When the vapor discharged from the space in the dry well is discharged through the vent tube and the vent safety valve exhaust device into a suppression pool, the stream line is roughly split by the branching plates, and the flows from the adjacent branching plates and the exhaust device collide with one another, thereby improving the condensing action. (Sekiya, K.)

  13. Economic efficiency of pool coordinated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, S.; Renjeng Su

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents economic efficiency evaluation of pool coordinated electricity markets. The evaluation accounts for the overall cost of power generation, network losses and costs, and various operational constraints. We assume a non-collusive oligopolistic competition. An iterative supply function model is used to characterize the competitive behavior of suppliers. A social welfare function is defined for PoolCo market that operates over multiple hours time span. This leads to a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. An Augmented Lagrangian approach is used to solve iteratively for global optimal operation schedules (i.e. power generation, load, and price for each bus node) while considering constraints of different sorts. An IEEE 24-bus, eight-supplier, 17-customer test system is used for illustration. The results show deflection of electricity prices from the marginal costs of power generation. The results of 2-year (730 round) market simulations show a range of deadweight efficiency loss between 0.5. (author)

  14. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  15. Exome Pool-Seq in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Bernt; Ekici, Arif B; Thiel, Christian T; Hoyer, Juliane; Wiesener, Antje; Kraus, Cornelia; Reis, André; Zweier, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    High throughput sequencing has greatly advanced disease gene identification, especially in heterogeneous entities. Despite falling costs this is still an expensive and laborious technique, particularly when studying large cohorts. To address this problem we applied Exome Pool-Seq as an economic and fast screening technology in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Sequencing of 96 individuals can be performed in eight pools of 12 samples on less than one Illumina sequencer lane. In a pilot study with 96 cases we identified 27 variants, likely or possibly affecting function. Twenty five of these were identified in 923 established NDD genes (based on SysID database, status November 2016) (ACTB, AHDC1, ANKRD11, ATP6V1B2, ATRX, CASK, CHD8, GNAS, IFIH1, KCNQ2, KMT2A, KRAS, MAOA, MED12, MED13L, RIT1, SETD5, SIN3A, TCF4, TRAPPC11, TUBA1A, WAC, ZBTB18, ZMYND11), two in 543 (SysID) candidate genes (ZNF292, BPTF), and additionally a de novo loss-of-function variant in LRRC7, not previously implicated in NDDs. Most of them were confirmed to be de novo, but we also identified X-linked or autosomal-dominantly or autosomal-recessively inherited variants. With a detection rate of 28%, Exome Pool-Seq achieves comparable results to individual exome analyses but reduces costs by >85%. Compared with other large scale approaches using Molecular Inversion Probes (MIP) or gene panels, it allows flexible re-analysis of data. Exome Pool-Seq is thus well suited for large-scale, cost-efficient and flexible screening in characterized but heterogeneous entities like NDDs.

  16. Feature Quantization and Pooling for Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    same codebook center in a query volleyball video. On the right we show the (incorrect) match using Nearest Neighbor - a biking video. (b) In the...proposed representation, Motion Words, features pooled over supervoxels match similar regions and enable interpretability. Figure 3.3: A volleyball query...regions with very different motion and appearance (the players, the volleyball net, the ceiling and walls) and it is not clear why the biking video is

  17. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA, Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Craigie Bridge across the Charles River at mile 1.0, has a vertical clearance of 10.25 feet at normal pool... temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Craigie Bridge across the Charles...

  18. Mini-review on river eutrophication and bottom improvement techniques, with special emphasis on the Nakdong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekile, Andinet; Kim, Ilho; Kim, Jisung

    2015-04-01

    Water quality in rivers is vital to humans and to maintenance of biotic and ecological integrity. During the Four Major Rivers restoration of South Korea, remarkable attempts have been made to decrease external nutrient loads and moveable weirs were designed to discharge silt that may deposit in pools. However, recently eutrophication of the Nakdong River, which was limited to the lower reaches, is seen to be spreading upstream. The reduction of external nutrient loads to rivers is a long-term goal that is unlikely to lead to reductions in algal blooms for many years because of the time required to implement effective land management strategies. It would therefore be desirable to implement complementary strategies. Regulating the amount of water released is effective at preventing algae blooms in weir pools; so, the relationship between discharge, stratification and bloom formation should be understood in this regard. However, pollutants are likely to accumulate in the riverbed upstream from release points. Thus, to control phosphorus levels, total phosphorus density should be lowered by applying in-river techniques as well. As many ecosystem properties are controlled by multiple processes, simultaneous river bottom improvement techniques, such as combined dissolved oxygen supply and nutrient inactivation, are likely to be effective. The purpose of this review is to present a series of technological approaches that can be used to improve the river bottom area and hence sediment nutrient release, and to illustrate the application of these techniques to the Nakdong River. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  20. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative effective~~ess of secondary school principals in selected sctiools in Cross River State. In pursuance of this study, two hypothesis were formulated. Two sets of questionnaires, Principal's Self-Evaluation. Questionnaire ...

  1. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    towns of the Harappan culture (4600 to 4100 years Before Pres en t. - BP) and ashrams ofrishis (sages) lay on the banks of this life-line of the Vedic time. Where has that great river gone? It is today represented by the disproportionately wide and astonishingly water-less, sand-filled channels ofGhaggar in Haryana and ...

  2. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  3. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative .... ranked significantly ahead of men as democratic leaders ... effectiveness and leadership styles of secondary school principals In Cross River. State. METHODOLOGY. Research Area: The study was conducte'd in c ~ m.

  4. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  5. Hydrology of vernal pools at three sites, southern Sacramento Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The subsurface hydrology of vernal pools at three vernal pool complexes was investigated during three wet seasons in 2002- : 2004. The complexes were at Gridley Ranch, Valensin Ranch, and the Mather Field in northern California. The selected : comple...

  6. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    1997-01-01

    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  7. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  8. Flow intermittence and ecosystem services in rivers of the Anthropocene_Figure 4_Journal of Applied Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Counts of ecosystem service status (provided, altered, and lost/absent) during three hydrological phases (flowing, pool, dry) typically seen in intermittent rivers...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-06 Carbon Cycling in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre, Brazil: 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2 evaded,...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-06 Carbon Cycling in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre, Brazil: 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2...

  11. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  12. Isolation of Fungi in Swimming pools in Enugu, Nigeria | Mbata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been established that swimming pools contribute to the spread of fungal infections in susceptible hosts. Objectives: To isolate and identify fungi associated with swimming pools. Methods: A total of 147 samples from water and related areas of each swimming pool were tested for the presence of fungi.

  13. The Ineffectiveness of Manual Treatment of Swimming Pools | Nnaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Nigeria, Nsukka swimming pool was monitored for a period spanning about three months. The pool was constructed in 1961 and has been in operation since then except that many facilities including the treatment system are no longer functional forcing management to resort to treatment of the pool water ...

  14. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  15. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand. The study shows the need to reduce the impact of swimming pools. This could include: pool covers to reduce evaporation, the recycling of backwash water, the use of rainwater to top up swimming pools, water use surcharges and, finally, appropriate regulation and enforcement to prevent the use of municipal water ...

  16. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Futures Association pursuant to this paragraph (c); or (B) The date of the formation of the pool...); or (2) The date of the formation of the pool; and (B) The close of the pool's fiscal year or the date... capital contribution are “special allocations.” Special allocations of partnership equity or other...

  17. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  18. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  19. High resolution mapping of riffle-pool dynamics based on ADCP and close-range remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Jouni; Kasvi, Elina; Alho, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Present development of mobile laser scanning (MLS) and close-range photogrammetry with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) enable us to create seamless digital elevation models (DEMs) of the riverine environment. Remote-controlled flow measurement platforms have also improved spatio-temporal resolution of the flow field data. In this study, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) attached to remote-controlled mini-boat, UAV-based bathymetry and MLS techniques were utilized to create the high-resolution DEMs of the river channel. These high-resolution measurements can be used in many fluvial applications such as computational fluid dynamics, channel change detection, habitat mapping or hydro-electric power plant planning. In this study we aim: 1) to analyze morphological changes of river channel especially riffle and pool formations based on fine-scale DEMs and ADCP measurements, 2) to analyze flow fields and their effect on morphological changes. The interest was mainly focused on reach-scale riffle-pool dynamics within two-year period of 2013 and 2014. The study was performed in sub-arctic meandering Pulmankijoki River located in Northern Finland. The river itself has shallow and clear water and sandy bed sediment. Discharge remains typically below 10 m3s-1 most of the year but during snow melt period in spring the discharge may exceed 70 m3s-1. We compared DEMs and ADCP measurements to understand both magnitude and spatio-temporal change of the river bed. Models were accurate enough to study bed form changes and locations and persistence of riffles and pools. We analyzed their locations with relation to flow during the peak and low discharge. Our demonstrated method has improved significantly spatio-temporal resolution of riverine DEMs compared to other cross-sectional and photogrammetry based models. Together with flow field measurements we gained better understanding of riverbed-water interaction

  20. Urban rivers as hotspots of regional nitrogen pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing

    2015-01-01

    Excess nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems via human activities have deteriorated water qualities on regional scales. Urban areas as settlements of over half global population, however, were usually not considered in the analysis of regional water pollution. Here, we used a 72-month monitoring data of water qualities in Hangzhou, China to test the role of urban rives in regional nitrogen pollution and how they response to the changes of human activities. Concentrations of ammonium nitrogen in urban rivers were 3–5 times higher than that in regional rivers. Urban rivers have become pools of reactive nitrogen and hotspots of regional pollution. Moreover, this river pollution is not being measured by current surface water monitoring networks that are designed to measure broader regional patterns, resulting in an underestimation of regional pollution. This is crucial to urban environment not only in China, but also in other countries, where urban rivers are seriously polluted. - Highlights: • Nitrogen concentrations in urban rivers are much higher than that in regional rivers. • Domestic wastewater is the main source of urban river pollution in Hangzhou. • Pollutant collecting and water diversion can sharply reduce the urban river pollution. - Urban river pollution is not being measured by the current monitoring networks that are designed to measure regional patterns causing an underestimation

  1. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  2. Generalized Pooling for Robust Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Hu, Hongwei; Shen, Jianbing; Liu, Yangbiao; Shao, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Feature pooling in a majority of sparse coding based tracking algorithms computes final feature vectors only by loworder statistics or extreme responses of sparse codes. The highorder statistics and correlations between responses to different dictionary items are neglected. We present a more generalized feature pooling method for visual tracking by utilizing the probabilistic function to model the statistical distribution of sparse codes. Since immediate matching between two distributions usually requires high computational costs, we introduce the Fisher vector to derive a more compact and discriminative representation for sparse codes of the visual target. We encode target patches by local coordinate coding, utilize Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to compute Fisher vectors, and finally train semi-supervised linear kernel classifiers for visual tracking. In order to handle the drifting problem during the tracking process, these classifiers are updated online with current tracking results. The experimental results on two challenging tracking benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  3. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  4. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  5. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  6. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  7. Weld pool oscillation during gas tungsten arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, You Hong

    The oscillation behavior of Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) weld pools in mild steels Fe 360 and in austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 is considered. Special attention is given to the possibility of using the weld pool oscillation behavior as a sensor of weld pool geometry during welding, which is one of the objectives in adaptive control of the welding process. The topics discussed include the theoretical background of the oscillation phenomenon, the direct observation of weld pool oscillation, the experimental determination of the relation between the weld pool geometry and the oscillation frequency both under stationary arc conditions and under traveling arc conditions and the possibility of sensing the weld pool geometry, especially the weld pool penetration, by monitoring the oscillation frequency.

  8. Assessing the Occurrence, Persistence, and Fate of Natural and Synthetic Steroid Estrogens in Vernal Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, O.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of natural and synthetic estrogens in treated wastewater used for irrigation of agricultural fields poses a potential risk to surface water ecosystems. While a large number of recent studies have investigated the occurrence, fate, and transport of estrogens in the environment, the vast majority of these studies have focused on the fate of estrogens in streams and rivers. However, no studies have been conducted assessing the occurrence, persistence, and fate of estrogens in impacted sensitive aquatic ecosystems such as vernal pools. This is of particular importance because vernal pools serve as critical breeding habitat for amphibians, which are known to be sensitive to the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds. A spray irrigation system was implemented over 50 years ago at Penn State's "Living Filter" as an alternative to discharging treated wastewater to a high quality trout stream. This system introduces all of Penn State's treated wastewater onto approximately 250 ha of agricultural and forested land at a rate of ~5 cm/ha/week. More than a dozen vernal pools are impacted by this wastewater irrigation, with some ponds adjacent to irrigation laterals receiving direct inputs of the treated wastewater. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of these weekly irrigation activities on the occurrence, persistence, and fate of estrogens (17α- and 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and ethinylestradiol) in 3 vernal pools during an 8-week field study. The spring 2015 study period coincided with wood frog breeding and metamorphosis. Irrigation wastewater was collected weekly and water samples near the sediment-water interface in each vernal pool were collected daily. Real-time monitoring stations continuously recorded the temperature, pH, redox potential, DO, EC, and water level at each pool. Nearly 100% of the daily samples (n>130) collected contained estrogens, and the concentrations were several times higher compared to the wastewater

  9. Urban rivers as hotspots of regional nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing

    2015-10-01

    Excess nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems via human activities have deteriorated water qualities on regional scales. Urban areas as settlements of over half global population, however, were usually not considered in the analysis of regional water pollution. Here, we used a 72-month monitoring data of water qualities in Hangzhou, China to test the role of urban rives in regional nitrogen pollution and how they response to the changes of human activities. Concentrations of ammonium nitrogen in urban rivers were 3-5 times higher than that in regional rivers. Urban rivers have become pools of reactive nitrogen and hotspots of regional pollution. Moreover, this river pollution is not being measured by current surface water monitoring networks that are designed to measure broader regional patterns, resulting in an underestimation of regional pollution. This is crucial to urban environment not only in China, but also in other countries, where urban rivers are seriously polluted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2011-03-01

    In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented.

  11. To pool or not to pool? Impact of the use of individual and pooled fecal samples for in vitro fermentation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Ramiro-Garcia, J.; Koenen, M.E.; Venema, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the stability and the activity of the microbiota from a single and a pool of donors in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2 system). Our findings demonstrate the suitability of the preparation of a pool of fecal sample to be used for fermentation experiments.

  12. Anthropogenic impact on amorphous silica pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human land use changes perturb biogeochemical silica (Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This directly affects Si mobilisation and Si storage and influences Si export from the continents, although the magnitude of the impact is unknown. A major reason for our lack of understanding is that very little information exists on how land use affects amorphous silica (ASi storage in soils. We have quantified and compared total alkali-extracted (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in southern Sweden. Land use clearly affects ASi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p < 0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced ASi replenishment, as well as changes in ecosystem specific pedogenic processes and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. We have also made a first, though rough, estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental ASi pools due to human disturbance. Assuming that our data are representative, we estimate that total ASi storage in soils has declined by ca. 10 % since the onset of agricultural development (3000 BCE

  13. Geomorphic Effects of Engineered Log Jams in River Restoration, Middle Fork John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork of the John Day River (MFJD) Intensively Monitored Watershed in eastern Oregon is a multi-phase restoration implementation and monitoring project. MFJD is a tributary to the Colombia and is part of one of the longest free flowing rivers systems in the continental United States. It is a gravel and cobble bed river with a drainage area of 2,100 km2. The river has endured extensive channel and floodplain degradation from years of channel alteration and straightening due to human influences including dredge mining, ranching, and farming. As part of the river restoration project on the MFJD, engineered log jams have been constructed to address many of the restoration goals including creating scour pools, inhibiting bank erosion, creating and maintaining a sinuous river planform, and increasing complexity of fish habitat. There is a need for more detailed understanding on ELJ channel morphologic effects and how site-specific characteristics and differences in log jam infrastructure interact to create the in-channel features over timescales longer than a few years. This study uses detailed channel bed topographic surveys collected either with a total station or RTK-GPS technology. Geomorphic change detection techniques are utilized to monitor topographic change under and around the 26 log structures in two different river reaches over a six to seven year period The log structures are often associated with deepening of pools as desired, but also some structures show sedimentation under the structure. Differences in the patterns will be assessed based on the design, location, and specific characteristics of the log structures; variables include number and placement of logs, volume of structure, location on meander bend, and sediment sizes.

  14. Individual contributions to pooled-milt fertilizations of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Ribolli

    Full Text Available Supplementary stocking of fish in natural environments is a way to mitigate or compensate for the changes imposed on wild populations by river damming. Since little is known about the genetic composition of the supplementary stocks obtained by pooled-milt fertilization, the aim of this study was to determine the individual contributions of male jundiá Rhamdia quelen to offspring. Sperm from four males were mixed using equal volume of sperm from each of the males to fertilize eggs from only one female, kept in three blend with six males and three females. The proportions of larvae sired by the different males were quantified using five polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. Analysis of these loci allowed paternal determination of 84% of the progeny, at a 0.972 combined exclusion probability. Broodstock milt had good fertilizing capacity when used alone, but when pooled the fertilizing capacities, its fertilizing possibility varied from 4 to 65%. Results show that milt pools favor gametes of some males over others, thus reducing the progeny's genetic variability.

  15. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  16. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... strengths are its inclusion of stroke as an end point and race as a characteristic, which allows better risk prediction especially in African-American individuals, plus provision of lifetime ASCVD risk estimates for adults aged 20-59 years. Notable omissions from the risk factors include chronic kidney...... the intended 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk threshold for treatment in the joint ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. In this review we discuss the development of the new risk calculator, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential implications for its routine use....

  17. Determining a pool - type reactor fuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Refuelling the 10 to 15 MW pool type reactor considered here will occur frequently (some 10 elements every 3 to 4 weeks). It is therefore necessary to determine the most economic fuel policy. This study proposes to define a strategy that will make it possible to decide on the number and characteristics of the shipment containers, as well as on the means of storage, so as to reduce the risks as much as possible should the basic parameters of the study vary. Among these parameters, the respective influence of which is investigated, chemical reprocessing costs play a vital part. Two examples of optimum fuel management are given according to whether the reprocessing charges applied are those of the old or of the 1961 U.S. AEC base charges for reprocessing highly enriched irradiated fuel. (authors) [fr

  18. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  19. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  20. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  1. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  2. The flexible gene pool of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is intimately associated with humans. The nature and consequences of this symbiosis are poorly understood; it might comprise both mutualistic and parasitic properties. Recent advances in distinguishing phylotypes of P. acnes have revealed...... that certain type I lineages are predominantly associated with acne vulgaris. Genome analyses revealed a highly conserved core genome and the existence of island-like genomic regions and possible mobile genetic elements as part of the flexible gene pool. The analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short...... palindromic repeats (CRISPR), found exclusively in type II P. acnes, recently revealed the presence of CRISPR spacers that derived from mobile genetic elements. These elements are present in a subset of P. acnes type I lineages. Their significance for type-specific host-interacting properties...

  3. Statistical implications of pooling RNA samples for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfield Philip W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become a very important tool for studying gene expression profiles under various conditions. Biologists often pool RNA samples extracted from different subjects onto a single microarray chip to help defray the cost of microarray experiments as well as to correct for the technical difficulty in getting sufficient RNA from a single subject. However, the statistical, technical and financial implications of pooling have not been explicitly investigated. Results Modeling the resulting gene expression from sample pooling as a mixture of individual responses, we derived expressions for the experimental error and provided both upper and lower bounds for its value in terms of the variability among individuals and the number of RNA samples pooled. Using "virtual" pooling of data from real experiments and computer simulations, we investigated the statistical properties of RNA sample pooling. Our study reveals that pooling biological samples appropriately is statistically valid and efficient for microarray experiments. Furthermore, optimal pooling design(s can be found to meet statistical requirements while minimizing total cost. Conclusions Appropriate RNA pooling can provide equivalent power and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness for microarray experiments with a modest increase in total number of subjects. Pooling schemes in terms of replicates of subjects and arrays can be compared before experiments are conducted.

  4. Assessment of Fluctuating Reservoir Elevations Using Hydraulic Models and Impacts to Larval Pacific Lamprey Rearing Habitat in the Bonneville Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    This report presents the results of a modeling assessment of likely lamprey larval habitat that may be impacted by dewatering of the major tributary delta regions in the Bonneville Pool of the Columbia River. This assessment was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP). The goal of the study was to provide baseline data about how the regions of interest would potentially be impacted at three river flows (10, 50, and 90 percent exceedance flow) for four different forebay elevations at Bonneville Dam. Impacts of unsteady flows at The Dalles Dam and changing forebay elevation at Bonneville Dam for a 2-week period were also assessed. The area of dewatered regions was calculated by importing modeled data outputs into a GIS and then calculating the change in inundated area near tributary deltas for the four Bonneville forebay surface elevations. From the modeled output we determined that the overall change in area is less sensitive to elevations changes during higher river discharges. Changing the forebay elevation at Bonneville and the resulting impact to total dewatered regions was greater at the lowest modeled river flow (97 kcfs) and showed the greatest variation at the White Salmon/Hood River delta regions followed by the Wind, Klickitat and the Little White Salmon rivers. To understand how inundation might change on a daily and hourly basis. Unsteady flow models were run for a 2-week period in 2002 and compared to 2014. The water surface elevation in the upstream pool closely follows that of the Bonneville Dam forebay with rapid changes of 1 to 2-ft possible. The data shows that 2.5-ft variation in water surface elevation occurred during this period in 2002 and a 3.7-ft change occurred in 2014. The duration of these changes were highly variable and generally did not stay constant for more than a 5-hr period.

  5. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  6. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively.In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying.Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles. However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the face of short-term drying. The long

  7. Estimates of array and pool-construction variance for planning efficient DNA-pooling genome wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Until recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been restricted to research groups with the budget necessary to genotype hundreds, if not thousands, of samples. Replacing individual genotyping with genotyping of DNA pools in Phase I of a GWAS has proven successful, and dramatically altered the financial feasibility of this approach. When conducting a pool-based GWAS, how well SNP allele frequency is estimated from a DNA pool will influence a study's power to detect associations. Here we address how to control the variance in allele frequency estimation when DNAs are pooled, and how to plan and conduct the most efficient well-powered pool-based GWAS. Methods By examining the variation in allele frequency estimation on SNP arrays between and within DNA pools we determine how array variance [var(earray)] and pool-construction variance [var(econstruction)] contribute to the total variance of allele frequency estimation. This information is useful in deciding whether replicate arrays or replicate pools are most useful in reducing variance. Our analysis is based on 27 DNA pools ranging in size from 74 to 446 individual samples, genotyped on a collective total of 128 Illumina beadarrays: 24 1M-Single, 32 1M-Duo, and 72 660-Quad. Results For all three Illumina SNP array types our estimates of var(earray) were similar, between 3-4 × 10-4 for normalized data. Var(econstruction) accounted for between 20-40% of pooling variance across 27 pools in normalized data. Conclusions We conclude that relative to var(earray), var(econstruction) is of less importance in reducing the variance in allele frequency estimation from DNA pools; however, our data suggests that on average it may be more important than previously thought. We have prepared a simple online tool, PoolingPlanner (available at http://www.kchew.ca/PoolingPlanner/), which calculates the effective sample size (ESS) of a DNA pool given a range of replicate array values. ESS can be used in a power

  8. [Management of infectious risk associated with therapeutic pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, C; Gardes, S; Tasseau, F

    2004-06-01

    There is no specific legislation concerning pools and others medical hydrotherapy equipments relating hygiene and security rules. For this reason, the hydrotherapy pools use the public swimming pools legislation. This article is based on literature review (database Medline and Embase--manual research). This article offers a review of pool associated infections along with the description of the measures designed to minimise the possible transmission of infection during hydrotherapy activities such as: Technical measures: pool and premises conception, water treatments, feed tanks, air quality. Hygiene rules for patients and hospital staff and pathologies which are contra-indications to hydrotherapy activities. Microbiological and physico-chemical monitoring. The infectious risk remains low with therapeutic pools. However, the development of specific legislation and surveillance should be enhanced. All these measures are part of the quality assurance program that must be implemented to control the safety of these installations.

  9. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  10. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.

    1976-10-01

    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  11. Fuel handling pool and safety water reserve for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1990-01-01

    This pool is characterized by a shutter generally in cylindrical form, fixed around the reactor vessel head and control rod drive mechanisms and removable sealed to the floor of the pool. This disposition allows the water to be held outside the shutter during reactor operation and gives an emergency water reserve in case of primary coolant circuit break. This pool always empty can be used for storing spent fuel [fr

  12. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  13. Dark Sides of Patent Pools with Compulsory Independent Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Akifumi Ishihara; Noriyuki Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines roles of patent pools with compulsory independent licensing. A seminal work by Lerner and Tirole (2004) have shown that requiring independent licensing or compulsory independent licensing is a useful tool to select only desirable patent pools. In this paper, however, we are going to show that their argument is not always true, If there are users who demand only a part of the pooled technologies, the compulsory independent licensing gives a tool for price discrimination for...

  14. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  15. A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs: Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    21 SEPECAT is a French acronym for the French-British joint venture company established to develop and build...Copyright 2016 RAND Corporation R® is a registered trademark. iii Preface The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program includes development...Daniel M. Romano, Joseph V. Vesely, and Robert A. Guffey, United States Air Force Participation in the F-35 Global Spares Pool: Advantages and

  16. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  17. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  19. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  20. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  1. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-01-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  2. Response of Step-pool Mountain Channels to Wildfire Under Changing Climate-fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A.; O'Dowd, A. P.; Storesund, R.; Parker, A.; Roberts-Niemann, C.

    2013-12-01

    The western U.S. is becoming more susceptible to wildfire, even though wildfires have occurred throughout history and pre-history. Warming climates leading to drier conditions have increased the occurrence of wildfires. Fire suppression policies throughout the twentieth century have also allowed fuel loads to build and increased the potential for larger and more frequent fires. These trends have growing impacts on human society, as evidenced in increasing number of structures destroyed and related costs of firefighting and resulting damages. Besides the first-order effects of wildfire, such as burned vegetation and reduced infiltration capacities, changing climate-fire regimes have significant indirect effects on hydrologic and geomorphologic responses. This contribution explores how these changes affect the stability and functioning of step-pool mountain streams in the context of landscape evolution. Step-pool systems are stable features adjusted to the prevailing flow and channel morphology, serving important functions of energy dissipation in high-energy environments. Steps and pools are also important ecologically, as they provide diverse habitats for sensitive organisms. Whereas step-pool channels are typically restructured by flows with recurrence intervals often exceeding 50 years, these flows are reached more frequently under changing climate-fire regimes. Following the Waldo Canyon Fire of June/July 2012, one of several recent wildfires that spread along the Colorado Front Range, we track the stability, destruction, and re-development of step-pool systems in two basins in Pike National Forest using terrestrial LiDAR scanning and surveys of longitudinal profiles and cross sections. We document how the first geomorphologically significant event on 1 July 2013 obliterated the step-pool structure in Williams Canyon, widened river channels and lowered channel beds by as much as one meter. Changes in ecological character accompanied the conversion of channel

  3. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  4. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.......Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...

  5. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  6. Pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1997-07-01

    This pool critical assembly (PCA) pressure vessel wall facility benchmark (PCA benchmark) is described and analyzed in this report. Analysis of the PCA benchmark can be used for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the qualification of the methodology for pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations, as required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guide DG-1053. Section 1 of this report describes the PCA benchmark and provides all data necessary for the benchmark analysis. The measured quantities, to be compared with the calculated values, are the equivalent fission fluxes. In Section 2 the analysis of the PCA benchmark is described. Calculations with the computer code DORT, based on the discrete-ordinates method, were performed for three ENDF/B-VI-based multigroup libraries: BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95, and BUGLE-96. An excellent agreement of the calculated (C) and measures (M) equivalent fission fluxes was obtained. The arithmetic average C/M for all the dosimeters (total of 31) was 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.92 ± 0.03 for the SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96 libraries, respectively. The average C/M ratio, obtained with the BUGLE-93 library, for the 28 measurements was 0.93 ± 0.03 (the neptunium measurements in the water and air regions were overpredicted and excluded from the average). No systematic decrease in the C/M ratios with increasing distance from the core was observed for any of the libraries used

  7. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  8. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  9. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  10. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas transportation through heat exchangers (IHX) and pump to grid plate, agglomeration of gas inside grid plate ... During plant transients associated with one secondary loop, temperature in the cold pool associated with ... Flow coast down characteristics of secondary sodium pump (SSP in figure 1) and cold pool capacity ...

  11. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rock pools also closely follow ambient air temperatures with resulting fluctuations of values between 10 and 40ºC. Depending on local climatic conditions, small rock pools are usually short-lived and have several wet/dry cycles during one rainy season. Branchipodopsis species are the record-holders in this race against ...

  12. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  13. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  14. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Pouyat; P. Groffman; I Yesilonis; L. Hernandez

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of landscapes from non-urban to urban land use has the potential to greatly modify soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes. For urban ecosystems, very little data exists to assess whether urbanization leads to an increase or decrease in soil C pools. We analyzed three data sets to assess the potential for urbanization to affect soil organic C. These...

  15. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  16. The Solitude of Relevant Documents in the Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipani, A.; Lupu, M.; Kanoulas, E.; Hanbury, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pool bias is a well understood problem of test-collection based benchmarking in information retrieval. The pooling method itself is designed to identify all relevant documents. In practice, 'all' translates to `as many as possible given some budgetary constraints' and the problem persists, albeit

  17. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such rock pools were studied in the Drakensberg region, in the eastern Free State and in south-eastern Botswana. Common features ... While short-range dispersal of floating eggs by overflows is common, long-range dispersal (e.g. by wind) seems to be rare and to be restricted to shallow pools with little vegetation. Limited ...

  18. Assessing Water Quality: Staphylococci as Microbial Indicators in Swimming Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jo. Bechaida T.; Adera, Tilahun

    1991-01-01

    This study suggests that staphylococci may be the preferred microbial indicators of swimming pool water quality because these organisms met all criteria for best microbial indicators in terms of amount of recovery, resistance to disinfectants, and risk to bathers using water samples from nine swimming pools in Linn and Benton Counties, Oregon. (30…

  19. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  20. Pooled screening for synergistic interactions subject to blocking and noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Li

    Full Text Available The complex molecular networks in the cell can give rise to surprising interactions: gene deletions that are synthetically lethal, gene overexpressions that promote stemness or differentiation, synergistic drug interactions that heighten potency. Yet, the number of actual interactions is dwarfed by the number of potential interactions, and discovering them remains a major problem. Pooled screening, in which multiple factors are simultaneously tested for possible interactions, has the potential to increase the efficiency of searching for interactions among a large set of factors. However, pooling also carries with it the risk of masking genuine interactions due to antagonistic influence from other factors in the pool. Here, we explore several theoretical models of pooled screening, allowing for synergy and antagonism between factors, noisy measurements, and other forms of uncertainty. We investigate randomized sequential designs, deriving formulae for the expected number of tests that need to be performed to discover a synergistic interaction, and the optimal size of pools to test. We find that even in the presence of significant antagonistic interactions and testing noise, randomized pooled designs can significantly outperform exhaustive testing of all possible combinations. We also find that testing noise does not affect optimal pool size, and that mitigating noise by a selective approach to retesting outperforms naive replication of all tests. Finally, we show that a Bayesian approach can be used to handle uncertainty in problem parameters, such as the extent of synergistic and antagonistic interactions, resulting in schedules for adapting pool size during the course of testing.

  1. Parametric tomography of the cardiac blood pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Schwartz, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In nuclear cardiology image processing is performed usually in 3 of 4 dimensions. ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT) would make it possible to obtain all 4 dimensions of space and time during one examination, but its duration as well as radiation dose is limited resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive feature extractions from the amount of data are necessary, e.g. Fourier filtering or extracting isovolumetric intervals. The relatively large amount of calculations and storage requirements often handicaps tomographic ventriculography because a high number of sections have to be processed and the temporal resolution is limited. A new list-mode oriented tomographic algorithm demands less storage and fewer calculations: The Fourier coefficient extraction and the filtered back projection, both of which are linear operations, could be interchanged in the case of thoracic SPECT. The feature extraction algorithm process internal list-mode heart cycles for discrimination of invalid cycles, for end-diastolic and end-systolic synthesis as well as for Fourier analysis of the first harmonic in 10 ms steps. Reconstruction operations are applied also to modified distribution matrices of Fourier coefficients. By only processing 4 spatial matrix sequences (end-diastolic and end-systolic images, amplitude and phase values) parametric tomography becomes practicable and could be also performed by a minicomputer with 64 KByte memory in addition to the possibilities of the planar left ventricular gated imaging. If there are 3 or more processors available a complete feature extraction on-the-fly will be possible. The numerical algorithms were tested with respect to stable reconstructions by phantoms. First results of a patient examination are used to explore effective display techniques, and preliminary modes are demonstrated. It is the purpose of this study to obtain additional information about the gated planar cardiac blood pool imaging in the field of SPECT. (author)

  2. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  3. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  4. SPM response to tide and river flow in the hyper-turbid Ems River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterwerp, Johan C.; Vroom, Julia; Wang, Zheng-B.; Krebs, Martin; Hendriks, Erik C. M.; van Maren, Dirk S.; Schrottke, Kerstin; Borgsmüller, Christine; Schöl, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of fine sediments in the hyper-turbid Lower Ems River, with focus on the river's upper reaches, a stretch of about 25 km up-estuary of Terborg. Our analysis is based on long records of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from optical backscatter (OBS) measurements close to the bed at seven stations along the river, records of salinity and water level measurements at these stations, acoustic measurements on the vertical mud structure just up-estuary of Terborg and oxygen profiles in the lower 3 m of the water column close to Leerort and Terborg. Further, we use cross-sectionally averaged velocities computed with a calibrated numerical model. Distinction is made between four timescales, i.e. the semi-diurnal tidal timescale, the spring-neap tidal timescale, a timescale around an isolated peak in river flow (i.e. about 3 weeks) and a seasonal timescale. The data suggest that a pool of fluid/soft mud is present in these upper reaches, from up-estuary of Papenburg to a bit down-estuary of Terborg. Between Terborg and Gandersum, SPM values drop rapidly but remain high at a few gram per litre. The pool of fluid/soft mud is entrained/mobilized at the onset of flood, yielding SPM values of many tens gram per litre. This suspension is transported up-estuary with the flood. Around high water slack, part of the suspension settles, being remixed during ebb, while migrating down-estuary, but likely not much further than Terborg. Around low water slack, a large fraction of the sediment settles, reforming the pool of fluid mud. The rapid entrainment from the fluid mud layer after low water slack is only possible when the peak flood velocity exceeds a critical value of around 1 m/s, i.e. when the stratified water column seems to become internally supercritical. If the peak flood velocity does not reach this critical value, f.i. during neap tide, fluid mud is not entrained up to the OBS sensors. Thus, it is not classical tidal asymmetry, but

  5. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  6. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    jointed rush Ramsey -87- Table 25 (Continued). PLANTS FOUND IN (COUNTY) Angiosperms; Flowering Plants Leguminosae ; Pea family Astragalus ceramicus, rattle...stolonifera Red-osier dogwood CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus virginiana Red cedar P P P Thuja occidenta lis White cedar FABACEAE ( LEGUMINOSAE ) Amorpha...Shrubs (Cont’d.) JUGLANDACEAE Carya cordi formis Bitternut hickory P P LEGUMINOSAE : see FABACEAE MORACEAE Morus rubra Red mulberry P OLEACEAE

  7. Archaeology, Geomorphology and Historic Surveys in Pools 13-14, Upper Mississippi River. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    and use-wear roundI,;g and polish on the edges and flake faces. Another has distal retouch (Fig. 4.12). One plain surface body sherd with crushed...very weak organic enriched paleosol, leached, clear wavy. 120-220 BCb I0YR 4/5; silt loam, very weak medium subangular blocky, friable, many fine

  8. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    State Planning Agency, 1970). LAND USE~ Man’s land use patterns in the watershed of the study area have greatly accelerated the relentless erosion of the...Even today, the watershed is severely abused by agricultural practices. Steep slopes, in most areas, are still plowed and grazed. The fragile sand...and research programs should be initiated as soon as possible. There is need in many cases for containment structures of any of several types- gabions

  9. On turbulence and the formation of riffle-pools in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Bruce J.

    Cette these doctorale porte sur l'organisation des rivieres a lit de graviers. La formation du lit en sequences a grande echelle---les sequences seuil-mouille---est une caracteristique de ces rivieres qui controle la stabilite et la productivite ecologique. Malgre son importance, le mecanisme qui genere les seuil-mouilles reste obscur. Ce probleme est lie a trois facteurs: les donnees de terrain qui existent ne sont pas suffisantes pour accepter ou rejeter les hypotheses qui existent, la complexite des interactions entre l'ecoulement, le transport des sediments, et les formes du lit; et le role de la turbulence qui n'est pas considere de facon adequate. L'approche de cette these est d'aborder ces facteurs simultanement avec des methodes innovatrices pour mesurer les parametres importants sur le terrain et de modeliser des processus non lineaires dans une riviere. Les objectifs sont: (a) de developper un modele qui est capable de simuler le transport des sediments et les interactions avec l'ecoulement turbulent, (b) en utilisant le modele, de montrer le role des mecanismes de retroaction dans le developpement des formes du lit, (c) de tester les velocimetres dans des ecoulements a fortes vitesses et fortes intensites turbulente, (d) de mesurer et caracteriser les dynamiques de l'ecoulement dans un seuil-mouille force, (e) de mesurer et caracteriser les dynamiques de la sedimentologie et la morphologie dans un seuil-mouille force, et (f) en utilisant le modele et l'analyse des donnees de terrain, d'identifier les mecanismes qui contribuent a la formation des seuils-mouilles. En considerant une riviere comme un systeme complexe, nous avons cree un modele qui simule le transport des sediments individuellement, c'est-a-dire un modele 'discret'. Les particules repondent aux parametres locaux de l'ecoulement et des boucles de retroaction sont possibles. Les processus physiques sont simplifies afin de permettre la consideration des mecanismes qui generent les formes du lit. Nous montrons que les formes du lit a grande echelle emergent quand la turbulence varie en fonction de l'acceleration et de la deceleration de l'ecoulement. Nous avons suivi les dynamiques d'un seuil-mouille force pendant 18 mois. Cette periode etait tres active en terme de changements geomorphologiqies a cause d'une serie de crues de haut niveau. La plus grande etait une crue d'une periode de 15 ans. Nous avons echantillonne des series de vitesses instantanees a 90--270 positions au site pendant des crues de bas niveau jusqu'a plein bord. Les instruments ont ete testes dans les environnements comparables afin d'assurer leurs capacites de fonctionner comme prevu. Les donnees hydrauliques nous ont montre quelques resultats importants. La deceleration et l'acceleration definissent respectivement l'ecoulement dans le debut et la fin de la mouille. Ceci a un effet important sur la forme des profils de vitesse moyenne, ou des vitesses relativement basses sont presentes proche du lit dans la zone de deceleration et des vitesses relativement hautes sont presentes proche du lit dans la zone d'acceleration. Cet effet explique les observations d'un renversement de vitesses. Cependant, le renversement de vitesses est present seulement dans la zone vers la fin de la mouille ou la pente du lit est positive. Pour expliquer le transport des sediments dans le debut de la mouille, un effet secondaire est requis. Dans cet environnement, l'intensite de la turbulence est haute. Nous avons observe la separation intermittente de l'ecoulement dans cette region de l'ecoulement et il apparait que cette zone genere la turbulence observee. Afin de suivre les mouvements des particules et de caracteriser les patrons spatiaux du transport des sediments, nous avons utilise une technique relativement nouvelle base sur les 'Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags'. Nous avons marque 300 roches de differentes tailles. Nous avons aussi cartographie le lit de la riviere plusieurs fois pendant cette meme periode afin de suivre les changements morphologiques. Un evenement majeur s'est passe au debut de la periode d'etude. Cet evenement a deplace l'arbre qui determine le lieu de la mouille, ce qui a provoque une nouvelle periode de developpement morphologique que nous avons caracterisee. En general, la morphologie et le transport de sediment refletent la variabilite de l'ecoulement. En aval de l'arbre, toutes les tailles de particules marquees ont ete enlevees de la mouille et l'erosion de la mouille a ete progressive. En contraste, en amont de l'arbre nous avons observe que le transport de sediment est tres sensible aux tailles des particules et que deux cycles d'aggradation et de degradation se sont produits. Les particules plus larges que le D84 n'ont pas ete deplacees du debut de la mouille pendant la periode d'etudes, malgre au moins un evenement avec une frequence de retour de 15 ans. La conclusion centrale de la modelisation et de l'etude de terrain est que la turbulence est necessaire pour expliquer la formation des seuil-mouilles. Le modele est tres important pour la generalisation des resultats parce qu'il demontre que des formes du lit avec une taille, un triage de particule par taille, et une stabilite similaire a ce que nous observons dans les seuil-mouilles naturels peuvent etre generees sans qu'un element comme l'arbre soit present pour le provoquer. Pour cela, il faut que le modele inclue une regle qui lie la turbulence a l'acceleration, une autre regle qui imite l'effet de la separation de l'ecoulement, et les sediments de tailles heterogenes. La convergence de ces facteurs avec les observations de terrain encourage l'hypothese que tous les seuil-mouilles sont generes par un mecanisme similaire. Il apparait que les elements qui forcent les seuil-mouilles fonctionnent comme des catalyseurs qui activent les processus associes a l'ecoulement non uniforme, mais que ces processus peuvent aussi emerger du systeme complexe qui constitue une riviere a lit graveleux. Ces resultats sont uniques dans la litterature et portent une nouvelle vision sur les dynamiques fluviales, la complexite, et l'organisation d'une riviere. Mot-cles. rivieres a lit graveleux, seuil-mouille, turbulence; systeme complexe; transport de sediment; pistage de sediment; formes du lit; coherence; mesure de vitesse; ecoulement non uniforme; acceleration; deceleration; separation intermittente, emergence, auto-organisation.

  10. Archaeological Investigations, Navigation Pool II, Upper Mississippi River Basin. Volume 1. Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    and a subjacent B horizon. The argillic horizon grades into a siltier unit by 4.0m. In the deepest hole of 5.8m, sand ani granules were observed but...particularly since no presettlement surface hori- zon was recognized. There was no evidence of a p)rosettlmont subsurface argillic horizon at the...appeared to be charcoal was recovered at 20cm. Beneath 24cm and extending to 35cm an argillic horizon is found with clay skins seen along ped faces and down

  11. Preliminary Investigations: Archaeology and Sediment Geomorphology, Navigation Pool 12, Upper Mississippi River. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    6019v plates: All I)?IC rerdesTi domeont has been a~rw distribution is unlimited. ions willbe in biek ~-- pblicrase dsaeIsgotit ABSTRACT In March, 1961...none of the other residents contacted had found artifactual materials, surface collection of a dirt driveway leading to the fourth and fifth houses...the site was possibly a workshop (Bareis 1981). A brief surface collection was made to the southeast of the J R.R. crossing, on a dirt road entering a

  12. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Pectoral Sandpiper Red-breasted Merganser White-rumped Sandpiper Turkey Vulture Baird’s Sandpiper Swallow-tailed Kite Least Sandpiper Coshawk Red-backed...Lined Race Runner Common Water Snake Ring-Necked Snake Eastern Hognosed Snake Smooth Green Snake Blue Racer Fox Snake Bull Snake Milk Snake DeKays

  13. Nitrous oxide production and evasion from the Markland Pool of theOhio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    This figure shows how atmospheric N2O concentrations have increased from a background of about 270ppb up to 315 by the year 2000. This trend has continued and todays levels are at about 321 and are continuing to increase. This is a problem because N2O is a potent greenhouse gas...

  14. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Lippia lanceolata), yellow nut grass, and water hemp (Amaranthus tamariscinus). Trees most commonly found were cottonwood and silver maple, usually...stands. Fog fruit ( Lippia lanceolata) and yellow nut grass (Cyperus esculentus) were not found in many stands but were common in some. No other herbs... alba ) 3.2 Catbriar (Smilax spp.) 0.6 1Occurrence in at least 50 percent of stands and mean cover of occurrence at least 10 percent, ordered by cover

  15. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    pentjcpetala (Walt.) Fern. 7864,7865 Nymphaea tuberosa Paine 7859 Potamogeton crispus L. 7880 Potamogeton foliosus Raf. 7870,7886 Potamogeton nodosus Poir...7928 Poygn sagittatum L. 7935 Rumex verticillatus L. 7923,7965 Urtica dioica L. 7932 78 6. Land area 5. Marsh area east of Dodge Chute. Mostly...Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, and Potamogeton crispus were the most frequently encountered species in this habitat. This is clearly

  16. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    operation of the gates, valves and lights at Lock and Dam 2. The site also includes dwellings, equipment buildings ,access road and I observation deck. CORPS...picture of the Spring Lake area prior to the building of Lho dams may be gained from a segment of an "MRC" chart published later by the :j,~ Coi::iss ion in...native grasslands. This list includes 122 plant species. The native grassland habitat is the "most poorly represented (in the University Herbarium ) and in

  17. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    glutinosum 93 7.9 Dioscorea villosa 57 2.7 Fragaria virginiana 57 4.1 Galium aparine 50 10.1 G. concinnum 93 26.0 G . riflorum 50 4.3 Geranium maculatum 100...Athyriun filix-femena 39 3.8 Boehmeria cylindrica 47 7.6 Circaea quadrisulcata 34 8.8 Cyptoaenia canadensis 45 12.9 Cuscuta gronovii 31 3.3 Dioscorea villosa

  18. Cultural Resources Literature Search and Records Review - Upper Mississippi River Basin. Volume 5. Pool 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    should not be used for predictive statements. Finally, sites *catecorized as inpliaible unless specifically noted, means simply that they have not been...8217T 21. _-. 31---------------------- - ~ ’’e 1, p..i~-i 156 Redwi na 7.tO~ rLocation of Collect ions: :g2is - !Photc’s Jido V -114 -- - -- - - - 111

  19. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeźnik, Ilona

    2017-11-01

    The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C) and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C). According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  20. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  1. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  2. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeźnik Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C. According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  3. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert C.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Loftin, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  4. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; Lu, X N; Chen, B; Jiang, H

    2012-01-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  5. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  6. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Radiocarbon of settling particles from the hemipelagic region of the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, H.; Murayama, M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle organic radiocarbon (POCΔ 14 C) of settling particles collected by time-series sediment traps deployed in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) was analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The (POCΔ 14 C) during period 2 (August to October), when mass fluxes were relatively high, was comparable to the Δ 14 C values (80-100 per thousand; per mille) in corals from Tarawa (Guilderson et al., 1998). In contrast, low Δ 14 C values of POC were observed during periods 1, 3 and 4. One of the possible processes behind decreasing Δ 14 C values is river water input. Probably during periods 1, 3 and 4 the surface water at Site 1 was under the influence of the South Equatorial Current, flowing toward the west along the coastal line of New Guinea and transporting appreciable amount of solutes and suspended matter to the hemipelagic region

  8. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  9. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  10. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  11. Non-electric applications of pool-type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.; Romenkov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper recommends the use of pool-type light water reactors for thermal energy production. Safety and reliability of these reactors were already demonstrated to the public by the long-term operation of swimming pool research reactors. The paper presents the design experience of two projects: Apatity Underground Nuclear Heating Plant and Nuclear Sea-Water Desalination Plant. The simplicity of pool-type reactors, the ease of their manufacturing and maintenance make this type of a heat source attractive to the countries without a developed nuclear industry. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab

  12. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  13. Proposal for a mutual insurance pool for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A

    1998-10-01

    Over the past decade there have been numerous proposals to use market system incentives to attenuate the persistent shortage of transplantable human organs. While shortages have grown, opposition to market-based solutions has remained adamant. Much of the opposition has focused on monetary incentives. This article explores an alternative--a mutual insurance pool to increase the supply of organs. In the process, criticisms of earlier proposals (specifically the future delivery scheme) are addressed, the operation of an insurance pool is described, and problems associated with insurance markets are identified and addressed. The article concludes that an insurance pool could overcome public and political resistance to more explicit market-based solutions.

  14. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  15. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  16. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... commercial trade practices. The Committee shall designate a Committee employee as reserve pool manager. (b...

  17. Reducing political risk in EU pooling and sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, D.; Faleg (ed), G.

    2014-01-01

    Can states share political accountability by allowing common defence capability development, training of troops, or procurement of military equipment? Is the defence industry ready for Pooling and Sharing (PS)?

  18. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  19. Open Architecture, Inventory Pooling and Spare Maintenance Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrer, Geraldo

    2007-01-01

    .... This article focuses on the benefits provided by pooling together the inventory necessary to meet the demand of many users into a small number of storage sites with reduced product variety obtained...

  20. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  1. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  2. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit the Information for Aquatics Professionals page. Pinworm & Swimming Pinworm infections are rarely spread through the use of swimming pools. Pinworm infections occur when a person swallows pinworm eggs ...

  3. schwimmbad: A uniform interface to parallel processing pools in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Many scientific and computing problems require doing some calculation on all elements of some data set. If the calculations can be executed in parallel (i.e. without any communication between calculations), these problems are said to be perfectly parallel. On computers with multiple processing cores, these tasks can be distributed and executed in parallel to greatly improve performance. A common paradigm for handling these distributed computing problems is to use a processing "pool": the "tasks" (the data) are passed in bulk to the pool, and the pool handles distributing the tasks to a number of worker processes when available. schwimmbad provides a uniform interface to parallel processing pools and enables switching easily between local development (e.g., serial processing or with multiprocessing) and deployment on a cluster or supercomputer (via, e.g., MPI or JobLib).

  4. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  5. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  6. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  7. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF THE TASHLYK COOLING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Dudar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  Data on hydrochemical monitoring parameters and water quality for the South-Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plant cooling pool are considered in the paper. Changes in the Tashlyk cooling pool water physical and chemical parameters under influence of the South-Ukrainian Power Complex are analyzed. It was shown that values of some parameters exceed limited acceptable concentrations for water reservoir for fish economy.

  9. Pooled Genotyping of Microsatellite Markers in Parent–Offspring Trios

    OpenAIRE

    Kirov, George; Williams, Nigel; Sham, Pak; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent–offspring trio...

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OFBENTHIC FISH COMMUNITY OF DNIEPER STORAGE POOL LITTORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskiy R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition of bull-calves is analyzed together with their quantitative and quality parameters in the littoral zone of the Dnepr storage pool. The structural-functional features of organization of littoral communities of bull-calves were studied. The patterns of spatial distribution of Bull-calf (Gobiidae representatives were analyzed for the storage pool; their role in the littoral fish communities was clarified.

  11. Study of Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools

    OpenAIRE

    H Nanbakhsh; K Diba; K Hazarti

    2004-01-01

    Fungi are found in different environments with variable distribution patterns depending on various factors. The aim of this study was determination of fungal contaminants in public swimming pools in Uromia, Iran. The fungal contaminations of four indoor swimming pools were studied by using membrane filtration and swab sampling method. Samples were collected by a manual plastic pump, in a 200 ml sterilized bottle. All samples were collected within 2 hours and then transferred to the laboratory...

  12. Why Some Pool Shots are More Difficult Than Others

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ical principles our treatment ignores the ball's spin, friction, and other well-known effects in the game of pool. Anyone who has ever played a game of pool, a form of billiards, is intuitively familiar with the following sce- nario: When a cue ball, an object ball, and a pocket lie more or less in a straight line (Figure 1a), the shot is.

  13. The Ineffectiveness of Manual Treatment of Swimming Pools NNAJI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    period, the COD was above 80mg/l, the pH was between 6.2 and 7.1 as against 7.2 to 7.8 recommended by standards. The total plate count was within limits but ... strains of normal human flora have been found in chlorinated swimming pools ... mucus, saliva or skin in the swimming pool water or similar recreational water ...

  14. Lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Katharina; Connert, Thomas; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first-aid measures. A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90.2%). The attendants were interviewed retrospectively about accident occurrences in 2014 by a standardized questionnaire. Responses to the provision of first aid and choice of storage medium for avulsed teeth were subsequently evaluated. The frequency of lip injuries was 19.0%, and tooth injuries were 11.3%. Male bathers (P < .05) and children under 12 years (P < .001) most frequently suffered injuries. The waterslide was the most common accident site. The most common cause of lip injuries was slipping on wet surfaces (39.0%), and for tooth injuries it was collisions with other persons or objects (each 28.1%). The pool attendants' responses were predominantly good or sufficient on first aid, with the exception of what storage medium to choose. Tooth rescue boxes were available in only 8.6% of all pool facilities. Orofacial injuries are a frequently occurring problem in swimming pool facilities. The pool attendants' knowledge on first-aid care of tooth injuries could still be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. BWR Mark I pressure suppression pool dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Martin, R.W.; Lai, W.; Morrison, F.A.; Sutton, S.B.

    1976-11-01

    This report summarizes the initial effort of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory involvement with the study of BWR Mark I pressure suppression pool dynamics. Analytical activity is described and calculational results are presented for several simplified geometries. Computer code authentication will be provided by a currently active program in benchmark tests. The experiment and some results are presented. A combined analytical and experimental program to evaluate air scaling hypotheses for hydrodynamic forces and pool motion is presented, along with some conclusions regarding model scaling

  16. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  17. Flowing with Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  18. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  19. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  20. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  1. Structural analysis of the reactor pool for the RRRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberro, J.G.; Abbate, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present document is to describe the structural design of the Reactor Pool relevant to the RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. The structural analysis required coordinated design, engineering, analysis, and fabrication efforts. The pool has been designed, manufactured, and inspected following as guideline the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which defines the requirements for the pool to withstand hydrostatic and mechanical forces, ensuring its integrity throughout its lifetime. Standard off-the-shelf finite element programs (Nastran and Ansys codes) were used to evaluate the pool and further qualify the design and its construction. Both global and local effect analyses were carried out. The global analysis covers the structural integrity of the pool wall (6 mm thick) considering the different load states acting on it, namely hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion, and seismic event. The local analysis evaluates the structural behaviour of the pool at specific points resulting from the interaction among components. It is confirmed that maximum stresses and displacements fall below the allowable values required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The water pressure analysis was validated by means of a hydrostatic test. (authors)

  2. Test results of lithium pool-air reaction suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    Engineered reaction suppression systems were demonstrated to be effective in suppressing lithium pool-air reactions for lithium quantities up to 100 kg. Lithium pool-air reaction suppression system tests were conducted to evaluate suppression system effectiveness for potential use in fusion facilities in mitigating consequences of postulated lithium spills. Small-scale perforated and sacrificial cover plate suppression systems with delayed inert gas purging proved effective in controlling the lithium-air interaction for lithium quantities near 15 kg at initial temperatures up to 450 0 C. A large-scale suppression system with a sacrificial cover, a diverter plate, an inert gas atmosphere, and remotely retrievable catch pans proved effective in controlling lithium pool-air interaction for a 100-kg lithium discharge at an initial temperature of 550 0 C. This suppression system limited the maximum pool temperature to about 600 0 C less than that expected for a similar lithium pool-air reaction without a suppression system. Lithium aerosol release from this large-scale suppression system was a factor of about 10,000 less than that expected for a lithium pool-air reaction with no suppression system. Remote retrieval techniques for lithium cleanup, such as (1) in-place lithium siphoning and overhead crane dismantling, and (2) lithium catch pan removal by use of an overhead crane, were demonstrated as part of this large-scale test

  3. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado Linan, Isabel, E-mail: isabel@gfz-potsdam.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Gutierrez, Emilia, E-mail: emgutierrez@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Helle, Gerhard, E-mail: ghelle@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Heinrich, Ingo, E-mail: heinrich@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Andreu-Hayles, Laia, E-mail: laiandreu@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades NY (United States); Planells, Octavi, E-mail: leocarpus@hotmail.com [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Leuenberger, Markus, E-mail: leuenberger@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Zaehringerstrasse 25, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Buerger, Carmen, E-mail: buerger@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Schleser, Gerhard, E-mail: schleser@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the {delta}{sup 13}C and the {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing {delta}{sup 18}O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pooled {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies are expected to be similar to the mean. {yields} Empirical pooled chronologies {delta}{sup 13}C and

  4. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  5. Magic Pools: Parallel Assessment of Transposon Delivery Vectors in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hualan; Price, Morgan N; Waters, Robert Jordan; Ray, Jayashree; Carlson, Hans K; Lamson, Jacob S; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M

    2018-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach for discovering the functions of bacterial genes. However, the development of a suitable TnSeq strategy for a given bacterium can be costly and time-consuming. To meet this challenge, we describe a part-based strategy for constructing libraries of hundreds of transposon delivery vectors, which we term "magic pools." Within a magic pool, each transposon vector has a different combination of upstream sequences (promoters and ribosome binding sites) and antibiotic resistance markers as well as a random DNA barcode sequence, which allows the tracking of each vector during mutagenesis experiments. To identify an efficient vector for a given bacterium, we mutagenize it with a magic pool and sequence the resulting insertions; we then use this efficient vector to generate a large mutant library. We used the magic pool strategy to construct transposon mutant libraries in five genera of bacteria, including three genera of the phylum Bacteroidetes . IMPORTANCE Molecular genetics is indispensable for interrogating the physiology of bacteria. However, the development of a functional genetic system for any given bacterium can be time-consuming. Here, we present a streamlined approach for identifying an effective transposon mutagenesis system for a new bacterium. Our strategy first involves the construction of hundreds of different transposon vector variants, which we term a "magic pool." The efficacy of each vector in a magic pool is monitored in parallel using a unique DNA barcode that is introduced into each vector design. Using archived DNA "parts," we next reassemble an effective vector for making a whole-genome transposon mutant library that is suitable for large-scale interrogation of gene function using competitive growth assays. Here, we demonstrate the utility of the magic pool system to make mutant libraries in five genera of bacteria.

  6. Terrestrial fishes: rivers are barriers to gene flow in annual fishes from the African savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, Veronika; Reichard, Martin; Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Bryja, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2015), s. 1832-1844 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic structure * geodispersal * Mozambique * Nothobranchius * phylogeography * population genetics * river morphology * vernal pool Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015

  7. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  8. Microbial water quality in the upper Olifants River catchment: implications for health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available water. Water from site 9 (a tributary of the Klein- Olifants River) resulted in the highest risk of infection (Pi = 26%), followed by site 10 (a tributary of the Klein-Olifants), site 8 (Olifants River), and site 6 (Brugspruit/Klip River). The risks.... cholerae and Shigella. The high risk of infection calculated for site 10 was due to the presence of Giardia spp. The seven pathogens represented in Figure 2 are only a small fraction of the total pool of water- borne pathogens that may be present...

  9. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  10. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  11. Determination of isotopomers in pools of molecules with polyisotopic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyakun, A.M.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Polyisotopic element atoms that are present in a molecule form a pool of isotopomer molecules. Mono- and polyisotopomers are distinguished depending on the quantity of atoms of polyisotopic elements. Methodical approaches have been considered for the quantitative determination of the isotope composition of an element included in mono- and polyisotopic molecules. A possibility of the equally probable (homogeneous) and non-equally probable (non-homogeneous) distribution of isotopes of a polyisotopic element, the atoms of which have different positions in the molecule of polyisotopomer, has been shown. Factors disturbing the homogeneous distribution of isotopes of the element in the polyisotopomer pool have been revealed. When a polyisotopomer is involved in a mass-dependent process or reaction, the homogeneity of isotope distribution of the element is disturbed both in the residual and newly formed pools of polyisotopomer. By the example of CO 2 (polyisotopomer by oxygen) it has been shown that one can judge of the history of the analyzed pool formation by distribution of oxygen isotopes within this pool. The isotope content in the oxygen sites of polyisotopomer is a diagnostic feature of CO 2 involvement in the efflux from a reservoir or influx to the analyzed reservoir from an external source. (author)

  12. SBWR PCCS vent phenomena and suppression pool mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P. [Thermal-Hydraulics Lab., Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Andreani, M. [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The most important phenomena influencing the effectiveness of the pressure suppression capability of the water pool within the Wetwell compartment of the SBWR Containment, during the period of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) venting, have been critically reviewed. In addition, calculations have been carried-out to determine the condensation of the vented steam and the distribution of the energy deposited in the liquid pool. It has been found that a large contribution to the vapour suppression is due to condensation inside the vent pipe. The condensation rate of the steam inside the bubbles, produced at the vent exit, during their rise to the surface, may however be rather low, because of the large size bubbles. This can lead to vapour channelling to the Wetwell gas space. The above comments are likely to be ameliorated if the vent exit is a distributed source or sparger. Due to the large water flow rates within the {open_quotes}bubbly two-phase plume{close_quotes} generated by the gas injection, the water in the pool above the vent exit is likely to be heated nearly isothermally (perfect mixing). The effect of the suppression pool walls would be to enhance the recirculation and, consequently to promote mixing. The large size of the bubbles therein and of the walls on pool mixing are the most severe difficulties in extrapolating the results from scaled experiments to prototypical conditions.

  13. Pooled genotyping of microsatellite markers in parent-offspring trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, G; Williams, N; Sham, P; Craddock, N; Owen, M J

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent-offspring trios affected with bipolar affective disorder (BP). Analysis of pooled DNA samples predicted very accurately the differences in individual allele frequency distributions between children and their parents. The mean error was stutter and differential amplification were performed. We show that if an individual allele is significantly preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring, the difference in the frequency of that allele would be sufficiently large to be detected with pooling in most situations. We propose recommendations for disequilibrium mapping with pooling in which both case-control samples and trios are used in an initial screen and markers are genotyped individually only if they satisfy very relaxed criteria for statistical significance. The use of case-control samples should reduce the false-negative rate as the differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls are twice as high in the presence of the same genetic effect. The use of trios will confirm or reject any suggested differences, thus reducing the false-positive rate that can be created by hidden population stratification.

  14. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  15. Pecs Desmig: Pools cleaning with petroleum residuals in earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    The earth of the bottom and of the sides of the pool as well as their environment can suffer of a serious raw contamination. The rain makes that the raw one and the polluted water overflow to tidelands, creeks and lakes. In some cases they have been tried to solve the problem placing earth or burning the content of the pools, but these methods have not been successful some but rather they have increased the problem like consequence nowadays thousands and thousands of pools they exist in the world that it threaten to their environment, to the underground water and the human beings, especially to the children. Desmi, is one of the companies of the world in the bombs and skimmers production, for the industry of spills of petroleum. The process is based on an inverse emulsion at the particle level, what allows that the rusty raw of the old pools, very similar to the asphalt, become liquid, allowing, in an easy way its recovery. The author describes the whole process of pools cleaning

  16. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  17. Gene Pools and the Genetic Architecture of Domesticated Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Lam Huynh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [ (L. Walp.] is a major tropical legume crop grown in warm to hot areas throughout the world and especially important to the people of sub-Saharan Africa where the crop was domesticated. To date, relatively little is understood about its domestication origins and patterns of genetic variation. In this study, a worldwide collection of cowpea landraces and African ancestral wild cowpea was genotyped with more than 1200 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Bayesian inference revealed the presence of two major gene pools in cultivated cowpea in Africa. Landraces from gene pool 1 are mostly distributed in western Africa while the majority of gene pool 2 are located in eastern Africa. Each gene pool is most closely related to wild cowpea in the same geographic region, indicating divergent domestication processes leading to the formation of two gene pools. The total genetic variation within landraces from countries outside Africa was slightly greater than within African landraces. Accessions from Asia and Europe were more related to those from western Africa while accessions from the Americas appeared more closely related to those from eastern Africa. This delineation of cowpea germplasm into groups of genetic relatedness will be valuable for guiding introgression efforts in breeding programs and for improving the efficiency of germplasm management.

  18. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs

  19. Reverse energy pooling in a K-Na mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, G.; Guldberg-Kjaer, S.; Milosevic, S.; Pedersen, J.O.; Allegrini, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report experimental rate coefficients for the reverse heteronuclear energy-pooling collisions K(5D)+Na(3S)→K(4P)+Na(3P) and K(7S)+Na(3S)→K(4P)+Na(3P) at thermal energies. Both reactions are exothermic and very high rates were observed showing that reverse exothermic energy-pooling is an order of magnitude more efficient than the corresponding forward endothermic energy-pooling reactions. This is in accordance with the general behavior of the exothermic and endothermic energy-pooling rate coefficients in alkali-metal atoms. In the experiment the potassium atoms were excited in two steps to either the 5D or 7S state via the 4P level using two broadband cw dye lasers. A double-modulation technique has been used to select the fluorescence contributions at the Na(3P J ) exit channels due only to the above reactions. The ground-state sodium and potassium atom densities were measured by the absorption of lines from a K-Na hollow-cathode lamp. The measured densities and fluorescence intensities have been used to obtain absolute reverse energy-pooling rate coefficients. The contribution to the rate coefficients from other processes are discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  1. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...... studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many...

  2. CAREM 25: Suppression pool cooling and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Palmerio, Hector D.; Quiroz, Horacio; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The suppression pool cooling and purification system has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the suppression pool, cool and send water to the residual heat extraction system, and transfer water to the fuel element transference channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the suppression pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment. The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards: ANSI/ANS 52.1; ANSI/ANS 57.2; ANSI/ANS 56.2; ANSI/ANS 59.1; ANSI/ANS 58.3; ANSI/ANS 58.9; and ANSI/ANS 56.5. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions. (author)

  3. CAREM-25. Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Palmerio, D.; Patrignani, A.; Quiroz, H.; Ramilo, L.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the Suppression Pool, cool and send water to the Residual Heat Extraction System, and transfer water to the Fuel Element Transference Channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the Suppression Pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment.The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards ANSI/ANS 52.1 [1], ANSI/ANS 57.2 [2], ANSI/ANS 56.2 [3], ANSI/ANS 59.1 [4] ANSI/ANS 58.3 [5], ANSI/ANS 58.9 [6], and ANSI/ANS 56.5 [7]. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions

  4. Nanoparticle Deposition During Cu-Water Nanofluid Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doretti, L.; Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Weibel, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    The present research activity aims to rigorously investigate nanofluid pool boiling in order to definitively assess this as a technique for controlled nanoparticle coating of surfaces, which can enhance the nucleate boiling performance. This paper presents preliminary nanoparticle deposition results obtained during Cu-water (0.13 wt%) nanofluid pool boiling on a smooth copper surface. The tests were run in an experimental setup designed expressly to study water and nanofluid pool boiling. The square test sample block (27.2 mm × 27.2 mm) is equipped with a rake of four calibrated T-type thermocouples each located in a 13.6-mm deep holes drilled every 5 mm from 1 mm below the top surface. The imposed heat flux and wall superheat can be estimated from measurement of the temperature gradient along the four thermocouples. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the morphological characteristics of the obtained thin, Cu nanoparticle coating.

  5. Bubble formation during drop impact on a heated pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuansi; Alhazmi, Muath; Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2017-11-01

    Ultra high-speed video imaging, at up to 200 kfps, is used to investigate a drop impinging onto a high temperature pool. The room-temperature perfluorohexane drop, which has a boiling temperature as low as 56 °C impacts on the soybean oil pool heated up to around 200 °C, which is overwhelmingly higher than the boiling temperature of the drop. The bottom of the drop is therefore covered by a layer of vapor which prevents contact between the two immiscible liquid surfaces, akin to the Leidenfrost effect However, as the pool temperature is reduced, one starts seeing contact and the dynamics transition into the vapor explosion regime. At the boundary of this regime we observe some entrapment of scattered or a toroidal ring of small bubbles. Experimental video data will be presented to show this novel phenomenon and explain how these bubbles are formed and evolve.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel storage pool thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Storage methods and requirements for spent nuclear fuel at U.S. commercial light water reactors are reviewed in Section 1. Methods of increasing current at-reactor storage capabilities are also outlined. In Section 2 the development of analytical methods for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel pools is chronicled, leading up to a discussion of the GFLOW code which is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the verification of GFLOW by comparisons of the code's predictions to experimental data taken inside the fuel storage pool at the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant is presented. The predictions of GFLOW using 72, 224, and 1584 node models of the storage pool are compared to each other and to the experimental data. An example of thermal licensing analysis for Maine Yankee using the GFLOW code is given in Section 5. The GFLOW licensing analysis is compared to previous licensing analysis performed by Yankee Atomic using the RELAP-4 computer code

  7. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  9. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  10. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  11. Spent fuel pool accident analysis and accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gil; Cho, Cheon Hwey [ACT CO., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Sung, Joon Young; Maeng, Yun Hwan [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The spent fuel pool(SFP) in unit 4 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs was damaged by an extreme seismic event and subsequent flooding by a tsunami. In order to investigate a progression of spent fuel pool accident scenarios, the well-defined MELCOR 1.8.6 code input deck was prepared and validated by experimental data of the OECD/NEA Sandia Fuel Project. Based on the validated MELCOR code input, three types of spent fuel pool accident scenarios were analyzed. In the complete loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios, sensitivity studies were conducted to identify the modeling boundary conditions to initiate a zirconium fire in the spent fuel assemblies. A series of MELCOR code calculations were performed to investigate a consequence of each SFP accident scenario. Based on findings from the calculations, the recommended operator actions were proposed to manage the SFP accident progressions.

  12. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  13. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    After 32 years in Building 4 R‐050, the CERN Electronics Pool will re‐open in Building 13 R009 on Monday 13 December at 10:00 As of this date, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  15. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan, with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Miyazaki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage, Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal.

  16. The river research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available OF CONTENTS The Zones of a River Headwaters: the mountain stream The middle reaches The mature lover reaches The estuary CHAPTER 2. HYPOTEESES CONCERNING RIVER ECOSYSTFM The river continuum concept The nutrient sp i r a l l i ng hypothesis... banks. Algae and mosses are present only in small quantities because little light reaches them. Even where sunlight does reach the water, green plantt are still relatively rare because the water is very poor in nutrients. Phyto- and zooplanktonic...

  17. Managing the Mississippi River floodplain: Achieving ecological benefits requires more than hydrological connection to the river: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harold; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    Floodplains are vital to the structure and function of river-floodplain ecosystems. Among the many ecological services provided by floodplains are nutrient cycling and seasonal habitats for fish, including spawning, nursery, foraging and wintering habitats. Connections between the river channel and floodplain habitats are essential to realize these ecological services, but spatial and temporal aspects of the connection and contemporary geomorphology must also be considered in restoration efforts. This chapter synthesizes available information to compare floodplain function and needed management strategies in two extensive reaches (upper impounded and lower free-flowing) of the Mississippi River, USA. The upper impounded reach is the 523-km reach from about Minneapolis, Minnesota to Clinton, Iowa. This reach has been impounded and channelized for navigation. Mean annual water-level fluctuation ranges from 1 to 2 m in the navigation pools in this reach. Floodplain environmental conditions that affect nitrogen cycling and fish production vary seasonally and longitudinally within and among navigation pools. Significant issues affecting ecological services include sedimentation, constrained water level fluctuations, island erosion and seasonal hypoxia. The lower free-flowing reach, the 1570-km reach from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the Gulf of Mexico, has no dams and average annual fluctuations of 7 m throughout most of the reach. Despite the substantial flood pulse, floodplain inundation is often brief and may not occur annually. Significant issues affecting floodplain ecological function are the short duration and thermal asynchrony of the flood pulse, sedimentation and loss of connection between the river channel and permanent/semi-permanent floodplain water bodies due to channel incision. Needs and strategies for floodplain enhancement to increase ecological services, particularly nitrogen cycling and fish production, differ along the

  18. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Peden, Amy E

    2017-11-24

    Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (houses with swimming pools) are protected.

  19. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  20. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  1. Geomorphological reference condition definition as a basis for river restoration and river management: the example of Oiartzun, Oria and Urumea River basins (Basque Country)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibisate, Askoa; Ollero, Alfredo; Sáenz de Olazagoitia, Ana; Acín, Vanesa; Granado, David; Herrero, Xabier; Horacio, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    The application of hydrogeomorphology as a tool for river management and decision making on reference condition definition for river restoration is presented. Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) requires the identification of reference conditions and attainable target images, to achieve the good ecological status, taking into account the direct and indirect changes in the basin and river course. Data collection was done through an exhaustive fieldwork and GIS tools. Based on geomorphological homogeneous river reaches identification (waterfall, bedrock, step-pool, cascade, coluvial, run, riffle-pool, heavily modified), the hydrogeomorphological assessment of all of them in relation to its "natural" condition allowed the identification of those with a good or very good hydrogeomorphological condition, considered as reference condition. The loss of hydrogeomorphological quality was closely linked to sociodemographical pressure, due to artificial elements in the river course, floodplain and land use changes on the basin. The assessment done based on pressures and impacts allowed the proposal of specific restoration objectives which facilitated the identification of the elements that degrade the hydrogeomorphological quality of the reaches, and helped the identification of specific restoration actions. In addition it was possible to set the reaches with the potentiality of being restored, those reversible and those that due to its high degradation were considered irreversible, and therefore not able to be restored, except for some rehabilitation or mitigation measures. The application in two basins, Oria and Oiartzun, concluded that 36% of the reaches could recover their geomorphological good status and a 40% could be considered as reference condition for other reaches. This geomorphological based reference condition definition could be linked and complete with ecological data.

  2. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  3. Sedimentological and micromorphological investigation on the fill of the Bronze age wooden pool at Noceto La Torretta (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Cremaschi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    A recent excavation at Noceto La Torretta (Parma, northern Italy) revealed an exceptional archaeological structure, composed of a wooden pool, quadrangular in shape, about 12 x 6 m, up to 4 m deep. Since the beginning the pool appears as an unicum in the Prehistory of Europe (Bernabò Brea and Cremaschi, 2009); furthermore, it represents an important naturalistic and environmental archive and the sedimentary infilling undergone to sedimentological and micromorphological analyses. The Noceto La Torretta site is placed on the hydrographic left side of the Taro river, on the northernmost fringe of the Pleistocene Apennine terraces. On the basis of pottery type it is possible to attribute the structure to the Terramare culture (beginning of the advanced phase of the Middle Bronze Age, second half of XV century a.C.). Six radiocarbon dates are available up to now, and, once calibrated, they put the building and activity of the wooden pool between 1420 and 1320 cal. years BP. On the basis of sedimentological and micromorphological analyses (Cremaschi et al., 2009) the stratigraphic sequence could be divided into four groups of units. A) Upper deposits, silty and sandy sediments deposited by colluviation in shallow water, interlayered by charcoal and diatom rich layers. B) Organic deposits, formed in deeper and anoxic water. C) Gyttja in a sandy-silty matrix; three main facies are present: pair of organic and inorganic laminae (O/I), poorly laminated gyttja, anoxic and clastic layers. D) basal deposits. Considering the short time of the deposition inside the pool and the recurrent sedimentary facies, a seasonal control in sedimentation should be inferred. The gyttja-rich laminae should indicate the summer season, with intense biological activity inside and outside the pool, promoting a strong production of organics, while the anoxic and clastic layers are possibly related to the winter season (without production of organic matter). Finally, the O/I laminae represent the

  4. Osmotic regulation of intracellular solute pools in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W.N; Poolman, B.

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor pressure. The cytoplasmic pools of K+, proline, glutamate, alanine, and glycine of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 increased when the osmolarity of the growth

  5. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu Jr

    2013-01-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu–Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu–Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint. (paper)

  6. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and thermal fluxes ...

  7. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in computing technology. In this paper, thermal hydraulic characteristics of a fast breeder reactor, design limits and challenging thermal hydraulic investigations ...

  8. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in ... (thermal fatigue) due to various incidents taking place in the plant. High thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal .... prediction of temperature fluctuations by special modelling techniques.

  9. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a water-scarce country where the sustainable provision of water to its citizens is one of the most significant challenges faced. A recent study in Cape Town, South Africa, investigated the impact of residential swimming pools on household water demand and found that, on average, the presence of a swimming ...

  10. Epiphytic Algae study from pool of Ammiq (Bekaa, Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.

    1984-01-01

    In this particular place which constitutes the pool of Ammiq, 104 species and varieties have been collected. The diatoms constitute in themselves 85% of the algae population. This is an epiphytic microflora which is attached to the immerged macrophytics on this above mentioned place . (author)

  11. Managing multiple fishery pools: property right regimes and market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Well-defined and enforceable property rights are usually seen as a prerequisite for optimal resource management. However, the interaction effects between different renewable resource pools with different ownership structures are often not well recognized. In this paper we introduce these interaction

  12. Measurable Pools of Soil Carbon for Carbon Cycle Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Wang, G.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Xu, X.; Hartman, M. D.; Feng, W.; Davidson, E.; Finzi, A.; Moorhead, D.; Schimel, J.; O'Brien, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon in soils can have long residence times, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood, which complicates defining pools and parameters for carbon cycling models. Physical protection involves the formation of hierarchical aggregates of mineral-associated carbon, microbes, and particulate carbon. Aggregation leads to a complex pore structure, which can alter moisture potentials, gas diffusion rates, ionic strength and composition of soil solutions, and nutrient availability for microbes. Diffusion gradients between pore size classes can also sequester organic materials from microbes and their accompanying enzymes. Mineral protection is considered to involve sorption of dissolved organic compounds onto reactive clays and iron and aluminum oxides, but there is controversy as to whether sorption occurs as a monolayer or in complex architectures, as well as the degree of mineral coverage. Further, pore structure can alter the ionic composition of porewaters, thereby influencing the extent and nature of adsorption and desorption. Only mineral protection is thought to yield the long residence times found in soils, but dynamics of these pools are poorly constrained in models due to an absence of long-term measurements and an accompanying lack of process understanding. This talk will review the evidence for and against these different mechanisms of carbon preservation, with particular attention to definitions of soil pools for modeling and the influence of protection mechanisms on carbon pool residence times.

  13. Experimental investigation on the natural convection flow in pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok, E-mail: seokim@kaeri.re.kr [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero989beongil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Uk; Lee, Seung Tae; Euh, Dong-Jin [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero989beongil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The velocity field measurements conducted on the subject of a single and two-phase natural convection flow. • Experimental results show a large natural convection flow at the region above the heater rod. • The thermal stratification is shown at the region below the heater rod. • The results contribute to provide the benchmark data of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code. - Abstract: In the present study, the key thermal hydraulic phenomena within a passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of a small-scale pool test rig with a single heater rod are experimentally investigated. The volumetric scaling ratio of the test rig is 1/910 the size of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) condensing heat removal assessment loop (PASCAL), which is a PAFS performance evaluation test facility. The two-dimensional velocity vector fields that occur as the water level decreases are experimentally investigated in a pool that contains a horizontal heater rod. The 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is adopted to determine the velocity vector field of the natural convection flow. The experimental results indicate that a large natural convection flow occurs above the heater rod and that thermal stratification occurs below the heater rod. The thermal stratification and the stagnant region begin to disappear when the pool temperature reaches approximately 90 °C. The experimental results can provide benchmark data to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of thermal hydraulic phenomena that occur in a pool with a heat source.

  14. Experimental investigation on the natural convection flow in pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok; Kim, Dong Eok; Ryu, Sung Uk; Lee, Seung Tae; Euh, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The velocity field measurements conducted on the subject of a single and two-phase natural convection flow. • Experimental results show a large natural convection flow at the region above the heater rod. • The thermal stratification is shown at the region below the heater rod. • The results contribute to provide the benchmark data of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code. - Abstract: In the present study, the key thermal hydraulic phenomena within a passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of a small-scale pool test rig with a single heater rod are experimentally investigated. The volumetric scaling ratio of the test rig is 1/910 the size of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) condensing heat removal assessment loop (PASCAL), which is a PAFS performance evaluation test facility. The two-dimensional velocity vector fields that occur as the water level decreases are experimentally investigated in a pool that contains a horizontal heater rod. The 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is adopted to determine the velocity vector field of the natural convection flow. The experimental results indicate that a large natural convection flow occurs above the heater rod and that thermal stratification occurs below the heater rod. The thermal stratification and the stagnant region begin to disappear when the pool temperature reaches approximately 90 °C. The experimental results can provide benchmark data to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of thermal hydraulic phenomena that occur in a pool with a heat source

  15. Consequences of Pool Habitat Isolation on Stream Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Lonzarich; Melvin L. Warren; Mary E. Lonzarich

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - For fishes, stream habitat units (i.e., pools and riffles) often exist as relatively discrete patches of varying quality that are distributed in a mosaic along the stream continuum. Under these conditions, the possibility exists that the spacing of suitable patches within a stream reach may affect interhabitat movements of fishes and their...

  16. Swimming pools and intra-city climates: Influences on residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While determinants such as household income, regional climate, water price, property size and household occupancy have been comprehensively studied and modelled, other determinants such as swimming pools and intra-city climates have not. This study examines residential water consumption in the City of Cape Town ...

  17. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. The project will take place on two sites. Tam Giang Lagoon has experienced rapid development of fishing and aquaculture, ...

  18. Hydrology and landscape connectivity of vernal pools. Chapter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott G. Liebowitz; Robert T. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    Hydrology is fundamental to wetland establishment and maintenance of wetland processes (Cole et al. 2002). Hydrology has been shown to affect, if not control, many aspects of wetland ecology, including litter decomposition and the accumulation of organic matter and sediment (Barlocher et al. 1978), the composition and productivity of pool fauna (Paton and Couch 2002),...

  19. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool ... More interestingly in the absence of WG mountains, the BoB-CP shows a rainfall maxima in the boreal summer similar to that over its surrounding oceans. The WG also impacts the climate over the ...

  20. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  1. Imported malaria in pregnant women: A retrospective pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done using data from 1991 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. National malaria reference centres as well as

  2. LCG Persistency Framework (CORAL, COOL, POOL): Status and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Valassi, A; Dykstra, D; Frank, M; Front, D; Govi, G; Kalkhof, A; Loth, A; Nowak, M; Pokorski, W; Salnikov, A; Schmidt, S A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M; Xie, Z

    2011-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. It includes the CORAL server component, described in more detail in a sepa...

  3. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  4. Transportation library connectivity pooled fund study, TPF-5(105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report is a record of the formation, major activities and accomplishments of the Transportation Library Connectivity : pooled fund study, TPF-5(105), from its approval by FHWA in 2005 through its fifth and final annual meeting in September : 201...

  5. Transportation library connectivity and development pooled fund study, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report is a record of the major activities and accomplishments of the Transportation Library : Connectivity and Development pooled fund study, TPF-5(237), from its approval by FHWA in : 2010 through its fifth and final annual meeting in August 2...

  6. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-02-08

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values.

  7. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values

  8. Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Daniele; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Messeri, Daniela

    2010-01-19

    Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets.Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner's rights.This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries.This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC ARVs quickly available and allow patent pool agreements with generic counterparts to be negotiated straight afterwards.The patent pool strategy highlighted in this paper would assert the primacy of health over for-profit policies, while aligning with the 61(st) WHO's Assembly recommendations and G7, G8 and World Trade Organisation's warnings and pledges against trade protectionism.

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  10. Afterlife of a Drop Impacting a Liquid Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Wei, Yanju; Tang, Xiaoyu; Law, Chung K.

    2017-11-01

    Drop impact on liquid pool is ubiquitous in industrial processes, such as inkjet printing and spray coating. While merging of drop with the impacted liquid surface is essential to facilitate the printing and coating processes, it is the afterlife of this merged drop and associated mixing which control the quality of the printed or coated surface. In this talk we will report an experimental study on the structural evolution of the merged droplet inside the liquid pool. First, we will analyze the depth of the crater created on the pool surface by the impacted drop for a range of impact inertia, and we will derive a scaling relation and the associated characteristic time-scale. Next, we will focus on the toroidal vortex formed by the moving drop inside the liquid pool and assess the characteristic time and length scales of the penetration process. The geometry of the vortex structure which qualitatively indicates the degree of mixedness will also be discussed. Finally, we will present the results from experiments with various viscosities to demonstrate the role of viscous dissipation on the geometry and structure formed by the drop. This work is supported by the Army Research Office and the Xerox Corporation.

  11. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration 2015 Resource Pool--Sierra Nevada Region...) for the Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (SNR). This notice includes a summary of the comments... Customer Service Region, 114 Parkshore Drive, Folsom, CA 95630-4710, (916) 353- 4421, [email protected

  12. How to improve hygienic behaviour in holiday park swimming pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, I.; Keuten, M.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on contamination of swimming pool water showed that the hygienic behaviour of swimmers is the most important factor. The suggested hygienic behaviour is; having a pre-swim shower and using the toilet when nature calls. Knowing the importance of hygienic behaviour is one thing,

  13. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aligned with any particular telecommunication industry segment, and shall comply with the same neutrality... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thousands-block number pooling. 52.20 Section 52.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  14. Sourcing and maintaining a pool of suitably skilled interpreters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article (in a case study format) describes, firstly, the recruitment and selection, and secondly, the training of a pool of interpreters to staff an educational interpreting service. The increasing demands with regard to recruitment, selection and training, from the Telkom Pilot Study, through the relatively small Engineering ...

  15. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  16. On some aspects of Indian Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Balchand, A.N; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Annual and interannual variation of Indian Ocean Warm Pool (IOWP) was studied using satellite and in situ ocean temperature data IOWP surface area undergoes a strong annual cycle attaining a maximum of 24x106km2 during April...

  17. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this value, convective heat transfer indicates melting and evaporation occurring in the weld pool during laser ... while surface tension and hydrostatic pressure help to retain the melt in the keyhole cavity in this high .... so does the strength of the shock wave and the Mach angle becomes increasingly narrow. As the melt flow ...

  18. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  19. Intertidal Rock Pool Fishes in the Natural Reserve of Glorieuses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coral Reefs Symposium (ICRS), Okinawa,. Japon, 28/06-02/07/2004. Griffiths S. P., 2000. The use of clove oil as an anaesthetic and method for sampling intertidal rock pool fishes. Journal of Fish. Biology, 57: 1453-1464. Grossman G. D., 1986. Resource partitioning in a rocky intertidal fish assemblage. J. Zool., Bl: 317-355 ...

  20. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  1. Southern Africa power pool : benefits, achievements, challenges and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.O.; Opok, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) was presented. The SAPP was formed by 12 southern African developing countries as a means of minimizing electricity costs and maintaining reliability. The pool includes over 200 million people in a region of 9 million square meters. The SAPP relies on long-term bilateral contracts for electricity supply between customers and generators. The contracts are supplemented by short-term contracts in the short-term energy market. The pool uses a pricing mechanism with 13 detailed schedules dealing with firm power contracts of varying duration; non-firm power contracts of varying duration; mutual support contracts and emergency energy and control area services; scheduled outage energy; and energy banking. Benefits of the pool include reductions or postponements in generating capacity, reserves and fuel costs. New major initiatives planned by the SAPP include increasing interconnection points, the construction of new transmission lines, and the formulation of regional environmental studies. SAPP is now making plans to increase rural electrification in its membership countries with funding from an electricity levy. It was concluded that political and economic co-operation between member states has resulted in the sustained supply of energy in the region. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an adaptation finance measure. Climate change-related insurance products have been commonly used to manage the risks from climate hazards over the last few years. However, traditional insurance has not been effective for low-frequency, high-severity events.

  3. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  4. Pooling, meta-analysis, and the evaluation of drug safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizorovicz Alain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "integrated safety report" of the drug registration files submitted to health authorities usually summarizes the rates of adverse events observed for a new drug, placebo or active control drugs by pooling the safety data across the trials. Pooling consists of adding the numbers of events observed in a given treatment group across the trials and dividing the results by the total number of patients included in this group. Because it considers treatment groups rather than studies, pooling ignores validity of the comparisons and is subject to a particular kind of bias, termed "Simpson's paradox." In contrast, meta-analysis and other stratified analyses are less susceptible to bias. Methods We use a hypothetical, but not atypical, application to demonstrate that the results of a meta-analysis can differ greatly from those obtained by pooling the same data. In our hypothetical model, a new drug is compared to 1 a placebo in 4 relatively small trials in patients at high risk for a certain adverse event and 2 an active reference drug in 2 larger trials of patients at low risk for this event. Results Using meta-analysis, the relative risk of experiencing the adverse event with the new drug was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [1.02; 3.12] compared to placebo and 2.20 [0.76; 6.32] compared to active control. By pooling the data, the results were, respectively, 1.00 [0.59; 1.70] and 5.20 [2.07; 13.08]. Conclusions Because these findings could mislead health authorities and doctors, regulatory agencies should require meta-analyses or stratified analyses of safety data in drug registration files.

  5. Climate Vulnerability of Hydro-power infrastructure in the Eastern African Power Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    At present there is around 6000 MW of installed hydropower capacity in the Eastern African power pool (EAPP)[1]. With countries aggressively planning to achieve the Sustainable development goal (SDG) of ensuring access to affordable electricity for all, a three-fold increase in hydropower capacity is expected by 2040 [1]. Most of the existing and planned infrastructure lie inside the Nile River Basin. The latest assessment report (AR 5) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicates a high level of climatic uncertainty in the Nile Basin. The Climate Moisture index (CMI) for the Eastern Nile region and the Nile Equatorial lakes varies significantly across the different General Circulation Models (GCM)[2]. Such high uncertainty casts a shadow on the plans to expand hydropower capacity, doubting whether hydropower expansion can contribute to the goal of improving access to electricity or end up as sunk investments. In this assessment, we analyze adaptation strategies for national energy systems in the Eastern African Power Pool (EAPP), which minimize the regret that could potentially arise from impacts of a changed climate. An energy systems model of the EAPP is developed representing national electricity supply infrastructure. Cross border transmission and hydropower infrastructure is defined at individual project level. The energy systems model is coupled with a water systems management model of the Nile River Basin that calculates the water availability at different hydropower infrastructures under a range of climate scenarios. The results suggest that a robust adaptation strategy consisting of investments in cross border electricity transmission infrastructure and diversifying sources of electricity supply will require additional investments of USD 4.2 billion by 2050. However, this leads to fuel and operational cost savings of up to USD 22.6 billion, depending on the climate scenario. [1] "Platts, 2016. World Electric Power Plants Database

  6. Tidal river dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jay, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity

  7. Energy Pooling Upconversion in Free Space and Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCount, Michael D.

    The ability to efficiently convert the wavelength of light has value in a wide range of disciplines that include the fields of photovoltaics, plant growth, optics and medicine. The processes by which such transformations are carried out are known as upconversions and downconversions. There are several ways to up/down convert light, each with its own attributes, issues, and competing mechanisms. Most are associated with one-body or two-body processes. Three-body dynamics are also possible though, going by the names of quantum cutting (downconversion) and energy pooling (upconversion). These use virtual excited electronic states to mediate conversions as has been experimentally realized using lanthanide ions embedded in wide bandgap materials. The use of lanthanides to convert light is not ideal due to their relative scarcity, toxicity, and the limited range of light frequencies that can be absorbed and emitted. Organic molecules, on the other hand, are typically non-toxic, are made up of abundant elements, and can be designed with tailored spectral properties. At issue is whether or not they can be used to carry out efficient energy pooling, the central question to be answered in this thesis. The research presented here draws on a perturbative quantum electrodynamics framework previously established for generic energy pooling. It was used to develop a computational methodology for determining the rate of energy pooling and its competing processes. This, in turn, draws on a combination of time-dependent density functional theory, quantum electrodynamics, and perturbation theory to generate the requisite material property data. This computational model was applied to two test systems consisting of stilbene-fluorescein and hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene. The stilbene-fluorescein system was found to have a maximum energy pooling rate efficiency (as compared to competing processes) of 17% and the hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene system was found to have a maximum

  8. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods.

  9. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods. PMID:28552976

  10. Using GIS to appraise structural control of the river bottom morphology near hydrotechnical objects on Alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Michal; Babinski, Zygmunt; Szatten, Dawid

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of analyses of structural changes of the Vistula River bottom, in a section of direct influence of the bridge in Torun (Northern Poland) fitted with one pier in the form of a central island. The pier limits a free water flow by reducing the active width of the riverbed by 12%. In 2011, data on the bottom morphology was collected, i.e. before commencing bridge construction works, throughout the whole building period - 38 measurements. Specific river depth measurements are carried out with SBES and then bathymetric maps are drawn up every two months. The tests cover the active Vistula river channel of 390 - 420 metres in width, from 730+40 to 732+30 river kilometre. The paper includes the results of morphometric analyses of vertical and horizontal changes of the river bottom surrounded by the bridge piers. The seasonality of scour holes and inclination of accumulative forms (sand bars) in the relevant river reach was analysed. Morphometric analyses were performed on raster bases with GIS tools, including the Map Algebra algorithm. The obtained results shown that scour holes/pools of up to 10 metres in depth and exceeding 1200 metres in length are formed in the tested river segment. Scour holes within the pier appeared in specific periods. Constant scour holes were found at the riverbank, and the rate of their movement down the river was 0.6 to 1.3 m per day. The tests are conducted as part of a project ordered by the City of Torun titled `Monitoring Hydrotechniczny Inwestycji Mostowej 2011 - 2014' (Hydrotechnical Monitoring of the Bridge Investment, period 2011 - 2014).

  11. PIV measurements of turbulent jet and pool mixing produced by a steam jet discharge in a subcooled water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    This experimental research is on the fluid-dynamic features produced by a steam injection into a subcooled water pool. The relevant phenomena could often be encountered in water cooled nuclear power plants. Two major topics, a turbulent jet and the internal circulation produced by a steam injection, were investigated separately using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a non-intrusive optical measurement technique. Physical domains of both experiments have a two-dimensional axi-symmetric geometry of which the boundary and initial conditions can be readily and well defined. The turbulent jet experiments with the upward discharging configuration provide the parametric values for quantitatively describing a turbulent jet such as the self-similar velocity profile, central velocity decay, spreading rate, etc. And in the internal circulation experiments with the downward discharging configuration, typical flow patterns in a whole pool region are measured in detail, which reveals both the local and macroscopic characteristics of the mixing behavior in a pool. This quantitative data on the condensing jet-induced mixing behavior in a pool could be utilized as benchmarking for a CFD simulation of relevant phenomena.

  12. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  13. Heterogeneous detection probabilities for imperiled Missouri River fishes: implications for large-river monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Doyle, W.J.; Hill, Tracy D.; Steffensen, K.D.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2012-01-01

    Occupancy modeling was used to determine (1) if detection probabilities (p) for 7 regionally imperiled Missouri River fishes (Scaphirhynchus albus, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Cycleptus elongatus, Sander canadensis, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, Macrhybopsis gelida, and Macrhybopsis meeki) differed among gear types (i.e. stationary gill nets, drifted trammel nets, and otter trawls), and (2) how detection probabilities were affected by habitat (i.e. pool, bar, and open water), longitudinal position (five 189 to 367 rkm long segments), sampling year (2003 to 2006), and season (July 1 to October 30 and October 31 to June 30). Adult, large-bodied fishes were best detected with gill nets (p: 0.02–0.74), but most juvenile large-bodied and all small-bodied species were best detected with otter trawls (p: 0.02–0.58). Trammel nets may be a redundant sampling gear for imperiled fishes in the lower Missouri River because most species had greater detection probabilities with gill nets or otter trawls. Detection probabilities varied with river segment for S. platorynchus, C. elongatus, and all small-bodied fishes, suggesting that changes in habitat influenced gear efficiency or abundance changes among river segments. Detection probabilities varied by habitat for adult S. albus and S. canadensis, year for juvenile S. albus, C. elongatus, and S. canadensis, and season for adult S. albus. Concentrating sampling effort on gears with the greatest detection probabilities may increase species detections to better monitor a population's response to environmental change and the effects of management actions on large-river fishes.

  14. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium

  15. Analysis on the LODHR Event during Refueling Pool Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Hyun; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the analysis is performed to evaluate the time to core uncovery and core damage as well as the time to core boiling. To analyze thermal hydraulic behaviors during refueling pool operation, RELAP5/MOD3.3 is used adopting the Henry-Fauske (H-F) critical flow model. The input modeling method adopts the method of SFP. The purpose of the analysis is to study the major results and T-H behaviors regarding to safety aspect during LODHR event at the refueling pool operation. In the present low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) thermal hydraulic (T-H) analysis for dealing with various different plant operational states (POSs), the T-H analysis for the duration of refueling pool operation is omitted as it is considered less severe procedure during overhaul period for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000). Instead only spent fuel pool analysis has been performed representing refueling operation mode (operation mode 6). However, in NUREG-1449, the NRC staff identified twelve technical issues that warrant further evaluation regarding shutdown and low power operation at U.S commercial nuclear power plants. One of issues identified for further evaluation is to evaluate the effect of PWR upper internals, that is, the PWR upper internals may inhibit water in the refueling pool from entering the core during a loss of decay heat removal event (LODHR). Per a commission paper (SECY-91-283) which reported progress to date on the evaluation, the NRC staff requested to address this safety issue by performing a quantitative and qualitative analysis. An analysis of LODHR was performed for advanced power reactor 1400 (APR1400) but it was focused to evaluate the initiation time of core boiling. As the results of the analysis for the LODHR during refueling pool operation, even though the core boiling is occurred in 15 minutes, there is enough water to cover the core and it prevents the core from damaging. The time is taken more than 4 days until the

  16. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11,'' which consists of aerial practices, performance demonstrations and air shows, to be held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to...

  17. 76 FR 36447 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11'', which consists of aerial practices, performance demonstrations and air shows, to be held over certain waters of the Patuxent River...

  18. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.734 Navesink River (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  19. Habits and Habitats of Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwick, R.; Janvrin, J.; Zigler, S.; Kratt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River consists of 26 navigation pools that provide abundant habitat for a host of natural resources, such as fish, migratory waterfowl, non-game birds, deer, beaver, muskrats, snakes, reptiles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and many others. Of all the many different types of animals that depend on the river, fish are the most diverse with over 140 different species. The sport fishery is very diverse with at least 25 species commonly harvested. Fish species, such as walleyes, largemouth bass, bluegills, and crappies are favorites of sport anglers. Others such as common carp, buffalos, and channel catfish, are harvested by commercial anglers and end up on the tables of families all over the country. Still other fishes are important because they provide food for sport or commercial species. The fishery resources in these waters contribute millions of dollars to the economy annually. Overall, the estimate impact of anglers and other recreational users exceeds $1.2 billion on the Upper Mississippi River. The fisheries in the various reaches of the river of often are adversely affected by pollution, urbanization, non-native fishes, navigation, recreational boating, fishing, dredging, and siltation. However, state and federal agencies expend considerable effort and resources to manage fisheries and restore river habitats. This pamphlet was prepared to help you better understand what fishery resources exist, what the requirements of each pecies are, and how man-induced changes that are roposed or might occur could affect them.

  20. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Franklin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (<5 years drowning deaths in pools. Data from the 2011 Queensland Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI Social Survey include results from questions related to pool ownership and pool fencing legislation. Fatal child drowning cases between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 were sourced from coronial data. Of the 1263 respondents, 26/100 households had a pool. A total of 58% believed tightening legislation would be effective in reducing child drowning deaths. Pool owners were more likely to doubt the effectiveness of legislation (p < 0.001 when compared to non-pool owners. Perceptions of effectiveness did not differ by presence of children under the age of five. There were 46 children who drowned in Queensland home pools (7.8/100,000 pools with children residing in the residence/annum between 2005 and 2015. While pool owners were less likely to think that tightening the legislation would be effective, the number of children drowning in home swimming pools declined over the study period. Drowning prevention agencies have more work to do to ensure that the most vulnerable (young children in houses with swimming pools are protected.

  1. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  2. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  3. Conjugative plasmids: Vessels of the communal gene pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual' can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT...... over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules' to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements' that contribute adaptive traits...... to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important...

  4. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van der Velde, G.

    2010-01-01

    and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables...... such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number...... area. Macrophyte species composition in urban water systems and semi-natural water systems appeared to be influenced by the regional species pool within approximately 30 km of the locations. Nevertheless, site limitation ultimately determined the local macrophyte species composition and diversity...

  5. The POOL Data Storage, Cache and Conversion Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Düllmann, D; Govi, G; Papadopoulos, I M; Roiser, S

    2003-01-01

    The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to satisfy the needs of the LHC experiments to store and analyze the data from the detector response of particle collisions at the LHC proton-proton collider. Both the data rate and the data volumes will largely differ from the past experience. The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to be able to cope with the experiment's requirements applying a flexible multi technology data persistency mechanism. The developed technology independent approach is flexible enough to adopt new technologies, take advantage of existing schema evolution mechanisms and allows users to access data in a technology independent way. The framework consists of several components, which can be individually adopted and integrated into existing experiment frameworks.

  6. The POOL Data Storage, Cache and Conversion Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to satisfy the needs of the LHC experiments to store and analyze the data from the detector response of particle collisions at the LHC proton-proton collider. Both the data rate and the data volumes will largely differ from the past experience. The POOL data storage mechanism is intended to be able to cope with the experiment’s requirements applying a flexible multi technology data persistency mechanism. The developed technology independent approach is flexible enough to adopt new technologies, take advantage of existing schema evolution mechanisms and allows users to access data in a technology independent way. The framework consists of several components, which can be individually adopted and integrated into existing experiment frameworks.

  7. Suppression Pools: paradigm of the thermalhydraulic effect on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez del Pra, C.

    2016-01-01

    Influence of thermal-hydrualic phenomena on severe accident unforlding is beyond question. The present paper supports this statement on two key aspects of a severe accident: preservation of containment integrity and transport of fission products once released from fuel. To illustrate them, the attention is focused on suppression pools performance and, particularly, on some recent findings stemming from authors research of Fukushima scenarios. Gas behvaior at the injection point and its later evolution, potential axial and/or azimuthal stratification of the aqueous body or water saturation state, are some of the processes tha more strongly affect the role of pools as a mass and energy sink. They are described and discussed in detail. (Author)

  8. A common-pool resource experiment in acequia communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejem Raheem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers and rural advocates in New Mexico assert that traditional irrigators are better adapted to water scarcity and variability than other communities. Data to actually test this are often scarce, but such information could be useful for planning the state’s water future, especially as climate change predictions tend toward less reliable supplies. This paper reports results from a common pool resource (CPR experiment that simulates irrigating behavior using two groups: rural irrigators and undergraduate students. Despite predictions to the opposite, there was no significant difference between mean withdrawals or predictions of other players’ behavior. On average, both groups withdrew above the social optimum but below the Nash equilibrium. This work appears to be the first example of a common pool resource experiment conducted with traditional New Mexican irrigators.

  9. Heat transfer in the decay pool of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzini, E.; Spiga, M.; Zerbini, D.

    1987-01-01

    Present work aims to analyze mono-dimensional, time dependent trends of the water temperature, assuming that there are no auxiliary cooling systems; this can simulate one of the worst hypothetical accidents which may occur in a nuclear plant. In fact the cooling of the spent fuel is provided only by natural convection; in this situation it is an interesting matter to valuate the time evolution of the water temperature and its maximum value. The accuracy of this method requires a very large computer time and makes it rather heavy and expensive. In this paper, a method to perform the mono-dimensional transient thermal hydraulic analysis of the storage pool is proposed. The pool is subdivided in horizontal isothermal segments; for every segment an enthalpy balance equation is deduced, taking account of a vertical mixing flow rate between adjacent segments, due to the convective fluid streams up and down

  10. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  11. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  12. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  13. Spatial Pyramid Pooling in Deep Convolutional Networks for Visual Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ren, Shaoqing; Sun, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) require a fixed-size (e.g., 224 × 224) input image. This requirement is "artificial" and may reduce the recognition accuracy for the images or sub-images of an arbitrary size/scale. In this work, we equip the networks with another pooling strategy, "spatial pyramid pooling", to eliminate the above requirement. The new network structure, called SPP-net, can generate a fixed-length representation regardless of image size/scale. Pyramid pooling is also robust to object deformations. With these advantages, SPP-net should in general improve all CNN-based image classification methods. On the ImageNet 2012 dataset, we demonstrate that SPP-net boosts the accuracy of a variety of CNN architectures despite their different designs. On the Pascal VOC 2007 and Caltech101 datasets, SPP-net achieves state-of-the-art classification results using a single full-image representation and no fine-tuning. The power of SPP-net is also significant in object detection. Using SPP-net, we compute the feature maps from the entire image only once, and then pool features in arbitrary regions (sub-images) to generate fixed-length representations for training the detectors. This method avoids repeatedly computing the convolutional features. In processing test images, our method is 24-102 × faster than the R-CNN method, while achieving better or comparable accuracy on Pascal VOC 2007. In ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2014, our methods rank #2 in object detection and #3 in image classification among all 38 teams. This manuscript also introduces the improvement made for this competition.

  14. Increased iodine pool in patients studied between 1969 and 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanmarco, J.-L.; Heim, M.; Simonin, R.; Hourtoule, P.; Laforte, C. de; Sauvan, G.; Sambuc, R.

    1978-01-01

    Radioiodine captation decreases in patients studied from 1969 to 1977 (13% decrease at H.6 in normal patients) and plasmatic thyroxine increases from 1973 to 1977 (from 6.2 microg/100 ml to 9,6 in normal patients). This indicates an inflation of the iodine pool of the studied population, probably due to the iodine included in seaweed and derivatives which are used in industrial alimentation [fr

  15. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  16. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. part I: pool boiling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental and analytical developments in pool-boiling burnout are reviewed, and results are summarized that clarify the dependence of critical heat flux on heater geometry and fluid properties. New analytical interpretations of burnout are discussed, and the effects of surface condition, aging, acceleration, and transient heating (or cooling) are described. The relation of sound to burnout and new techniques for stabilizing electric heaters at burnout are also considered

  17. Review of events at large pool-type irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Large pool-type gamma irradiators are used in applications such as the ''cold'' sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, and recent changes in federal regulations make it possible they will be used extensively in the preservation of foodstuffs. Because of this possible large increase in the use of irradiators, the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards was interested in knowing what events had occurred at irradiators. The event data would be used as background in developing new regulations on irradiators. Therefore, AEOD began a study of the operating experience at large, wet source storage gamma irradiators. The scope of the study was to assess all available operating information on large (≥ 250,000 curie), pool-type irradiators licensed by both the NRC and the Agreement States, and events at foreign facilities. The study found that about 0.12 events have been reported per irradiator-year. Most of these events were precursor events, in that there was no evidence of damage to the radioactive sources or degradation in the level of safety of the facility. Events with more significant impacts had a reported frequency of about 0.01 event per irradiator-year. However, the actual rate of occurrence of events of concern to the staff may be higher because there are few specific reporting requirements for events at irradiators. It is suggested that during development of a regulation for large pool-type irradiators consideration be given to specifying requirements for: reporting breakdowns in access control systems; periodic inspection of the source movement and suspension system; systems to detect source leakage and product contamination; allowable pool leakage; and feedback of information on operational events involving safety-important systems

  18. Large pool LMFBR design. Final report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wett, J. F.; Churchill, J. R.

    1979-03-01

    The design effort reported is an extension on past design effort and continuous concentration on those parts of the nuclear island unique to a commercial size pool type LMFBR. In particular, the work covers the reactor vessel, deck, rotating plugs, upper and lower internals, internal plenum separator system, IHX, pumps, cold traps, intermediate system layout, containment/confinement system, plot plan, and residual heat removal systems. Preliminary thermal, hydraulic, stress, and system analyses are also presented.

  19. Radioactive droplet moisture transfer from nuclear power plant spray pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Problem on transfer of radioactive droplet moisture with an account of its evaporation from the nuclear power plant spray pool (NPP coolant) is considered. Formulae enabling evaluation of droplet and radioactive water admixture lifetime as a whole, as well as the maximum distance (by wind), over which it can extend, are obtained. Recommendations for decrease in the droplet dispersed composition and reduction in scale of radioactive contamination of underlying surface are given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Communication---Car-Pooling and Regional Ridesharing Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Westerbeck; James R. Evans

    1981-01-01

    Professors Leff (Management Science, Vol. 25, No. 8 (1979), p. 810) and Robinson (Management Science, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1980), pp. 433--434) have raised an interesting debate regarding car pool systems, algorithms, and human problems. Professor Leff sees the use of increasingly refined algorithms as the solution to forming carpools. Dr. Robinson, on the other hand, sees algorithms as the least part of a successful carpool system. In answer to Dr. Leff's query, algorithms are available to assist...

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kunugi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  2. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  3. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Sun

    Full Text Available As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  4. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  5. Genotyping common and rare variation using overlapping pool sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasaniuc Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies set the stage for large, population based studies, in which the ANA or RNA of thousands of individuals will be sequenced. Currently, however, such studies are still infeasible using a straightforward sequencing approach; as a result, recently a few multiplexing schemes have been suggested, in which a small number of ANA pools are sequenced, and the results are then deconvoluted using compressed sensing or similar approaches. These methods, however, are limited to the detection of rare variants. Results In this paper we provide a new algorithm for the deconvolution of DNA pools multiplexing schemes. The presented algorithm utilizes a likelihood model and linear programming. The approach allows for the addition of external data, particularly imputation data, resulting in a flexible environment that is suitable for different applications. Conclusions Particularly, we demonstrate that both low and high allele frequency SNPs can be accurately genotyped when the DNA pooling scheme is performed in conjunction with microarray genotyping and imputation. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of our framework for the detection of cancer fusion genes from RNA sequences.

  6. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  7. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  8. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  9. Inferring parental genomic ancestries using pooled semi-Markov processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, James Y; Halperin, Eran; Burchard, Esteban; Sankararaman, Sriram

    2015-06-15

    A basic problem of broad public and scientific interest is to use the DNA of an individual to infer the genomic ancestries of the parents. In particular, we are often interested in the fraction of each parent's genome that comes from specific ancestries (e.g. European, African, Native American, etc). This has many applications ranging from understanding the inheritance of ancestry-related risks and traits to quantifying human assortative mating patterns. We model the problem of parental genomic ancestry inference as a pooled semi-Markov process. We develop a general mathematical framework for pooled semi-Markov processes and construct efficient inference algorithms for these models. Applying our inference algorithm to genotype data from 231 Mexican trios and 258 Puerto Rican trios where we have the true genomic ancestry of each parent, we demonstrate that our method accurately infers parameters of the semi-Markov processes and parents' genomic ancestries. We additionally validated the method on simulations. Our model of pooled semi-Markov process and inference algorithms may be of independent interest in other settings in genomics and machine learning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Glucagon releases Ca2+ from a FCCP-sensitive pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Friedmann, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of physiological levels of glucagon on Ca 2+ efflux were examined in the perfused rat liver. Two methods were used to estimate Ca 2+ efflux: (1) prior labeling of the Ca 2+ pools with 45 Ca 2+ , and (2) measurement of perfusate Ca 2+ with atomic absorption. According to both methods, glucagon administration at the physiological level evoked Ca 2+ release. In order to identify the hormone-sensitive Ca 2+ pool, a method employed by several laboratories was used. In this method, mitochondrial Ca 2+ is released by FCCP, (carbonyl-cyanide 4 (trifluoro/methoxy) phenylhydrazone), a mitochondrial uncoupler. The effect of hormones on Ca 2+ release after such uncoupler administration is measured. A decreased release is taken as an indication that the pool is entirely or partially mitochondrial. FCCP released 90 +/- 29 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver. Glucagon (5 x 10 -9 M) released 107 +/- 45 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver before and 26 +/- 9 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver after FCCP. These data indicate that glucagon releases Ca 2+ mostly from the mitochondria

  11. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  12. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  13. Pump/heat exchanger assembly for pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Slepian, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a heat exchanger and pump assembly for transferring thermal energy from a heated, first electrically conductive fluid to a pumped, second electrically conductive fluid and for transferring internal energy from the pumped, second electrically conductive fluid to the first electrically conductive fluid, the assembly adapted to be disposed within a pool of the first electrically conductive fluid and comprising: a heat exchanger comprising means for defining a first annularly shaped cavity for receiving a flow of the second electrically conductive fluid and a plurality of tubes disposed within the cavity, whereby the second electrically conductive fluid in the cavity is heated, each of the tubes having an input and an output end. The input ends being disposed at the top of the heat exchanger for receiving from the pool a flow of the first electrically conductive fluid therein. The output ends being disposed at the bottom of and free of the cavity defining means for discharging the first electrically conductive fluid directly into the pool; a pump disposed beneath the heat exchanger and comprised of a plurality of flow couplers disposed in a circular array, each flow coupler comprised of a pump duct for receiving the first electrically conductive fluid and a generator duct for receiving the second electrically conductive fluid

  14. Flow cytometry PRA using lymphocyte pools from random donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Il; Jung, Hee Du; Jung, Ok-Ju; Huh, Seung; Suh, Jang Soo

    2007-07-01

    Pools of lymphocytes from carefully chosen donors have been used for flow cytometry (FC) panel reactive antibody (PRA) assays. We intended to devise an FC PRA assay using mixed lymphocyte pools from a large number of randomly selected donors (RD FC PRA) to accurately predict the likelihood of a positive HLA crossmatch. Lymphocyte pools were prepared from randomly selected donors (N = 120). %PRA was calculated based on the anti-IgG FITC histogram of the T cells. The proposed RD FC PRA assay was assessed in comparison with the bead FC PRA, antiglobulin-augmented CDC (AHG-CDC) PRA assay, and the expected %PRA calculated by summing up the antigen frequencies of the known specificities. In 29 FC crossmatch positive sera, the positivity rate for the bead FC, RD FC, and AHG-CDC PRA was 100, 100, and 79%, and the mean %PRA was 77% +/- 0.205). In 19 sensitized patients with a negative FC crossmatch, the positivity rate was 21% using the RD FC PRA and 16% using the bead FC PRA, which suggested that both assays had similar abilities to detect low levels of HLA antibodies. The RD FC PRA assay allows easy panel preparation, reduces cost, and naturally reflects the probabilities of a positive crossmatch in the population to which the cadaveric donor belongs. Therefore, this new assay is expected to be useful as another approach to determine the % PRA. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  15. A comprehensive review on pool boiling of nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciloglu, Dogan; Bolukbasi, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Nanofluids are nanoparticle suspensions of small particle size and low concentration dispersed in base fluids such as water, oil and ethylene glycol. These fluids have been considered by researchers as a unique heat transfer carrier because of their thermophysical properties and a great number of potential benefits in traditional thermal engineering applications, including power generation, transportation, air conditioning, electronics devices and cooling systems. Many attempts have been made in the literature on nanofluid boiling; however, data on the boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and the critical heat flux (CHF) have been inconsistent. This paper presents a review of recent researches on the pool boiling heat transfer behaviour of nanofluid. First, the development of nanofluids and their potential applications are briefly given. Then, the effects of various parameters on nanofluids pool boiling are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A review on the pool boiling heat transfer of nanofluid is presented and discussed. • Nanoparticle deposition considerably affects the boiling heat transfer. • The HTC decreases due to the low contact angle and the high adhesion energy. • The HTC increases due to the formation of the new cavities and liquid suction. • The CHF increases due to the increase in roughness, wettability and capillarity

  16. A Novel Approach to Spent Fuel Pool Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.L. Demmer; J.B. Panozzo; R.J. Christensen

    2008-01-01

    The Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) (Exelon Generation Co.) was decommissioned using a new underwater coating strategy developed in cooperation with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This was the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating approach. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and in safer, more cost effective deactivation. The process was pioneered at the INL and used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. The INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by the INL and Exelon on the pathway for this activity. The rationale used to select the underwater coating option and the advantages and disadvantages are shown. Special circumstances, such as the use of a remotely operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible, are discussed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are given and a lessons learned evaluation is included

  17. An innovative pool with a passive heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale Di Maio, Damiano; Naviglio, Antonio; Giannetti, Fabio; Manni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Heat removal systems are of primary importance in several industrial processes. As heat sink, a water pool or atmospheric air may be selected. The first solution takes advantage of high heat transfer coefficient with water but it requires active systems to maintain a constant water level; the second solution takes benefit from the unlimited heat removal capacity by air, but it requires a larger heat exchanger to compensate the lower heat transfer coefficient. In NPPs (nuclear power plants) during a nuclear reactor shutdown, as well as in some chemical plants to control runaway reactions, it is possible to use an innovative heat sink that joins the advantages of the two previous solutions. This solution is based on a special heat exchanger submerged in a water pool designed so that when heat removal is requested, active systems are not required to maintain the water level; due to the special design, when the pool is empty, atmospheric air becomes the only heat sink. The special heat exchanger design allows to have a heat exchanger without being oversized and to have a system able to operate for unlimited period without external interventions. This innovative system provides an economic advantage as well as enhanced safety features.

  18. Characteristics of the Biodiesel Palm Oil Methyl Ester Pool Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of biodiesel pool fires with palm oil methyl ester concentrations of 7% by volume in various pan diameter sizes (0.05 m, 0.10 m and 0.15 m were studied. Initially, biodiesel was heated on a hot plate to increase the temperature close to the flash point temperature. Later fuel was ignited and stable pool fire formed. Flame temperature along the centerline pool fire from flame base to flame tip were measured. Flame temperature shows that the temperature at flame base is higher than that the flames tip. This is due to the complete burning occurs near flame base and at flame tip incomplete burning exists. Incomplete burning produces yellow flame appearance. Moreover, the mass burn rate varies linearly with pan size. Small diameter pan produces low mass burn rate compared to the large diameter pan. Low and high mass burn rate contributes to the flame height. Flame with higher mass burn rate is longer than that the low mass burn rate. Thus, the characteristic of the biodiesel palm oil methyl ester is successfully studied in the present study.

  19. Pool-Type Fishways: Two Different Morpho-Ecological Cyprinid Species Facing Plunging and Streaming Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M.; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei–bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus–water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes–plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found. PMID:23741465

  20. Design of the Demineralized Water Make-up Line to Maintain the Normal Pool Water Level of the Reactor Pool in the Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Gi; Choi, Jung Woon; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Chi, Dae Young

    2012-01-01

    In many research reactors, hot water layer system (HWLS) is used to minimize the pool top radiation level. Reactor pool divided into the hot water layer at the upper part of pool and the cold part below the hot water layer with lower temperature during normal operation. Water mixing between these layers is minimized because the hot water layer is formed above cold water. Therefore the hot water layer suppresses floatation of cold water and reduces the pool top radiation level. Pool water is evaporated form the surface to the building hall because of high temperature of the hot water layer; consequently the pool level is continuously fallen. Therefore, make-up water is necessary to maintain the normal pool level. There are two way to supply demineralized water to the pool, continuous and intermittent methods. In this system design, the continuous water make-up method is adopted to minimize the disturbance of the reactor pool flow. Also, demineralized water make-up is connected to the suction line of the hot water layer system to raise the temperature of make-up water. In conclusion, make-up demineralized water with high temperature is continuously supplied to the hot water layer in the pool

  1. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  2. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  3. Hunting camp. River Murray

    OpenAIRE

    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer

    2003-01-01

    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  4. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  5. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... the perspective of economic benefits? I hypothesize that the political uses of citizenship, identity and security at the local level hamper cooperation at the basin level and ignore cognitive dimensions of violence and conflict. In this article, I have chosen the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights as a case study...

  6. What's working on working rivers: a handbook for improving urban rivers: examples from Chicago area rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naomi Cohn

    1998-01-01

    What's been done on Chicago Area Rivers is truly an inspiration. People's ability to improve these rivers shows what can be improved anywhere, even in a highly developed and complex urban setting like Chicago. A veteran staffer with the Friends of the Chicago River recently concluded: "People look at what's being accomplished on the Chicago River...

  7. Restoring rivers, sustaining communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel White; Susan Charnley; Gordon Grant; Mary Rowland; Michael Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Rivers Connect Humans and Ecosystems James Nash says he is part trout. Growing up on a ranch in the Wallowa Valley of northeast Oregon, he disappeared as often as he could to the banks of the Wallowa River, which runs for more than two miles through his family’s land. Once, while exploring the bottomland, he discovered some old ruts and...

  8. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  9. The contemporary geomorphology of the Letaba River in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Moon

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Letaba River drains part of Northern Province in north-east South Africa. Its catchment has been modified significantly by human activity which has affected the flow regime; it experiences only ephemeral flows through the Kruger National Park to its confluence with the Olifants River. Although the Letaba is similar to the other rivers in the Kruger National Park in that it displays some bedrock influenced channel features, increased sediment delivery from the degraded catchment upstream has resulted in extensive alluviation within the channel. Sections of channel flowing over bedrock with no sediment covering are rare, and the river comprises a series of channel types: mixed anastomosing, alluvial braided, mixed pool-rapid and alluvial single thread. Each is characterised by a different combination of morphological units which relate to the degree of alluviation in the channel. These channel types are described in detail and inferences are made concerning their formation and maintenance from field observation and measurement.

  10. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool

  11. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  12. Pooling of Confounders Did Not Induce Residual Confounding in Influenza Vaccination Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W.

    PURPOSE: In observational studies on influenza vaccine effectiveness, confounding variables such as individual chronic diseases often are pooled before inclusion into a multivariable regression model. It has been suggested, however, that the pooling of confounders induces residual confounding,

  13. Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of public swimming pools, Hamadan (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Hoseinzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: As results showed the residual chlorine in pools water was lower than standard level and as regard to microbial contamination in pool water, it can be concluded that the disinfection system has been impaired.

  14. Investigation of pool thermal hydraulics and temperature distribution in inner vessel under mechanical seal leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Juby; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    The primary heat sink of prototype fast breeder reactor is a sodium pool which is partitioned into cold pool and hot pool. The inner vessel which separates the cold and hot pools is having penetrations for intermediate heat exchangers. The hot sodium from hot pool leaks into the cold pool through these penetrations and to reduce the leakage, mechanical seals are provided. Leakage of hot sodium into cold pool can lead to thermal stratification in the cold pool and also will affect the temperature distribution in inner vessel. 3-D CFD studies were performed focusing these features as a function of sodium leakage. The analyses indicate that the maximum temperature difference across the IV thickness is 65°C without any leakage of sodium. The temperature difference is found to decrease with increase in leakage through the seals. It is seen that a leakage of 2.5% is acceptable. (author)

  15. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool

  16. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C.M.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory

  17. Effects of flow regulation and fragmentation by dams on riparian flora in boreal rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Roland

    2000-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of river regulation on riparian flora in boreal rivers, and to increase the understanding of the processes causing patterns in species diversity. Comparisons of free-flowing and regulated rivers showed that regulated rivers have fewer plant species and less plant cover per 200-m-stretch of river margin. Regulated river-margins were less species-rich compared to free-flowing rivers irrespective of the type of regulated water level regime, except for unimpounded reaches downstream of dams. Species with good dispersal capacity (wind-dispersed or long-floating species) were least affected by regulation, showing that the ability to recolonize after local extinction is an important character. The temporal development of river-margin vegetation in regulated rivers was studied by investigating differently-old reservoirs and impoundments. Plant-species richness along storage reservoirs increased during the first 30-40 years following damming, but declined thereafter. Both species richness and plant cover remained impoverished compared to free-flowing rivers about 70 years after regulation. Along run-of-river impoundments, plant species richness and cover peaked after 10-20 years. In the long run, riparian species richness was lower, but riparian species density did not differ, compared to free-flowing rivers. Dams fragment the riparian flora. Adjacent run-of-river impoundments developed different riparian floras, probably because dams are barriers to the dispersal of species with poor floating ability. This shows that dams disrupt the ecological continuity not only for the river channel, but also for the adjoining riparian corridor. The number of species and genera were similar between river margins along boreal free-flowing rivers in Europe and North America. The riparian floras shared few species but many genera and families. The regional species pools were similar-sized and composed of species with similar traits, and

  18. Temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed macrophytes in two impounded reaches of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Yin, Yao

    2011-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed aquatic macrophytes during a recent three-fold increase in macrophyte abundance and in response to the cumulative effects of management actions (island construction and water level management) and changes in regional environmental conditions (turbidity) in two navigation pools of the Upper Mississippi River, Pool 8 (managed) and Pool 13 (unmanaged). We used cross-correlograms to quantify changes in the degree and range of spatial correlation between submersed macrophytes and depth across the impounded portions of the two pools from 1998-2009. Along with increases in abundance, we observed gradual expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water in both pools. However, we detected no temporal change in spatial patterns in Pool 13, where the range of spatial correlation was ~ 1500-2500 m in length in the downriver direction and ~ 500-1000 m in length in the crossriver direction. We initially detected similar ranges of spatial correlation in Pool 8, but over time the range of correlation in the cross river direction increased from ~ 500 m in 1998 to ~ 2000 m by 2009. Thus, the expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water areas in Pool 8 appears to have occurred in the cross-river direction and led to increases in patch size and a more symmetrical patch configuration. Hence, very similar temporal changes in submersed macrophyte abundance corresponded with different diffusion dynamics and spatial patterns in the two pools. We hypothesize that management actions altered spatial patterns of depth, water flow and/or wind fetch and led to the differences in spatial patterns reported here.

  19. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria.

    OpenAIRE

    De Jonckheere, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was pr...

  20. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  1. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  2. The influence of pool size on species diversity and water chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using depth as a proxy for disturbance, species composition in rock pools was influenced by the duration of inundation. A unique rock pool community with a filter-feeding component dominated by Cladocera, and from which large branchiopods were absent, is described. Nutrient status and community diversity in rock pools ...

  3. Impacts of exotic mangroves and mangrove control on tide pool fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Cailtin L. Kryss

    2013-01-01

    Fish were sampled from tide pools in Hawaii to determine how exotic mangroves Rhizophora mangle and the use of herbicides to chemically eradicate them are impacting tide pool fish assemblages. Ecological parameters were compared among mangrove-invaded, native vegetated, and non-vegetated tide pools before and after mangroves had been chemically...

  4. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer provided...

  5. On tropical cyclone frequency and the warm pool area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Benestad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The proposition that the rate of tropical cyclogenesis increases with the size of the "warm pool" is tested by comparing the seasonal variation of the warm pool area with the seasonality of the number of tropical cyclones. An analysis based on empirical data from the Northern Hemisphere is presented, where the warm pool associated with tropical cyclone activity is defined as the area, A, enclosed by the 26.5°C SST isotherm. Similar analysis was applied to the temperature weighted area AT with similar results.

    An intriguing non-linear relationship of high statistical significance was found between the temperature weighted area in the North Atlantic and the North-West Pacific on the one hand and the number of cyclones, N, in the same ocean basin on the other, but this pattern was not found over the North Indian Ocean. A simple statistical model was developed, based on the historical relationship between N and A. The simple model was then validated against independent inter-annual variations in the seasonal cyclone counts in the North Atlantic, but the correlation was not statistically significant in the North-West Pacific. No correlation, however, was found between N and A in the North Indian Ocean.

    A non-linear relationship between the cyclone number and temperature weighted area may in some ocean basins explain both why there has not been any linear trend in the number of cyclones over time as well as the recent upturn in the number of Atlantic hurricanes. The results also suggest that the notion of the number of tropical cyclones being insensitive to the area A is a misconception.

  6. Thermohydraulic behavior of liquid metal pool submitted to electronic bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Patrice

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the thermohydraulics of liquid metal molten by an electron beam. We study the relationship between the liquid metal pool and the vapor rate. The aim is to find good conditions increasing the metal vapor rate. In first place, energy losses are identified. Mains are convection (buoyancy and thermo-capillary) strengthen by the deformation of the molten pool. The first action is to reduce the liquid interface deformation with a transient spot realized by scanning the electron beam. I find that in this case, the optimum vapor rate is obtained when the crossing time of the beam is smaller than characteristic time of formation of the cavity, but greater than the heating time of the surface. Secondly, I impose forces to change the morphology of the flow. Two actions are tried: magnetic field application and rotating motion of the crucible. External magnetic field application may reduce convective flow, by the creation of a magnetic brake. But in my experiment, magnetic field deteriorates electron beam before to be effective. Results obtained by the rotating motion of the crucible approve this choice to reduce energy losses and increase vapor rate. This growth of vapor rate is due to an expansion of the emitted vapor source and an increase of the central temperature of the molten pool. Nevertheless with the increase of the rotation velocity and after the optimum vapor rate, I note that the flow is not axisymmetric. My observation give to think about instabilities that are developed by baroclinic waves. The comparison of my works with the Eady's linear theory gives good results. (author) [fr

  7. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  8. OBS FOMAR POOL: Gibraltar and ALERTES-RIM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, Jose; Buforn, Elisa; Cabieces, Roberto; Santos, Jose; Sandoval, Nicolas; Roca, Antoni; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the south Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals, even with associated tsunamis, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) acquired three "LOSTERN" broad band (CMG-40T sensors) OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), and, more recently (2014), the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) acquired another three with Trillium 120 sensors. All of them conform the OBS FOMAR pool. Since January to November 2014, the FOMAR pool has been deployed along the Gibraltar strait (Gibraltar experiment), in collaboration with SECEGSA (Spanish society to study the fix communication through the Gibraltar Strait), to study the local microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. Also, since September 2015, the FOMAR pool has been deployed for 8 months in SW of the San Vicente Cape with an hexagonal array configuration as a part of ALERTES-RIM project. In this work the some preliminary results of the Gibraltar strait and ALERTES-RIM OBS experiment are shown.

  9. Study on coolability of melt pool with different strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments have been performed to test quenching of molten pool with different schemes. • Top flooding, bottom flooding and indirect cooling schemes were used. • A single simulant material with same mass and initial temperature was used. • Bottom flooding technique is found to be the most effective technique. • A comparison of all the three techniques has been presented. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident, there have been a lot of concerns regarding long term core melt stabilization following a severe accident in nuclear reactors. Several strategies have been contemplated for quenching and stabilization of core melt like top flooding, bottom flooding, indirect cooling, etc. However, the effectiveness of these schemes is yet to be determined properly, for which, lot of experiments are needed. Several experiments have been performed for coolability of molten pool under top flooding condition. A few experiments have been performed for study of coolability of melt pool under bottom flooding as well as for indirect cooling. Besides, these tests are very scattered because they involve different simulant materials, initial temperatures and masses of melt, which makes it very difficult to judge the effectiveness of a particular technique and advantage over the other. In the present paper we have carried out different experiments wherein a single simulant material with same mass was cooled with different techniques starting from the same initial temperature. The result showed that, while top flooding and indirect cooling took several hours to cool, bottom flooding took a few minutes to cool the melt which makes it the most effective technique

  10. Microlayer formation characteristics in pool isolated bubble boiling of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Tomohide; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Investigation of microlayer formation characteristics is important for developing a reliable nucleate boiling heat transfer model based on accurate physical mechanisms. Although formation mechanisms of the thin liquid film in two-phase flow of confined spaces, such as micro-tubes and closely positioned parallel plates, have been thoroughly studied, microlayer formation mechanisms of pool boiling have been sparsely studied. In a previous study (Yabuki and Nakabeppu in Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286-297, 2014; Int J Heat Mass Transf 100:851-860, 2016), the spatial distribution of initial microlayer thickness under pool boiling bubbles was calculated by transient heat conduction analysis using the local wall temperature measured with a MEMS sensor. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of microlayer formation in pool boiling were investigated using the relationship between derived initial microlayer thickness and microlayer formation velocity determined by transient local heat flux data. The trend of microlayer thickness was found to change depending on the thickness of the velocity boundary layer outside the bubble foot. When the boundary layer thickness was thin, the initial microlayer thickness was determined by the boundary layer thickness, and the initial microlayer thickness proportionally increased with increasing boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, when the boundary layer was thick, the initial microlayer thickness decreased with increasing boundary layer thickness. In this thick boundary layer region, the momentum balance in the dynamic meniscus region became important, in addition to the boundary layer thickness, and the microlayer thickness, made dimensionless using boundary layer thickness, correlated with the Bond number.

  11. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  12. Nanofluid pool boiling: a review and experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanofluids consist of nano-scale particles dispersed in a liquid which exhibit the potential for enhanced boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux (CHF). Past experimental results have shown conflicting results and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, warranting further study. An experimental program for the study of nanofluid pool boiling is currently under development at McMaster University. Recent literature is briefly reviewed to outline the motivation of the study and a brief description of the future experimental facility is provided. (author)

  13. Pool of Self-Service Cars: A Balancing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Fabrice; Haouba, Ahmedou Ould; Proth, Jean-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, big cities have to face transportation problems which are crucial for their survival. One of the solutions that is currently spreading in developed countries is to put a pool of electric cars at the disposal of customers to make local journeys. In this kind of system, cars are parked in stations where their batteries are recharged. A customer uses an electric car to travel from on station to another. Then, if necessary, the same customer will later use another electric car to travel...

  14. Informal Credit Markets, Common-pool Resources and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Riekhof, Marie-Catherine; Noack, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the effect of interest rate changes on education and child labor in an economy with a high-skilled sector, a low-skilled sector and fragmented credit markets. The high-skilled sector takes educated labor as input. The low-skilled sector takes unskilled labor, physical capital and natural common-pool resources as inputs. Credit supply consists of (a) loans with collateral in form of productive investments in the low-skilled sector and (b) higher-priced loans without collater...

  15. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

      Please note that we will be closed for two weeks from 29 November to 13 December 2010 Please anticipate your needs. As soon as opened again in Building 13 R-009, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want to rent: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation … Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us all the inputs you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool is opened in self service (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  16. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that we will be closed for two weeks from 29 November to 13 December 2010. Please anticipate your needs. As soon as we re-open again in Building 13 R009, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want to rent: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  17. Some equipment for graphite research in swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, M.; Arragon, Ph.; Dupont, G.; Gentil, J.; Tanis, G.

    1964-01-01

    The irradiation devices described are used for research concerning reactors of the natural uranium type, moderated by graphite and cooled by carbon dioxide. The devices are generally designed for use in swimming pool reactors. The following points have been particularly studied: - maximum use of the irradiation volume, - use of the simplest technological solutions, - standardization of certain constituent parts. This standardization calls for precision machining and careful assembling; these requirements are also true when a relatively low irradiation temperature is required and the nuclear heating is pronounced. Finally, the design of these devices is suitable for the irradiation of other fissile or non-fissile materials. (authors) [fr

  18. Cloud clusters and superclusters over the oceanic warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian E.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A study aimed at examining the size distributions of cloud clusters and the temperature distributions within them as functions of location, year, phase of the ISV, and time of day is considered. IR satellite images of tropical convection over the oceanic warm pool were processed to reveal cloud clusters, connected areas with cloud-top temperatures lower than a given threshold value. Results were obtained for a very cold threshold (208 K), corresponding roughly to the radar echo area within Australian monsoon cloud clusters, and for a moderately cold threshold (235 K) frequently used in climatic rainfall estimation.

  19. UV irradiation alters deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Loeb, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    UV irradiation of exponentially growing Escherichia coli increased intracellular concentration of dATP and dTTP without significantly changing the concentrations of dGTP and dCTP. These selective increases in dATP and dTTP pools are seen in wild-type E. coli K12 and AB1157, as well as in recA and umuC strains, and are proportional to UV dose. The possible significance of these findings with respect to induction of the SOS response and nontargeted mutagenesis are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Finding determinants of audit delay by pooled OLS regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vuko, Tina; Čular, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate determinants of audit delay. Audit delay is measured as the length of time (i.e. the number of calendar days) from the fiscal year-end to the audit report date. It is important to understand factors that influence audit delay since it directly affects the timeliness of financial reporting. The research is conducted on a sample of Croatian listed companies, covering the period of four years (from 2008 to 2011). We use pooled OLS regression analysis, mode...