WorldWideScience

Sample records for selective tumor apoptosis

  1. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

  2. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ye Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Yuan Zi,1,* Juan Su,1 Hong-Xia Zhang,1 Xin-Rong Zhang,3 Hai-Ying Zhu,1 Jian-Xiu Li,1 Meng Yin,3 Feng Yang,3 Yi-Ping Hu,11Department of Cell Biology, 2School of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Pharmaceuticals, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Authors contributed equally.Abstract: In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy.Keywords: nanomedicine, selective cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrion-targeted nanomaterials

  3. Selective effects of whey protein concentrate on glutathione levels and apoptosis in rats with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Hsuan; Tseng, Yang-Ming; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in antioxidant defense and regulation of apoptosis. GSH deficiency is related to many diseases, including cancer, and increased GSH levels in cancer cells are associated with chemotherapy resistance because of resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC), a precursor of GSH, in rats with mammary tumors induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA treatment results in cellular changes that mimic the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis of breast tissue. We aimed to examine the possible preventive effects of diets containing whey protein on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats. The results indicate that WPC (0.334 g/kg) supplementation significantly increased the liver GSH levels by 92%, and were accompanied by low Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 5 to 3) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 2.4 to 1.2) in DMBA-treated rats. Furthermore, tumor GSH levels were decreased by 47% in WPC-supplemented rats, which resulted in increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 0.9 to 2) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 1.1 to 2.7). In conclusion, supplementation with WPC could selectively deplete tumor GSH levels and, therefore, WPC supplementation might be a promising strategy to overcome treatment resistance in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan-Fang; Wu, Dong; Wang, Na; Feng, Xing; Li, Yan-Hong; Ni, Jian; Wang, Jian; Pan, Jian; Lu, Jun; Du, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhao, Xuan; Peng, Liang; Cao, Lan; Xiao, Pei-Fang; Pang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm 3 ; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm 3 ) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm 3 ) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm 3 , ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell

  5. β-Caryophyllene, a Compound Isolated from the Biblical Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis, Is a Selective Apoptosis Inducer for Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biblical balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis was investigated in this study for anticancerous activity against tumor cell lines. The results obtained from ethanol-based extracts and from essential oils indicated that β-caryophyllene (trans-(1R,9S-8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene is a key component in essential oils extracted from the balm of Gilead. β-Caryophyllene can be found in spice blends, citrus flavors, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions, as well as in a variety of food and beverage products, and it is known for its anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, and antifungal properties. It is also a potent cytotoxic compound over a wide range of cell lines. In the current paper, we found that Commiphora gileadensis stem extracts and essential oil have an antiproliferative proapoptotic effect against tumor cells and not against normal cells. β-caryophyllene caused a potent induction of apoptosis accompanied by DNA ladder and caspase-3 catalytic activity in tumor cell lines. In summary, we showed that C. gileadensis stems contain an apoptosis inducer that acts, in a selective manner, against tumor cell lines and not against normal cells.

  6. Apoptosis and Tumor Progressionin Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenniswood, Martin P

    2005-01-01

    ... (as measured by BrdU incorporation) and apoptosis as measured by TUNEL staining. We have standardized an efficient methodologies for isolating cells from primary tumors expressing REP by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS...

  7. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Arene Ru(II Complexes Induce Tumor Cell Apoptosis Through Selectively Binding and Stabilizing bcl-2 G-Quadruplex DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of arene Ru(II complexes coordinated with phenanthroimidazole derivatives, [(η6-C6H6Ru(lCl]Cl(1b L = p-ClPIP = 2-(4-Chlorophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 2b L = m-ClPIP = 2-(3-Chlorophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 3b L = p-NPIP = 2-(4-Nitrophenylimidazole[4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline; 4b L = m-NPIP = 2-(3-Nitrophenyl imidazole [4,5f] 1,10-phenanthroline were synthesized in yields of 89.9%–92.7% under conditions of microwave irradiation heating for 30 min to liberate four arene Ru(II complexes (1b, 2b, 3b, 4b. The anti-tumor activity of 1b against various tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The results indicated that this complex blocked the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells with an IC50 of 16.59 μM. Flow cytometric analysis showed that apoptosis of A549 cells was observed following treatment with 1b. Furthermore, the in vitro DNA-binding behaviors that were confirmed by spectroscopy indicated that 1b could selectively bind and stabilize bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA to induce apoptosis of A549 cells. Therefore, the synthesized 1b has impressive bcl-2 G-quadruplex DNA-binding and stabilizing activities with potential applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Evaluation of potential prognostic value of Bmi-1 gene product and selected markers of proliferation (Ki-67 and apoptosis (p53 in the neuroblastoma group of tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Taran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer in children is a very important issue in pediatrics. The least satisfactory treatment outcome occurs among patients with clinically advanced neuroblastomas. Despite much research, the biology of this tumor still remains unclear, and new prognostic factors are sought. The Bmi-1 gene product is a currently highly investigated protein which belongs to the Polycomb group (PcG and has been identified as a regulator of primary neural crest cells. It is believed that Bmi‑1 and N-myc act together and are both involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. The aim of the study was to assess the potential prognostic value of Bmi-1 protein and its relations with mechanisms of proliferation and apoptosis in the neuroblastoma group of tumors.Material/Methods: 29 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded neuroblastoma tissue sections were examined using mouse monoclonal antibodies anti-Bmi-1, anti-p53 and anti-Ki-67 according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Results: There were found statistically significant correlations between Bmi-1 expression and tumor histology and age of patients.Conclusions: Bmi-1 seems to be a promising marker in the neuroblastoma group of tumors whose expression correlates with widely accepted prognostic parameters. The pattern of BMI-1 expression may indicate that the examined protein is also involved in maturation processes in tumor tissue.

  9. Tumor Response to Radiotherapy Regulated by Endothelial Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barros, Monica; Paris, Francois; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lyden, David; Rafii, Shahin; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Fuks, Zvi; Kolesnick, Richard

    2003-05-01

    About 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy. Here we investigated the hypothesis that tumor response to radiation is determined not only by tumor cell phenotype but also by microvascular sensitivity. MCA/129 fibrosarcomas and B16F1 melanomas grown in apoptosis-resistant acid sphingomyelinase (asmase)-deficient or Bax-deficient mice displayed markedly reduced baseline microvascular endothelial apoptosis and grew 200 to 400% faster than tumors on wild-type microvasculature. Thus, endothelial apoptosis is a homeostatic factor regulating angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. Moreover, these tumors exhibited reduced endothelial apoptosis upon irradiation and, unlike tumors in wild-type mice, they were resistant to single-dose radiation up to 20 grays (Gy). These studies indicate that microvascular damage regulates tumor cell response to radiation at the clinically relevant dose range.

  10. The role of heat shock protein 90 in the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Belkina, M V; Maroshkina, A N

    2011-02-01

    Programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells was studied under conditions of culturing with 17-AAG selective inhibitor of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa and etoposide. Apoptosis realization was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Activity of caspase-3 was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Inhibition of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa activated the apoptotic program in Jurkat tumor cells and etoposide-induced apoptosis. The heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa acted as apoptosis inhibitor in tumor cells.

  11. HAMLET kills tumor cells by apoptosis: structure, cellular mechanisms, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Pettersson, Jenny; Fischer, Walter; Aronsson, Annika; Svanborg, Catharina

    2005-05-01

    New cancer treatments should aim to destroy tumor cells without disturbing normal tissue. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) offers a new molecular approach to solving this problem, because it induces apoptosis in tumor cells but leaves normal differentiated cells unaffected. After partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid, alpha-lactalbumin forms the HAMLET complex, which enters tumor cells and freezes their metabolic machinery. The cells proceed to fragment their DNA, and they disintegrate with apoptosis-like characteristics. HAMLET kills a wide range of malignant cells in vitro and maintains this activity in vivo in patients with skin papillomas. In addition, HAMLET has striking effects on human glioblastomas in a rat xenograft model. After convection-enhanced delivery, HAMLET diffuses throughout the brain, selectively killing tumor cells and controlling tumor progression without apparent tissue toxicity. HAMLET thus shows great promise as a new therapeutic with the advantage of selectivity for tumor cells and lack of toxicity.

  12. The use of chemomodification for tumor apoptosis ceramide pathway induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myitryajeva, N.A.; Bakaj, T.S.; Segeda, T.V.; Staren'kij, V.P.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the clinical findings of pre-operative radiation therapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer with chemomodification (Taxotere, Etoposide, Cisplatin) and without it demonstrated the advantages of the combination therapy. Experimental investigation of chemomodifying effect of chemotherapy drugs (Taxotere, Etoposide, Cisplatin) on Guerin's carcinoma showed various mechanisms of accumulation of pro-apoptosis ceramides and their potential role in apoptosis induction and tumor regression.

  13. Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anastasiya; Richter, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Genetic modifications of the oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) improve selective tumor cell infection and death, as well as activation of antitumor immunity. We have engineered a double recombinant VV, coding human GM-CSF, and apoptosis-inducing protein apoptin (VV-GMCSF-Apo) for comparing with the earlier constructed double recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact, coding another apoptosis-inducing protein, lactaptin, which activated different cell death pathways than apoptin. We showed that both these recombinant VVs more considerably activated a set of critical apoptosis markers in infected cells than the recombinant VV coding GM-CSF alone (VV-GMCSF-dGF): these were phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, DNA fragmentation, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX. However, only VV-GMCSF-Lact efficiently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of infected cancer cells. Investigating immunogenic cell death markers in cancer cells infected with recombinant VVs, we demonstrated that all tested recombinant VVs were efficient in calreticulin and HSP70 externalization, decrease of cellular HMGB1, and ATP secretion. The comparison of antitumor activity against advanced MDA-MB-231 tumor revealed that both recombinants VV-GMCSF-Lact and VV-GMCSF-Apo efficiently delay tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that the composition of GM-CSF and apoptosis-inducing proteins in the VV genome is very efficient tool for specific killing of cancer cells and for activation of antitumor immunity. PMID:28951871

  14. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  15. [Heat shock protein 90--modulator of TNFalpha-induced apoptosis of Jurkat tumor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭgorodova, E V; Riazantseva, N V; Novitskiĭ, V V; Moroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V; Iakushina, V D

    2011-01-01

    rTNFalpha-induced programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells cultured with 17-AAG, a selective inhibitor of heat shock protein (Hsp90), was studied by fluorescent microscopy with the use of FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were determined by spectrophotometry using a caspase- 3 and -8 colorimetric assay kit. It was shown that inhibition of Hsp90 leads to activation of Jurkat cell apoptosis while Hsp90 itself suppresses this process. 17-AAG enhances rTNFa-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.

  16. Advance of apoptosis imaging with radiolabeled annexin V in tumor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Daijuan

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important reasons that cause tumor is decrease or complete absence of apoptosis of tumor cells. Conversely successful anti-tumor therapy is correlated with the introduction of apoptosis into tumor cells. Radiolabeled annexin V is used to image in vivo the phosphatidylserine (PS) that explode on the outer surface of cell membrane after apoptosis so that apoptosis can be detected on the early stage. This imaging method can be introduced into the research of tumor in order to help direct the choose of tumor therapy, inspect the effect and evaluate the prognosis

  17. Effects of low dose radiation on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Fei Conghe; Shen Fangzhen; Liang Jun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming stain male mice were implanted with S180 sarcoma cells in the left inguen subcutaneously as an in situ experimental animal model. Seven days after implantation, the mice were given 75 mGy whole-body γ-irradiation. At 24 and 48 h after irradiation, all mice were sacrificed to measure the tumor volume, and tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 and the apoptotic rate of tumor cells were observed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Tumor growth was significantly slowed down after LDR (P 1 phase and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at 24 h. Apoptotic rate of tumor cells increased significantly at 48 h after LDR. Conclusion: LDR could cause a G 1 -phase arrest and increase the apoptosis of tumor cells through the low level of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in the tumor-bearing mice. The organized immune function and anti-tumor ability are markedly increased after LDR. The study provides practical evidence of clinical application to cancer treatment

  18. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand triggers apoptosis in dividing but not in differentiating human epidermal keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Bastiaan J. H.; van Ruissen, Fred; Cerneus, Stefanie; Cloin, Wendy; Bergers, Mieke; van Erp, Piet E. J.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2003-01-01

    Using serial analysis of gene expression we have previously identified the expression of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes in cultured human primary epidermal keratinocytes, including tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis

  19. Apoptosis induced by chlormethine and ionizing radiations in normal and tumoral lymphocytes: role of caspase-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis can be induced by various stimuli like ionizing radiations or alkylating agents. Recent works have shown that apoptosis due to ionizing radiations can be initiated by DNA and cell membrane alterations, via radical species generation, implying the in fine activation of effector caspases, and in particular caspase-3. The main goal of this work is to clarify the role of caspase-3 in the radio-induced apoptosis mechanisms and to study the effects of apoptosis inhibition on the behaviour of the damaged cells. The effects of activation and caspase-3 activity inhibition on the progress of spontaneous, radio-induced or chlormethine-induced apoptosis have been evaluated for normal and tumoral lymphocytes. A chemical molecule, the ebselen, which can mime the action of the endogenous glutathione peroxidase, and a tetra-peptide inhibitor, AC-DEVD-CHO, selective of effector caspases, have been selected. The results indicate an inhibition by ebselen of all morphological and biochemical characteristics of chlormethine-induced apoptosis and a restoring of the cells viability. This seleno-organic compound also reduces the drop of the intra-cellular glutathione level and the loss of the trans-membrane potential (M) of the mitochondrion in the MOLT-4 tumoral cells treated with chlormethine. In parallel, the AC-DEVD-CHO effect on apoptosis induction has been tested. This inhibitor stops some chlormethine-induced criteria of apoptosis without affecting the final loss of the mitochondrial M and the cells proliferation. AC-DEVD-CHO has been also incubated just before the irradiation of the culture cells. The inhibition of the specific DEVD caspases prevents the inter-nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA and partially delays the externalization of phosphatidylserine without changing the viability of the irradiated cells. Moreover, the analysis of the AC-DEVD-CHO pre-treated irradiated cells floating on the surface shows a strong mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase activity, which

  20. LP-THAE induced tumor cell apoptosis of rabbit VX2 liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengli; Quan Yi; Huang Zicheng; Chen Guodong; Zhu Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research tumor cell apoptosis induced by Lp-THAE of rabbit VX2 liver implanted tumor. Methods: 27 New Zealand white rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor at left middle lobe of the liver divided into three groups: Group A(n= 9) Lp-THAE: treated through transhepatic artery catheterization; Group B(n=9) THAI and Group C(n=9) as control. The rabbits were executed at second to fifth day after treatment. HE dye microscopy was taken for counting the typical apoptosis cells and calculating apoptosis index (ApI). FITC-AnnexinV/PI assay was used for measuring apoptosis by flow cytometry. Results: The ApI of tumor central area and marginal area were (17.769±2.417)%, (4.129±1.172)%, P<0.01. The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and tumor cell necrosis were (16.483±1.404)%, (9.478±0.964)%, P<0.01 and (43.559±5.053)%, (33.460±1.840)%, P=0.093. The total percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis were (60.042±13.979)%, (42.938±8.979)%, P< 0.01, at tumor center and marginal area in THAE group respectively. The ApI, percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis in THAE group were significantly higher than those of THAI group (P<0.01). The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis at tumor center area in THAE group were significantly higher than those of tumor marginal area(P<0.01). Conclusion: Induced tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis are two mechanisms of action for Lp-THAE treatment of liver carcinoma. (authors)

  1. Regorafenib inhibits colorectal tumor growth through PUMA-mediated apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshi; Wei, Liang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Regorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanisms of action of regorafenib in CRC cells have been unclear. We investigated how regorafenib suppresses CRC cell growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. Experimental Design We determined whether and how regorafenib induces the expression of PUMA, a p53 target and a critical mediator of apoptosis in CRC cells. We also investigated whether PUMA is necessary for the killing and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. Furthermore, xenograft tumors were used to test if PUMA mediates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Results We found that regorafenib treatment induces PUMA in CRC cells irrespective of p53 status through the NF-κB pathway following ERK inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. Upregulation of PUMA is correlated with apoptosis induction in different CRC cell lines. PUMA is necessary for regorafenib-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. Chemosensitization by regorafenib is mediated by enhanced PUMA induction through different pathways. Furthermore, deficiency in PUMA abrogates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a key role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. They suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of regorafenib sensitivity, and also provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib and other targeted drugs. PMID:24763611

  2. Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhoushuai; Jiang, Wandong; Wang, Guifen; Sun, Ying; Xiao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis and expression of Apoptosis-related gene products in response to radiation in murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the involvement of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, p21 waf1/cip1 , bax and bcl-2 in induction of apoptosis by radiation in murine tumors. The radiation-sensitive ovarian carcinoma OCa-I and the radiation-resistant hepatocarcinoma HCa-I were used. Tumors, 8mm in diameter, were irradiated with 25Gy and at various times after irradiation, ranging from 1 to 48 h, were analyzed histologically for apoptosis and by western blot for alterations in the expression of these genes. The p53 status of the tumors were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism assay. Both tumors were positive for wild-type p53. Radiation induced apoptosis in OCa-I but not in HCa-I. Apoptosis developed rapidly, peaked at 2 h after irradiation and returned to almost the background level at 48 h. In OCa-I radiation upregulated the expression of p53, p21 waf1/cip1 , and the bcl-2/bax ratio was decreased. In HCa-I radiation increased the expression of both p53 and p21 waf1/cip1 , although the increase of the latter was small. The bcl-2/bax ratio was greatly increased. In general the observed changes occurred within a few hours after irradiation, and either preceded or coincided with development of apoptosis. The development of apoptosis required upregulation of both p53 and p21 waf1/cip1 as well as a decrease in bcl-2/bax ratio. In contrast, an increase in bcl-2/bax ratio prevented apoptosis in the presence of upregulated p53 and p21 waf1/cip1 . These findings identified the involvement of multiple oncogenes in apoptosis regulation in vivo and demonstrate the complexity that may be associated with the use of a single oncogene assessment for predicting the outcome of cancer therapy with cytotoxic agents. (author)

  4. Induction of Apoptosis and expression of Apoptosis-related gene products in response to radiation in murine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, J S [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Hunter, N R; Milas, L [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To analyze the involvement of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, p21{sup waf1/cip1}, bax and bcl-2 in induction of apoptosis by radiation in murine tumors. The radiation-sensitive ovarian carcinoma OCa-I and the radiation-resistant hepatocarcinoma HCa-I were used. Tumors, 8mm in diameter, were irradiated with 25Gy and at various times after irradiation, ranging from 1 to 48 h, were analyzed histologically for apoptosis and by western blot for alterations in the expression of these genes. The p53 status of the tumors were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism assay. Both tumors were positive for wild-type p53. Radiation induced apoptosis in OCa-I but not in HCa-I. Apoptosis developed rapidly, peaked at 2 h after irradiation and returned to almost the background level at 48 h. In OCa-I radiation upregulated the expression of p53, p21{sup waf1/cip1}, and the bcl-2/bax ratio was decreased. In HCa-I radiation increased the expression of both p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1}, although the increase of the latter was small. The bcl-2/bax ratio was greatly increased. In general the observed changes occurred within a few hours after irradiation, and either preceded or coincided with development of apoptosis. The development of apoptosis required upregulation of both p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1} as well as a decrease in bcl-2/bax ratio. In contrast, an increase in bcl-2/bax ratio prevented apoptosis in the presence of upregulated p53 and p21{sup waf1/cip1}. These findings identified the involvement of multiple oncogenes in apoptosis regulation in vivo and demonstrate the complexity that may be associated with the use of a single oncogene assessment for predicting the outcome of cancer therapy with cytotoxic agents. (author).

  5. Comparison of apoptosis in canine transmissible veneral tumor (TVT pre and post chemotraoy with vincristine sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Doustar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The canine transmissible veneral tumor (CTVT is a prevalent tumor in canidae. It is transmitted by coitus, forming multiple neoplastic masses on the external genitalia of both sexes within the family canidae. CTVT have an aberrant karyotype and the origin of the neoplastic cells is undetermined but immunophenotyping suggests that the tumor has a histocytic origin. In this study 10 dogs with canine transmissible veneral tumor were selected and received vincristine sulphate (0.025 mg/kg/b.w chemotrapy to induce apoptosis in neoplastic cells. Biopsy specimens were collected from tumors during the growth phase, before and again after chemotherapy from the same dogs. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and then prepared routinely for H&E and TUNEL assays. Histopathological study of tissue section of CTVT before chemotherapy revealed sheets of uniform neoplastic cells, round to oval in shape with defined cytoplasmic border. There were a few TUNEL positive cells and mitotic figures. In tumor specimens after chemotherapy increased TUNEL positive cells and depilation of neoplastic cells in stroma of tumor were observed. Mean deference of histopathological changes and TUNEL positive cells before and after chemotherapy were significant (p

  6. Effects of HSP27 chaperone on THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Maroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V

    2012-11-01

    The role of Hsp27 (heat shock protein 27) chaperone in regulation of THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis was studied. Realization of tumor cell apoptosis under conditions of in vitro culturing with Hsp27 specific inhibitor (KRIBB3) was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Measurements of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, Bad) in tumor cells incubated with Hsp27 inhibitor were carried out by Western blotting. Chaperone Hsp27 acted as apoptosis inhibitor in THP-1 tumor cells modulating the proportion of antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic (Bax and Bad) proteins.

  7. Effect of small dose of radiation on induction of apoptosis in murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jin Sil; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Chung, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hee; Suh, Chang Ok

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the presence of adaptive response by low dose radiation in murine tumors in relation to radiation induced apoptosis as well as related mechanism. Syngeneic murine tumors, OCa-1 and HCa-l, were given 0.05 Gy pretreatment followed by therapeutic dose of 25 Gy radiation. Induction of apoptosis was analyzed for each treatment group. Regulating molecules of apoptosis. p53, Bcl-2, Sax, Bel-X, were also analyzed by Western blotting. In 0.05 Gy pretreatment group of OCa-l, 25 Gy-induced apoptosis per 1000 cells was 229, which was estimated at 30% lower level than the expected (p<0.05). In contrast, this reduction in radiation induced apoptosis was not seen in HCa-1. In the expression of apoptosis regulating molecules, p53 increased in both tumors in response to radiation. Bcl-2 and Bax did not show significant change in both tumors however, the expression of Bcl-2 surpassed that of Bax in 0.05 Gy pretreatment group of OCa-1. Bcl-X was not expressed in OCa-1. In HCa-l, ScI-X showed increased expression even with 0.05 Gy. Adaptive response by low dose radiation is shown in one murine tumor, OCa-I, in relation to radiation induced apoptosis. Apoptosis regulating molecules including Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-X, appear to related. This study shows an evidence that adaptive response is present, but not a generalized phenomenon in vivo

  8. Induction of Tca8113 tumor cell apoptosis by icotinib is associated with reactive oxygen species mediated p38-MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cailing; Yan, Jianguo; Yuan, Guoyan; Zhang, Yinghua; Lu, Derong; Ren, Mingxin; Cui, Weigang

    2014-08-01

    Icotinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity against several tumor cell lines. However, the exact molecular mechanism of icotinib's anti-tumor effect remains unknown. This study aims to examine the zytotoxic effect of icotinib on Tca8113 cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Icotinib significantly resulted in dose-dependent cell death as determined by MTT assay, accompanied by increased levels of Bax and DNA fragmentation. Icotinib could also induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Further studies confirmed that scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and pharmacological inhibition of MAPK reversed icotinib-induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells. Our data provide evidence that icotinib induces apoptosis, possibly via ROS-mediated MAPK pathway in Tca8113 cells.

  9. Selected Predictors Of Apoptosis In Retinitis Pigmentosa | Mahmoud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected Predictors Of Apoptosis In Retinitis Pigmentosa. AAG Mahmoud, AA Abdel Azeem, AH Galal, BMA Bayoumi. Abstract. The genetics of non syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is complex with numerous gene mutations. An attempt to overcome each individual mutation provides an overwhelming challenge.

  10. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  11. Systematic Analysis of Time-Series Gene Expression Data on Tumor Cell-Selective Apoptotic Responses to HDAC Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-feng Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or vorinostat is the first nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. SAHA affects histone acetylation in chromatin and a variety of nonhistone substrates, thus influencing many cellular processes. In particularly, SAHA induces selective apoptosis of tumor cells, although the mechanism is not well understood. A series of microarray experiments was recently conducted to investigate tumor cell-selective proapoptotic transcriptional responses induced by SAHA. Based on that gene expression time series, we propose a novel framework for detailed analysis of the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis selectively induced by SAHA. Our analyses indicated that SAHA selectively disrupted the DNA damage response, cell cycle, p53 expression, and mitochondrial integrity of tumor samples to induce selective tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest a possible regulation network. Our research extends the existing research.

  12. N-acetylphytosphingosine enhances the radiosensitivity of tumor cells by increasing apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.; Kim, Y.; Yun, Y.; Jeon, S.; Kim, K.; Song, J.; Hong, S.H.; Park, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramides are well-known second messengers which mediate apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation in mammalian cells, but the physiological roles of phytosphingosines are poorly understood. We hypothesized that one of the phytosphingosine derivatives, N-acetylphytosphingosine (NAPS) can induce apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat cell line and increase apoptosis in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells. We first examined the effect of NAPS on apoptosis of Jurkat cells. NAPS had a more rapid and stronger apoptotic effect than C 2 -ceramide in Jurkat cells and significant increase of apoptosis was observed at 3 h after treatment. In contrast, the apoptosis induced by C2-ceramide was observed only after 16 h of treatment. NAPS induced apoptosis was mediated by caspase 3 and 8 activation and inhibited by z-VAD-fmk. Ceramide plays a pivotal role in radiation induced apoptosis. We postulated that exogenous treatment of NAPS sensitizes tumor cells to ionizing radiation, since NAPS might be used as a more effective alternative to C2-ceramide. As expected, NAPS decreased clonogenic survival of irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells dose dependently, and apoptosis of irradiated cells in the presence of NAPS was increased through the caspase activation. Taken together, NAPS is an effective apoptosis-inducing agent, which can be readily synthesized from yeast sources, and is a potent alternative to ceramide for the further study of ceramide associated signaling and the development of radiosensitizing agent. (orig.)

  13. A tumor suppressor role of the Bub3 spindle checkpoint protein after apoptosis inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain aneuploid cells, indicating that the mitotic checkpoint is permissive to the proliferation of chromosomally aberrant cells. However, mutated or altered expression of mitotic checkpoint genes accounts for a minor proportion of human tumors. We describe a Drosophila melanogaster tumorigenesis model derived from knocking down spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes and preventing apoptosis in wing imaginal discs. Bub3-deficient tumors that were also deficient in apoptosis displayed neoplastic growth, chromosomal aneuploidy, and high proliferative potential after transplantation into adult flies. Inducing aneuploidy by knocking down CENP-E and preventing apoptosis does not induce tumorigenesis, indicating that aneuploidy is not sufficient for hyperplasia. In this system, the aneuploidy caused by a deficient SAC is not driving tumorigenesis because preventing Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore does not cause hyperproliferation. Our data suggest that Bub3 has a nonkinetochore-dependent function that is consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23609535

  14. Impact of the p53 status of tumor cells on extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Franziska; Grunert, Michaela; Blaj, Cristina; Weinstock, David M; Jeremias, Irmela; Ehrhardt, Harald

    2013-04-17

    The p53 protein is the best studied target in human cancer. For decades, p53 has been believed to act mainly as a tumor suppressor and by transcriptional regulation. Only recently, the complex and diverse function of p53 has attracted more attention. Using several molecular approaches, we studied the impact of different p53 variants on extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling. We reproduced the previously published results within intrinsic apoptosis induction: while wild-type p53 promoted cell death, different p53 mutations reduced apoptosis sensitivity. The prediction of the impact of the p53 status on the extrinsic cell death induction was much more complex. The presence of p53 in tumor cell lines and primary xenograft tumor cells resulted in either augmented, unchanged or reduced cell death. The substitution of wild-type p53 by mutant p53 did not affect the extrinsic apoptosis inducing capacity. In summary, we have identified a non-expected impact of p53 on extrinsic cell death induction. We suggest that the impact of the p53 status of tumor cells on extrinsic apoptosis signaling should be studied in detail especially in the context of therapeutic approaches that aim to restore p53 function to facilitate cell death via the extrinsic apoptosis pathway.

  15. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer.

  17. Vitamin E succinate is a potent novel antineoplastic agent with high selectivity and cooperativity with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2 ligand) in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, T.; Lu, M.; Anděra, Ladislav; Lanm, H.; Gellert, N.; Fariss, M. W.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Sattler, W.; Ucker, D. S.; Terman, A.; Schroder, B.; Erl, W.; Brunk, U. T.; Coffey, R. J.; Weber, C.; Neužil, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2002), s. 863-869 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5052001; GA ČR GA301/99/0350 Keywords : Vitamin E * TRAIL * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2002

  18. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase accelerates postoperative tumor growth by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Novel role for an old enemy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tumor removal remains the principal treatment modality in the management of solid tumors. The process of tumor removal may potentiate the resurgent growth of residual neoplastic tissue. Herein, we describe a novel murine model in which flank tumor cytoreduction is followed by accelerated local tumor recurrence. This model held for primary and recurrent tumors generated using a panel of human and murine (LS174T, DU145, SW480, SW640, and 3LL) cell lines and replicated accelerated tumor growth following excisional surgery. In investigating this further, epithelial cells were purified from LS174T primary and corresponding recurrent tumors for comparison. Baseline as well as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis were significantly reduced in recurrent tumor epithelia. Primary and recurrent tumor gene expression profiles were then compared. This identified an increase and reduction in the expression of p110gamma and p85alpha class Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits in recurrent tumor epithelia. These changes were further confirmed at the protein level. The targeting of PI3K ex vivo, using LY294002, restored sensitivity to TRAIL in recurrent tumor epithelia. In vivo, adjuvant LY294002 prolonged survival and significantly attenuated recurrent tumor growth by greatly enhancing apoptosis levels. Hence, PI3K plays a role in generating the antiapoptotic and chemoresistant phenotype associated with accelerated local tumor recurrence.

  19. Effects of IL-6 on proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells multi-irradiated for tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongbiao; Yao Side

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out on effects of IL-6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells and the expression of apoptosis relevant genes (p53, bcl-2) in tumor cells for three kinds of fractional total-body-irradiated tumor-bearing mice. The apoptotic index, proliferative index, S phase fraction of S 180 sarcoma, H 22 hepatocarcinoma and Lewis lung cancer cells were measured by flowcytometry (FCM) after total-body-irradiation and irradiation plus IL-6. The protein expression level of p53, bcl-2 in three kinds of tumors was also determined by the immunohisto-chemical method (UltraSensitive S-P). The results showed that the S phase fraction and proliferation index in Lewis lung cancer cells were lower in the irradiated plus IL-6 group than in the control, while apoptotic index was higher (P 180 sarcoma cells were opposite (P 22 hepatocarcinoma. These results revealed that IL-6 promoted the apoptosis of irradiated Lewis lung cancer cells (P 180 sarcoma (P 22 hepatocarcinoma (P>0.05). In Lewis lung cancer the expression level of p53 was lower in the IL-6 group and higher in S 180 sarcoma (P 22 hepatocarcinoma as compared with the control (P>0.05). It is considered that tumor cell's proportion in the cellular cycle is changed by IL-6 and the effects of IL-6 on the expression of p53, bcl-2 in different three kinds of tumors are different. IL-6 has radio-sensitive effects on some tumors and opposite effects on other tumors, it may be related to the expression of p53 and bcl-2 in tumor cells. (authors)

  20. Induction of apoptosis by opium in some tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, M; Farsinejad, A; Dabiri, S; Asadikaram, G

    2016-09-30

    The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test. Opium with concentration of 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml in 48 hours significantly induces apoptosis in certain cell lines (i.e. AA8, N2a, WEHI), apoptosis and necrosis in some others (i.e. Hela, HepG2, MCF7, and PC12), and also solely necrosis in the AGS cell line. One could infer that the usage of opium with different levels in different tissues leads to certain disorders in some tissues and may have therapeutic effects under distinctive conditions (i.e. unchecked growth of cells) as confirmed by the results.

  1. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  2. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL tre...

  3. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and ...

  4. Induction of factors of apoptosis in human tumor cells by low doses of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, J.; Martin, A.; Cos, S.; Gonzalez-Lamuno, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of modification of genes related with apoptosis in tumor cells calls for a multidisciplinary experiment which describes the conditions and characteristics of such modification. In this work low radiation doses from radon were used in the irradiation of tumor cells of human mammary glands. After irradiation, the cells incubate for three days, after which they are counted and a total extraction of ARN is effected. Through bimolecular techniques, inverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis is studied. The results found indicate that, in the cell line denominated MCF-7, the genes bcl-2, bcl-xL and bax are expressed. In the irradiated cells, the levels of expression of bcl x increase with respect to the control and induce the expression of the form bcl-xS, the protein of which induces apoptosis

  5. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  6. Effects of IL-6 on proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells multi-irradiated for tumor-bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongbiao, Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics; Xuzhou Medical Univ., Xuzhou (China); Side, Yao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics; Kai, Mei; Ying, Liu; Jie, Zhao; Xianwen, Zhang; Qiang, Zhou; Xingzhi, Hao [Xuzhou Medical Univ., Xuzhou (China)

    2004-05-15

    A study was carried out on effects of IL-6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells and the expression of apoptosis relevant genes (p53, bcl-2) in tumor cells for three kinds of fractional total-body-irradiated tumor-bearing mice. The apoptotic index, proliferative index, S phase fraction of S{sub 180} sarcoma, H{sub 22} hepatocarcinoma and Lewis lung cancer cells were measured by flowcytometry (FCM) after total-body-irradiation and irradiation plus IL-6. The protein expression level of p53, bcl-2 in three kinds of tumors was also determined by the immunohisto-chemical method (UltraSensitive S-P). The results showed that the S phase fraction and proliferation index in Lewis lung cancer cells were lower in the irradiated plus IL-6 group than in the control, while apoptotic index was higher (P<0.05). However, the experimental results for S{sub 180} sarcoma cells were opposite (P<0.01). In addition, no significant effects were observed in H{sub 22} hepatocarcinoma. These results revealed that IL-6 promoted the apoptosis of irradiated Lewis lung cancer cells (P<0.05), while the apoptosis of S{sub 180} sarcoma (P<0.05) was restrained, and there was no significant effects on the cellular cycle of H{sub 22} hepatocarcinoma (P>0.05). In Lewis lung cancer the expression level of p53 was lower in the IL-6 group and higher in S{sub 180} sarcoma (P<0.05), while unvaried in H{sub 22} hepatocarcinoma as compared with the control (P>0.05). It is considered that tumor cell's proportion in the cellular cycle is changed by IL-6 and the effects of IL-6 on the expression of p53, bcl-2 in different three kinds of tumors are different. IL-6 has radio-sensitive effects on some tumors and opposite effects on other tumors, it may be related to the expression of p53 and bcl-2 in tumor cells. (authors)

  7. Vitamin E succinate is a potent novel antineoplastic agent with high selectivity and cooperativity with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2 ligand) in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, T.; Lu, M.; Anděra, Ladislav; Lahm, H.; Gellert, N.; Fariss, M. W.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Sattler, W.; Ucker, D. S.; Terman, A.; Schroder, A.; Erl, W.; Brunk, U. T.; Coffey, R. J.; Weber, C.; Neuzil, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 863-869 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/99/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Vitamin E, Antineoplastic Agent, Tumor Necrosis Factor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2002

  8. Inducing death in tumor cells: roles of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Darren; Teriete, Peter; Vamos, Mitchell; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Vuori, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneous group of diseases collectively termed cancer results not just from aberrant cellular proliferation but also from a lack of accompanying homeostatic cell death. Indeed, cancer cells regularly acquire resistance to programmed cell death, or apoptosis, which not only supports cancer progression but also leads to resistance to therapeutic agents. Thus, various approaches have been undertaken in order to induce apoptosis in tumor cells for therapeutic purposes. Here, we will focus our discussion on agents that directly affect the apoptotic machinery itself rather than on drugs that induce apoptosis in tumor cells indirectly, such as by DNA damage or kinase dependency inhibition. As the roles of the Bcl-2 family have been extensively studied and reviewed recently, we will focus in this review specifically on the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. IAPs are a disparate group of proteins that all contain a baculovirus IAP repeat domain, which is important for the inhibition of apoptosis in some, but not all, family members. We describe each of the family members with respect to their structural and functional similarities and differences and their respective roles in cancer. Finally, we also review the current state of IAPs as targets for anti-cancer therapeutics and discuss the current clinical state of IAP antagonists.

  9. Salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hyunsook; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Oh, Eunhye [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae Hong, E-mail: cancer@korea.ac.kr [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in the formation, growth and recurrence of tumors, particularly following therapeutic intervention. Salinomycin has received recent attention for its ability to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), but the mechanisms of action involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's selective targeting of BCSCs and its anti-tumor activity. Salinomycin suppressed cell viability, concomitant with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased p27{sup kip1} nuclear accumulation. Mammosphere formation assays revealed that salinomycin suppresses self-renewal of ALDH1-positive BCSCs and downregulates the transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. TUNEL analysis of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts revealed that salinomycin administration elicited a significant reduction in tumor growth with a marked downregulation of ALDH1 and CD44 levels, but seemingly without the induction of apoptosis. Our findings shed further light on the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's effects on BCSCs. - Highlights: • Salinomycin suppresses mammosphere formation. • Salinomycin reduces ALDH1 activity and downregulates Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. • Salinomycin targets BCSCs via an apoptosis-independent pathway.

  10. Human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) kills human glioblastoma cells in brain xenografts by an apoptosis-like mechanism and prolongs survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Walter; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gronli, Janne; Mork, Sverre; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Svanborg, Catharina

    2004-03-15

    Malignant brain tumors present a major therapeutic challenge because no selective or efficient treatment is available. Here, we demonstrate that intratumoral administration of human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) prolongs survival in a human glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft model, by selective induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that is formed from alpha-lactalbumin when the protein changes its tertiary conformation and binds oleic acid as a cofactor. HAMLET induces apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cells in vitro, but the therapeutic effect in vivo has not been examined. In this study, invasively growing human GBM tumors were established in nude rats (Han:rnu/rnu Rowett, n = 20) by transplantation of human GBM biopsy spheroids. After 7 days, HAMLET was administered by intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery for 24 h into the tumor area; and alpha-lactalbumin, the native, folded variant of the same protein, was used as a control. HAMLET reduced the intracranial tumor volume and delayed the onset of pressure symptoms in the tumor-bearing rats. After 8 weeks, all alpha-lactalbumin-treated rats had developed pressure symptoms, but the HAMLET-treated rats remained asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed large differences in tumor volume (456 versus 63 mm(3)). HAMLET caused apoptosis in vivo in the tumor but not in adjacent intact brain tissue or in nontransformed human astrocytes, and no toxic side effects were observed. The results identify HAMLET as a new candidate in cancer therapy and suggest that HAMLET should be additionally explored as a novel approach to controlling GBM progression.

  11. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pei-Lin; Easton, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10 -5 mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

  12. The p75NTR tumor suppressor induces cell cycle arrest facilitating caspase mediated apoptosis in prostate tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, Fatima; Tabassum, Arshia; Allen, Jeff; Djakiew, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR ) is a death receptor which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family of membrane proteins. This study shows that p75 NTR retarded cell cycle progression by induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and a reduction in the S phase of the cell cycle. The rescue of tumor cells from cell cycle progression by a death domain deleted (ΔDD) dominant-negative antagonist of p75 NTR showed that the death domain transduced anti-proliferative activity in a ligand-independent manner. Conversely, addition of NGF ligand rescued retardation of cell cycle progression with commensurate changes in components of the cyclin/cdk holoenzyme complex. In the absence of ligand, p75 NTR -dependent cell cycle arrest facilitated an increase in apoptotic nuclear fragmentation of the prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis of p75 NTR expressing cells occurred via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway leading to a sequential caspase-9 and -7 cascade. Since the death domain deleted dominant-negative antagonist of p75 NTR rescued intrinsic caspase associated apoptosis in PC-3 cells, this shows p75 NTR was integral to ligand independent induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the ability of ligand to ameliorate the p75 NTR -dependent intrinsic apoptotic cascade indicates that NGF functioned as a survival factor for p75 NTR expressing prostate cancer cells

  13. The p75{sup NTR} tumor suppressor induces cell cycle arrest facilitating caspase mediated apoptosis in prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khwaja, Fatima [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057-1436 (United States); Tabassum, Arshia [Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, M5T258 (Canada); Allen, Jeff [National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, N.I.H., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Djakiew, Daniel [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057-1436 (United States) and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057-1436 (United States)

    2006-03-24

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}) is a death receptor which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family of membrane proteins. This study shows that p75{sup NTR} retarded cell cycle progression by induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and a reduction in the S phase of the cell cycle. The rescue of tumor cells from cell cycle progression by a death domain deleted ({delta}DD) dominant-negative antagonist of p75{sup NTR} showed that the death domain transduced anti-proliferative activity in a ligand-independent manner. Conversely, addition of NGF ligand rescued retardation of cell cycle progression with commensurate changes in components of the cyclin/cdk holoenzyme complex. In the absence of ligand, p75{sup NTR}-dependent cell cycle arrest facilitated an increase in apoptotic nuclear fragmentation of the prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis of p75{sup NTR} expressing cells occurred via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway leading to a sequential caspase-9 and -7 cascade. Since the death domain deleted dominant-negative antagonist of p75{sup NTR} rescued intrinsic caspase associated apoptosis in PC-3 cells, this shows p75{sup NTR} was integral to ligand independent induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the ability of ligand to ameliorate the p75{sup NTR}-dependent intrinsic apoptotic cascade indicates that NGF functioned as a survival factor for p75{sup NTR} expressing prostate cancer cells.

  14. Human CD34+ cells engineered to express membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand target both tumor cells and tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Cristiana; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Giacomini, Arianna; Cleris, Loredana; Righi, Marco; Sia, Daniela; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Francolini, Maura; Gloghini, Annunziata; Carbone, Antonino; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Alessandro M

    2010-03-18

    Adenovirus-transduced CD34+ cells expressing membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (CD34-TRAIL+ cells) exert potent antitumor activity. To further investigate the mechanism(s) of action of CD34-TRAIL+ cells, we analyzed their homing properties as well as antitumor and antivascular effects using a subcutaneous myeloma model in immunodeficient mice. After intravenous injection, transduced cells homed in the tumor peaking at 48 hours when 188 plus or minus 25 CD45+ cells per 10(5) tumor cells were detected. Inhibition experiments showed that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells was largely mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1. Both CD34-TRAIL+ cells and soluble (s)TRAIL significantly reduced tumor volume by 40% and 29%, respectively. Computer-aided analysis of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-stained tumor sections demonstrated significantly greater effectiveness for CD34-TRAIL+ cells in increasing tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis over sTRAIL. Proteome array analysis indicated that CD34-TRAIL+ cells and sTRAIL activate similar apoptotic machinery. In vivo staining of tumor vasculature with sulfosuccinimidyl-6-(biotinamido) hexanoate-biotin revealed that CD34-TRAIL+ cells but not sTRAIL significantly damaged tumor vasculature, as shown by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling+ endothelial cells, appearance of hemorrhagic areas, and marked reduction of endothelial area. These results demonstrate that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells induces early vascular disruption, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and tumor destruction.

  15. 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-An; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Xing-Yu; Xian, Shu-Lin; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT.

  16. Administration of the optimized β-Lapachone-poloxamer-cyclodextrin ternary system induces apoptosis, DNA damage and reduces tumor growth in a human breast adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Samuel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Patricia; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Gallego, Rosalia; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Landin, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    β-Lapachone (β-Lap) is a 1,2-orthonaphthoquinone that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells through NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). NQO1 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, as compared to normal adjacent tissue. However, the low solubility and non-specific distribution of β-Lap limit its suitability for clinical assays. We formulated β-Lap in an optimal random methylated-β-cyclodextrin/poloxamer 407 mixture (i.e., β-Lap ternary system) and, using human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and immunodeficient mice, performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of its anti-tumor effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and tumor growth. This ternary system is fluid at room temperature, gels over 29 °C, and provides a significant amount of drug, thus facilitating intratumoral delivery, in situ gelation, and the formation of a depot for time-release. Administration of β-Lap ternary system to MCF-7 cells induces an increase in apoptosis and DNA damage, while producing no changes in cell cycle. Moreover, in a mouse xenograft tumor model, intratumoral injection of the system significantly reduces tumor volume, while increasing apoptosis and DNA damage without visible toxicity to liver or kidney. These anti-tumoral effects and lack of visible toxicity make this system a promising new therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Andrographolide induces apoptotic and non-apoptotic death and enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeon, Ho Jong; Kee, Keun Hong; Lee, Mi Ja; Hong, Ran; Han, Song Iy

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to possess antitumor activity. In the present study, the effect of andrographolide in human gastric cancer (GC) cells was investigated. Andrographolide induced cell death with apoptotic and non-apoptotic features. At a low concentration, andrographolide potentiated apoptosis and reduction of clonogenicity triggered by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL)....

  18. The necrotic signal induced by mycophenolic acid overcomes apoptosis-resistance in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendaline Guidicelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amount of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, a pivotal enzyme for the biosynthesis of the guanosine tri-phosphate (GTP, is frequently increased in tumor cells. The anti-viral agent ribavirin and the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA are potent inhibitors of IMPDH. We recently showed that IMPDH inhibition led to a necrotic signal requiring the activation of Cdc42. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we strengthened the essential role played by this small GTPase in the necrotic signal by silencing Cdc42 and by the ectopic expression of a constitutive active mutant of Cdc42. Since resistance to apoptosis is an essential step for the tumorigenesis process, we next examined the effect of the MPA-mediated necrotic signal on different tumor cells demonstrating various mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis (Bcl2-, HSP70-, Lyn-, BCR-ABL-overexpressing cells. All tested cells remained sensitive to MPA-mediated necrotic signal. Furthermore, inhibition of IMPDH activity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia cells was significantly more efficient at eliminating malignant cells than apoptotic inducers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that necrosis and apoptosis are split signals that share few if any common hub of signaling. In addition, the necrotic signaling pathway induced by depletion of the cellular amount of GTP/GDP would be of great interest to eliminate apoptotic-resistant tumor cells.

  19. HAMLET kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism--cellular, molecular, and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Catharina; Agerstam, Helena; Aronson, Annika; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Düringer, Caroline; Fischer, Walter; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Leijonhuvud, Irene; Linse, Sara; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Jenny; Svensson, Malin

    2003-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex that induces apoptosis-like death in tumor cells, but leaves fully differentiated cells unaffected. This review summarizes the information on the in vivo effects of HAMLET in patients and tumor models on the tumor cell biology, and on the molecular characteristics of the complex. HAMLET limits the progression of human glioblastomas in a xenograft model and removes skin papillomas in patients. This broad anti-tumor activity includes >40 different lymphomas and carcinomas and apoptosis is independent of p53 or bcl-2. In tumor cells HAMLET enters the cytoplasm, translocates to the perinuclear area, and enters the nuclei where it accumulates. HAMLET binds strongly to histones and disrupts the chromatin organization. In the cytoplasm, HAMLET targets ribosomes and activates caspases. The formation of HAMLET relies on the propensity of alpha-lactalbumin to alter its conformation when the strongly bound Ca2+ ion is released and the protein adopts the apo-conformation that exposes a new fatty acid binding site. Oleic acid (C18:1,9 cis) fits this site with high specificity, and stabilizes the altered protein conformation. The results illustrate how protein folding variants may be beneficial, and how their formation in peripheral tissues may depend on the folding change and the availability of the lipid cofactor. One example is the acid pH in the stomach of the breast-fed child that promotes the formation of HAMLET. This mechanism may contribute to the protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood tumors. We propose that HAMLET should be explored as a novel approach to tumor therapy.

  20. Cancer stem cells in solid tumors: is 'evading apoptosis' a hallmark of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderling, Heiko; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2011-08-01

    Conventional wisdom has long held that once a cancer cell has developed it will inevitably progress to clinical disease. Updating this paradigm, it has more recently become apparent that the tumor interacts with its microenvironment and that some environmental bottlenecks, such as the angiogenic switch, must be overcome for the tumor to progress. In parallel, attraction has been drawn to the concept that there is a minority population of cells - the cancer stem cells - bestowed with the exclusive ability to self-renew and regenerate the tumor. With therapeutic targeting issues at stake, much attention has shifted to the identification of cancer stem cells, the thinking being that the remaining non-stem population, already fated to die, will play a negligible role in tumor development. In fact, the newly appreciated importance of intercellular interactions in cancer development also extends in a unique and unexpected way to interactions between the stem and non-stem compartments of the tumor. Here we discuss recent findings drawn from a hybrid mathematical-cellular automaton model that simulates growth of a heterogeneous solid tumor comprised of cancer stem cells and non-stem cancer cells. The model shows how the introduction of cell fate heterogeneity paradoxically influences the tumor growth dynamic in response to apoptosis, to reveal yet another bottleneck to tumor progression potentially exploitable for disease control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulators of Response to Tumor Necrosis-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbakht, Kian

    2008-01-01

    .... More effective therapies are urgently needed. One of the most promising therapies in development for ovarian cancer is the use of either the Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL...

  2. Combination of VP3 and CD147-knockdown enhance apoptosis and tumor growth delay index in colorectal tumor allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Ruzila; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Abdullah, Rasedee; Mohd Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Rahman, Nik-Mohd-Afizan Nik Abd.; Abdul Rahman, Sheikh-Omar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer therapies that kill cancer cells without affecting normal cells is the ultimate mode of treating cancers. The VP3, an avian virus-derived protein, can specifically initiate cell death through several signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis. In cancer, chemoresistance and cell survivability implicate the cell surface protein, CD147. In this study, transfection of VP3 and silencing of CD147 genes was achieved through the treatment of tumors with pVIVO1-GFP/VP3 (VP3), psiRNA-CD147/2 (shCD147/2), and their combination of CT26 colon cancer cell-induced in mice. The effectiveness of tumor-treatment was ascertained by electrophoresis, TUNEL assay, and flow cytometry analysis. While histopathological and biochemical analysis were used as toxic side effect identification. The tumor growth delay index (TGDI) after treatment with VP3, shCD147/2, and their combination treatments increased by 1.3-, 1.2-, 2.0- and 2.3-fold respectively, over untreated control. The VP3-shCD147/2 combination treatment was more efficacious then either VP3 or shCD147/2 alone in the retardation of mouse CT26 colorectal cell tumor allograft. The antitumor effect of the combination treatment is the result of synergistic effects of VP3 and shCD147/2 on the tumor cells resulting in apoptosis. Thus, the study shows that combination of VP3 and shCD147/2 treatment can be developed into a potential approach for anticolorectal cancer treatment regimen. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2530-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  3. Radiobiologic significance of apoptosis and micronucleation in quiescent cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of apoptosis in quiescent (Q) cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation, using four different tumor cell lines. In addition, to assess the significance of detecting apoptosis in these cell lines. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors, and C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 4-25 Gy while alive or after tumor clamping. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed. The apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: In total cells, SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU cells showed reasonable relationships between MN frequency and surviving fraction (SF). However, fewer micronuclei were induced in EL4 cells than the other cell lines. In contrast, a comparatively close relationship between apoptosis frequency and SF was found in total cells of EL4 cell line. Less apoptosis was observed in the other cell lines. Quiescent tumor cells exhibited significantly lower values of MN and apoptosis frequency probably due to their large hypoxic fraction, similar to total tumor cells on clamped irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation induced MN formation in SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU tumor cells, and the apoptosis was marked in EL4 cells compared with

  4. IMPROVED TUMOR CELL KILLING BY TRAIL REQUIRES SELECTIVE AND HIGH AFFINITY RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegezdi, Eva; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Alessandro, Natoni; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Cool, Robbert H.; Munoz, Ines G.; Montoya, Guillermo; Quax, Wim J.; Luis Serrano, Steven de Jong; Samali, Afshin; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a wide range of tumor cells, but not in non-transformed cells. TRAIL interaction with receptors DR4 or DR5 induces apoptosis, whereas DcR1, DcR2 and osteoprotegerin are decoy receptors for TRAIL. TRAIL

  5. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2.) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. PMID:26225731

  6. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic ablation of Bcl-x attenuates invasiveness without affecting apoptosis or tumor growth in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Hager

    Full Text Available Tumor cell death is modulated by an intrinsic cell death pathway controlled by the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members has been shown to suppress cell death in pre-clinical models of human cancer and is implicated in human tumor progression. Previous gain-of-function studies in the RIP1-Tag2 model of pancreatic islet carcinogenesis, involving uniform or focal/temporal over-expression of Bcl-x(L, demonstrated accelerated tumor formation and growth. To specifically assess the role of endogenous Bcl-x in regulating apoptosis and tumor progression in this model, we engineered a pancreatic beta-cell-specific knockout of both alleles of Bcl-x using the Cre-LoxP system of homologous recombination. Surprisingly, there was no appreciable effect on tumor cell apoptosis rates or on tumor growth in the Bcl-x knockout mice. Other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members were expressed but not substantively altered at the mRNA level in the Bcl-x-null tumors, suggestive of redundancy without compensatory transcriptional up-regulation. Interestingly, the incidence of invasive carcinomas was reduced, and tumor cells lacking Bcl-x were impaired in invasion in a two-chamber trans-well assay under conditions mimicking hypoxia. Thus, while the function of Bcl-x in suppressing apoptosis and thereby promoting tumor growth is evidently redundant, genetic ablation implicates Bcl-x in selectively facilitating invasion, consistent with a recent report documenting a pro-invasive capability of Bcl-x(L upon exogenous over-expression.

  8. Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Oskar; Aits, Sonja; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2008-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. The complex consists of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, and both the protein and the fatty acid are required for cell death. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro, and its therapeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human glioblastoma rat xenograft model, in patients with skin papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer. The mechanisms of tumor cell death remain unclear, however. Immediately after the encounter with tumor cells, HAMLET invades the cells and causes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, phosphatidyl serine exposure, and a low caspase response. A fraction of the cells undergoes morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, but caspase inhibition does not rescue the cells and Bcl-2 overexpression or altered p53 status does not influence the sensitivity of tumor cells to HAMLET. HAMLET also creates a state of unfolded protein overload and activates 20S proteasomes, which contributes to cell death. In parallel, HAMLET translocates to tumor cell nuclei, where high-affinity interactions with histones cause chromatin disruption, loss of transcription, and nuclear condensation. The dying cells also show morphological changes compatible with macroautophagy, and recent studies indicate that macroautophagy is involved in the cell death response to HAMLET. The results suggest that HAMLET, like a hydra with many heads, may interact with several crucial cellular organelles, thereby activating several forms of cell death, in parallel. This complexity might underlie the rapid death response of tumor cells and the broad antitumor activity of HAMLET.

  9. TIG3 tumor suppressor-dependent organelle redistribution and apoptosis in skin cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Scharadin

    Full Text Available TIG3 is a tumor suppressor protein that limits keratinocyte survival during normal differentiation. It is also important in cancer, as TIG3 level is reduced in tumors and in skin cancer cell lines, suggesting that loss of expression may be required for cancer cell survival. An important goal is identifying how TIG3 limits cell survival. In the present study we show that TIG3 expression in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma SCC-13 cells reduces cell proliferation and promotes morphological and biochemical apoptosis. To identify the mechanism that drives these changes, we demonstrate that TIG3 localizes near the centrosome and that pericentrosomal accumulation of TIG3 alters microtubule and microfilament organization and organelle distribution. Organelle accumulation at the centrosome is a hallmark of apoptosis and we demonstrate that TIG3 promotes pericentrosomal organelle accumulation. These changes are associated with reduced cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A, and increased p21 level. In addition, Bax level is increased and Bcl-XL level is reduced, and cleavage of procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and PARP is enhanced. We propose that pericentrosomal localization of TIG3 is a key event that results in microtubule and microfilament redistribution and pericentrosomal organelle clustering and that leads to cancer cell apoptosis.

  10. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Soluble Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Bioactive Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Bich Hang; Nguyen, Minh Tan; Song, Jung-A; Park, Sangsu; Yoo, Jiwon; Jang, Jaepyeong; Lee, Sunju; So, Seoungjun; Yoon, Yejin; Kim, Inki; Lee, Kyungjin; Jang, Yeon Jin; Choe, Han

    2017-12-28

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered as an antitumor agent owing to its ability to induce apoptosis of cancer cells without imparting toxicity toward most normal cells. TRAIL is produced in poor yield because of its insoluble expression in the cytoplasm of E. coli . In this study, we achieved soluble expression of TRAIL by fusing maltose-binding protein (MBP), b'a' domain of protein disulfide isomerase (PDIb'a'), or protein disulfide isomerase at the N-terminus of TRAIL. The TRAIL was purified using subsequent immobilized metal affinity chromatography and amylose-binding chromatography, with the tag removal using tobacco etch virus protease. Approximately 4.5 mg of pure TRAIL was produced from 125 ml flask culture with a purification yield of 71.6%. The endotoxin level of the final product was 0.4 EU/μg, as measured by the Limulus amebocyte lysate endotoxin assay. The purified TRAIL was validated and shown to cause apoptosis of HeLa cells with an EC₅₀ and Hill coefficient of 0.6 ± 0.03 nM and 2.41 ± 0.15, respectively. The high level of apoptosis in HeLa cells following administration of purified TRAIL indicates the significance and novelty of this method for producing high-grade and high-yield TRAIL.

  12. Celecoxib decreases growth and angiogenesis and promotes apoptosis in a tumor cell line resistant to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rosas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last few years it has been shown in several laboratories that Celecoxib (Cx, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID normally used for pain and arthritis, mediates antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. However, the effects of this drug on a tumor cell line resistant to chemotherapeutical drugs used in cancer have not been described. Herein we evaluate the angiogenic and antitumor effects of Cx in the development of a drug-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (TA3-MTXR. RESULTS: Cx reduces angiogenesis in the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM, inhibits the growth and microvascular density of the murine TA3-MTXR tumor, reduces microvascular density of tumor metastases, promotes apoptosis and reduces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production and cell proliferation in the tumor. CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic and antitumor Cx effects correlate with its activity on other tumor cell lines, suggesting that Prostaglandins (PGs and VEGF production are involved. These results open the possibility of using Celecoxib combined with other experimental therapies, ideally aiming to get synergic effects.

  13. Apoptosis in neural crest cells by functional loss of APC tumor suppressor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Sato, Tomoyuki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Ito, Masaki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Katsuki, Motoya; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Katamine, Shigeru; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    Apc is a gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) and its inactivation is a critical step in colorectal tumor formation. The protein product, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to down-regulate intracellular levels of β-catenin, a key signal transducer in the Wnt signaling. Conditional targeting of Apc in the neural crest of mice caused massive apoptosis of cephalic and cardiac neural crest cells at about 11.5 days post coitum, resulting in craniofacial and cardiac anomalies at birth. Notably, the apoptotic cells localized in the regions where β-catenin had accumulated. In contrast to its role in colorectal epithelial cells, inactivation of APC leads to dysregulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling with resultant apoptosis in certain tissues including neural crest cells. PMID:11756652

  14. Apoptosis resistance in epithelial tumors is mediated by tumor-cell-derived interleukin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, M; Lombardo, Y; Francipane, M G; Alea, M Perez; Cammareri, P; Iovino, F; Di Stefano, A B; Di Bernardo, C; Agrusa, A; Condorelli, G; Walczak, H; Stassi, G

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the mechanisms involved in the resistance to cell death observed in epithelial cancers. Here, we identify that primary epithelial cancer cells from colon, breast and lung carcinomas express high levels of the antiapoptotic proteins PED, cFLIP, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. These cancer cells produced interleukin-4 (IL-4), which amplified the expression levels of these antiapoptotic proteins and prevented cell death induced upon exposure to TRAIL or other drug agents. IL-4 blockade resulted in a significant decrease in the growth rate of epithelial cancer cells and sensitized them, both in vitro and in vivo, to apoptosis induction by TRAIL and chemotherapy via downregulation of the antiapoptotic factors PED, cFLIP, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that exogenous IL-4 was able to upregulate the expression levels of these antiapoptotic proteins and potently stabilized the growth of normal epithelial cells rendering them apoptosis resistant. In conclusion, IL-4 acts as an autocrine survival factor in epithelial cells. Our results indicate that inhibition of IL-4/IL-4R signaling may serve as a novel treatment for epithelial cancers.

  15. Electron microscopic observations and DNA chain fragmentation studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xiao Dong; Han Xiaofeng

    1997-01-01

    The morphological changes observed by electron microscopy indicate that after internal irradiation with 153 Sm-EDTMP bone tumor cells displayed feature of apoptosis, such as margination of condensed chromatin, chromatin fragmentation, as well as the membrane bounded apoptotic bodies formation. The quantification analysis of fragmentation DNA for bone tumor cells induced by 153 Sm-EDTMP shows that the DNA fragmentation is enhanced with the prolongation of internally irradiated time. These characteristics suggest that 153 Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation could induce bone tumor cells to go to apoptosis

  16. A chimeric antigen receptor for TRAIL-receptor 1 induces apoptosis in various types of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Hamana, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Jin, Aishun; Lin, Zhezhu; Muraguchi, Atsushi

    2014-10-31

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its associated receptors (TRAIL-R/TR) are attractive targets for cancer therapy because TRAIL induces apoptosis in tumor cells through TR while having little cytotoxicity on normal cells. Therefore, many agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for TR have been produced, and these induce apoptosis in multiple tumor cell types. However, some TR-expressing tumor cells are resistant to TR-specific mAb-induced apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) of a TRAIL-receptor 1 (TR1)-specific single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody (TR1-scFv-CAR) and expressed it on a Jurkat T cell line, the KHYG-1 NK cell line, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). We found that the TR1-scFv-CAR-expressing Jurkat cells killed target cells via TR1-mediated apoptosis, whereas TR1-scFv-CAR-expressing KHYG-1 cells and PBLs killed target cells not only via TR1-mediated apoptosis but also via CAR signal-induced cytolysis, resulting in cytotoxicity on a broader range if target cells than with TR1-scFv-CAR-expressing Jurkat cells. The results suggest that TR1-scFv-CAR could be a new candidate for cancer gene therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective alpha-particle mediated depletion of tumor vasculature with vascular normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh Jaggi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal regulation of angiogenesis in tumors results in the formation of vessels that are necessary for tumor growth, but compromised in structure and function. Abnormal tumor vasculature impairs oxygen and drug delivery and results in radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance, respectively. Alpha particles are extraordinarily potent, short-ranged radiations with geometry uniquely suitable for selectively killing neovasculature.Actinium-225 ((225Ac-E4G10, an alpha-emitting antibody construct reactive with the unengaged form of vascular endothelial cadherin, is capable of potent, selective killing of tumor neovascular endothelium and late endothelial progenitors in bone-marrow and blood. No specific normal-tissue uptake of E4G10 was seen by imaging or post-mortem biodistribution studies in mice. In a mouse-model of prostatic carcinoma, (225Ac-E4G10 treatment resulted in inhibition of tumor growth, lower serum prostate specific antigen level and markedly prolonged survival, which was further enhanced by subsequent administration of paclitaxel. Immunohistochemistry revealed lower vessel density and enhanced tumor cell apoptosis in (225Ac-E4G10 treated tumors. Additionally, the residual tumor vasculature appeared normalized as evident by enhanced pericyte coverage following (225Ac-E4G10 therapy. However, no toxicity was observed in vascularized normal organs following (225Ac-E4G10 therapy.The data suggest that alpha-particle immunotherapy to neovasculature, alone or in combination with sequential chemotherapy, is an effective approach to cancer therapy.

  18. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  19. Suppression of peroxiredoxin 4 in glioblastoma cells increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyong Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4 is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.

  20. In vivo99mTc-HYNIC-annexin V imaging of early tumor apoptosis in mice after single dose irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yong-bo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is a major mode of hematological tumor death after radiation. Early detection of apoptosis may be beneficial for cancer adaptive treatment. 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV has been reported as a promising agent for in vivo apoptosis imaging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV imaging of radiation- induced apoptosis, and to investigate its correlation with radiosensitivity. Methods Ten days after inoculation of tumor cells in the right upper limbs, the mice were randomly divided into two groups. The imaging group (4 mice each level, 4 dose levels was injected with 4-8 MBq 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV 24 hours after irradiation and imaged 1 hr post-injection, and the mice were sacrificed immediately after imaging for biodistribution analysis of annexin V. The observation group (4 mice each level, 2 dose levels was only observed for tumor regression post-radiation. The number of apoptotic cells in a tumor was estimated with TUNEL assay. Results The 99mTc-HYNIC-annexin V uptake in E14 lymphoma significantly increased as the radiation dose escalated from 0 to 8 Gy, and significantly correlated with the number of TUNEL-positive cells (r = 0.892, P Conclusion 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV in vivo imaging is a feasible method to detect early radiation-induced apoptosis in different tumors, and might be predictive for radiation sensitivity.

  1. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  2. Combined analysis of cell growth and apoptosis-regulating proteins in HPVs associated anogenital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Kawana, Seiji; Ozaki, Kohji; Nakatake, Mayuka; Yamada, Osamu; Iwabu, Yukie; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kaneko, Takehiko; Ohara, Kuniaki; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Oda, Fumino; Yamada, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    The clinical course of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated with Bowenoid papulosis and condyloma acuminatum of anogenital tumors are still unknown. Here we evaluated molecules that are relevant to cellular proliferation and regulation of apoptosis in HPV associated anogenital tumors. We investigated the levels of telomerase activity, and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family (c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP) and c-Myc mRNA expression levels in 20 specimens of Bowenoid papulosis and 36 specimens of condyloma acuminatum in anogenital areas. Overall, phosphorylated (p-) AKT, p-ribosomal protein S6 (S6) and p-4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry in anogenital tumors both with and without positive telomerase activity. Positive telomerase activity was detected in 41.7% of Bowenoid papulosis and 27.3% of condyloma acuminatum compared to normal skin (p < 0.001). In contrast, the expression levels of Bowenoid papulosis indicated that c-IAP1, c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA were significantly upregulated compared to those in both condyloma acuminatum samples (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.022, respectively) and normal skin (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.034, respectively). Overall, 30% of Bowenoid papulosis with high risk HPV strongly promoted IAPs family and c-Myc but condyloma acuminatum did not significantly activate those genes. Immunohistochemically, p-Akt and p-S6 expressions were associated with positive telomerase activity but not with p-4EBP1 expression. Combined analysis of the IAPs family, c-Myc mRNA expression, telomerase activity levels and p-Akt/p-S6 expressions may provide clinically relevant molecular markers in HPV associated anogenital tumors

  3. Tumor associated macrophages protect colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through IL-1beta-dependent stabilization of Snail in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kaler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that colon tumor cells stimulate macrophages to release IL-1beta, which in turn inactivates GSK3beta and enhances Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells, generating a self-amplifying loop that promotes the growth of tumor cells.Here we describe that macrophages protect HCT116 and Hke-3 colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of IL-1beta by neutralizing IL-1beta antibody, or silencing of IL-1beta in macrophages inhibited their ability to counter TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, IL-1beta was sufficient to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL-induced collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi and activation of caspases were prevented by macrophages or by recombinant IL-1beta. Pharmacological inhibition of IL-1beta release from macrophages by vitamin D(3, a potent chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer, restored the ability of TRAIL to induce apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with macrophages. Macrophages and IL-1beta failed to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells expressing dnIkappaB, dnAKT or dnTCF4, confirming that they oppose TRAIL-induced cell death through induction of Wnt signaling in tumor cells. We showed that macrophages and IL-1beta stabilized Snail in tumor cells in an NF-kappaB/Wnt dependent manner and that Snail deficient tumor cells were not protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis by macrophages or by IL-1beta, demonstrating a crucial role of Snail in the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL.We have identified a positive feedback loop between tumor cells and macrophages that propagates the growth and promotes the survival of colon cancer cells: tumor cells stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1beta, which in turn, promotes Wnt signaling and stabilizes Snail in tumor cells, conferring resistance to TRAIL. Vitamin D(3 halts this amplifying loop by interfering with the release of IL-1beta from macrophages. Accordingly, vitamin D(3 sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL

  4. Gleditsia Saponin C Induces A549 Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Cascade and Suppresses Tumor Growth on Xenografts Tumor Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds and possess the most promising anti-cancer function. Here, a saponin gleditsia saponin C (GSC, extracted from gleditsiae fructus abnormalis, could induce apoptosis of lung tumor cell line A549 via caspase dependent cascade and this effect could be prevented by the caspase inhibitors. In addition, GSC induced cell death companied with an increase ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Meanwhile, GSC suppressed TNFα inducing NF-κB activation and increased the susceptibility of lung cancer cell to TNFα induced apoptosis. Furthermore, on mouse xenograft model, GSC significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced cancer cell apoptosis, which validated the anti-tumor effect of GSC. Based on these results, GSC might be a promising drug candidate of anti-lung cancer for its potential clinical applications.

  5. Effects of low dose radiation combined with cyclophosphamide on tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation of bone marrow in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Fei Conghe; Shen Fangzhen; Liang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) combined with cyclophosphamide on tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation of bone marrow in mice tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming strain male mice were implanted with S180 sarcoma cells in the left hind leg subcutaneously as an experimental animal model. Five and 8 days after implantation, the mice were given 75 mGy whole-body γ-ray radiation and CTX(300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 36 hour after LDR. All mice were sacrificed to measure the tumor volume, tumor cell apoptosis, and cell cycle; the proliferation of bone marrow was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Tumor growth was significantly slowed down in the treated groups. The apoptosis of tumor cells increased significantly after LDR. The tumor cells were arrested in G 1 phase in CTX and CTX+LDR groups, more significantly in the latter group than in the former group. Concentration of bone marrow cells and proliferation index in CTX + LDR group were higher than those in CTX group, although concentration of bone marrow cells in CTX and CTX+LDR groups were much lower than that in normal mice. Conclusion: Low dose radiation combined with cyclophosphamide causes more significant G 1 -phase arrest than cyclophosphamide alone and enhances anti-tumor effect markedly. At the same time LDR significantly protects hematopoietic function of bone marrow, which is of practical significance as an adjuvant chemotherapy

  6. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp.) are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A). Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil treatment. Boswellia sacra

  7. Revealing mechanisms of selective, concentration-dependent potentials of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to induce apoptosis in cancer cells through inactivation of membrane-associated catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling by the expression of membrane-associated catalase. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a versatile second messenger generated during lipid peroxidation, has been shown to induce apoptosis selectively in malignant cells. The findings described in this paper reveal the strong, concentration-dependent potential of 4-HNE to specifically inactivate extracellular catalase of tumor cells both indirectly and directly and to consequently trigger apoptosis in malignant cells through superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Namely, 4-HNE caused apoptosis selectively in NOX1-expressing tumor cells through inactivation of their membrane-associated catalase, thus reactivating subsequent intercellular signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and HOCl pathways, followed by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Concentrations of 4-HNE of 1.2 µM and higher directly inactivated membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells, whereas at lower concentrations, 4-HNE triggered a complex amplificatory pathway based on initial singlet oxygen formation through H2O2 and peroxynitrite interaction. Singlet-oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8 increased superoxide anion generation by NOX1 and amplification of singlet oxygen generation, which allowed singlet-oxygen-dependent inactivation of catalase. 4-HNE and singlet oxygen cooperate in complex autoamplificatory loops during this process. The finding of these novel anticancer pathways may be useful for understanding the role of 4-HNE in the control of malignant cells and for the optimization of ROS-dependent therapeutic approaches including antioxidant treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RCC2 over-expression in tumor cells alters apoptosis and drug sensitivity by regulating Rac1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Ren, Dong; Li, Su; Ma, Wenli; Hu, Shaoyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Sheng

    2018-01-10

    Small GTP binding protein Rac1 is a component of NADPH oxidases and is essential for superoxide-induced cell death. Rac1 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and this activation can be blocked by regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2), which binds the switch regions of Rac1 to prevent access from GEFs. Three cancer cell lines with up- or down-regulation of RCC2 were used to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis, Rac1 signaling and sensitivity to a group of nine chemotherapeutic drugs. RCC2 expression in lung cancer and ovarian cancer were studied using immunochemistry stain of tumor tissue arrays. Forced RCC2 expression in tumor cells blocked spontaneous- or Staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis. In contrast, RCC2 knock down in these cells resulted in increased apoptosis to STS treatment. The protective activity of RCC2 on apoptosis was revoked by a constitutively activated Rac1, confirming a role of RCC2 in apoptosis by regulating Rac1. In an immunohistochemistry evaluation of tissue microarray, RCC2 was over-expressed in 88.3% of primary lung cancer and 65.2% of ovarian cancer as compared to non-neoplastic lung and ovarian tissues, respectively. Because chemotherapeutic drugs can kill tumor cells by activating Rac1/JNK pathway, we suspect that tumors with RCC2 overexpression would be more resistant to these drugs. Tumor cells with forced RCC2 expression indeed had significant difference in drug sensitivity compared to parental cells using a panel of common chemotherapeutic drugs. RCC2 regulates apoptosis by blocking Rac1 signaling. RCC2 expression in tumor can be a useful marker for predicting chemotherapeutic response.

  9. Induction and regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo-2 ligand-mediated apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Thomas S; Fialkov, Jonathan M; Scott, David L; Azuhata, Takeo; Williams, Richard D; Wall, Nathan R; Altieri, Dario C; Sandler, Anthony D

    2002-06-01

    The lack of effective therapy for disseminated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has stimulated the search for novel treatments including immunotherapeutic strategies. However, poor therapeutic responses and marked toxicity associated with immunological agents has limited their use. The tumor necrosis factor family member tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/Apo-2 ligand induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types, while having little cytotoxic activity against normal cells. In this study the activation and regulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and TRAIL receptor expression in human RCC cell lines and pathologic specimens was examined. TRAIL induced caspase-mediated apoptotic death of RCC cells with variable sensitivities among the cell lines tested. Compared with TRAIL-sensitive RCC cell lines (A-498, ACHN, and 769-P), the TRAIL-resistant RCC cell line (786-O) expressed lesser amounts of the death-inducing TRAIL receptors, and greater amounts of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Incubation of 786-O with actinomycin D increased the expression of the death-inducing TRAIL receptors and, concomitantly, decreased the intracellular levels of survivin, resulting in TRAIL-induced apoptotic death. The link between survivin and TRAIL regulation was confirmed when an increase in TRAIL resistance was observed after overexpression of survivin in the TRAIL-sensitive, survivin-negative RCC line A-498. These findings, along with our observation that TRAIL receptors are expressed in RCC tumor tissue, suggest that TRAIL may be useful as a therapeutic agent for RCC and that survivin may partially regulate TRAIL-induced cell death.

  10. Andrographolide induces apoptotic and non-apoptotic death and enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeon, Ho Jong; Kee, Keun Hong; Lee, Mi Ja; Hong, Ran; Han, Song Iy

    2017-05-01

    Andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata , has been reported to possess antitumor activity. In the present study, the effect of andrographolide in human gastric cancer (GC) cells was investigated. Andrographolide induced cell death with apoptotic and non-apoptotic features. At a low concentration, andrographolide potentiated apoptosis and reduction of clonogenicity triggered by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL). Exposure of GC cells to andrographolide altered the expression level of several growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-regulating proteins, including death receptors. It was demonstrated that activity of the TRAIL-R2 (DR5) pathway was critical in the development of andrographolide-mediated rhTRAIL sensitization, since its inhibition significantly reduced the extent of apoptosis induced by the combination of rhTRAIL and andrographolide. In addition, andrographolide increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetyl cysteine prevented andrographolide-mediated DR5 induction and the apoptotic effect induced by the combination of rhTRAIL and andrographolide. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that andrographolide enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through induction of DR5 expression. This effect appears to involve ROS generation in GCs.

  11. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1{+-}0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2{+-}0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  12. [Gene Expression Profile of Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells Induced by Hsp90 Selective inhibitor 17-AAG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na-Na; Li, Zhi-Heng; Tao, Yan-Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Pan, Jian; Hu, Shao-Yan

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the apoptotic effects of Hsp90 selective inhibitor 17-AAG on human leukemia HL-60 and NB4 cells and analyse its possible mechanism. CCK-8 assay was used to quantify the growth inhibition of cells after exposure to 17-AAG for 24 hours. Flow cytometrve with annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to detect apoptosis of leukemia cells. Then Western blot was used to detect the activation of apoptosis related protein caspase-3 and PARP level. Gene expression profile of NB4 cells treated with 17-AAG was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. The inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation displayed a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis and activation of PARP demonstrate that 17-AAG induced apoptosis leukemia cells. Real-time PCR array analysis showed that expression of 56 genes significantly up-regulated and expression of 23 genes were significantly down-regulated after 17-AAG treatment. The 17-AAG can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells. After leukemia cells are treated with 17-AAG, the significant changes of apoptosis-related genes occured, and the cell apoptosis occurs via activating apoptosis related signaling pathway.

  13. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ► Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. ► Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. ► Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. ► Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-α attenuates starvation-induced apoptosis through upregulation of ferritin heavy chain in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Xingrui; Zhao, Qiudong; Zhao, Xue; Li, Rong; Wei, Lixin; Wu, Mengchao; Jing, Yingying; Deng, Weijie; Sun, Kai; Han, Zhipeng; Ye, Fei; Yu, Guofeng; Fan, Qingmin; Gao, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Tumor microenviroment is characteristic of inflammation, ischemia and starvation of nutrient. TNF-α, which is an extraordinarily pleiotropic cytokine, could be an endogenous tumor promoter in some tumor types. The basic objective of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the cell viability and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells under serum starvation, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, five different concentrations of TNF-α and two different serum settings (serum-cultured and serum-deprived) were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the cell viability and apoptosis of Hep3B and SMMC-7721 cells. TNF-α (10 ng/ml) attenuated serum starvation-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and autophagy conferred this process. BAY11-7082, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, reversed the suppression of serum starvation-induced apoptosis by TNF-α. Moreover, TNF-α-induced NF-κB transactivation was suppressed by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. In addition, TNF-α up-regulated Ferritin heavy chain (FHC) transiently by NF-κB activation and FHC levels were correlated with the TNF-α-induced protection against serum starvation-mediated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Furthermore, FHC-mediated inhibition of apoptosis depended on suppressing ROS accumulation. Our findings suggested that autophagy conferred the TNF-α protection against serum starvation-mediated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, the mechanism involved with the activation of the TNF-α/ NF-κB /FHC signaling pathway

  15. Betulinic acid selectively increases protein degradation and enhances prostate cancer-specific apoptosis: possible role for inhibition of deubiquitinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Reiner

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs, which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy.

  16. Fluorescence microscopic and microautoradiographic studies on apoptosis of bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xiao Dong; Han Xiaofeng

    1997-09-01

    The apoptosis of bone tumor cells treated with internal irradiation by 153 Sm-EDTMP was studied. The morphological changes in bone tumor cells were observed by fluorescence microscopic and microautoradiographic observations. It was found that bone tumor cells internally irradiated with 153 Sm-EDTMP, displayed significant nuclear fragmentation and marked pyknosis as well as apoptotic bodies formation. The microautoradiographic study showed that 153 Sm-EDTMP could permeate through cell membrane and displayed membrane-seeking condensation in tumor cells. Soon afterwards 153 Sm-EDTMP could be phagocytized by the tumor cells and distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus in the form of phagosome. With the prolongation of observing time, the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies was observed. With the lengthening of internal irradiation time by 153 Sm-EDTMP, the inhibition rate of proliferation of bone tumor cells increased progressively. (10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.)

  17. 3,3'-diindolylmethane potentiates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Miao, Shuhan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianwei; Lu, Rongzhu

    2015-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) specifically kills cancer cells without destroying the majority of healthy cells. However, numerous types of cancer cell, including gastric cancer cells, tend to be resistant to TRAIL. The bioactive product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), which is derived from cruciferous vegetables, is also currently recognized as a candidate anticancer agent. In the present study, a Cell Counting Kit 8 cell growth assay and an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis assay were performed to investigate the potentiating effect of DIM on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, and the possible mechanisms of this potentiation. The results obtained demonstrated that, compared with TRAIL or DIM treatment alone, co-treatment with TRAIL (25 or 50 ng/ml) and DIM (10 µmol/l) induced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in BGC-823 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression levels of death receptor 5 (DR5), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were upregulated in the co-treated gastric cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide evidence that DIM sensitizes TRAIL-induced inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, accompanied by the upregulated expression of DR5, CHOP and GRP78 proteins, which may be involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanisms.

  18. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  19. Micro-environmental mechanical stress controls tumor spheroid size and morphology by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    Full Text Available Compressive mechanical stress produced during growth in a confining matrix limits the size of tumor spheroids, but little is known about the dynamics of stress accumulation, how the stress affects cancer cell phenotype, or the molecular pathways involved.We co-embedded single cancer cells with fluorescent micro-beads in agarose gels and, using confocal microscopy, recorded the 3D distribution of micro-beads surrounding growing spheroids. The change in micro-bead density was then converted to strain in the gel, from which we estimated the spatial distribution of compressive stress around the spheroids. We found a strong correlation between the peri-spheroid solid stress distribution and spheroid shape, a result of the suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death in regions of high mechanical stress. By compressing spheroids consisting of cancer cells overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, we demonstrate that mechanical stress-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway.Our results provide detailed, quantitative insight into the role of micro-environmental mechanical stress in tumor spheroid growth dynamics, and suggest how tumors grow in confined locations where the level of solid stress becomes high. An important implication is that apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, induced by compressive stress, may be involved in tumor dormancy, in which tumor growth is held in check by a balance of apoptosis and proliferation.

  20. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  1. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  2. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    ...). The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of VSV-induced killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  3. NO-Releasing Enmein-Type Diterpenoid Derivatives with Selective Antiproliferative Activity and Effects on Apoptosis-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of nine enmein-type ent-kaurane diterpenoid and furoxan-based nitric oxide (NO donor hybrids (10a–i were designed and synthesized from commercially available oridonin (1. These hybrids were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against Bel-7402, K562, MGC-803, and CaEs-17 human cancer cell lines and L-02 normal liver cells. The antiproliferative activity against tumor cells was stronger than the lead compound 1 and parent molecule 9 in most cases. Especially, compound 10f showed the strongest activity against human hepatocarcinoma Bel-7402 cell line with an IC50 of 0.81 μM and could also release 33.7 μmol/L NO at the time point of 60 min. Compounds 10a–i also showed cytotoxic selectivity between tumor and normal liver cells with IC50 ranging from 22.1 to 33.9 μM. Furthermore, the apoptotic properties on Bel-7402 cells revealed that 10f could induce S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The effects of 10f on apoptosis-related proteins were also investigated. The potent antiproliferative activities and mechanistic studies warrant further preclinical investigations.

  4. Sensitization of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant malignant melanomas by quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine A; Manouchehri, Jasmine M; Kalafatis, Michael

    2018-03-28

    Malignant melanoma is the most commonly diagnosed skin cancer associated with a high rate of metastasis. Low-stage melanoma is easily treated, but metastatic malignant melanoma is an extremely treatment-resistant malignancy with low survival rates. The application of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma holds considerable promise because of its selective proapoptotic activity towards cancer cells and not nontransformed cells. Unfortunately, the clinical utilization of rhTRAIL has been terminated due to the resistance of many cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to rhTRAIL. However, rhTRAIL-resistance can be abrogated through the cotreatment with compounds derived from 'Mother Nature' such as quercetin that can modulate cellular components responsible for rhTRAIL-resistance. Here, we show that rhTRAIL-resistant malignant melanomas are sensitized by quercetin. Quercetin action is manifested by the upregulation of rhTRAIL-binding receptors DR4 and DR5 on the surface of cancer cells and by increased rate of the proteasome-mediated degradation of the antiapoptotic protein FLIP. Our data provide for a new efficient and nontoxic treatment of malignant melanoma.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  5. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molinsky, J.; Klánová, M.; Koc, Michal; Beranová, Lenka; Anděra, Ladislav; Ludvíková, Z.; Bohmova, M.; Gasova, Z.; Strnad, Miroslav; Ivánek, R.; Trněný, M.; Nečas, E.; Živný, J.; Klener, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 372-380 ISSN 1042-8194 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS10287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : roscovitine * TRAIL * synergism * apoptosis * leukemia * lymphoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2013

  6. Inducing death in tumor cells: roles of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Finlay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous group of diseases collectively termed cancer results not just from aberrant cellular proliferation but also from a lack of accompanying homeostatic cell death. Indeed, cancer cells regularly acquire resistance to programmed cell death, or apoptosis, which not only supports cancer progression but also leads to resistance to therapeutic agents. Thus, various approaches have been undertaken in order to induce apoptosis in tumor cells for therapeutic purposes. Here, we will focus our discussion on agents that directly affect the apoptotic machinery itself rather than on drugs that induce apoptosis in tumor cells indirectly, such as by DNA damage or kinase dependency inhibition. As the roles of the Bcl-2 family have been extensively studied and reviewed recently, we will focus in this review specifically on the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family. IAPs are a disparate group of proteins that all contain a baculovirus IAP repeat domain, which is important for the inhibition of apoptosis in some, but not all, family members. We describe each of the family members with respect to their structural and functional similarities and differences and their respective roles in cancer. Finally, we also review the current state of IAPs as targets for anti-cancer therapeutics and discuss the current clinical state of IAP antagonists.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salenCl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salenCl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salenCl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salenCl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC remain largely unaffected by Fe(salenCl. Fe(salenCl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salenCl treatment suggests that Fe(salenCl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salenCl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salenCl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salen)Cl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nitika; Pratheek, B M; Garai, Antara; Kumar, Ashutosh; Meena, Vikram S; Ghosh, Shyamasree; Singh, Sujay; Kumari, Shikha; Chandrashekar, T K; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Kar, Sanjib; Maiti, Prasanta K

    2014-10-01

    Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salen)Cl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salen)Cl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salen)Cl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) remain largely unaffected by Fe(salen)Cl. Fe(salen)Cl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salen)Cl treatment suggests that Fe(salen)Cl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salen)Cl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salen)Cl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. A Novel Role of IGF1 in Apo2L/TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of Ewing Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Valen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 reputedly opposes chemotoxicity in Ewing sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT cells. However, the effect of IGF1 on apoptosis induced by apoptosis ligand 2 (Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor (TNF- related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL remains to be established. We find that opposite to the partial survival effect of short-term IGF1 treatment, long-term IGF1 treatment amplified Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive but not resistant ESFT cell lines. Remarkably, the specific IGF1 receptor (IGF1R antibody α-IR3 was functionally equivalent to IGF1. Short-term IGF1 incubation of cells stimulated survival kinase AKT and increased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP protein which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL resistance. In contrast, long-term IGF1 incubation resulted in repression of XIAP protein through ceramide (Cer formation derived from de novo synthesis which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitization. Addition of ceramide synthase (CerS inhibitor fumonisin B1 during long-term IGF1 treatment reduced XIAP repression and Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Noteworthy, the resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents was maintained in cells following chronic IGF1 treatment. Overall, the results suggest that chronic IGF1 treatment renders ESFT cells susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis and may have important implications for the biology as well as the clinical management of refractory ESFT.

  10. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-12-21

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy.

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Apoptosis in U937 Cells Promotes Cathepsin D-Independent Stefin B Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidovec, Katja; Božič, Janja; Dolenc, Iztok; Turk, Boris; Turk, Vito; Stoka, Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Lysosomal cathepsins were previously found to be involved in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced apoptosis. However, there are opposing views regarding their role as either initiators or amplifiers of the signaling cascade as well as the order of molecular events during this process. In this study, we investigated the role of cathepsin D (catD) in TNFα/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in U937 human monocytic cells. TNFα-induced apoptosis proceeds through caspase-8 activation, processing of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bid, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and caspase-3 activation. The translocation of lysosomal catD into the cytosol was a late event, suggesting that lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsins are not required for the induction of apoptosis, but rather amplifies the process through the generation of reactive oxygen species. For the first time, we show that apoptosis is accompanied by degradation of the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor stefin B (StfB). CatD did not exhibit a crucial role in this step. However, this degradation was partially prevented through pre-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, although it did not prevent apoptosis and its progression. These results suggest that the degradation of StfB, as a response to TNFα, could induce a cell death amplification effect as a result of progressive damage to lysosomes during TNFα treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4813-4820, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Selective apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cell line by truncated minimal functional region of Apoptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ni, Lim; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah bt; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi b; Othman, Abas Mazni b; Othman, Fauziah bt

    2013-01-01

    Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) VP3 protein (also known as Apoptin), a basic and proline-rich protein has a unique capability in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Five truncated Apoptin proteins were analyzed to determine their selective ability to migrate into the nucleus of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells for inducing apoptosis. For identification of the minimal selective domain for apoptosis, the wild-type Apoptin gene had been reconstructed by PCR to generate segmental deletions at the N’ terminal and linked with nuclear localization sites (NLS1 and NLS2). All the constructs were fused with maltose-binding protein gene and individually expressed by in vitro Rapid Translation System. Standardized dose of proteins were delivered into human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and control human liver Chang cells by cytoplasmic microinjection, and subsequently observed for selective apoptosis effect. Three of the truncated Apoptin proteins with N-terminal deletions spanning amino acid 32–83 retained the cancer selective nature of wild-type Apoptin. The proteins were successfully translocated to the nucleus of MCF-7 cells initiating apoptosis, whereas non-toxic cytoplasmic retention was observed in normal Chang cells. Whilst these truncated proteins retained the tumour-specific death effector ability, the specificity for MCF-7 cells was lost in two other truncated proteins that harbor deletions at amino acid 1–31. The detection of apoptosing normal Chang cells and MCF-7 cells upon cytoplasmic microinjection of these proteins implicated a loss in Apoptin’s signature targeting activity. Therefore, the critical stretch spanning amino acid 1–31 at the upstream of a known hydrophobic leucine-rich stretch (LRS) was strongly suggested as one of the prerequisite region in Apoptin for cancer targeting. Identification of this selective domain provides a platform for developing small targets to facilitating carrier-mediated-transport across

  13. Cymbopogon citratus and Camellia sinensis extracts selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce growth of lymphoma xenografts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Cory; Ma, Dennis; Ruvinov, Ivan; Mansour, Fadi; Pignanelli, Christopher; Noel, Megan; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John; Rodrigues, Mark; Singh, Inderpal; Ropat, Jesse; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are reported to have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are highly dependent on cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Numerous nutraceuticals and natural polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of abilities to alter cellular redox states with potential implications in various diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic options for cancers are mostly nonselective treatments including genotoxic or tubulin-targeting compounds. Some of the natural extracts, containing multiple bioactive compounds, could target multiple pathways in cancer cells to selectively induce cell death. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Camellia sinensis (white tea) extracts have been shown to have medicinal properties, however, their activity against lymphoma and leukemia, as well as mechanistic details, have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report potent anti-cancer properties in dose and time-dependent manners of ethanolic lemongrass and hot water white tea extracts in lymphoma and leukemia models. Both extracts were able to effectively induce apoptosis selectively in these human cancer cell types. Interestingly, ethanolic lemongrass extract induces apoptosis primarily by the extrinsic pathway and was found to be dependent on the generation of ROS. Conversely, apoptotic induction by hot water white tea extract was independent of ROS. Furthermore, both of these extracts caused mitochondrial depolarization and decreased rates of oxygen consumption in lymphoma and leukemia cells, leading to cell death. Most importantly, both these extracts were effective in reducing tumor growth in human lymphoma xenograft models when administered orally. Thus, these natural extracts could have potential for being nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of cancer. PMID:29340014

  14. Silencing of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 by siRNA in EC109 Cells Affects Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Changhui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1 is a membrane receptor able to bind TNF-α or TNF-β. TNFR1 can suppress apoptosis by activating the NF-κB or JNK/SAPK signal transduction pathway, or it can induce apoptosis through a series of caspase cascade reactions; the particular effect may depend on the cell line. In the present study, we first showed that TNFR1 is expressed at both the gene and protein levels in the esophageal carcinoma cell line EC109. Then, by applying a specific siRNA, we silenced the expression of TNFR1; this resulted in a significant time-dependent promotion of cell proliferation and downregulation of the apoptotic rate. These results suggest that TNFR1 is strongly expressed in the EC109 cell line and that it may play an apoptosis-mediating role, which may be suppressed by highly activated NF-κB.

  15. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) combined with ionizing radiation on proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yusong; Fu Jinxiang; Zhou Jianying; Zhou Liying; Guo Xiaokui; Zhuang Zhixiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and the possibility of TRAIL combined with radiotherapy. Methods: 1 x 10 4 /ml MCF-7 cell suspension were added to each well of 96-well plates, MCF cell were treated with radiotherapy(RT), TRAIL at different concentration or RT combined with TRAIL. MTT working solution was added and calculated the inhibitory rates of MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cell suspension was added to 6-well plates then treated with TRAIL(1 μg/ml), 8 Gy RT or TRAIL combined with 8 Gy RT. The rates of apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry after incubated 48 h. RT-PCR methods were employed to analyze the expression of apoptosis related gene in different treatment group. Results: MCF-7 cell lines were resistant to TRAIL, but the inhibitory rate was upregulated when MCF-7 cell was treated with TRAIL combined with RT, which had a significant difference compared with RT or TRAIL alone. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-Xl gene were down-regulated when MCF-7 cell lines was treated with 8 Gy RT combined with TRAIL. Conclusions: In vitro, MCF-7 cell lines are resistant to TRAIL, but TRAIL combined with radiotherapy increased the cytotoxic effect. TRAIL has a promising prospect in clinical use. (authors)

  17. LncRNA TUG1 acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioma by promoting cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Meng; An, Gang; Ma, Qingfang

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed multiple functional roles of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 in different types of malignant tumors, except for human glioma. Here, it was designed to study the potential function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma pathogenesis focusing on its regulation on cell apoptosis. The expression of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Further correlation analysis was conducted to show the relationship between taurine upregulated gene 1 expression and different clinicopathologic parameters. Functional studies were performed to investigate the influence of taurine upregulated gene 1 on apoptosis and cell proliferation by using Annexin V/PI staining and cell counting kit-8 assays, respectively. And, caspase activation and Bcl-2 expression were analyzed to explore taurine upregulated gene 1-induced mechanism. taurine upregulated gene 1 expression was significantly inhibited in glioma and showed significant correlation with WHO Grade, tumor size and overall survival. Further experiments revealed that the dysregulation of taurine upregulated gene 1 affected the apoptosis and cell proliferation of glioma cells. Moreover, taurine upregulated gene 1 could induce the activation of caspase-3 and-9, with inhibited expression of Bcl-2, implying the mechanism in taurine upregulated gene 1-induced apoptosis. taurine upregulated gene 1 promoted cell apoptosis of glioma cells by activating caspase-3 and -9-mediated intrinsic pathways and inhibiting Bcl-2-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways, acting as a tumor suppressor in human glioma. This study provided new insights for the function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in cancer biology, and suggested a potent application of taurine upregulated gene 1 overexpression for glioma therapy. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Arctigenin anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer T24 cell line through induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shucai; Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jianbing; Lv, Xiaohong; Li, Xinlei; Yang, Huike; Liu, Ying; Feng, Sijia; Zhang, Yafang

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti-tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32-7.01% and 3.07-7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1±0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2±0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  20. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Eva-Maria; Wunderlich, Roland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ebel, Nina [Department of Process Technology and Machinery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Rubner, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schlücker, Eberhard [Department of Process Technology and Machinery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Meyer-Pittroff, Roland [Competence Pool Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Freising (Germany); Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.frey@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-10-09

    Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long-lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient's immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects). Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine's immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens (TAs) are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine's efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell-based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected

  1. Regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by early growth response-1 gene in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with activation of certain immediate-early genes that function as transcription factors. These include members of jun or fos and early growth response (EGR) gene families. In particular, the functional role of EGR-1 in radiation-induced signaling is pivotal since the promoter of EGR-1 contains radiation-inducible CArG DNA sequences. The Egr-1 gene belongs to a family of Egr genes that includes EGR-2, EGR-3, EGR-4, EGR-α and the tumor suppressor, Wilms' tumor gene product, WT1. The Egr-1 gene product, EGR-1, is a nuclear protein that contains three zinc fingers of the C 2 H 2 subtype. The EGR-1 GC-rich consensus target sequence, 5'-GCGT/GGGGCG-3' or 5'-TCCT/ACCTCCTCC-3', has been identified in the promoter regions of transcription factors, growth factors, receptors, cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. The gene targets mediated by Egr-1 in response to ionizing radiation include TNF-α , p53, Rb and Bax, all these are effectors of apoptosis. Based on these targets, Egr-1 is a pivotal gene that initiates early signal transduction events in response to ionizing radiation leading to either growth arrest or cell death in tumor cells. There are two potential application of Egr-1 gene in therapy of cancer. First, the Egr-1 promoter contains information for appropriate spatial and temporal expression in-vivo that can be regulated by ionizing radiation to control transcription of genes that have pro-apoptotic and suicidal function. Secondly, EGR-1 protein can eliminate 'induced-radiation resistance' by inhibiting the functions of radiation-induced pro-survival genes (NFκB activity and bcl-2 expression) and activate pro-apoptotic genes (such as bax) to confer a significant radio-sensitizing effect. Together, the reported findings from my laboratory demonstrate clearly that EGR-1 is an early central gene that confers radiation sensitivity and its pro-apoptotic functions are synergized by abrogation of induced radiation

  2. Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is BAK-dependent, but BAX and BIM-independent in breast tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Miller

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel (Taxol-induced cell death requires the intrinsic cell death pathway, but the specific participants and the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies indicate that a BH3-only protein BIM (BCL-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death plays a role in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We show here that BIM is dispensable in apoptosis with paclitaxel treatment using bim(-/- MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the bim(-/- mouse breast tumor model, and shRNA-mediated down-regulation of BIM in human breast cancer cells. In contrast, both bak (-/- MEFs and human breast cancer cells in which BAK was down-regulated by shRNA were more resistant to paclitaxel. However, paclitaxel sensitivity was not affected in bax(-/- MEFs or in human breast cancer cells in which BAX was down-regulated, suggesting that paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is BAK-dependent, but BAX-independent. In human breast cancer cells, paclitaxel treatment resulted in MCL-1 degradation which was prevented by a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. A Cdk inhibitor, roscovitine, blocked paclitaxel-induced MCL-1 degradation and apoptosis, suggesting that Cdk activation at mitotic arrest could induce subsequent MCL-1 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. BAK was associated with MCL-1 in untreated cells and became activated in concert with loss of MCL-1 expression and its release from the complex. Our data suggest that BAK is the mediator of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and could be an alternative target for overcoming paclitaxel resistance.

  3. ADAM12 redistributes and activates MMP-14, resulting in gelatin degradation, reduced apoptosis and increased tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kveiborg, Marie; Hansen, Dorte Stautz

    2013-01-01

    that there is a positive correlation between MMP-14 and ADAM12 expression in human breast cancer. We demonstrated that in 293-VnR and human breast cancer cells expressing ADAM12 at the cell surface, endogenous MMP-14 was recruited to the cell surface, resulting in its activation. Subsequent to this activation, gelatin......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14, play a key role in various aspects of cancer pathology. Likewise, ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), including ADAM12, are upregulated in malignant tumors and contribute to the pathology of cancers. Here, we show....... Furthermore, orthotopic implantation of ADAM12-expressing MCF7 cells in nude mice produced tumors with increased levels of activated MMP-14 and confirmed that ADAM12 protects tumor cells against apoptosis, leading to increased tumor progression. In conclusion, our data suggest that a ternary protein complex...

  4. FDG uptake in cold and heat treated MCF-7 cells, comparison with cell viability, apoptosis, and tumor marker changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, X.; Huang, G.; Liu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives-To investigate the FDG uptake changes in cold and hyperthermia therapy and its correlation with cell viability, apoptosis and tumor marker changes. Methods: An in vitro cultured breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF- 7, was divided into 5 groups. Hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 43 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypothermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypo- and hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min and 43 degree centigrade 30 min. chemotherapy group: cell was treated with 21 microgram Cisplatin for 6 hours. And Control group: cell was untreated. The levels 18F-labelled FDG uptake, a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide viability assay, flow cytometry assay and tumor markers (CA153, CA125) were detected at 24 hour and 48 hour. Results: The change of 18F- FDG uptake (which came out at the 24h) is early than tumor marker (which came out at the 48h) under our study conditions. In treated MCF-7 cells, the levels of 18F-labelled FDG uptake were significantly lower than control group. The levels of 18F-FDG uptake depression were well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis data. Conclusion: FDG uptake is sensitive and well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis assay, and can be used for early response monitoring in hypo- and hyperthermia therapy. (author)

  5. Updates in the Development of ImmunoRNases for the Selective Killing of Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jordaan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cancer therapy includes, amongst others, antibody-based delivery of toxic payloads to selectively eliminate tumor cells. This payload can be either a synthetic small molecule drug composing an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC or a cytotoxic protein composing an immunotoxin (IT. Non-human cytotoxic proteins, while potent, have limited clinical efficacy due to their immunogenicity and potential off-target toxicity. Humanization of the cytotoxic payload is essential and requires harnessing of potent apoptosis-inducing human proteins with conditional activity, which rely on targeted delivery to contact their substrate. Ribonucleases are attractive candidates, due to their ability to induce apoptosis by abrogating protein biosynthesis via tRNA degradation. In fact, several RNases of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily have shown potential as anti-cancer agents. Coupling of a human RNase to a humanized antibody or antibody derivative putatively eliminates the immunogenicity of an IT (now known as a human cytolytic fusion protein, hCFP. However, RNases are tightly regulated in vivo by endogenous inhibitors, controlling the ribonucleolytic balance subject to the cell’s metabolic requirements. Endogenous inhibition limits the efficacy with which RNase-based hCFPs induce apoptosis. However, abrogating the natural interaction with the natural inhibitors by mutation has been shown to significantly enhance RNase activity, paving the way toward achieving cytolytic potency comparable to that of bacterial immunotoxins. Here, we review the immunoRNases that have undergone preclinical studies as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  6. Updates in the Development of ImmunoRNases for the Selective Killing of Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sandra; Akinrinmade, Olusiji A; Nachreiner, Thomas; Cremer, Christian; Naran, Krupa; Chetty, Shivan; Barth, Stefan

    2018-03-05

    Targeted cancer therapy includes, amongst others, antibody-based delivery of toxic payloads to selectively eliminate tumor cells. This payload can be either a synthetic small molecule drug composing an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) or a cytotoxic protein composing an immunotoxin (IT). Non-human cytotoxic proteins, while potent, have limited clinical efficacy due to their immunogenicity and potential off-target toxicity. Humanization of the cytotoxic payload is essential and requires harnessing of potent apoptosis-inducing human proteins with conditional activity, which rely on targeted delivery to contact their substrate. Ribonucleases are attractive candidates, due to their ability to induce apoptosis by abrogating protein biosynthesis via tRNA degradation. In fact, several RNases of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily have shown potential as anti-cancer agents. Coupling of a human RNase to a humanized antibody or antibody derivative putatively eliminates the immunogenicity of an IT (now known as a human cytolytic fusion protein, hCFP). However, RNases are tightly regulated in vivo by endogenous inhibitors, controlling the ribonucleolytic balance subject to the cell's metabolic requirements. Endogenous inhibition limits the efficacy with which RNase-based hCFPs induce apoptosis. However, abrogating the natural interaction with the natural inhibitors by mutation has been shown to significantly enhance RNase activity, paving the way toward achieving cytolytic potency comparable to that of bacterial immunotoxins. Here, we review the immunoRNases that have undergone preclinical studies as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  7. Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Ibrahim, Ibrahim M; Ali, Hala R; Selim, Salah A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

  8. Effects of serum starvation on radiosensitivity, proliferation and apoptosis in four human tumor cell lines with different p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, N.; Zoelzer, F.; Werner, F.; Streffer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of serum starvation on radiation sensitivity, cell proliferation and apoptosis were investigated with particular consideration of the p53 status. Material and Methods: Four human tumor cell lines, Be11 (melanoma, p53 wild-type), MeWo (melanoma, p53 mutant), 4197 (squamous cell carcinoma, p53 wild-type) and 4451 (squamous cell carcinoma, p53 mutant), were used. After the cells had been incubated in starvation medium (0.5% FCS) for 1-6 days, changes in cell cycle distribution, induction of apoptosis and necrosis, and changes in radiation sensitivity were assessed by two-parameter flow cytometric measurements of DNA content/BrdU labeling, two-parameter flow cytometric measurements of DNA-dye-exclusion/Annexin V binding, and a conventional colony assay, respectively. Results: p53 wild-type cell lines showed a decrease in the BrdU labeling index and an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency in starvation medium. p53 mutant cell lines showed a decrease in the BrdU labeling index but no evidence of apoptosis. These cells went into necrosis instead. The radiation sensitivity was increased in 4451 and slightly decreased in Be11 and 4197 in starvation medium. Conclusion: These data suggest a functional involvement of p53 in starvation-induced G1-block and apoptosis in tumor cells. Altered radiosensitivity after culture in starvation medium seemed to be explained at least in part by the starvation-induced G1-block. The frequency of starvation-induced apoptosis or necrosis was not correlated with radiation sensitivity. (orig.)

  9. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase sensitizes tumor cells to flavonoid-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of JunD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Son, Young-Ok; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Seung-Ah; Kim, Beom-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of susceptibility to apoptosis signals is a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells to apoptosis is a promising therapeutic strategy. c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in stress-induced apoptosis. However, many studies also emphasize the role of JNK on cell survival, although its mechanisms are not completely understood. Previously, we found that inhibition of JNK activity promotes flavonoid-mediated apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells. We thus determined whether inhibition of JNK sensitizes tumor cells to a bioflavonoid-induced apoptosis, and whether this effect of JNK is a general effect. As the results, quercetin and genistein as well as a flavonoid fraction induced apoptosis of tumor cells, which was further accelerated by specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125 or by small interfering RNA specific to JNK1/2. This effect was specific to types of cells because it was further apparent in tumorigenic cell lines. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 also reduced flavonoid-stimulated nuclear induction of JunD which was known to have protective role in apoptosis, whereas JNK inhibition alone had little effect on apoptosis. The flavonoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells was significantly enhanced by transfecting them with antisense JunD oligonucleotides. These results suggest that inhibition of JNK facilitates flavonoid-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of JunD, which is further sensitive to tumor cells. Therefore, combination with a specific JNK inhibitor further enhances the anti-cancer and chemopreventive potential of bio-flavonoids

  10. Diclofenac inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation causing synergistic hepatocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Benedetti, Giulia; Matadin, Quraisha; Puigvert, Jordi C; de Bont, Hans; Dragovic, Sanja; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Danen, Erik; de Graauw, Marjo; van de Water, Bob

    2011-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important clinical problem. It involves crosstalk between drug toxicity and the immune system, but the exact mechanism at the cellular hepatocyte level is not well understood. Here we studied the mechanism of crosstalk in hepatocyte apoptosis caused by diclofenac and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). HepG2 cells were treated with diclofenac followed by TNF-α challenge and subsequent evaluation of necrosis and apoptosis. Diclofenac caused a mild apoptosis of HepG2 cells, which was strongly potentiated by TNF-α. A focused apoptosis machinery short interference RNA (siRNA) library screen identified that this TNF-α-mediated enhancement involved activation of caspase-3 through a caspase-8/Bid/APAF1 pathway. Diclofenac itself induced sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibition of JNK decreased both diclofenac and diclofenac/TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Live cell imaging of GFPp65/RelA showed that diclofenac dampened the TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) translocation oscillation in association with reduced NF-κB transcriptional activity. This was associated with inhibition by diclofenac of the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα). Finally, inhibition of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) with BMS-345541 as well as stable lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown of p65/RelA sensitized hepatocytes towards diclofenac/TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity. Together, our data suggest a model whereby diclofenac-mediated stress signaling suppresses TNF-α-induced survival signaling routes and sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. LW6, a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitor, selectively induces apoptosis in hypoxic cells through depolarization of mitochondria in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mariko; Hirose, Katsumi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Aoki, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Narita, Yuichiro; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Hypoxia‑inducible factor 1 (HIF‑1) activates the transcription of genes that act upon the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxia. LW6, an HIF‑1 inhibitor, was hypothesized to improve resistance to cancer therapy in hypoxic tumors by inhibiting the accumulation of HIF‑1α. A clear anti‑tumor effect under low oxygen conditions would indicate that LW6 may be an improved treatment strategy for cancer in hypoxia. In the present study, the HIF‑1 inhibition potential of LW6 on the growth and apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells in association with oxygen availability was evaluated. LW6 was observed to inhibit the expression of HIF‑1α induced by hypoxia in A549 cells at 20 mM, independently of the von Hippel‑Lindau protein. In addition, at this concentration, LW6 induced hypoxia‑selective apoptosis together with a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The intracellular reactive oxygen species levels increased in LW6‑treated hypoxic A549 cells and LW6 induced a hypoxia‑selective increase of mitochondrial O2•‑. In conclusion, LW6 inhibited the growth of hypoxic A549 cells by affecting the mitochondria. The inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is suggested as a potentially effective strategy to target apoptosis in cancer cells.

  12. Assessment of serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer after DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Fan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer. Methods: A total of 79 patients with advanced colon cancer conservatively treated in our hospital between May 2012 and October 2015 were retrospectively studied and divided into DC-CIK group and intravenous chemotherapy group according to different therapeutic regimens, DC-CIK group received DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy group received conventional intravenous chemotherapy. After three cycles of chemotherapy, the content of tumor markers in serum, expression levels of apoptotic molecules in tumor lesions as well as immune function indexes were determined. Results: After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, CEA, CA199, CA242, HIF-1α, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; p53, FAM96B, PTEN, PHLPP, ASPP2 and RASSF10 mRNA content in tumor lesions of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; the fluorescence intensity of CD3, CD4 and CD56 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while the fluorescence intensity of CD8 and CD25 were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; IL-2 and IFN-γ content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions: DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy has better effect on killing colon cancer cells and inducing colon cancer cell apoptosis than conventional intravenous chemotherapy, and can also improve the body's anti-tumor immune response.

  13. Real-time viability and apoptosis kinetic detection method of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Sarah; Cribbes, Scott; Bonasu, Surekha; Rice, William; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-09-01

    The development of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid models for cancer drug discovery research has increased in the recent years. The use of 3D tumor spheroid models may be more representative of the complex in vivo tumor microenvironments in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) assays. Currently, viability of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids has been commonly measured on standard plate-readers using metabolic reagents such as CellTiter-Glo® for end point analysis. Alternatively, high content image cytometers have been used to measure drug effects on spheroid size and viability. Previously, we have demonstrated a novel end point drug screening method for 3D multicellular tumor spheroids using the Celigo Image Cytometer. To better characterize the cancer drug effects, it is important to also measure the kinetic cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we demonstrate the use of PI and caspase 3/7 stains to measure viability and apoptosis for 3D multicellular tumor spheroids in real-time. The method was first validated by staining different types of tumor spheroids with PI and caspase 3/7 and monitoring the fluorescent intensities for 16 and 21 days. Next, PI-stained and nonstained control tumor spheroids were digested into single cell suspension to directly measure viability in a 2D assay to determine the potential toxicity of PI. Finally, extensive data analysis was performed on correlating the time-dependent PI and caspase 3/7 fluorescent intensities to the spheroid size and necrotic core formation to determine an optimal starting time point for cancer drug testing. The ability to measure real-time viability and apoptosis is highly important for developing a proper 3D model for screening tumor spheroids, which can allow researchers to determine time-dependent drug effects that usually are not captured by end point assays. This would improve the current tumor spheroid analysis method to potentially better

  14. Salinomycin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Danxin; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Jie; Fan, Zirong; Shi, Fengrong; Wang, Senming, E-mail: wsenming@126.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlight: •We first evaluated the effect of salinomycin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). •Salinomycin could inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induce apoptosis in NPC. •So salinomycin may be a good potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC. -- Abstract: Salinomycin (Sal) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to induce cell death in various human cancer cells. However, whether salinomycin plays a functional role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been determined to date. The present study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin and its molecular mechanisms of action in NPC cells. Salinomycin efficiently inhibited proliferation and invasion of 3 NPC cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, and CNE-2/DDP) and activated a extensive apoptotic process that is accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, the protein expression level of the Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) and β-catenin was down-regulated, which showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was involved in salinomycin-induced apoptosis of NPC cells. In a nude mouse NPC xenograft model, the anti-tumor effect of salinomycin was associated with the downregulation of β-catenin expression. The present study demonstrated that salinomycin can effectively inhibit proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo, probably via the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, suggesting salinomycin as a potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC.

  15. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-mediated photodynamic therapy selectively kills sarcomas by inducing apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available We investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-mediated photodynamic therapy (HMME-PDT in sarcomas. Intracellular uptake of HMME by osteosarcoma cells (LM8 and K7 was time- and dose-dependent, while this was not observed for myoblast cells (C2C12 and fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3. HMME-PDT markedly inhibited the proliferation of sarcoma cell lines (LM8, MG63, Saos-2, SW1353, TC71, and RD (P<0.05, and the killing effect was improved with increased HMME concentration and energy intensity. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that LM8, MG63, and Saos-2 cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with HMME-PDT. Additionally, apoptosis was induced after HMME-PDT in a three-dimensional culture of osteosarcoma cells. Hoechst 33342 staining confirmed apoptosis. Cell death caused by PDT was rescued by an irreversible inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK of caspase. However, cell viability was not markedly decreased compared with the HMME-PDT group. Expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP proteins were markedly up-regulated in the treatment groups and increased with HMME concentration as determined by western blot analysis. In vivo, tumor volume markedly decreased at 7-16 days post-PDT. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed widespread necrotic and infiltrative inflammatory cells in the HMME-PDT group. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed that caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9, and PARP proteins were significantly increased in the HMME-PDT group. These results indicate that HMME-PDT has a potent killing effect on osteosarcoma cells in vitro and significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo, which is associated with the caspase-dependent pathway.

  16. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  17. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  18. Staphylococcal Entertotoxins of the Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egcSEs Induce Nitrous Oxide- and Cytokine Dependent Tumor Cell Apoptosis in a Broad Panel of Human Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTerman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The egcSEs comprise five genetically linked staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN and SElO and two pseudotoxins which constitute an operon present in up to 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A preparation containing theses proteins was recently used to treat advanced lung cancer with pleural effusion. We investigated the hypothesis that egcSEs induce nitrous oxide (NO and associated cytokine production and that these agents may be involved in tumoricidal effects against a broad panel of clinically relevant human tumor cells. Preliminary studies showed that egcSEs and SEA activated T cells (range: 11-25% in a concentration dependent manner. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with equimolar quantities of egcSEs expressed NO synthase and generated robust levels of nitrite (range: 200-250 µM, a breakdown product of NO; this reaction was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA (0.3 mM, an NO synthase antagonist. Cell free supernatants (CSFs of all egcSE-stimulated PBMCs were also equally effective in inducing concentration dependent tumor cell apoptosis in a broad panel of human tumor cells. The latter effect was due in part to the generation of NO and TNF-α since it was significantly abolished by L-NMMA, anti-TNF-α antibodies respectively and a combination thereof. A hierarchy of tumor cell sensitivity to these CFSs was as follows: lung carcinoma>osteogenic sarcoma>melanoma>breast carcinoma>neuroblastoma. Notably, SEG induced robust activation of NO/TNFα-dependent tumor cell apoptosis comparable to the other egcSEs and SEA despite TNF-α and IFN-γ levels that were 2 and 8 fold lower respectively than the other egcSEs and SEA. Thus, egcSEs produced by S. aureus induce NO synthase and the increased NO formation together with TNF-α appear to contribute to egcSE-mediated apoptosis against a broad panel of human tumor cells.

  19. Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MRK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa R K Ali,1 Ibrahim M Ibrahim,2,† Hala R Ali,2,3 Salah A Selim,2 Mostafa A El-Sayed1,4 1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Laser Dynamics Laboratory, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 4School of Chemistry, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia †Ibrahim M Ibrahim passed away on August 23, 2015 Abstract: Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment. Keywords: gold nanorods, natural mammary tumors, plasmonic photothermal therapy, canine, feline

  20. Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganatha R Somasagara

    Full Text Available The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties.Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB fruits in leukaemia (CEM and breast cancer (T47D cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated.The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved.

  1. Repression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL but not its receptors during oral cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5 and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2 receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM, oral premalignancies (OPM, and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. Methods DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Results Normal oral epithelia constitutively expressed TRAIL, but expression was progressively lost in OPM and OSCC. Reduction in DcR2 expression levels was noted frequently in OPM and OSCC compared to respective patient-matched uninvolved oral mucosa. OSCC frequently expressed DR4, DR5 and DcR1 but less frequently DcR2. Expression levels of DR4, DR5 and DcR1 receptors were not significantly altered in OPM, primary OSCC and metastatic OSCC compared to patient-matched normal oral mucosa. Expression of proapoptotic TRAIL-receptors DR4 and DR5 in OSCC seemed to depend, at least in part, on whether or not these receptors were expressed in their parental oral epithelia. High DR5 expression in primary OSCC correlated significantly with larger tumor size. There was no significant association between TRAIL-R expression and OSSC histology grade, nodal status or apoptosis rates of tumor cells and TIL. Conclusion Loss of TRAIL expression is an early event during oral

  2. Repression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not its receptors during oral cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Baucum, Darryl C; Wu, Jean; Lou, Yahuan; Bouquot, Jerry; Muller, Susan; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5) and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2) receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral premalignancies (OPM), and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Normal oral epithelia constitutively expressed TRAIL, but expression was progressively lost in OPM and OSCC. Reduction in DcR2 expression levels was noted frequently in OPM and OSCC compared to respective patient-matched uninvolved oral mucosa. OSCC frequently expressed DR4, DR5 and DcR1 but less frequently DcR2. Expression levels of DR4, DR5 and DcR1 receptors were not significantly altered in OPM, primary OSCC and metastatic OSCC compared to patient-matched normal oral mucosa. Expression of proapoptotic TRAIL-receptors DR4 and DR5 in OSCC seemed to depend, at least in part, on whether or not these receptors were expressed in their parental oral epithelia. High DR5 expression in primary OSCC correlated significantly with larger tumor size. There was no significant association between TRAIL-R expression and OSSC histology grade, nodal status or apoptosis rates of tumor cells and TIL. Loss of TRAIL expression is an early event during oral carcinogenesis and may be involved in dysregulation of apoptosis and

  3. The selective Cox-2 inhibitor Celecoxib suppresses angiogenesis and growth of secondary bone tumors: An intravital microscopy study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenke, Frank Michael; Gebhard, Martha-Maria; Ewerbeck, Volker; Abdollahi, Amir; Huber, Peter E; Sckell, Axel

    2006-01-01

    The inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant primary and secondary tumors in addition to established therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. There is strong experimental evidence in primary tumors that Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibition is a potent mechanism to reduce angiogenesis. For bone metastases which occur in up to 85% of the most frequent malignant primary tumors, the effects of Cox-2 inhibition on angiogenesis and tumor growth remain still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Celecoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, on angiogenesis, microcirculation and growth of secondary bone tumors. In 10 male severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, pieces of A549 lung carcinomas were implanted into a newly developed cranial window preparation where the calvaria serves as the site for orthotopic implantation of the tumors. From day 8 after tumor implantation, five animals (Celecoxib) were treated daily with Celecoxib (30 mg/kg body weight, s.c.), and five animals (Control) with the equivalent amount of the CMC-based vehicle. Angiogenesis, microcirculation, and growth of A549 tumors were analyzed by means of intravital microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified using the TUNEL assay. Treatment with Celecoxib reduced both microvessel density and tumor growth. TUNEL reaction showed an increase in apoptotic cell death of tumor cells after treatment with Celecoxib as compared to Controls. Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth of secondary bone tumors in vivo which can be explained by its anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects. The results indicate that a combination of established therapy regimes with Cox-2 inhibition represents a possible application for the treatment of bone metastases

  4. Selective tumor cell targeting by the disaccharide moiety of bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Schmaltz, Ryan M; Bozeman, Trevor C; Paul, Rakesh; Rishel, Michael J; Tsosie, Krystal S; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-02-27

    In a recent study, the well-documented tumor targeting properties of the antitumor agent bleomycin (BLM) were studied in cell culture using microbubbles that had been derivatized with multiple copies of BLM. It was shown that BLM selectively targeted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells but not the "normal" breast cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, it was found that the BLM analogue deglycobleomycin, which lacks the disaccharide moiety of BLM, did not target either cell line, indicating that the BLM disaccharide moiety is necessary for tumor selectivity. Not resolved in the earlier study were the issues of whether the BLM disaccharide moiety alone is sufficient for tumor cell targeting and the possible cellular uptake of the disaccharide. In the present study, we conjugated BLM, deglycoBLM, and BLM disaccharide to the cyanine dye Cy5**. It was found that the BLM and BLM disaccharide conjugates, but not the deglycoBLM conjugate, bound selectively to MCF-7 cells and were internalized. The same was also true for the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 (but not for normal PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells) and for the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 (but not for normal SVR A221a pancreas cells). The targeting efficiency of the disaccharide was only slightly less than that of BLM in MCF-7 and DU-145 cells and comparable to that of BLM in BxPC-3 cells. These results establish that the BLM disaccharide is both necessary and sufficient for tumor cell targeting, a finding with obvious implications for the design of novel tumor imaging and therapeutic agents.

  5. Selection, calibration, and validation of models of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E A B F; Oden, J T; Hormuth, D A; Yankeelov, T E; Almeida, R C

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents general approaches for addressing some of the most important issues in predictive computational oncology concerned with developing classes of predictive models of tumor growth. First, the process of developing mathematical models of vascular tumors evolving in the complex, heterogeneous, macroenvironment of living tissue; second, the selection of the most plausible models among these classes, given relevant observational data; third, the statistical calibration and validation of models in these classes, and finally, the prediction of key Quantities of Interest (QOIs) relevant to patient survival and the effect of various therapies. The most challenging aspects of this endeavor is that all of these issues often involve confounding uncertainties: in observational data, in model parameters, in model selection, and in the features targeted in the prediction. Our approach can be referred to as "model agnostic" in that no single model is advocated; rather, a general approach that explores powerful mixture-theory representations of tissue behavior while accounting for a range of relevant biological factors is presented, which leads to many potentially predictive models. Then representative classes are identified which provide a starting point for the implementation of OPAL, the Occam Plausibility Algorithm (OPAL) which enables the modeler to select the most plausible models (for given data) and to determine if the model is a valid tool for predicting tumor growth and morphology ( in vivo ). All of these approaches account for uncertainties in the model, the observational data, the model parameters, and the target QOI. We demonstrate these processes by comparing a list of models for tumor growth, including reaction-diffusion models, phase-fields models, and models with and without mechanical deformation effects, for glioma growth measured in murine experiments. Examples are provided that exhibit quite acceptable predictions of tumor growth in laboratory

  6. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajão Daniela S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi, by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  7. Vitamin K3 analogs induce selective tumor cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Toru; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Keiichi; Miura, Motofumi; Toriyama, Masaharu; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of eight vitamin K3 (VK3) analogs against neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR-32, LA-N-1, NB-39, and SK-N-SH) and normal cell lines (human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)) using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 2-[(2-Methoxy)ethylthio]-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3-OCH(3)) showed especially potent cytotoxic activities against neuroblastoma cells compared with normal cells. In a Hoechst 33342 staining experiment, apoptotic morphologies characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and nuclear fragmentation were observed in IMR-32 and LA-N-1 cells after 48 h of treatment with 10(-5) M of VK3-OCH(3). To clarify the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by VK3-OCH(3), we examined the expression of apoptosis related proteins using a Proteome Profiler Array and western blotting. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 was remarkably increased by VK3-OCH(3) compared with the control (173% in IMR-32 and 170% in LA-N-1 at 24 h). Moreover, caveolin-1 was induced by VK3-OCH(3) at 48 h. In addition, VK3-OCH(3) arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in IMR-32 cells. These results suggest that VK3-OCH(3) exhibited a selective antitumor activity via HO-1-related mechanisms.

  8. Apoptosis-inducing effect of selective sensory or motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei ZHAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the apoptosis-inducing effect of selective sensory or motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy.Methods Thirty healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups,namely,ventral root transection group(VRT group,received left L4-L6 ventral rhizotomy,dorsal root transection group(DRT group,received left L4-L6 dorsal rhizotomy,and sciatic nerve transection group(SNT group,received left sciatic nerve transection.Each group comprised 10 SD rats.The bilateral gastrocnemius was harvested 10 weeks after operation to observe the apoptosis and Fas/FasL expression of the skeletal muscle cells through fluorescent labeling,transmission electron microscopy,and immunohistochemistry.Result Ten weeks after the denervation,apoptosis-related changes,especially obvious changes of the nuclear apoptotic morphology,were observed in the skeletal muscle cells.The aggregation degree of the nucleus and the expression of Fas/FasL increased in the following order: DRT group,VRT group,and SNT group.No apoptotic body,but early apoptotic morphology,was found in the denervated gastrocnemius through transmission electron microscopy.Conclusions The effect of motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy is more serious than that of sensory nerve injury.The rebuilding of motor nerves should be preferentially considered in the clinical treatment of muscle atrophy induced by denervation.

  9. Apoptosis induced by chlormethine and ionizing radiations in normal and tumoral lymphocytes: role of caspase-3; Apoptose induite par la chlormethine et les radiations ionisantes dans les lymphocytes normaux et tumoraux: role de la caspase-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, V.P

    2000-07-01

    Apoptosis can be induced by various stimuli like ionizing radiations or alkylating agents. Recent works have shown that apoptosis due to ionizing radiations can be initiated by DNA and cell membrane alterations, via radical species generation, implying the in fine activation of effector caspases, and in particular caspase-3. The main goal of this work is to clarify the role of caspase-3 in the radio-induced apoptosis mechanisms and to study the effects of apoptosis inhibition on the behaviour of the damaged cells. The effects of activation and caspase-3 activity inhibition on the progress of spontaneous, radio-induced or chlormethine-induced apoptosis have been evaluated for normal and tumoral lymphocytes. A chemical molecule, the ebselen, which can mime the action of the endogenous glutathione peroxidase, and a tetra-peptide inhibitor, AC-DEVD-CHO, selective of effector caspases, have been selected. The results indicate an inhibition by ebselen of all morphological and biochemical characteristics of chlormethine-induced apoptosis and a restoring of the cells viability. This seleno-organic compound also reduces the drop of the intra-cellular glutathione level and the loss of the trans-membrane potential (M) of the mitochondrion in the MOLT-4 tumoral cells treated with chlormethine. In parallel, the AC-DEVD-CHO effect on apoptosis induction has been tested. This inhibitor stops some chlormethine-induced criteria of apoptosis without affecting the final loss of the mitochondrial M and the cells proliferation. AC-DEVD-CHO has been also incubated just before the irradiation of the culture cells. The inhibition of the specific DEVD caspases prevents the inter-nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA and partially delays the externalization of phosphatidylserine without changing the viability of the irradiated cells. Moreover, the analysis of the AC-DEVD-CHO pre-treated irradiated cells floating on the surface shows a strong mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase activity, which

  10. Achillea millefolium L. hydroethanolic extract inhibits growth of human tumor cell lines by interfering with cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana M; Peixoto, Vanessa; Teixeira, Alexandra; Sousa, Diana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2018-06-05

    The cell growth inhibitory activity of the hydroethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium was studied in human tumor cell lines (NCI-H460 and HCT-15) and its mechanism of action was investigated. The GI 50 concentration was determined with the sulforhodamine B assay and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry following incubation with PI or Annexin V FITC/PI, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by Western blot. The extracts were characterized regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. 3,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, followed by 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were the main phenolic acids, while, luteolin-O-acetylhexoside and apigenin-O-acetylhexoside were the main flavonoids. This extract decreased the growth of the tested cell lines, being more potent in HCT-15 and then in NCI-H460 cells. Two different concentrations of the extract (75 and 100 μg/mL) caused alterations in cell cycle profile and increased apoptosis levels in HCT-15 and NCI-H460 cells. Moreover, the extract caused an increase in p53 and p21 expression in NCI-H460 cells (which have wt p53), and reduced XIAP levels in HCT-15 cells (with mutant p53). This work enhances the importance of A. millefolium as source of bioactive phenolic compounds, particularly of XIAP inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  12. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (Kae, a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.

  13. ROS accumulation by PEITC selectively kills ovarian cancer cells via UPR-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-hee eHong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfolded protein response (UPR is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on UPR mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null- type, respectively. PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 µM, apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and ER resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR (PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3 in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 µM. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78, suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner.

  14. [Methylation of selected tumor-supressor genes in benign and malignant ovarian tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cul'bová, M; Lasabová, Z; Stanclová, A; Tilandyová, P; Zúbor, P; Fiolka, R; Danko, J; Visnovský, J

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the usefullness of examination of methylation status of selected tumor-supressor genes in early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Prospective clinical study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Molecular Biology, Jessenius Medical Faculty, Commenius University, Martin, Slovak Republic. In this study we analyzed hypermethylation of 5 genes RASSF1A, GSTP, E-cadherin, p16 and APC in ovarian tumor samples from 34 patients - 13 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 2 patients with border-line ovarian tumors, 12 patients with benign lesions of ovaries and 7 patients with healthy ovarian tissue. The methylation status of promoter region of tumor-supressor genes was determined by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP) using a nested two-step approach with bisulfite modified DNA template and specific primers. Gene methylation analysis revealed hypermethylation of gene RASSF1A (46%) and GSTP (8%) only in malignant ovarian tissue samples. Ecad, p16 and APC genes were methylated both in maignant and benign tissue samples. Methylation positivity in observed genes was present independently to all clinical stages of ovarian cancer and to tumor grades. However, there was observed a trend of increased number and selective involvement of methylated genes with increasing disease stages. Furthermore, there was no association between positive methylation status and histological subtypes of ovarian carcinomas. RASSF1A and GSTP promoter methylation positivity is associated with ovarian cancer. The revealed gene-selective methylation positivity and the increased number of methylated genes with advancing disease stages could be considered as a useful molecular marker for early detection of ovarian cancer. However, there is need to find diagnostic approach of specifically and frequently methylated genes to determining a methylation phenotype for early detection of ovarian malignancies.

  15. Sinularin Selectively Kills Breast Cancer Cells Showing G2/M Arrest, Apoptosis, and Oxidative DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurng-Wern Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural compound sinularin, isolated from marine soft corals, is antiproliferative against several cancers, but its possible selective killing effect has rarely been investigated. This study investigates the selective killing potential and mechanisms of sinularin-treated breast cancer cells. In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H- tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay, sinularin dose-responsively decreased the cell viability of two breast cancer (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but showed less effect on breast normal (M10 cells after a 24 h treatment. According to 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD flow cytometry, sinularin dose-responsively induced the G2/M cycle arrest of SKBR3 cells. Sinularin dose-responsively induced apoptosis on SKBR3 cells in terms of a flow cytometry-based annexin V/7AAD assay and pancaspase activity, as well as Western blotting for cleaved forms of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspases 3, 8, and 9. These caspases and PARP activations were suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC pretreatment. Moreover, sinularin dose-responsively induced oxidative stress and DNA damage according to flow cytometry analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP, mitochondrial superoxide, and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG. In conclusion, sinularin induces selective killing, G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage of breast cancer cells.

  16. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE/g of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g. When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL, Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL, and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  17. PI3K/Akt signaling mediated Hexokinase-2 expression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Baobiao; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhengwei; Qin, Haihui; Sun, Qingzeng; Zhang, Fengfei; Shen, Yang; Shi, Yingchun [Department of Surgery, The Children' s Hospital of Xuzhou, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221006 (China); Wang, Rong, E-mail: wangrong2008163@163.com [Department of Ultrasonography, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221006 (China)

    2015-08-21

    Accumulating evidence has shown that PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in osteosarcoma (OS) and contributes to tumor initiation and progression. Altered phenotype of glucose metabolism is a key hallmark of cancer cells including OS. However, the relationship between PI3K/Akt pathway and glucose metabolism in OS remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that elevated Hexokinase-2 (HK2) expression, which catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism by conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, was induced by activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HK2 was overexpressed in 83.3% (25/30) specimens detected and was closely correlated with Ki67, a cell proliferation index. Silencing of endogenous HK2 resulted in decreased aerobic glycolysis as demonstrated by reduced glucose consumption and lactate production. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling also suppressed aerobic glycolysis and this effect can be reversed by reintroduction of HK2. Furthermore, knockdown of HK2 led to increased cell apoptosis and reduced ability of colony formation; meanwhile, these effects were blocked by 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolysis inhibitor through its actions on hexokinase, indicating that HK2 functions in cell apoptosis and growth were mediated by altered aerobic glycolysis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel relationship between PI3K/Akt signaling and aerobic glycolysis and indicates that PI3K/Akt/HK2 might be potential therapeutic approaches for OS. - Highlights: • PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to elevated expression of HK2 in osteosarcoma. • HK2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth through enhanced Warburg effect. • Inhibition of glycolysis blocks the oncogenic activity of HK2.

  18. Effect of long interval between hyperthermochemoradiation therapy and surgery for rectal cancer on apoptosis, proliferation and tumor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toshihide; Fujii, Takaaki; Ide, Munenori; Takada, Takahiro; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Morita, Hiroki; Yajima, Reina; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Oyama, Tetsunari; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is commonly used to improve the local control and resectability of locally advanced rectal cancer, with surgery performed after an interval of a number of weeks. We have been conducting a clinical trial of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia (hyperthermo-chemoradiation therapy; HCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. In the current study we assessed the effect of a longer (>10 weeks) interval after neoadjuvant HCRT on pathological response, oncological outcome and especially on apoptosis, proliferation and p53 expression in patients with rectal cancer. Forty-eight patients with proven rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent HCRT followed by surgery were identified for inclusion in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between HCRT and surgery, ≤ 10 weeks (short-interval group) and >10 weeks (long-interval group). Patients in the long-interval group had a significantly higher rate of pathological complete response (pCR) (43.5% vs. 16.0%) than patients of the short-interval group. Patients of the long-interval group had a significantly higher rate of down-staging of T-stage (78.3% vs. 36.0%) and relatively higher rate of that of N-stage (52.2% vs. 36.0%) than patients of the short-interval group. Furthermore, apoptosis in the long-interval group was relatively higher compared to that of the short-interval group, without a significant difference in the Ki-67 proliferative index and expression of p53 in the primary tumor. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a longer interval after HCRT (>10 weeks) seemed to result in a better chance of a pCR, a result confirmed by the trends in tumor response markers, including apoptosis, proliferation and p53 expression. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Downregulation of protein kinase CK2 activity facilitates tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies of protein kinase CK2, little progress has been made in understanding its function in chondrocyte death. Our previous study first demonstrated that CK2 is involved in apoptosis of rat articular chondrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that CK2 downregulation is associated with aging. Thus examining the involvement of CK2 downregulation in chondrocyte death is an urgently required task. We undertook this study to examine whether CK2 downregulation modulates chondrocyte death. We first measured CK2 activity in articular chondrocytes of 6-, 21- and 30-month-old rats. Noticeably, CK2 activity was downregulated in chondrocytes with advancing age. To build an in vitro experimental system for simulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced cell death in aged chondrocytes with decreased CK2 activity, chondrocytes were co-treated with CK2 inhibitors and TNF-α. Viability assay demonstrated that CK2 inhibitors facilitated TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, nuclear staining, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, confocal microscopy, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to assess cell death modes. The results of multiple assays showed that this cell death was mediated by apoptosis. Importantly, autophagy was also involved in this process, as supported by the appearance of a punctuate LC3 pattern and autophagic vacuoles. The inhibition of autophagy by silencing of autophage-related genes 5 and 7 as well as by 3-methyladenine treatment protected chondrocytes against cell death and caspase activation, indicating that autophagy led to the induction of apoptosis. Autophagic cells were observed in cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis (OA model rats and human OA patients. Our findings indicate that CK2 down regulation facilitates TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy. It should be clarified in the future if autophagy observed is a consequence

  20. Bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase-ganciclovir gene therapy system induces FasL and TNFR2 mediated antitumor apoptosis in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changdong; Ma, Yongping; Hu, Qiongwen; Xie, Tingting; Wu, Jiayan; Zeng, Fan; Song, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    Directly targeting therapeutic suicide gene to a solid tumor is a hopeful approach for cancer gene therapy. Treatment of a solid tumor by an effective vector for a suicide gene remains a challenge. Given the lack of effective treatments, we constructed a bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase (BF-rTK) -ganciclovir (GCV) targeting system (BKV) to meet this requirement and to explore antitumor mechanisms. Bifidobacterium (BF) or BF-rTK was injected intratumorally with or without ganciclovir in a human colo320 intestinal xenograft tumor model. The tumor tissues were analyzed using apoptosis antibody arrays, real time PCR and western blot. The colo320 cell was analyzed by the gene silencing method. Autophagy and necroptosis were also detected in colo320 cell. Meanwhile, three human digestive system xenograft tumor models (colorectal cancer colo320, gastric cancer MKN-45 and liver cancer SSMC-7721) and a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) model were employed to validate the universality of BF-rTK + GCV in solid tumor gene therapy. The survival rate was evaluated in three human cancer models after the BF-rTK + GCV intratumor treatment. The analysis of inflammatory markers (TNF-α) in tumor indicated that BF-rTK + GCV significantly inhibited TNF-α expression. The results suggested that BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis without autophagy and necroptosis occurrence. The apoptosis was transduced by multiple signaling pathways mediated by FasL and TNFR2 and mainly activated the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim, which was rescued by silencing Bid or/and Bim. However, BF + GCV only induced apoptosis via Fas/FasL signal pathway accompanied with increased P53 expression. We further found that BF-rTK + GCV inhibited the expression of the inflammatory maker of TNF-α. However, BF-rTK + GCV did not result in necroptosis and autophagy. BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis mediated by FasL and TNFR2 through the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim

  1. Born to be Alive: A Role for the BCL-2 Family in Melanoma Tumor Cell Survival, Apoptosis, and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvekar, Rina A.; Asciolla, James J.; Missert, Derek J.; Chipuk, Jerry E., E-mail: jerry.chipuk@mssm.edu [Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); The Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-13

    The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1) and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM), and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.

  2. Total Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides Inhibit Growth and Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Tumor HeLa Cells In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Guang; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Huang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Uygur females of Xinjiang have the higher incidence of cervical tumor in the country. Alkaloids are the major active ingredients in Sophora alopecuroides, and its antitumor effect was recognized by the medical profession. Xinjiang is the main site of S. alopecuroides production in China so these plants are abundant in the region. Studies on the antitumor properties of total alkaloids of S. alopecuroides (TASA) can take full use of the traditional folk medicine in antitumor unique utility. To explore the effects of TASA on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical tumor HeLa cells in vitro. TASA was extracted, purified, and each monomer component was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of TASA at different concentrations on the survival of HeLa cells was determined after 24 h using the Cell Counting Kit-8. In addition, cells were photographed using an inverted microscope to document morphological changes. The effect of TASA on apoptotic rate of HeLa cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Monomers of TASA were found to be sophoridine, matrine, and sophocarpine. On treatment with 8.75 mg/ml of TASA, more than 50% of HeLa cells died, and cell death rate increased further with longer incubation. The apoptotic rates of HeLa cells in the experimental groups were 16.0% and 33.3% at concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.50 mg/ml, respectively. TASA can induce apoptosis in cervical tumor HeLa cells, and it has obvious inhibitory effects on cell growth. Total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides (TASA) exhibits anti-human cervical tumor propertiesMonomer component of TASA was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and its main effect component are sophoridine, matrine, and sophocarpineTASA inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa cells. Abbreviations used: TASA: Total alkaloids of S. alopecuroides, CCK-8: Cell Counting Kit-8, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, PBS: Phosphate buffered saline, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium.

  3. Trehalose Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Tumors on Human Lung Carcinoma-bearing Mice by Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwabara, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Previous evidence demonstrates that trehalose liposomes (DMTreC14) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and α-D-glycopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside monomyristate (TreC14) inhibit proliferation and invasion on lung carcinoma (A549 cells) in vitro. Here, we aimed to investigate suppressive effects of DMTreC14 on the growth of tumor on human lung carcinoma bearing mice. DMTreC14 composed of 30 mol% DMPC and 70 mol% TreC14 were prepared by the sonication method. Anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 using the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of A549 cells were investigated in vivo. The remarkable reduction of volume and weight in subcutaneous tumors on subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were obtained. Apoptotic-positive cells in the subcutaneous tumor slice of subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were observed using TUNEL staining. Lung weights on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 were markedly decreased compared to those of the control group. Remarkable decrease in dimensions of tumor area of lung on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 was obtained in histological analysis using the hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remarkably high anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 for the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma accompanied with apoptosis were revealed for the first time in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.

  5. The marine cytotoxin portimine is a potent and selective inducer of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Sarah L; Drake, Sarah; Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; McNabb, Paul S; Hampton, Mark B

    2016-12-01

    Portimine is a recently discovered member of a class of marine micro-algal toxins called cyclic imines. In dramatic contrast to related compounds in this toxin class, portimine has very low acute toxicity to mice but is highly cytotoxic to cultured cells. In this study we show that portimine kills human Jurkat T-lymphoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), with LC 50 values of 6 and 2.5 nM respectively. Treated cells displayed rapid caspase activation and phosphatidylserine exposure, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Jurkat cells overexpressing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 or Bax/Bak knockout MEFs were completely protected from portimine. This protection was apparent even at high concentrations of portimine, with no evidence of necrotic cell death, indicating that portimine is a selective chemical inducer of apoptosis. Treatment of the Bcl-2-overexpressing cells with both portimine and the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 proved a powerful combination, causing >90 % death. We conclude that portimine is one of the most potent naturally derived inducers of apoptosis to be discovered, and it displays strong selectivity for the induction of apoptotic pathways.

  6. Identification of cytotoxic drugs that selectively target tumor cells with MYC overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frenzel

    Full Text Available Expression of MYC is deregulated in a wide range of human cancers, and is often associated with aggressive disease and poorly differentiated tumor cells. Identification of compounds with selectivity for cells overexpressing MYC would hence be beneficial for the treatment of these tumors. For this purpose we used cell lines with conditional MYCN or c-MYC expression, to screen a library of 80 conventional cytotoxic compounds for their ability to reduce tumor cell viability and/or growth in a MYC dependent way. We found that 25% of the studied compounds induced apoptosis and/or inhibited proliferation in a MYC-specific manner. The activities of the majority of these were enhanced both by c-MYC or MYCN over-expression. Interestingly, these compounds were acting on distinct cellular targets, including microtubules (paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine and topoisomerases (10-hydroxycamptothecin, camptothecin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, etoposide as well as DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and turnover (anisomycin, aphidicholin, gliotoxin, MG132, methotrexate, mitomycin C. Our data indicate that MYC overexpression sensitizes cells to disruption of specific pathways and that in most cases c-MYC and MYCN overexpression have similar effects on the responses to cytotoxic compounds. Treatment of the cells with topoisomerase I inhibitors led to down-regulation of MYC protein levels, while doxorubicin and the small molecule MYRA-A was found to disrupt MYC-Max interaction. We conclude that the MYC pathway is only targeted by a subset of conventional cytotoxic drugs currently used in the clinic. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying their specificity towards MYC may be of importance for optimizing treatment of tumors with MYC deregulation. Our data also underscores that MYC is an attractive target for novel therapies and that cellular screenings of chemical libraries can be a powerful tool for identifying compounds with a desired biological activity.

  7. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  8. NF-κB Directly Regulates Fas Transcription to Modulate Fas-mediated Apoptosis and Tumor Suppression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feiyan; Bardhan, Kankana; Yang, Dafeng; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Waller, Jennifer L.; Liles, Georgia B.; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    Fas is a member of the death receptor family. Stimulation of Fas leads to induction of apoptotic signals, such as caspase 8 activation, as well as “non-apoptotic” cellular responses, notably NF-κB activation. Convincing experimental data have identified NF-κB as a critical promoter of cancer development, creating a solid rationale for the development of antitumor therapy that suppresses NF-κB activity. On the other hand, compelling data have also shown that NF-κB activity enhances tumor cell sensitivity to apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, although stimulation of Fas activates NF-κB, the function of NF-κB in the Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway remains largely undefined. In this study, we observed that deficiency of either Fas or FasL resulted in significantly increased incidence of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced spontaneous sarcoma development in mice. Furthermore, Fas-deficient mice also exhibited significantly greater incidence of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinoma. In addition, human colorectal cancer patients with high Fas protein in their tumor cells had a longer time before recurrence occurred. Engagement of Fas with FasL triggered NF-κB activation. Interestingly, canonical NF-κB was found to directly bind to the FAS promoter. Blocking canonical NF-κB activation diminished Fas expression, whereas blocking alternate NF-κB increased Fas expression in human carcinoma cells. Moreover, although canonical NF-κB protected mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells from TNFα-induced apoptosis, knocking out p65 diminished Fas expression in MEF cells, resulting in inhibition of FasL-induced caspase 8 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, knocking out p52 increased Fas expression in MEF cells. Our observations suggest that canonical NF-κB is a Fas transcription activator and alternate NF-κB is a Fas transcription repressor, and Fas functions as a suppressor of spontaneous sarcoma and colon carcinoma. PMID:22669972

  9. p53-independent early and late apoptosis is mediated by ceramide after exposure of tumor cells to photon or carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphonse, Gersende; Maalouf, Mira; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Ardail, Dominique; Beuve, Michaël; Rousson, Robert; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Fournier, Claudia; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether ceramide is responsible for the induction of p53-independent early or late apoptosis in response to high- and low-Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) irradiation. Four cell lines displaying different radiosensitivities and p53-protein status were irradiated with photons or 33.4 or 184 keV/μm carbon ions. The kinetics of ceramide production was quantified by fluorescent microscopy or High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatogaphy and the sequence of events leading to apoptosis by flow cytometry. Regardless of the p53-status, both low and high-LET irradiation induced an early ceramide production in radiosensitive cells and late in the radioresistant. This production strongly correlated with the level of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and delayed apoptosis in the radioresistant ones, regardless of radiation quality, tumor type, radiosensitivity, or p53-status. Inhibition of caspase activity or ceramide production showed that, for both types of radiation, ceramide is essential for the initiation of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and late apoptosis following mitotic catastrophe in radioresistant cells. Ceramide is a determining factor in the onset of early and late apoptosis after low and high-LET irradiation and is the mediator of the p53-independent-apoptotic pathway. We propose that ceramide is the molecular bridge between mitotic catastrophe and the commitment phase of delayed apoptosis in response to irradiation

  10. Transfection of wild type ADVP53 gene into human brain tumor cell lines has a radiosensitizing effect independent of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L.; Walter, S; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    mechanism of radiosensitization cells were examined for the presence of apoptosis after transfection. In both T98G and U87MG cell lines containing either βgal, Advp53, or after irradiation of control or Advβgal containing cells, a slight increase in apoptosis over base line was seen which in no case exceeded 5%. Irradiation in the presence of the Advp53 vector produced significantly greater apoptosis, 40.8 ± 1.5% after 1 day in the T98 line which returned to control levels by 4 days. In the U87MG line 10.9 ± 1.3% apoptosis was seen in the irradiated and Advp53 transfected line, not significantly different from an additive response of radiation and p53 vector effects alone. One day after irradiation all cells exhibited significant arrest in G 2 M phase. However the ability of Advp53 vector containing cells to undergo mitosis, as scored microscopically, was tenfold less than cells which were irradiated alone. Conclusion: Three conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) AdvP53 adenovirus vectors are cytotxic to human brain tumor cell lines through a mechanism that does not involve apoptosis 2) Irradiation of Advp53 transfected cell lines produces marked radiosensitization in both lines studied but a synergystic induction of apoptosis in the T98G line only, suggesting that apoptosis is also not the mechanism of radiosensitization in these lines. 3) The marked reduction in mitotic figures seen after irradiation of Advp53 transfected lines suggests the mechanism of radiosensitization involves an inability to successfully exit from mitosis

  11. Picolyl amides of betulinic acid as antitumor agents causing tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildziukevich, Uladzimir; Rárová, Lucie; Šaman, David; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2018-02-10

    A series of picolyl amides of betulinic acid (3a-3c and 6a-6c) was prepared and subjected to the cytotoxicity screening tests. Structure-activity relationships studies resulted in finding differences in biological activity in dependence on o-, m- and p-substitution of the pyridine ring in the target amides, when cytotoxicity data of 3a-3c and 6a-6c were obtained and compared. The amides 3b and 3a displayed cytotoxicity (given in the IC 50 values) in G-361 (0.5 ± 0.1 μM and 2.4 ± 0.0 μM, respectively), MCF7 (1.4 ± 0.1 μM and 2.2 ± 0.2 μM, respectively), HeLa (2.4 ± 0.4 μM and 2.3 ± 0.5 μM, respectively) and CEM (6.5 ± 1.5 μM and 6.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively) tumor cell lines, and showed weak effect in the normal human fibroblasts (BJ). Selectivity against all tested cancer cells was determined and compared to normal cells with therapeutic index (TI) between 7 and 100 for compounds 3a and 3b. The therapeutic index (TI = 100) was calculated for human malignant melanoma cell line (G-361) versus normal human fibroblasts (BJ). The cytotoxicity of other target amides (3c and 6a-6c) revealed lower effects than 3a and 3b in the tested cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumor Response and Apoptosis of N1-S1 Rodent Hepatomas in Response to Intra-arterial and Intravenous Benzamide Riboside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLennan, Gordon; Bennett, Stacy L.; Ju, Shenghong; Babsky, Andriy; Bansal, Navin; Shorten, Michelle L.; Levitin, Seth; Bonnac, Laurent; Panciewicz, Krystoff W.; Jayaram, Hiramagular N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Benzamide riboside (BR) induces tumor apoptosis in multiple cell lines and animals. This pilot study compares apoptosis and tumor response in rat hepatomas treated with hepatic arterial BR (IA) or intravenous (IV) BR. Methods: A total of 10 6 N1-S1 cells were placed in the left hepatic lobes of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 2 weeks, BR (20 mg/kg) was infused IA (n = 5) or IV (n = 5). One animal in each group was excluded for technical factors, which prevented a full dose administration (1 IA and 1 IV). Five rats received saline (3 IA and 2 IV). Animals were killed after 3 weeks. Tumor volumes after IA and IV treatments were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. The percentage of tumor and normal liver apoptosis was counted by using 10 fields of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling)-stained slides at 40× magnification. The percentage of apoptosis was compared between IV and IA administrations and with saline sham-treated rats by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Tumors were smaller after IA treatment, but this did not reach statistical significance (0.14 IA vs. 0.57 IV; P = 0.138). There was much variability in percentage of apoptosis and no significant difference between IA and IV BR (44.49 vs. 1.52%; P = 0.18); IA BR and saline (44.49 vs. 33.83%; P = 0.66); or IV BR and saline (1.52 vs. 193%; P = 0.18). Conclusions: Although differences in tumor volumes did not reach statistical significance, there was a trend toward smaller tumors after IA BR than IV BR in this small pilot study. Comparisons of these treatment methods will require a larger sample size and repeat experimentation.

  13. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chun-Ru [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Liao, Wei-Siang [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ya-Hui [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Murugan, Kaliyappan [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chinpiao, E-mail: chinpiao@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chao, Jui-I, E-mail: jichao@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  14. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy

  15. Bulbophyllum sterile petroleum ether fraction induces apoptosis in vitro and ameliorates tumor progression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhankar; Pardeshi, Rashmi; Reddy, Neetinkumar D; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Nayak, Pawan G; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K Sreedhara R

    2016-12-01

    Orchids of the genus Bulbophyllum have been reported to possess antitumor activity. Present study investigated the possible antitumor activity of the active fraction of bulb and root of Bulbophyllum sterile. Alcoholic extract along with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were subjected to SRB assay in HCT-116, MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines. The active fractions were further evaluated for apoptosis, expression of apoptotic signaling proteins, comet assay and cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, they were assessed for in vivo antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Petroleum fraction of bulbs (PFB) and roots (PFR) was found to be most active in HCT-116 cell lines with IC 50 value of 94.2±6.0 and 75.7±9.8, respectively. Apoptosis was evident from acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining along with the expression of phospho-p53 and phospho-Bad. Both PFB and PFR arrested G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle with 32.6% and 49.4% arrest, respectively compared to 17.5% arrest with control. An increase in mean life span and hepatic antioxidant levels was observed with PFB and PFR treatment in EAC inoculated mice. The results suggested that the active fractions of bulbs and roots possess anticancer activity likely by inducing apoptosis through phospho-p53 dependent pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast cancer tumor classification using LASSO method selection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celaya P, J. M.; Ortiz M, J. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Ortiz R, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide among women. Early tumor detection is key in reducing breast cancer deaths and screening mammography is the widest available method for early detection. Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. In an attempt to alleviate radiological workload, this work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD x) method aimed to automatically classify tumor lesions into malign or benign as a means to a second opinion. The CAD x methos, extracts image features, and classifies the screening mammogram abnormality into one of two categories: subject at risk of having malignant tumor (malign), and healthy subject (benign). In this study, 143 abnormal segmentation s (57 malign and 86 benign) from the Breast Cancer Digital Repository (BCD R) public database were used to train and evaluate the CAD x system. Percentile-rank (p-rank) was used to standardize the data. Using the LASSO feature selection methodology, the model achieved a Leave-one-out-cross-validation area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Auc) of 0.950. The proposed method has the potential to rank abnormal lesions with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the detection of potential malign cases as a second opinion to the radiologist. (Author)

  17. Breast cancer tumor classification using LASSO method selection approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celaya P, J. M.; Ortiz M, J. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Ortiz R, J. M., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide among women. Early tumor detection is key in reducing breast cancer deaths and screening mammography is the widest available method for early detection. Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. In an attempt to alleviate radiological workload, this work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD x) method aimed to automatically classify tumor lesions into malign or benign as a means to a second opinion. The CAD x methos, extracts image features, and classifies the screening mammogram abnormality into one of two categories: subject at risk of having malignant tumor (malign), and healthy subject (benign). In this study, 143 abnormal segmentation s (57 malign and 86 benign) from the Breast Cancer Digital Repository (BCD R) public database were used to train and evaluate the CAD x system. Percentile-rank (p-rank) was used to standardize the data. Using the LASSO feature selection methodology, the model achieved a Leave-one-out-cross-validation area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Auc) of 0.950. The proposed method has the potential to rank abnormal lesions with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the detection of potential malign cases as a second opinion to the radiologist. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of texaphyrins as tumor selective radiation sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Fan; Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Young, Stuart W.

    1997-01-01

    Texaphyrins are expanded porphyrin macrocycles that selectively localize and are retained in cancerous lesions. The function of the texaphyrin can be manipulated by the incorporation of different metal ions into the macrocycle's central cavity. Gadolinium texaphyrin (Gd-Tex) and lutetium texaphyrin (Lu-Tex) were evaluated as radiation sensitizers. Radiation sensitization studies were performed using SMT-F and EMT6 mammary tumor-bearing mice. Single and multifraction dose regimens were performed. SMT-F bearing DBA/2N mice and EMT6 bearing Balb/c mice were intravenously administered with Gd-Tex of Lu-Tex (5-40 μmol/kg) 30 minutes to 5 hours prior to radiation (10-50 Gray) for the single fraction studies. The more radioresistant EMT-6 sarcoma model was used for the multifraction studies. The tumor bearing animals were injected with Gd-Tex (5, 20, or 40 μmol/kg) to 2 hours prior radiation (1, 2, or 4 Gray), this regimen was performed for five consecutive days. Gd-Tex is paramagnetic and has a strong fluorescence signal. Tumor selectivity was determined by MRI and fluorescence spectral imaging before and up to 24 hours following the administration of Gd-Tex. Gd-Tex but not Lu-Tex, proved to be an effective radiation sensitizer. Administration of Gd-Tex (40 μmol/kg) prior to a single dose of 30 Gray radiation provided a significant improvement in survival in SMT-F-bearing DBA/2N mice as compared to animals receiving radiation alone (p = 0.0034). A significant radiation sensitization effect was also found in multiple fraction studies (five consecutive days) with Balb/C mice bearing EMT-6 neoplasma-- following 1 Gray of radiation for 5 days there was a significant difference between the 20 and 40 μmol/kg group and controls (p = 0.003, p = 0.005 respectively). MRI and fluorescence spectral imaging studies of tumor bearing animals revealed excellent contrast enhancement of the tumor which persisted up to 24 hours. Texaphyrins localize in neoplasms as visualized using MRI

  19. Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol Induced Apoptosis of E1A in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Yong

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms underlying ElA's proapoptotic effect and anti-tumor activity and to dissect the functional domains of ElA that are critical for its antitumor activity...

  20. Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol Induces Apoptosis of EIA in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms underlying ElA's proapoptotic effect and anti-tumor activity and to dissect the functional domains of ElA that are critical for its antitumor activity...

  1. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  2. Midazolam induces apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells through caspase activation and the involvement of MAPK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So EC

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edmund Cheung So,1,2 Yu-Xuan Lin,3 Chi Hao Tseng,1 Bo-Syong Pan,3 Ka-Shun Cheng,2 Kar-Lok Wong,2 Lyh-Jyh Hao,4 Yang-Kao Wang,5 Bu-Miin Huang2 1Department of Anesthesia, Tainan Municipal An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Anesthesia, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital Tainan Branch Tainan, Taiwan; 5Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: The present study aims to investigate how midazolam, a sedative drug for clinical use with cytotoxicity on neuronal and peripheral tissues, induced apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Methods: The apoptotic effect and underlying mechanism of midazolam to MA-10 cells were investigated by flow cytometry assay and Western blotting methods. Results: Data showed that midazolam induced the accumulation of the MA-10 cell population in the sub-G1 phase and a reduction in the G2/M phase in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting an apoptotic phenomenon. Midazolam could also induce the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase proteins. There were no changes in the levels of Bax and cytochrome-c, whereas Bid was significantly decreased after midazolam treatment. Moreover, midazolam decreased both pAkt and Akt expression. In addition, midazolam stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Conclusion: Midazolam could induce MA-10 cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase cascade, the inhibition of pAkt pathway, and the induction of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways. Keywords: midazolam, apoptosis, MA-10 cell, caspase, Akt, MAPKs

  3. The dependence receptor Ret induces apoptosis in somatotrophs through a Pit-1/p53 pathway, preventing tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañibano, Carmen; Rodriguez, Noela L; Saez, Carmen; Tovar, Sulay; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montse; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Vidal, Anxo; Costantini, Frank; Japon, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Alvarez, Clara V

    2007-04-18

    Somatotrophs are the only pituitary cells that express Ret, GFRalpha1 and GDNF. This study investigated the effects of Ret in a somatotroph cell line, in primary pituitary cultures and in Ret KO mice. Ret regulates somatotroph numbers by inducing Pit-1 overexpression, leading to increased p53 expression and apoptosis, both of which can be prevented with Ret or Pit-1 siRNA. The Pit-1 overexpression is mediated by sustained activation of PKCdelta, JNK, c/EBPalpha and CREB induced by a complex of Ret, caspase 3 and PKCdelta. In the presence of GDNF, Akt is activated, and the Pit-1 overexpression and resulting apoptosis are blocked. The adenopituitary of Ret KO mice is larger than normal, showing Pit-1 and somatotroph hyperplasia. In normal animals, activation of the Ret/Pit-1/p53 pathway by retroviral introduction of Ret blocked tumor growth in vivo. Thus, somatotrophs have an intrinsic mechanism for controlling Pit-1/GH production through an apoptotic/survival pathway. Ret might be of value for treatment of pituitary adenomas.

  4. Pivotal Roles of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Tumor Apoptosis Through Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hwa Yeon; Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Yoon, Yeo Min; Yun, Chul Won; Kim, Jae Heon; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-09-01

    Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed in various cancer types and pathophysiological conditions. In cancer cells, ROS induce cell proliferation, genetic instability, and a malignant phenotype. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the main pharmacologically active component in ginseng and has been reported to have an antioxidant effect. To overcome lung cancer by regulating the ROS level, we investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of Rg3 and its antioxidative property on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Inhibition of ROS was suppressed in LLC cells by Rg3 treatment, and these cells were used to investigate the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor effects in LLC cells. ROS production was increased in cells grown in serum-containing media (conditioned media) compared to those grown in serum-free media. The high level of ROS induced LLC cell proliferation, but treatment with Rg3 (200 ng/ml) resulted in reduction of ROS, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Treatment with Rg3 significantly reduced cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in LLC cells. Additionally, Rg3 treatment significantly suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced LLC cell apoptosis through activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and suppression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the role of Rg3 in reduction of the intracellular ROS level, attenuation of proliferation via augmentation of cell cycle- and cell proliferation-associated proteins, and activation of apoptosis through regulation of apoptosis-associated proteins in LLC. These findings suggest that Rg3 could be used as a therapeutic agent in lung cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  6. Antiapoptotic Factor Humanin Is Expressed in Normal and Tumoral Pituitary Cells and Protects Them from TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, María Laura; Zárate, Sandra; Moreno Ayala, Mariela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Pisera, Daniel; Candolfi, Marianela; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr), a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (5 µM) per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. PMID:25360890

  7. EGFR-inhibition enhances apoptosis in irradiated human head and neck xenograft tumors independent of effects on DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, H.; Span, P.N.; Cockx, S.C.; Peters, J.P.W.; Rijken, P.F.J.W.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Bussink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition using cetuximab improves the efficacy of radiotherapy in only a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Therefore, to improve patient selection a better understanding of tumor characteristics that affect treatment is

  8. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) suppresses EL4 tumor growth by induction of apoptosis involving reciprocal regulation of SIRT1 and NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Hegde, Venkatesh L; Guan, Hongbing; Hofseth, Lorne; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms through which natural products and dietary supplements exhibit anticancer properties is crucial and can lead to drug discovery and chemoprevention. The current study sheds new light on the mode of action of resveratrol (RES), a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, against EL-4 lymphoma growth. Immuno-compromised NOD/SCID mice injected with EL-4 tumor cells and treated with RES (100 mg/kg body weight) showed delayed development and progression of tumor growth and increased mean survival time. RES caused apoptosis in EL4 cells through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and upregulation of Fas and FasL expression in vitro. Blocking of RES-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by FasL mAb, cleavage of caspases and PARP, and release of cytochorme c, demonstrated the participation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. RES also induced upregulation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog, 1 (SIRT1) and downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. siRNA-mediated downregulation of SIRT1 in EL4 cells increased the activation of NF-κB but decreased RES-mediated apoptosis, indicating the critical role of SIRT1 in apoptosis via blocking activation of NF-κB. These data suggest that RES-induced SIRT1 upregulation promotes tumor cell apoptosis through negative regulation of NF-κB, leading to suppression of tumor growth. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Selective induction of apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Felo, Nouran

    2015-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product, on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (AGS), breast cancer cells (4T1), and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells were cultured with PFT and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using 7-AAD dye and cytospin preparation. Mitochondrial dysfunction and expression of Bcl2 were monitored by flow cytometry. Results showed that PFT induced apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was detected at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (20.8%), increased to 25.8% at 0.6 mg/ml, 37% at 1.2 mg/ml, 53.1% at 2.5 mg/ml, and peaked at 66.3% at 5.0 mg/ml. Apoptosis is associated with the decreased polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and decreased Bcl2 expression. PFT-treated AGS cells manifested membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation as identified in cytospin cytocentrifuge Giemsa stained preparations. On the other hand, flow cytometry analysis showed that PFT did not induce apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer cells nor in PBMCs. These results suggest that PFT is safe for white blood cells and selectively induces apoptotic effects in gastric cancer cells. Hence, it may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancers.

  10. Microemulsion-based synergistic dual-drug codelivery system for enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ding; Ma, Yihua; Sun, Wenjie; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Congyan; Huang, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    A microemulsion-based synergistic dual-drug codelivery system was developed for enhanced cell apoptosis by transporting coix seed oil and etoposide into A549 (human lung carcinoma) cells simultaneously. Results obtained by dynamic light scattering showed that an etoposide (VP16)-loaded coix seed oil microemulsion (EC-ME) delivery system had a small size around 35 nm, a narrow polydispersity index, and a slightly negative surface charge. The encapsulating efficiency and total drug loading rate were 97.01% and 45.48%, respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release profiles at various pH values showed an obvious pH-responsive difference, with the accumulated amount of VP16 released at pH 4.5 (and pH 5.5) being 2.7-fold higher relative to that at pH 7.4. Morphologic alteration (particle swelling) associated with a mildly acidic pH environment was found on transmission electron microscopy. In the cell study, the EC-ME system showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect toward A549 cells in comparison with free VP16 and the mixture of VP16 and coix seed oil. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the EC-ME system was 3.9-fold and 10.4-fold lower relative to that of free VP16 and a mixture of VP16 and coix seed oil, respectively. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate and VP16 (the green fluorescent probe and entrapped drug, respectively) were efficiently internalized into the cells by means of coix seed oil microemulsion through intuitive observation and quantitative measurement. Importantly, an EC-ME system containing 20 μg/mL of VP16 showed a 3.3-fold and 3.5-fold improvement in induction of cell apoptosis compared with the VP-16-loaded microemulsion and free VP16, respectively. The EC-ME combination strategy holds promise as an efficient drug delivery system for induction of apoptosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  11. Evaluation of apoptosis and micronucleation induced by reactor neutron beams with two different cadmium ratios in total and quiescent cell populations within solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Takagaki, Masao; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Response of quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells in solid tumors to reactor neutron beam irradiation with two different cadmium (Cd) ratios was examined in terms of micronucleus (MN) frequency and apoptosis frequency, using four different tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors, C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, and Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty min after i.p. injection of sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of p-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutron beams. The tumors without 10 B-compound administration were irradiated with neutron beams or γ-rays. This neutron beam irradiation was performed using neutrons with two different Cd ratios. The tumors were then excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the MN frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, for apoptosis assay, 6 h after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequencies in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: Without 10 B-compounds, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was reduced by neutron beam irradiation. Under our particular neutron beam irradiation condition, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was larger in Q cells than in total cells, and the RBE values were larger for low Cd-ratio than high Cd-ratio neutrons. With 10 B-compounds, both frequencies were increased for each cell population, especially for total cells. BPA

  12. Criteria for the selection of radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of utilizing monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) has stimulated much research activity. From dosimetric and other considerations, the choice of radiolabel is an important factor that needs to be optimized for maximum effectiveness of RIT. This paper reviews and assesses a number of present and future radionuclides that are particularly suitable for RIT based on the various physical, chemical, and biological considerations. Intermediate to high-energy beta emitters' (with and without gamma photons in their emission) are emphasized since they possess a number of advantages over alpha and Auger emitters. Factors relating to the production and availability of candidate radiometals as well as their stable chemical attachment to monoclonal antibodies are discussed. 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Apoptosis and microvessel density in gastric cancer: correlation with tumor stage and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurello, Paolo; Bellagamba, Riccardo; Rossi Del Monte, Simone; D'Angelo, Francesco; Nigri, Giuseppe; Cicchini, Claudia; Ravaioli, Matteo; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2009-12-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most common human malignancies with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis is known to be a programmed cell death and its inhibition is involved in the unregulated cellular growth that leads to neoplasms. Microvessel density (MVD) has been investigated as a promoting factor for angiogenesis with conflicting results about its relation to survival. The aim of our study was to search a correlation between these factors and some clinicopathological features and prognosis. Identification of apoptotic cells was performed applying the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique and recorded as apoptotic index (A.I.), whereas monoclonal antibodies were used for the study of MVD. A significant correlation was found between low and high A.I. and the subgroup of patients in Stages I and II (P stage (P = 0.036) and to a poorer 5-year overall survival (P gastric cancer.

  14. Low toxic and high soluble camptothecin derivative 2–47 effectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Jiang, Du; Wang, Lu-Yao; Xiang, Cen; Wen, Shao-Peng [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Fan, Zhen-Chuan [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, 300457 (China); Obesita & Algaegen LLC, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Zhang, Yong-Min [Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire UMR CNRS 8232, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris (France); Guo, Na [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Teng, Yu-Ou, E-mail: tyo201485@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yu, Peng, E-mail: yupeng@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Sino-French Joint Laboratory of Food Nutrition, Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2016-04-08

    The cytotoxic activity of camptothecin derivatives is so high that these compounds need to be further modified before their successful application as anti-cancer agents clinically. In this study, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel camptothecin derivative called compound 2–47. The changes in structure did not reduce its activity to inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. Compound 2–47 induced apoptosis of many tumor cells including leukemia cells K562, Jurkat, HL-60, breast cancer cell BT-549, colon cancer cell HT-29 and liver cancer cell HepG2 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 2- to 3-fold lower than HCPT as a control. In particular, 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells with an IC{sub 50} of as low as 40 nM. By making use of Jurkat cell as a model, following treatment of Jurkat cells, compound 2–47 activated caspase-3 and PARP, resulting in a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data showed that compound 2–47 induces Jurkat cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, compound 2–47 showed a decreased cytotoxic activity against normal cells and an improved solubility in low-polar solvent. For example, compound 2–47 solutes in CHCl{sub 3} 130-fold higher than HCPT. Taken together, our data demonstrated that camptothecin derivative 2–47 notably inhibits the tumor cell proliferation through mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in vitro. - Highlights: • Compound 2–47 showed a wide inhibitory effect on the tested tumor cell lines with an IC{sub 50} of 3 times lower than that of HCPT in general. • Compound 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of the human leukemia cell Jurkat at an IC{sub 50} of as low as 40 nM. • As compared to HCPT, compound 2–47 showed much reduced cytotoxicity on normal human cells. • As compared to others, compound 2–47 showed a hundreds-fold higher solubility in non-polar organic solution.

  15. Low toxic and high soluble camptothecin derivative 2–47 effectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Jiang, Du; Wang, Lu-Yao; Xiang, Cen; Wen, Shao-Peng; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Min; Guo, Na; Teng, Yu-Ou; Yu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of camptothecin derivatives is so high that these compounds need to be further modified before their successful application as anti-cancer agents clinically. In this study, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel camptothecin derivative called compound 2–47. The changes in structure did not reduce its activity to inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. Compound 2–47 induced apoptosis of many tumor cells including leukemia cells K562, Jurkat, HL-60, breast cancer cell BT-549, colon cancer cell HT-29 and liver cancer cell HepG2 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 2- to 3-fold lower than HCPT as a control. In particular, 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells with an IC 50 of as low as 40 nM. By making use of Jurkat cell as a model, following treatment of Jurkat cells, compound 2–47 activated caspase-3 and PARP, resulting in a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data showed that compound 2–47 induces Jurkat cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, compound 2–47 showed a decreased cytotoxic activity against normal cells and an improved solubility in low-polar solvent. For example, compound 2–47 solutes in CHCl 3 130-fold higher than HCPT. Taken together, our data demonstrated that camptothecin derivative 2–47 notably inhibits the tumor cell proliferation through mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in vitro. - Highlights: • Compound 2–47 showed a wide inhibitory effect on the tested tumor cell lines with an IC 50 of 3 times lower than that of HCPT in general. • Compound 2–47 inhibited the proliferation of the human leukemia cell Jurkat at an IC 50 of as low as 40 nM. • As compared to HCPT, compound 2–47 showed much reduced cytotoxicity on normal human cells. • As compared to others, compound 2–47 showed a hundreds-fold higher solubility in non-polar organic solution.

  16. Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis and Increased Radiosensitivity in CD133-Positive Cells Derived From Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.-L.; Huang, P.-I; Tsai, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Lo, J.-F.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chiou, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133 +/- ). Materials and Methods: AT/RT-CD133 +/- were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses. Migratory ability, colony formation, apoptotic activity, and xenotransplantation were assessed for RV alone, ionizing radiation (IR) alone, and IR with RV conditions. Results: AT/RT-CD133 + displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed 'stem cell' genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133 - cells. After treatment with 200 μM RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133 + were dramatically inhibited. Importantly, treatment with 150 μM RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133 + , and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133 + into CD133 - . In addition, treatment with 150 μM RV could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity and IR-mediated apoptosis in RV-treated ATRT-CD133 +/- . Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of mice with ATRT-CD133 + that were treated with IR could be significantly improved when IR was combined with 150 μM RV treatment. Conclusions: AT/RT-CD133 + exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment. Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133 +/- ; RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.

  17. Novel levamisole derivative induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Hegde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Levamisole, an imidazo(2,1-bthiazole derivative, has been reported to be a potential antitumor agent. In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of action of one of the recently identified analogues, 4a (2-benzyl-6-(4'-fluorophenyl-5-thiocyanato-imidazo[2,1-b][1], [3], [4]thiadiazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ROS production and expression of various apoptotic proteins were measured following 4a treatment in leukemia cell lines. Tumor animal models were used to evaluate the effect of 4a in comparison with Levamisole on progression of breast adenocarcinoma and survival. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting studies were performed to understand the mechanism of 4a action both ex vivo and in vivo. RESULTS: We have determined the IC(50 value of 4a in many leukemic and breast cancer cell lines and found CEM cells most sensitive (IC(50 5 µM. Results showed that 4a treatment leads to the accumulation of ROS. Western blot analysis showed upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins t-BID and BAX, upon treatment with 4a. Besides, dose-dependent activation of p53 along with FAS, FAS-L, and cleavage of CASPASE-8 suggest that it induces death receptor mediated apoptotic pathway in CEM cells. More importantly, we observed a reduction in tumor growth and significant increase in survival upon oral administration of 4a (20 mg/kg, six doses in mice. In comparison, 4a was found to be more potent than its parental analogue Levamisole based on both ex vivo and in vivo studies. Further, immunohistochemistry and western blotting studies indicate that 4a treatment led to abrogation of tumor cell proliferation and activation of apoptosis by the extrinsic pathway even in animal models. CONCLUSION: Thus, our results suggest that 4a could be used as a potent chemotherapeutic agent.

  18. p53-dependent inhibition of TrxR1 contributes to the tumor-specific induction of apoptosis by RITA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Sofi; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Arnér, Elias S J; Selivanova, Galina

    2009-11-01

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a key regulator in many redox-dependent cellular pathways, and is often overexpressed in cancer. Several studies have identified TrxR1 as a potentially important target for anticancer therapy. The low molecular weight compound RITA (NSC 652287) binds p53 and induces p53-dependent apoptosis. Here we found that RITA also targets TrxR1 by non-covalent binding, followed by inhibition of its activity in vitro and by inhibition of TrxR activity in cancer cells. Interestingly, a novel approximately 130 kDa form of TrxR1, presumably representing a stable covalently linked dimer, and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced by RITA in cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner. Similarly, the gold-based TrxR inhibitor auranofin induced apoptosis related to oxidative stress, but independently of p53 and without apparent induction of the approximately 130 kDa form of TrxR1. In contrast to the effects observed in cancer cells, RITA did not inhibit TrxR or ROS formation in normal fibroblasts (NHDF). The inhibition of TrxR1 can sensitize tumor cells to agents that induce oxidative stress and may directly trigger cell death. Thus, our results suggest that a unique p53-dependent effect of RITA on TrxR1 in cancer cells might synergize with p53-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic genes and oxidative stress, thereby leading to a robust induction of cancer cell death, without affecting non-transformed cells.

  19. Downregulation of survivin expression and concomitant induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and its non-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory analog, dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Florence M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC is a close structural analog of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® that lacks COX-2-inhibitory function. However, despite its inability to block COX-2 activity, DMC is able to potently mimic the anti-tumor effects of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo, indicating that both of these drugs are able to involve targets other than COX-2 to exert their recognized cytotoxic effects. However, the molecular components that are involved in mediating these drugs' apoptosis-stimulatory consequences are incompletely understood. Results We present evidence that celecoxib and DMC are able to down-regulate the expression of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in tumor cells and known to confer resistance of such cells to anti-cancer treatments. Suppression of survivin is specific to these two drugs, as other coxibs (valdecoxib, rofecoxib or traditional NSAIDs (flurbiprofen, indomethacin, sulindac do not affect survivin expression at similar concentrations. The extent of survivin down-regulation by celecoxib and DMC in different tumor cell lines is somewhat variable, but closely correlates with the degree of drug-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. When combined with irinotecan, a widely used anticancer drug, celecoxib and DMC greatly enhance the cytotoxic effects of this drug, in keeping with a model that suppression of survivin may be beneficial to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects are not restricted to in vitro conditions, but also take place in tumors from drug-treated animals, where both drugs similarly repress survivin, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion In consideration of survivin's recognized role as a custodian of tumor cell survival, our results suggest that celecoxib and DMC might exert their cytotoxic anti-tumor effects at least in part via the down-regulation of survivin – in a

  20. The folate receptor as a molecular target for tumor-selective radionuclide delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, C.-Y.; Mathias, Carla J.; Green, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. We review here some background on the folate receptor as tumor-associated molecular target for drug delivery, and briefly survey the literature on tumor-targeting with radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates

  1. The second-generation ALK inhibitor alectinib effectively induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells and inhibits tumor growth in a TH-MYCN transgenic neuroblastoma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaxiong; Guan, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Woodfield, Sarah E; Zhang, Huiyuan; Yang, Kristine L; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Qi, Lin; Li, Xiaonan; Gu, Jerry; Xu, Xin; Jin, Jingling; Muscal, Jodi A; Yang, Tianshu; Xu, Guo-Tong; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    Activating germline mutations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) occur in most cases of hereditary neuroblastoma (NB) and the constitutively active kinase activity of ALK promotes cell proliferation and survival in NB. Therefore, ALK kinase is a potential therapeutic target for NB. In this study, we show that the novel ALK inhibitor alectinib effectively suppressed cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in NB cell lines with either wild-type ALK or mutated ALK (F1174L and D1091N) by blocking ALK-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. In addition, alectinib enhanced doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in NB cells. Furthermore, alectinib induced apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. Also, in the TH-MYCN transgenic mouse model, alectinib resulted in decreased tumor growth and prolonged survival time. These results indicate that alectinib may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of NB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (p60) death domain and induces apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M L; Liou, H C

    1999-04-09

    The tumor necrosis factor receptor, p60 (TNF-R1), transduces death signals via the association of its cytoplasmic domain with several intracellular proteins. By screening a mammalian cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning technique, we isolated a ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic death domain of TNF-R1. Sequence analysis reveals that DAP-1 shares striking sequence homology with the yeast SMT3 protein that is essential for the maintenance of chromosome integrity during mitosis (Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 793-807). DAP-1 is nearly identical to PIC1, a protein that interacts with the PML tumor suppressor implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (Boddy, M. N., Howe, K., Etkin, L. D., Solomon, E., and Freemont, P. S. (1996) Oncogene 13, 971-982), and the sentrin protein, which associates with the Fas death receptor (Okura, T., Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Wada, T., Okura, I., Wei, C. F., Chang, H. M., and Yeh, E. T. (1996) J. Immunol. 157, 4277-4281). The in vivo interaction between DAP-1 and TNF-R1 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. In transient transfection assays, overexpression of DAP-1 suppresses NF-kappaB/Rel activity in 293T cells, a human kidney embryonic carcinoma cell line. Overexpression of either DAP-1 or sentrin causes apoptosis of TNF-sensitive L929 fibroblast cell line, as well as TNF-resistant osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. Furthermore, the dominant negative Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) protein blocks the cell death induced by either DAP-1 or FADD. Collectively, these observations highly suggest a role for DAP-1 in mediating TNF-induced cell death signaling pathways, presumably through the recruitment of FADD death effector.

  3. Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells.

  4. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) silencing inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanhao; Cui, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wu, Shuai; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Boqian; Fang, Jugao

    2015-05-01

    As an important pathway maintaining the balance of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)), store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is critical for cellular functions. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a key component of SOCE, plays a dual role as an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) receptor and an SOCE exciter. Aberrant expression of STIM1 could be discovered in several human cancer cells. However, the role of STIM1 in regulating human hypopharyngeal carcinoma still remains unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect expression of STIM1 in human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line FaDu. STIM1 on FaDu cells was knocked down by lentiviral transduction method. The biological impacts after knocking down of STIM1 on FaDu cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The result of real-time PCR showed that STIM1 was expressed in FaDu cells. Lentiviral transduction efficiently downregulated the expression of STIM1 in FaDu cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Significant downregulation of STIM1 on FaDu cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, promoted cell apoptosis, and restrained cell growth rate. The antigrowth effect of STIM1 silencing was also discovered in FaDu hypopharyngeal tumor model. Our findings indicate that STIM1 is likely to become a new therapeutic target for hypopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.

  5. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  6. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. © 2013.

  7. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cell but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad. PMID:24129924

  8. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hu

    Full Text Available 6-Shogaol is an active compound isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. In this work, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to caspase activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling. Proteomic analysis revealed that ER stress was accompanied by 6-shogaol-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. 6-shogaol affected the ER stress signaling by regulating unfolded protein response (UPR sensor PERK and its downstream target eIF2α. However, the effect on the other two UPR sensors IRE1 and ATF6 was not obvious. In prolonged ER stress, 6-shogaol inhibited the phosphorylation of eIF2α and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. Salubrinal, an activator of the PERK/eIF2α pathway, strikingly enhanced the phosphorylation of eIF2α in SMMC-7721 cells with no toxicity. However, combined treatment with 6-shogaol and salubrinal resulted in significantly increase of apoptosis and dephosphorylation of eIF2α. Overexpression of eIF2α prevented 6-shogaol-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, whereas inhibition of eIF2α by small interfering RNA markedly enhanced 6-shogaol-mediated cell death. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse SMMC-7721 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, and inactivation of eIF2α. Altogether our results indicate that the PERK/eIF2α pathway plays an important role in 6-shogaol-mediated ER stress and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Research of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced s180 ascitic tumor cells, death or apoptosis on cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Yan, Min; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Li, Enling; Luo, Hongyu

    2005-07-01

    To ascertain the adequate dosage of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced tumor cell death or apoptosis on cytology. And to study the different effect of ALA-PDT and HPD-PDT used only. Rat ascitic tumor cells(S180) were randomly divided into several groups and incubated with ALA(20μg/ml 、40μg/ml、80μg/ml 、160μg/ml)、HPD(2.5μg/ml、5μg/ml、10μg/ml)and their combination dosages. 630nm light (total output 2W) was delivered to tumor cells at a constant fluence rate: 200mw/cm2 and a constant irradiated time period: 20 minutes. We set 3 groups (no photosensitizers or no irradiation or neither) to be the control groups. We used inversion microscopy to observe the morphological change of tumor cells and flow cytometry technology to detect the death or apoptosis of tumor cells during the experiment. ..

  10. Mapracorat, a selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes apoptosis of eosinophils infiltrating the conjunctiva in late-phase experimental ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiula M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monica Baiula,1 Andrea Bedini,1 Jacopo Baldi,1 Megan E Cavet,2 Paolo Govoni,3 Santi Spampinato11Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Global Pharmaceutical R&D, Bausch & Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 3Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: Mapracorat, a novel nonsteroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, has been proposed for the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders as it binds with high affinity and selectivity to the human glucocorticoid receptor and displays a potent anti-inflammatory activity, but seems to be less effective in transactivation of a number of genes, resulting in a lower potential for side effects. Contrary to classical glucocorticoids, mapracorat displays a reduced ability to increase intraocular pressure and in inducing myocilin, a protein linked to intraocular pressure elevation. Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy and can be divided into an early phase, developing immediately after allergen exposure and driven primarily by mast cell degranulation, and a late phase, developing from 6–10 hours after the antigen challenge, and characterized by conjunctival infiltration of eosinophils and other immune cells as well as by the production of cytokines and chemokines.Methods: In this study, mapracorat was administered into the conjunctival sac of ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized guinea pigs 2 hours after the induction of allergic conjunctivitis, with the aim of investigating its activity in reducing clinical signs of the late-phase ocular reaction and to determine its mechanism of anti-allergic effects with respect to apoptosis of conjunctival eosinophils and expression of the chemokines C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5, C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF

  11. Pentoxifylline sensitizes human cervical tumor cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappa B and decreased cell senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Lerma-Diaz, Jose Manuel; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Jorge R; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana del C; Celis-Carrillo, Ruth de; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Castellanos-Esparza, Yessica C

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common causes of cancer in women and represents an important mortality rate. Cisplatin (CIS) is a very important antitumoral agent and can lead tumor cells toward two important cellular states: apoptosis and senescence. In some types of cancers pentoxifylline (PTX) sensitizes these cells to the toxic action of chemotherapeutics drugs such as adriamycin, inducing apoptosis. In the present work, we studied in vitro whether PTX alone or in combination with CIS induces apoptosis and/or senescence in cervix cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines infected with HPV types 16 and 18, respectively, as well as in immortalized keratinocytyes HaCaT cells. HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, CIS or both. The cellular toxicity and survival fraction of PTX and CIS were determinate by WST-1 and clonogenic assays respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, p65 (NF-κB), Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL anti-apoptotic proteins were determinated by flow cytometry. Senescence by microscopy. Phosphorylation of IκBα and IκB total were measured by ELISA. Pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/7 mRNA expression, were detected by RT-PCR. Our results show that after 24 hours of incubation PTX per se is toxic for cancer cells affecting cell viability and inducing apoptosis. The toxicity in HaCaT cells was minimal. CIS induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells and its effect was significantly increases when the cells were treated with PTX + CIS. In all studies there was a direct correlation with levels of caspases (-3, -6, -7, -9 and -8) activity and apoptosis. CIS induces important levels of senescence and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, p65/RELA, and IκBα, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Surprisingly these levels were significantly reduced by PTX in tumor cells, and at the same

  12. Cyclic AMP induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells and inhibits tumor development in a mouse myeloma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin-Arbelet, Virginie; Hofgaard, Peter O; Hauglin, Harald; Naderi, Soheil; Sundan, Anders; Blomhoff, Rune; Bogen, Bjarne; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease requiring the development of effective therapies which can be used clinically. We have elucidated the potential for manipulating the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for inhibiting the growth of multiple myeloma cells. As a model system, we primarily used the murine multiple myeloma cell line MOPC315 which can be grown both in vivo and in vitro. Human multiple myeloma cell lines U266, INA-6 and the B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh were used only for in vitro studies. Cell death was assessed by flow cytometry and western blot analysis after treatment with cAMP elevating agents (forskolin, prostaglandin E2 and rolipram) and cAMP analogs. We followed tumor growth in vivo after forskolin treatment by imaging DsRed-labelled MOPC315 cells transplanted subcutaneously in BALB/c nude mice. In contrast to the effect on Reh cells, 50 μM forskolin more than tripled the death of MOPC315 cells after 24 h in vitro. Forskolin induced cell death to a similar extent in the human myeloma cell lines U266 and INA-6. cAMP-mediated cell death had all the typical hallmarks of apoptosis, including changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP. Forskolin also inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cells in a mouse model in vivo. Elevation of intracellular levels of cAMP kills multiple myeloma cells in vitro and inhibits development of multiple myeloma in vivo. This strongly suggests that compounds activating the cAMP signaling pathway may be useful in the field of multiple myeloma

  13. Effect of microRNA-135a on Cell Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, Apoptosis and Tumor Angiogenesis Through the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufei; Li, Shaoxia; Li, Jiangtao; Wang, Dongfeng; Li, Quanxing

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the ability of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) to influence cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis through the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 138 NSCLC patients. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of miR-135a and IGF-1, PI3K, Akt, VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 mRNA; western blotting was used to determine the expression levels of IGF-1, PI3K and Akt protein; and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the expression levels of VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 protein. Human NSCLC cell lines (A549, H460, and H1299) and the human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE) were selected. A549 cells were assigned to blank, negative control (NC), miR-135a mimics, miR-135a inhibitors, IGF-1 siRNA and miR-135a inhibitors + IGF-1 siRNA groups. The following were performed: an MTT assay to assess cell proliferation, a scratch test to detect cell migration, a Transwell assay to measure cell invasion, and a flow cytometry to analyze cell apoptosis. The expression level of miR-135a was lower while those of IGF-1, PI3K and Akt mRNA were higher in NSCLC tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated IGF-1 as a target of miR-135a. The in vitro results showed that compared with the blank group, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed, mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1, PI3K, Akt, VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 were reduced, and cell apoptosis was enhanced in the miR-135a mimics and IGF-1 siRNA groups. Compared with the IGF-1 siRNA group, cells in the miR-135a inhibitors + IGF-1 siRNA group demonstrated increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, elevated mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1, PI3K, Akt, VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 and reduced cell apoptosis. These findings indicated that miR-135a promotes cell apoptosis and inhibits

  14. Identification of deregulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung via NanoString nCounter expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Ting, Saskia; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Theegarten, Dirk; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Cell cycle and apoptosis are key pathways of multicellular homeostasis and deregulation of these pathways is associated with cancerogenesis. Materials and Methods Sixty representative FFPE-specimens (16 TC, 13 AC, 16 LCNEC and 15 SCLC) were used for mRNA expression analysis using the NanoString technique. Eight genes related to apoptosis and ten genes regulating key points of cell cycle were investigated. Results ASCL1, BCL2, CASP8, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2, CDKN1A and CDKN2A showed lower expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. In contrast, CCNE1 and CDK6 showed elevated expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. The calculated BCL2/BAX ratio showed increasing values from TC to SCLC. Between SCLC and LCNEC CDK2, CDKN1B, CDKN2A and PNN expression was significantly different with higher expression in SCLC. Conclusion Carcinoids have increased CDK4/6 and CCND1 expression controlling RB1 phosphorylation via this signaling cascade. CDK2 and CCNE1 were increased in carcinomas showing that these use the opposite way to control RB1. BAX and BCL2 are antagonists in regulating apoptosis. BCL2 expression increased over BAX expression with increasing malignancy of the tumor from TC to SCLC. PMID:26008974

  15. Association of soluble Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL with central adiposity and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Brombo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL, in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. RESULTS: Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046, LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032, triglycerides (p = 0.01, body mass index (p = 0.046, waist circumference (p = 0.008, fat mass (p = 0.056 and insulin (p = 0.046 and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin, TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2 = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.

  16. Association of soluble Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) with central adiposity and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombo, Gloria; Volpato, Stefano; Secchiero, Paola; Passaro, Angelina; Bosi, Cristina; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032), triglycerides (p = 0.01), body mass index (p = 0.046), waist circumference (p = 0.008), fat mass (p = 0.056) and insulin (p = 0.046) and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin), TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2) = 0.04). Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.

  17. ONC201 selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells via activating pro-apoptotic integrated stress response and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Langridge, Timothy; Tarapore, Rohinton S; Allen, Joshua E; Oster, Wolfgang; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-09-22

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are extremely symptomatic and still incurable, and more effective and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. ONC201, an imipridone compound, has shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies in multiple advanced cancers. This study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ONC201 on CTCL cells. The effect of ONC201 on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated in CTCL cell lines (n=8) and primary CD4 + malignant T cells isolated from CTCL patients (n=5). ONC201 showed a time-dependent cell growth inhibition in all treated cell lines with a concentration range of 1.25-10.0 μM. ONC201 also induced apoptosis in tested cells with a narrow concentration range of 2.5-10.0 μM, evidenced by increased Annexin V + cells, accompanied by accumulated sub-G1 portions. ONC201 only induced apoptosis in CD4 + malignant T cells, not in normal CD4 + T cells. The activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a hallmark of integrated stress response, was upregulated in response to ONC201 whereas Akt was downregulated. In addition, molecules in JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways, as well as IL-32β, were downregulated following ONC201 treatment. Thus, ONC201 exerts a potent and selective anti-tumor effect on CTCL cells. Its efficacy may involve activating integrated stress response through ATF4 and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways.

  18. Flavopiridol induces apoptosis in glioma cell lines independent of retinoblastoma and p53 tumor suppressor pathway alterations by a caspase-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Michelle; Tamasdan, Cristina; Miller, Douglas C; Newcomb, Elizabeth W

    2003-02-01

    Flavopiridol is a synthetic flavone, which inhibits growth in vitro and in vivo of several solid malignancies such as renal, prostate, and colon cancers. It is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor presently in clinical trials. In this study, we examined the effect of flavopiridol on a panel of glioma cell lines having different genetic profiles: five of six have codeletion of p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF); three of six have p53 mutations; and one of six shows overexpression of mouse double minute-2 (MDM2) protein. Independent of retinoblastoma and p53 tumor suppressor pathway alterations, flavopiridol induced apoptosis in all cell lines but through a caspase-independent mechanism. No cleavage products for caspase 3 or its substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase or caspase 8 were detected. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk did not inhibit flavopiridol-induced apoptosis. Mitochondrial damage measured by cytochrome c release and transmission electron microscopy was not observed in drug-treated glioma cells. In contrast, flavopiridol treatment induced translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria to the nucleus. The proteins cyclin D(1) and MDM2 involved in the regulation of retinoblastoma and p53 activity, respectively, were down-regulated early after flavopiridol treatment. Given that MDM2 protein can confer oncogenic properties under certain circumstances, loss of MDM2 expression in tumor cells could promote increased chemosensitivity. After drug treatment, a low Bcl-2/Bax ratio was observed, a condition that may favor apoptosis. Taken together, the data indicate that flavopiridol has activity against glioma cell lines in vitro and should be considered for clinical development in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

  19. Selective anti-tumor activity of the novel fluoropyrimidine polymer F10 towards G48a orthotopic GBM tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, William H; Lema-Tome, Carla; Gibo, Denise; Jennings-Gee, Jamie; Milligan, Carol; Debinski, Waldemar

    2014-02-01

    F10 is a novel anti-tumor agent with minimal systemic toxicity in vivo and which displays strong cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro. Here we investigate the cytotoxicity of F10 towards GBM cells and evaluate the anti-tumor activity of locally-administered F10 towards an orthotopic xenograft model of GBM. The effects of F10 on thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition and Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) cleavage complex formation were evaluated using TS activity assays and in vivo complex of enzyme bioassays. Cytotoxicity of F10 towards normal brain was evaluated using cortices from embryonic (day 18) mice. F10 displays minimal penetrance of the blood-brain barrier and was delivered by intra-cerebral (i.c.) administration and prospective anti-tumor response towards luciferase-expressing G48a human GBM tumors in nude mice was evaluated using IVIS imaging. Histological examination of tumor and normal brain tissue was used to assess the selectivity of anti-tumor activity. F10 is cytotoxic towards G48a, SNB-19, and U-251 MG GBM cells through dual targeting of TS and Top1. F10 is not toxic to murine primary neuronal cultures. F10 is well-tolerated upon i.c. administration and induces significant regression of G48a tumors that is dose-dependent. Histological analysis from F10-treated mice revealed tumors were essentially completely eradicated in F10-treated mice while vehicle-treated mice displayed substantial infiltration into normal tissue. F10 displays strong efficacy for GBM treatment with minimal toxicity upon i.c. administration establishing F10 as a promising drug-candidate for treating GBM in human patients.

  20. The energy landscape of a selective tumor-homing pentapeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuy, David; Flores-Ortega, Alejandra; Casanovas, Jordi; Curco, David; Nussinov, Ruth; Aleman, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a potentially powerful strategy based on the of phage-display libraries has been presented to target tumors via homing peptides attached to nanoparticles. The Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala (CREKA) peptide sequence has been identified as a tumor-homing peptide that binds to clotted plasmas proteins present in tumor vessels and interstitium. The aim of this work consists of mapping the conformational profile of CREKA to identify the bioactive conformation. For this purpose, a conformational search procedure based on modified Simulated Annealing combined with Molecular Dynamics was applied to three systems that mimic the experimentally used conditions: (i) the free peptide; (ii) the peptide attached to a nanoparticle; and (iii) the peptide inserted in a phage display protein. In addition, the free peptide was simulated in an ionized aqueous solution environment, which mimics the ionic strength of the physiological medium. Accessible minima of all simulated systems reveal a multiple interaction pattern involving the ionized side chains of Arg, Glu and Lys, which induces a β-turn motif in the backbone observed in all simulated CREKA systems. PMID:18588341

  1. Fisetin, a phytochemical, potentiates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and abrogates tumor growth in athymic nude mice implanted with BRAF-mutated melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Baxter, Ronald D; Hunt, Katherine M; Agarwal, Jyoti; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-09-29

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of cutaneous malignancy, and its incidence rates are rising worldwide. In melanoma, constitutive activation of the BRAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K) signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis. A combination of compounds that lead to an optimal blockade of these critical signaling pathways may provide an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of melanoma. The phytochemical fisetin is known to possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. We found that fisetin treatment inhibited PI3K signaling pathway in melanoma cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fisetin and sorafenib (an RAF inhibitor) alone and in combination on cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth. Combination treatment (fisetin + sorafenib) more effectively reduced the growth of BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells at lower doses when compared to individual agents. In addition, combination treatment resulted in enhanced (i) apoptosis, (ii) cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, (iii) expression of Bax and Bak, (iv) inhibition of Bcl2 and Mcl-1, and (v) inhibition of expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, AKT and mTOR. In athymic nude mice subcutaneously implanted with melanoma cells (A375 and SK-MEL-28), we found that combination therapy resulted in greater reduction of tumor growth when compared to individual agents. Furthermore, combination therapy was more effective than monotherapy in: (i) inhibition of proliferation and angiogenesis, (ii) induction of apoptosis, and (iii) inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K pathways in xenograft tumors. These data suggest that simultaneous inhibition of both these signaling pathways using combination of fisetin and sorafenib may serve as a therapeutic option for the management of melanoma.

  2. Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloy, Marie-Therese; Hadchity, Elie; Bionda, Clara; Diaz-Latoud, Chantal; Claude, Line; Rousson, Robert; Arrigo, Andre-Patrick; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to γ-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors

  3. Sensitive and selective tumor imaging with novel and highly activatable fluorescence probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Yasuteru

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive tumor imaging in vivo is one of the most requested methodologies in medical sciences. Although several imaging modalities have been developed including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the detection of tumors, none of these modalities can activate the signals upon being accumulated or uptaken to tumor sites. Among these modalities, only optical fluorescence imaging has a marked advantage, that is, their signals can be dramatically increased upon detecting some biological features. In this short review, I will introduce some recent strategies for activatable optical fluorescence imaging of tumors, and discuss their advantages over other modalities. (author)

  4. Is it beneficial to selectively boost high-risk tumor subvolumes? A comparison of selectively boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes versus homogeneous dose escalation of the entire tumor based on equivalent EUD plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; To me, Wolfgang A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare expected local tumor control and expected normal tissue toxicities between selective boosting IMRT and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT for the case of prostate cancer. Methods. Four different selective boosting scenarios and three different high-risk tumor subvolume geometries were designed to compare selective boosting and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT plans delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. For each scenario, differences in tumor control probability between both boosting strategies were calculated for the high-risk tumor subvolume and remaining low-risk PTV, and were visualized using voxel based iso-TCP maps. Differences in expected rectal and bladder complications were quantified using radiobiological indices (generalized EUD (gEUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)) as well as %-volumes. Results. For all investigated scenarios and high-risk tumor subvolume geometries, selective boosting IMRT improves expected TCP compared to homogeneous dose escalation IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolume could be the cause for tumor recurrence. Employing, selective boosting IMRT significant increases in expected TCP can be achieved for the high-risk tumor subvolumes. The three conventional selective boosting IMRT strategies, employing physical dose objectives, did not show significant improvement in rectal and bladder sparing as compared to their counterpart homogeneous dose escalation plans. However, risk-adaptive optimization, utilizing radiobiological objective functions, resulted in reduction in NTCP for the rectum when compared to its corresponding homogeneous dose escalation plan. Conclusions. Selective boosting is a more effective method than homogeneous dose escalation for achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Furthermore, risk-adaptive optimization increases the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional selective boosting IMRT

  5. Impact of Salinomycin on human cholangiocarcinoma: induction of apoptosis and impairment of tumor cell proliferation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Thorsten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a primary liver cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Despite all efforts made in past years, prognosis remains to be poor. At least in part, this might be explained by a pronounced resistance of CC cells to undergo apoptosis. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. In this study we investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, on CC cells as an appropriate agent to treat CC. Salinomycin was quite recently identified to induce apoptosis in cancer stem cells and to overcome apoptosis-resistance in several leukemia-cells and other cancer cell lines of different origin. Methods To delineate the effects of Salinomycin on CC, we established an in vitro cell culture model using three different human CC cell lines. After treatment apoptosis as well as migration and proliferation behavior was assessed and additional cell cycle analyses were performed by flowcytometry. Results By demonstrating Annexin V and TUNEL positivity of human CC cells, we provide evidence that Salinomycin reveals the capacity to break apoptosis-resistance in CC cells. Furthermore, we are able to demonstrate that the non-apoptotic cell fraction is characterized by sustainable impaired migration and proliferation. Cell cycle analyses revealed G2-phase accumulation of human CC cells after treatment with Salinomycin. Even though apoptosis is induced in two of three cell lines of CC cells, one cell line remained unaffected in regard of apoptosis but revealed as the other CC cells decreased proliferation and migration. Conclusion In this study, we are able to demonstrate that Salinomycin is an effective agent against previously resistant CC cells and might be a potential candidate for the treatment of CC in the future.

  6. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, R.; Černá, M.; Ňaršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; Třešková, I.; Kydlíček, T.; Třeška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolčan, O.; Padziora, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656 ISSN 0250-7005 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  7. MicroRNA-200a-3p suppresses tumor proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting SPAG9 in renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Jiang, Fuquan; Song, Haitao; Li, Xu; Xian, Jiantao; Gu, Xinquan, E-mail: guxqprofessor@163.com

    2016-02-12

    Sperm-associated antigen 9(SPAG9), as a well-recognized oncogene protein, has a critical effect on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression. Our study tried to explore the mediator of miR-200a-3p, a tumor suppressing miRNA on SPAG9 expression and renal cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found the expression of miR-200a-3p was significantly lower in RCC specimens. Based on in vitro assays, we found miR-200a-3p significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. In addition, our study uncovered that miR-200a-3p directly regulates oncogenic SPAG9 in 786-O and ACHN cells. Silencing of SPAG9 resulted in significantly decreased in the growth and the cell cycle of the renal cancer cell lines. Understanding of oncogenic SPAG9 regulated by miR-200a-3p might be beneficial to reveal new therapeutic targets for RCC. - Highlights: • MiR-200a-3p is downregulated in renal cell carcinoma. • MiR-200a-3p regulates cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis. • MiR-200a-3p is involved in cell cycle regulation. • SPAG9 is a potential target of miR-200a-3p.

  8. Scopadulciol, Isolated from Scoparia dulcis, Induces β-Catenin Degradation and Overcomes Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand Resistance in AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Rolly G; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-04-24

    Scopadulciol (1), a scopadulan-type diterpenoid, was isolated from Scoparia dulcis along with three other compounds (2-4) by an activity-guided approach using the TCF reporter (TOP) luciferase-based assay system. A fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) revealed that compound 1 was cytotoxic to AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The treatment of AGS cells with 1 decreased β-catenin levels and also inhibited its nuclear localization. The pretreatment of AGS cells with a proteasome inhibitor, either MG132 or epoxomicin, protected against the degradation of β-catenin induced by 1. The 1-induced degradation of β-catenin was also abrogated in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity. Compound 1 inhibited TOP activity in AGS cells and downregulated the protein levels of cyclin D1, c-myc, and survivin. Compound 1 also sensitized AGS cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of the death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decreasing the level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, our results demonstrated that 1 induced the p53- and proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin, which resulted in the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin transcription in AGS cells. Furthermore, 1 enhanced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant AGS when combined with TRAIL.

  9. Alpha-lactalbumin unfolding is not sufficient to cause apoptosis, but is required for the conversion to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Malin; Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Düringer, Caroline; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brooks, Charles L; Berliner, Lawrence; Linse, Sara; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-12-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex of human alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1:9 cis) that kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism. Previous studies have shown that a conformational change is required to form HAMLET from alpha-lactalbumin, and that a partially unfolded conformation is maintained in the HAMLET complex. This study examined if unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is sufficient to induce cell death. We used the bovine alpha-lactalbumin Ca(2+) site mutant D87A, which is unable to bind Ca(2+), and thus remains partially unfolded regardless of solvent conditions. The D87A mutant protein was found to be inactive in the apoptosis assay, but could readily be converted to a HAMLET-like complex in the presence of oleic acid. BAMLET (bovine alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and D87A-BAMLET complexes were both able to kill tumor cells. This activity was independent of the Ca(2+)site, as HAMLET maintained a high affinity for Ca(2+) but D87A-BAMLET was active with no Ca(2+) bound. We conclude that partial unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is necessary but not sufficient to trigger cell death, and that the activity of HAMLET is defined both by the protein and the lipid cofactor. Furthermore, a functional Ca(2+)-binding site is not required for conversion of alpha-lactalbumin to the active complex or to cause cell death. This suggests that the lipid cofactor stabilizes the altered fold without interfering with the Ca(2+)site.

  10. Novel curcumin- and emodin-related compounds identified by in silico 2D/3D conformer screening induce apoptosis in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Füllbeck, Melanie; Huang, Xiaohua; Dumdey, Renate; Frommel, Cornelius; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Preissner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) associated kinases CK2 and PKD by curcumin causes stabilization of the tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown that curcumin induces tumor cell death and apoptosis. Curcumin and emodin block the CSN-directed c-Jun signaling pathway, which results in diminished c-Jun steady state levels in HeLa cells. The aim of this work was to search for new CSN kinase inhibitors analogue to curcumin and emodin by means of an in silico screening method. Here we present a novel method to identify efficient inhibitors of CSN-associated kinases. Using curcumin and emodin as lead structures an in silico screening with our in-house database containing more than 10 6 structures was carried out. Thirty-five compounds were identified and further evaluated by the Lipinski's rule-of-five. Two groups of compounds can be clearly discriminated according to their structures: the curcumin-group and the emodin-group. The compounds were evaluated in in vitro kinase assays and in cell culture experiments. The data revealed 3 compounds of the curcumin-group (e.g. piceatannol) and 4 of the emodin-group (e.g. anthrachinone) as potent inhibitors of CSN-associated kinases. Identified agents increased p53 levels and induced apoptosis in tumor cells as determined by annexin V-FITC binding, DNA fragmentation and caspase activity assays. Our data demonstrate that the new in silico screening method is highly efficient for identifying potential anti-tumor drugs

  11. Gene silencing of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 in melanoma cells induces apoptosis through the suppression of NAD+ and inhibits in vivo tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhang, Yujuan; Zheng, Xiufen; Zhang, Xusheng; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Qin; Yuan, Keng; Zhou, Nanjing; Yu, Yanrong; Song, Na; Fu, Jiamin; Min, Weiping

    2016-05-31

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a newly discovered enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the degradation of tryptophan. As a homologous protein of IDO1, IDO2 plays an inhibitory role in T cell proliferation, and it is essential for regulatory T cell (Treg) generation in healthy conditions. Little is known about the immune-independent functions of IDO2 relevant to its specific contributions to physiology and pathophysiology in cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of IDO2 gene silencing as a way to inhibit B16-BL6 cancer cells in a murine model. Here, for the first time, we show that knockdown of IDO2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits cancer cell proliferation, arrests cell cycle in G1, induces greater cell apoptosis, and reduces cell migration in vitro. Knockdown of IDO2 decreased the generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) while increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further demonstrate that cell apoptosis, induced by IDO2 downregulation, can be weakened by addition of exogenous NAD+, suggesting a novel mechanism by which IDO2 promotes tumor growth through its metabolite product NAD+. In addition to in vitro findings, we also demonstrate that IDO2 silencing in tumor cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delayed tumor formation and arrested tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a new non-immune-associated mechanism of IDO2 in vitro and IDO2 expression in B16-BL6 cells contributes to cancer development and progression. Our research provides evidence of a novel target for gene silencing that has the potential to enhance cancer therapy.

  12. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  13. Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway and Modulation of MAPK Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma and Implications for Lovastatin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL Combination Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Chu Liu

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a common malignant brain tumor and it is refractory to therapy because it usually contains a mixture of cell types. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in a range of tumor cell types. Previously, we found that two human glioblastoma cell lines are resistant to TRAIL, while lovastatin sensitizes these glioblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell lines by lovastatin. Furthermore, we have confirmed the anti-tumor effect of combination therapy with lovastatin and TRAIL in the subcutaneous brain tumor model. We showed that lovastatin significantly up-regulated the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5 in glioblastoma cell lines as well as in tumor-bearing mice with peri-tumoral administration of lovastatin. Further study in glioblastoma cell lines suggested that lovastatin treatment could inhibit NF-κB and Erk/MAPK pathways but activates JNK pathway. These results suggest that lovastatin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of DR5 level via NF-κB inactivation, but also directly induces apoptosis by dysregulation of MAPK pathway. Our in vivo study showed that local peri-tumoral co-injection of lovastatin and TRAIL substantially reduced tumor growth compared with single injection of lovastatin or TRAIL in subcutaneous nude mice model. This study suggests that combined treatment of lovastatin and TRAIL is a promising therapeutic strategy to TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma.

  14. Evaluation of selective boron absorption in liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaraviglio, D.; Grazia, F. De; Zonta, A.; Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P.; Braghieri, B.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T.; Perotti, A.; Specchiarello, S.; Perlini, G.; Rief, H.

    1988-01-01

    The first step was a pharmacokinetic study to identify substances which are good boron transporters and are therefore able to provide a high concentration of the nuclide with respect to the healthy hepatic tissue in the MHN. For this purpose the tumor M5076/73 (M5), which matastasizes spontaneously in liver, was inoculated subcutaneously in a group of C57B1/6 mice. Thirty days after the inoculation, when 90% of the liver was invaded by metastases, a boric acid 0.3 M solution enriched to 96% 10 B was injected into the caudal vein. The mice were sacrificed and the liver was frozen for measurements. Boron concentration in the various samples was achieved by measuring the energy distribution of α particles produced in the nuclear reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li induced by a thermal neutron beam extracted from the Triga Mark II reactor,

  15. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  16. Can selective pharmaco-angiography of renal tumor replace the examination under surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.H.; Bach, D.; Koop, H.; Impekoven, P.

    1996-01-01

    Can primary nephrectomy be performed without preliminary sample excision of the tumor if pharmaco-angiography of the kidney has demonstrated the typical tumor vascularization? To clarify this question in 32 patients with 'displacing mass' of the kidney, verified in sonography and computer-tomography, or hematuria of unknown origin, we prospectively performed an additional pharmaco-angiography of the respective kidney. In 18 patients with tumor vascularization in the pharmaco-angiography, intraoperatively we found 15 malignant renal cell carcinomas, 1 patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 high-differentiated tumor of only 2 cm in diameter with unclear dignity, which was treated by enucleation. In cases of an intrarenal lesion of more than 3 cm in diameter and additional tumor vascularization seen in selective pharmaco-angiography, the kidney undoubtedly can be removed by primary nephrectomy without a preliminary sample excision to confirm the diagnosis. For tumors with a diameter of less than 3 cm and additional tumor-vascularization, the option should be enucleation. If there is a 'tumor' without typical malignant vascularization, the exploration by sample excision should be performed. Depending on the histological result the tumor should be removed by enucleation or nephrectomy. (orig.) [de

  17. Variant G6PD levels promote tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis via the STAT3/5 pathway in the human melanoma xenograft mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Chunhua; Tang, Qiongling; Su, Yanan; Li, Bo; Chen, Long; Zhang, Zheng; Cai, Tianchi; Zhu, Yuechun

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), elevated in tumor cells, catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose-phosphate pathway. The regulation mechanism of G6PD and pathological change in human melanoma growth remains unknown. HEM (human epidermal melanocyte) cells and human melanoma cells with the wild-type G6PD gene (A375-WT), G6PD deficiency (A375-G6PD∆), G6PD cDNA overexpression (A375-G6PD∆-G6PD-WT), and mutant G6PD cDNA (A375-G6PD∆-G6PD-G487A) were subcutaneously injected into 5 groups of nude mice. Expressions of G6PD, STAT3, STAT5, cell cycle-related proteins, and apoptotic proteins as well as mechanistic exploration of STAT3/STAT5 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot. Delayed formation and slowed growth were apparent in A375-G6PD∆ cells, compared to A375-WT cells. Significantly decreased G6PD expression and activity were observed in tumor tissues induced by A375-G6PD∆, along with down-regulated cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, p53, and S100A4. Apoptosis-inhibited factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were up-regulated; however, apoptosis factor Fas was down-regulated, compared to A375-WT cells. Moderate protein expressions were observed in A375-G6PD∆-G6PD-WT and A375-G6PD∆-G6PD-G487A cells. G6PD may regulate apoptosis and expression of cell cycle-related proteins through phosphorylation of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5, thus mediating formation and growth of human melanoma cells. Further study will, however, be required to determine potential clinical applications

  18. Cdk5 phosphorylates non-genotoxically overexpressed p53 following inhibition of PP2A to induce cell cycle arrest/apoptosis and inhibits tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Ratna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 is the most studied tumor suppressor and its overexpression may or may not cause cell death depending upon the genetic background of the cells. p53 is degraded by human papillomavirus (HPV E6 protein in cervical carcinoma. Several stress activated kinases are known to phosphorylate p53 and, among them cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is one of the kinase studied in neuronal cell system. Recently, the involvement of Cdk5 in phosphorylating p53 has been shown in certain cancer types. Phosphorylation at specific serine residues in p53 is essential for it to cause cell growth inhibition. Activation of p53 under non stress conditions is poorly understood. Therefore, the activation of p53 and detection of upstream kinases that phosphorylate non-genotoxically overexpressed p53 will be of therapeutic importance for cancer treatment. Results To determine the non-genotoxic effect of p53; Tet-On system was utilized and p53 inducible HPV-positive HeLa cells were developed. p53 overexpression in HPV-positive cells did not induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. However, we demonstrate that overexpressed p53 can be activated to upregulate p21 and Bax which causes G2 arrest and apoptosis, by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A. Additionally, we report that the upstream kinase cyclin dependent kinase 5 interacts with p53 to phosphorylate it at Serine20 and Serine46 residues thereby promoting its recruitment on p21 and bax promoters. Upregulation and translocation of Bax causes apoptosis through intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, overexpressed activated p53 specifically inhibits cell-growth and causes regression in vivo tumor growth as well. Conclusion Present study details the mechanism of activation of p53 and puts forth the possibility of p53 gene therapy to work in HPV positive cervical carcinoma.

  19. Dendrobium chrysanthum ethanolic extract induces apoptosis via p53 up-regulation in HeLa cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ritika; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-06-01

    Background Dendrobium is one of the diverse genus of orchid plants. It possesses a number of pharmacological activities and has long been used in traditional system of medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate the apoptosis inducing property of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Dendrobium chrysanthum, a species of Dendrobium whose anticancer role has not been ascertained yet. Methods To evaluate the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of D. chrysanthum in vitro in HeLa (human cervical cancer) cells, cytotoxic activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of apoptosis and effect on cell cycle were determined. The in vivo study was carried out in Dalton's lymphoma (DL) bearing mice to assess the tumor growth delay. Results Our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. The extract exhibited dose-dependent increase in ROS production as well as apoptotic cell death which was further confirmed through presence of DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry suggests that the ethanolic extract perturbed cell cycle progression and leads to the delay of the cells in S phase. Further, the real-time PCR studies also showed up-regulation of apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The in vivo antitumor activity exhibited significant increase in the life span of DL bearing mice as compared to control with significant decrease in abdominal size along with reduced tumor ascites. Conclusions These observations demonstrate the anticancer potential of the D. chrysanthum ethanolic extract mediated through p53-dependent apoptosis.

  20. A novel gene therapy-based approach that selectively targets hypoxic regions within solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S.T.; Dougherty, G.J.; Davis, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that malignant cells present within the hypoxic regions that are commonly found within solid tumors contribute significantly to local recurrence following radiation therapy. We describe now a novel strategy designed to target such cells that exploits the differential production within hypoxic regions of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, we have generated cDNA constructs that encode two distinct chimeric cell surface proteins that incorporate, respectively, the extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors Flk-1 or Flt-1, fused in frame to the membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas. Both chimeric proteins (Flk/Fas and Flt/Fas) appear stable and can be readily detected on the surface of transfected cells by Western blot and/or FACS analysis. Importantly, tumor cells expressing the chimeric proteins were rapidly killed in a dose-dependent fashion upon the addition of exogenous recombinant VEGF. Adenoviral vectors encoding Flk/Fas have been generated and shown to induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis upon transfer to hypoxic conditions in vitro. This activity is dependent upon the endogenous production of VEGF. Studies are currently underway to test the ability of adenoviral Flk/Fas (Ad.Flk/Fas) to reduce tumor recurrence in vivo when used as an adjuvant therapy in conjunction with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiation

  1. Selective tumor irradiation by infusional brachytherapy in nonresectable pancreatic cancer: a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order, Stanley E.; Siegel, Jeffry A.; Principato, Robert; Zeiger, Louis E.; Johnson, Elizabeth; Lang, Patricia; Lustig, Robert; Wallner, Paul E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Selective high-dose radiation of solid tumors has been a goal of radiation oncology. The physiological barriers of solid tumors (high interstitial tumor pressure, reduced tumor vascularity, and poor perfusion) have been major barriers in achieving significant tumor dose of systemically infused radioconjugates. Direct tumor infusional brachytherapy overcomes these barriers and leads to selective high tumor doses. Methods and Materials: The development of interstitial tumor infusion of macroaggregated albumin (MAA) followed by colloidal chromic phosphate 32 P has overcome solid tumor obstacles in 47 patients with nonresectable pancreatic cancer in a Phase I dose escalation study. The colloidal 32 P infusion was followed by external radiation and five fluorouracil. Results: Of the 28 patients with cancer limited to the pancreas, 15 of 16 patients retained 86-100% (mean 96%) of the infused colloidal 32 P isotope. While the other 12 patients had partial shunting to the liver, shunting to the liver was due to high interstitial resistance with tumor dose deposition of 17-88% (mean 52%). Of the 19 patients with metastatic pancreas cancer, colloidal 32 P tumor deposition ranged from 22 to 100% of the infused dose (mean 79%). The less than optimal tumor deposition led to our increasing the MAA from 600,000 to 1.5-2.5 million particles. Interstitial dexamethasone 2 mg and later 4 mg was infused first and prevented liver shunting by somehow reducing tumor resistance. The median survival in 28 Phase I patients with nonresectable pancreas cancer without metastasis, was 12 months. No significant toxicity occurred when treatment was limited to two infusions with as much as 30 mCi each. The maximum tumor dose was 17,000 Gy (1.700,000 cGy). In 19 non-resectable pancreatic cancer patients with metastasis, a 6.9 months median survival was observed. Conclusions: Infusional brachytherapy is an outpatient procedure that delivers high-dose radiation selectively to pancreatic

  2. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits KIT activity and induces apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST-T1 cell line by affecting on the expression of survivin and Bax protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Takahiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as a standard first-line therapy for irresectable and metastasized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients. Unfortunately, most patients responding to imatinib will eventually exhibit imatinib-resistance, the cause of which is not fully understood. The serious clinical problem of imatinib-resistance demands alternative therapeutic strategy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA on GIST cell lines. Methods Cell proliferation was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of activated KIT, its downstream proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. The cytotoxic interactions of imatinib with ATRA were evaluated using the isobologram of Steel and Peckham. Results and conclusion In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated that ATRA affected on cell proliferation of GIST-T1 and GIST-882 cell line through inhibition of cell growth in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis. High dose of ATRA induced morphologic change in GIST-T1 cells, rounded-up cells, and activated the caspase-3 protein. In further examination, we found that the ATRA-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells was accompanied by the down-regulated expression of survivin and up-regulated expression of Bax protein. Moreover, ATRA suppressed the activity of KIT protein in GIST-T1 cells and its downstream signal, AKT activity, but not MAPK activity. We also have demonstrated that combination of ATRA with imatinib showed additive effect by isobologram, suggesting that the combination of ATRA and imatinib may be a novel potential therapeutic option for GIST treatment. Furthermore, the scracht assay result suggested that ATRA was a potential reagent to prevent the invasion or metastasis of GIST cells.

  3. Diclofenac inhibits tumor necrosis factor-a-induced nuclear factor-kB activation causing synergic hepatocyte apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiksson, L; Herpers, B; Benedetti, G; Matadin, Q; Puigvert, J.C.; de Bont, H; Dragovic, S.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Danen, E; de Graauw, M; van de Water, B.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important clinical problem. It involves crosstalk between drug toxicity and the immune system, but the exact mechanism at the cellular hepatocyte level is not well understood. Here we studied the mechanism of crosstalk in hepatocyte apoptosis caused by

  4. Connective tissue growth factor mediates TGF-β1-induced low-grade serous ovarian tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2017-10-17

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is a rare disease and is now considered to be a distinct entity from high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which is the most common and malignant form of epithelial ovarian cancer. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted matricellular protein that has been shown to modulate many biological functions by interacting with multiple molecules in the microenvironment. Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant expression of CTGF is associated with cancer development and progression. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well-known molecule that can strongly up-regulate CTGF expression in different types of normal and cancer cells. Our previous study demonstrated that TGF-β1 induces apoptosis of LGSC cells. However, the effect of TGF-β1 on CTGF expression in LGSC needs to be defined. In addition, whether CTGF mediates TGF-β1-induced LGSC cell apoptosis remains unknown. In the present study, we show that TGF-β1 treatment up-regulates CTGF expression by activating SMAD3 signaling in two human LGSC cell lines. Additionally, siRNA-mediated CTGF knockdown attenuates TGF-β1-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the CTGF knockdown on TGF-β1-induced cell apoptosis is mediated by down-regulating SMAD3 expression. This study demonstrates an important role for CTGF in mediating the pro-apoptotic effects of TGF-β1 on LGCS.

  5. The apoptosis linked gene ALG-2 is dysregulated in tumors of various origin and contributes to cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas; Høj, Berit Rahbek; Mollerup, Jens

    2008-01-01

    microarrays we analysed the expression of ALG-2 in 7371 tumor tissue samples of various origin as well as in 749 normal tissue samples. Most notably, ALG-2 was upregulated in mesenchymal tumors. No correlation was found between ALG-2 staining intensity and survival of patients with lung, breast or colon...... cancer. siRNA mediated ALG-2 downregulation led to a significant reduction in viability of HeLa cells indicating that ALG-2 may contribute to tumor development and expansion....

  6. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of apoptosis using histone H1-targeting peptide probe after anti-cancer treatment with cisplatin and cetuximab for early decision on tumor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyung Jung

    Full Text Available Early decision on tumor response after anti-cancer treatment is still an unmet medical need. Here we investigated whether in vivo imaging of apoptosis using linear and cyclic (disulfide-bonded form of ApoPep-1, a peptide that recognizes histone H1 exposed on apoptotic cells, at an early stage after treatment could predict tumor response to the treatment later. Treatment of stomach tumor cells with cistplatin or cetuximab alone induced apoptosis, while combination of cisplatin plus cetuximab more efficiently induced apoptosis, as detected by binding with linear and cyclic form of ApoPep-1. However, the differences between the single agent and combination treatment were more remarkable as detected with the cyclic form compared to the linear form. In tumor-bearing mice, apoptosis imaging was performed 1 week and 2 weeks after the initiation of treatment, while tumor volumes and weights were measured 3 weeks after the treatment. In vivo fluorescence imaging signals obtained by the uptake of ApoPep-1 to tumor was most remarkable in the group injected with cyclic form of ApoPep-1 at 1 week after combined treatment with cisplatin plus cetuximab. Correlation analysis revealed that imaging signals by cyclic ApoPep-1 at 1 week after treatment with cisplatin plus cetuximab in combination were most closely related with tumor volume changes (r2 = 0.934. These results demonstrate that in vivo apoptosis imaging using Apopep-1, especially cyclic ApoPep-1, is a sensitive and predictive tool for early decision on stomach tumor response after anti-cancer treatment.

  7. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC.

  8. Splenomegaly and tumor marker response following selective internal radiation therapy for non-resectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.; Yan, K.; Itoh, Seiji; King, J.; Glenn, D.; Quinn, R.; Morris, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in spleen size, the level of chromogranin A as a tumor marker, and the relationship between these two parameters before and 3 months after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for non-resectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Our first serious adverse event with this relatively new treatment is also discussed. A retrospective review of a prospective database identified patients with non-resectable liver metastases from NET who underwent SIRT between 2003 and 2007. Patients who underwent CT scans before and 3 months after treatment were included. The patients were divided into two groups: those with and without a 20% or more increase in splenic volume on the CT scans. The percentages of patients showing a tumor marker response in the two groups were then compared. Fourteen patients were included in the present analysis. A tumor marker response was seen in 6 of 7 patients (85.7%) who showed an increase in splenic volume of >20%, and in 3 of 7 patients (42.9%) without an increase in splenic volume (p=0.266). There was one death as a result of oesophageal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension at 9 months after treatment. Splenic enlargement after SIRT may be associated with tumor marker response, although this could not be confirmed statistically in this study due to the small number of patients. Long-term splenomegaly and portal hypertension may be important complications of SIRT. This issue needs to be investigated further using a larger number of patients and longer follow-up. (author)

  9. Apoptosis in the transplanted canine transmissible venereal tumor during growth and regression phases Apoptose no tumor venéreo transmissível canino durante as fases de crescimento e regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve male, mongrel, adult dogs were subcutaneously transplanted with cells originated from two canine transmissible venereal tumors (TVT. The aim was to demonstrate and to quantify the occurrence of apoptosis in the TVT regression. After six months of transplantation, a tumor sample was obtained from each dog, being six dogs with TVT in the growing phase and six in the regression phase as verified by daily measurements. Samples were processed for histological and ultrastructural purposes as well as for DNA extraction. Sections of 4µm were stained by HE, Shorr, methyl green pyronine, Van Gieson, TUNEL reaction and immunostained for P53. The Shorr stained sections went through morphometry that demonstrated an increase of the apoptotic cells per field in the regressive tumors. It was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed cells with typical morphology of apoptosis and by the TUNEL reaction that detected in situ the 3'OH nick end labeling mainly in the regressive tumors. The regressive TVTs also showed an intensified immunostaining for P53 besides a more intense genomic DNA fragmentation detected by the agarose gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, apoptosis has an important role in the regression of the experimental TVT in a way that is P53-dependent.Doze cães, adultos, machos e sem raça definida foram transplantados subcutaneamente, na região hipogástrica, com células originadas de dois tumores venéreos transmissíveis caninos (TVT. O objetivo do estudo foi demonstrar e quantificar a ocorrência de apoptose na regressão do TVT. Após seis meses, foi obtido um tumor de cada animal, totalizando seis em crescimento e seis em regressão. Fragmentos dos tumores foram processados para avaliação histológica, ultra-estrutural e também para extração de DNA. Cortes de 4µm foram corados em HE, Shorr, verde de metila pironina e Van Gieson e alguns foram submetidos à reação do TUNEL e à imunoistoquímica para P53

  10. Adaptive response of spermatogenic cell apoptosis selectively induced by low dose X-ray irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Dong Lihua; Liu Yang; Lv Zhe; Liu Shuchun; Gong Shouliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The adaptive response of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by whole-body X-ray irradiation at low doses was studied in mice. Methods: Kunming male mice were irradiated with an inductive dose (D1:75 mGy) and/or a challenging dose (D2:1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 Gy). Different kinds of spermatogenic cells were separated using density gradient centrifugation and their apoptotic percentages were analysed using flow cytometry (FCM). Results: When the mice were irradiated with D1 6 h before irradiation with D2, the apoptotic percentages of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes declined rapidly as compared with those in the groups irradiated with D2 only, and those of spermatids and spermatozoa showed no significant changes. When the interval times between D1 and D2 was 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, the apoptotic percentages in spermatogonia and spermatocytes reduced early, significantly and continued for a longer duration after smaller D2(1.0 and 2.0 Gy) irradiation, while the apoptotic percentages did not change after larger D2(3.0 Gy) irradiation. Conclusion: The adaptive response of apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes could be selectively induced by low dose X-ray irradiation. The adaptive response could be closely related to the D2 dose and interval time between D1 and D2

  11. [Apoptosis and pathological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Mukhammed Salim Iusef

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs normally for maitenance of tissue homeostasis and play an important role in morphogenesis, embriogenesis and tissue growth. On the other hand, apoptosis may be involved in different pathological processes such as malignancy, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis is regulated by various mediators. Caspases, death receptors, mitochondria, Bcl-2 protoncogenes and tumor supressor genes are considered to be the most important of them. Advance in apoptosis regulation research suggests enormouse facilities for therapy of wide range of human illnesses.

  12. Combined effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ionizing radiation on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baierlein, S.A.; Distel, L.; Sieber, R.; Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Sauer, R.; Roedel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Apoptosis can be induced by distinct but overlapping pathways. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis by an ''intrinsic'', mitochondria-dependent pathway. Ligation of tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, FAS (CD95) or TRAIL receptors are typical representatives of an extrinsic, death-receptor-mediated pathway. In this study the effect of irradiation, treatment with the cytokine TNF-α, or a combination of both on the induction of apoptosis and clonogenic survival of bladder carcinoma cells was investigated. Material and Methods: 5637 bladder carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant TNF-α (0-10 ng/ml), irradiated with single doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 Gy, or a combination of both modalities. Apoptotic cells were quantified by the TUNEL assay up to 96 h following treatment, clonogenic cell survival by a clonogenic assay. Synergistic effects of both modalities were evaluated using isobolographic analysis. Results: Irradiation of 5637 carcinoma cells resulted in a discontinuous dose dependence of the apoptotic fraction with a pronounced increase in the range of 0-2 Gy and a slighter increase at 2-10 Gy. The percentage of apoptotic carcinoma cells also increased continuously after treatment with lower concentrations of TNF-α reaching a plateau at concentrations of 5.0-10.0 ng/ml. Isobolographic analysis revealed a supraadditive interrelationship between irradiation and TNF-α in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/ml, and an additive effect for TNF-α concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml. The additive effects were confirmed in clonogenic survival assays with reduced survival fractions following combined TNF-α administration and irradiation. Conclusion: The combination of two apoptosis-inducing modalities resulted in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells. Although a radiosensitizing effect still has to be proven in animal models, combined-modality treatment may increase the

  13. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  14. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng, E-mail: zhouqs@suda.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  15. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, T-hat nia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; Ourique da Silva, Fabiana; Bücker, Nádia Cristina Falcão [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Pich, Claus Tröger [Campus de Araranguá, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Araranguá (Brazil); Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio [Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ceilândia, DF (Brazil); Filho, Danilo Wilhelm [Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc [Toxicology and Cancer Biology Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi, E-mail: rozangelapedrosa@gmail.com [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2013-01-18

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC{sub 50} = 5.8 μM at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 μM) the EC{sub 50} fell to 3.3 μM. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate (2–3-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}. The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment.

  16. Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol-Induced Apoptosis of E1A in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Yong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the molecular mechanisms underlying ElA's proapoptotic effect and anti-tumor activity and to dissect the functional domains of ElA that are critical for its antitumor activity...

  17. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor activity by induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambous, Christiana; Pitta, Chara A; Constantinou, Andreas I

    2013-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and its metabolite equol, have been proposed to be responsible for the low breast cancer rate in Asian women. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen, the basic objective of this study is to determine whether equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor effect, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we examined the individual and combined effects of equol and tamoxifen on the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells using viability assays, annexin-V/PI staining, cell cycle and western blot analysis. We found that equol (>50 μM) and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT; >100 nM) significantly reduced the MCF-7 cell viability. Furthermore, the combination of equol (100 μM) and 4-OHT (10 μM) induced apoptosis more effectively than each compound alone. Subsequent treatment of MCF-7 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited equol- and 4-OHT-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by PARP and α-fodrin cleavage, indicating that apoptosis is mainly caspase-mediated. These compounds also induced a marked reduction in the bcl-2:bax ratio, which was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-7 activation and cytochrome-c release to the cytosol. Taken together, these data support the notion that the combination of equol and tamoxifen activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway more efficiently than each compound alone. Consequently, equol may be used therapeutically in combination treatments and clinical studies to enhance tamoxifen’s effect by providing additional protection against estrogen-responsive breast cancers

  19. Rocaglamide overcomes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by attenuating the inhibition of caspase-8 through cellular FLICE-like-inhibitory protein downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Zhou; He, Ying; He, Fan; Chen, Zhishui

    2015-01-01

    The enhancement of apoptosis is a therapeutic strategy used in the treatment of cancer. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising antitumor agent. However, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells exhibit marked resistance to the induction of cell death by TRAIL. The present study investigated whether rocaglamide, a naturally occurring product isolated from the genus Aglaia, is able to sensitize resistant HCC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Two HCC cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7, were treated with rocaglamide and/or TRAIL and the induction of apoptosis and effects on the TRAIL signaling pathway were investigated. The in vivo efficacy of rocaglamide was determined in TRAIL-resistant Huh-7-derived tumor xenografts. Rocaglamide significantly sensitized the TRAIL-resistant HCC cells to apoptosis by TRAIL, which resulted from the rocaglamide-mediated downregulation of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein and subsequent caspase-8 activation. Furthermore, rocaglamide markedly inhibited tumor growth from Huh-7 cells propagated in severe combined immunodeficient mice, suggesting that chemosentization also occurred in vivo. These data suggest that rocaglamide acted synergistically with TRAIL against the TRAIL-resistant HCC cells. Thus, it is concluded that rocaglamide as an adjuvant to TRAIL-based therapy may present a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC.

  20. Arginase-II Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Release From Pancreatic Acinar Cells Causing β-Cell Apoptosis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuyan; Yepuri, Gautham; Necetin, Sevil; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with glucose intolerance. Arginase-II (Arg-II), the type-II L -arginine-ureahydrolase, is highly expressed in pancreas. However, its role in regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is not known. Here we show that female (not male) mice deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II -/- ) are protected from age-associated glucose intolerance and reveal greater glucose induced-insulin release, larger islet size and β-cell mass, and more proliferative and less apoptotic β-cells compared with the age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, Arg-II is mainly expressed in acinar cells and is upregulated with aging, which enhances p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Accordingly, conditioned medium of isolated acinar cells from old WT (not Arg-II -/- ) mice contains higher TNF-α levels than the young mice and stimulates β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction, which are prevented by a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody. In acinar cells, our study demonstrates an age-associated Arg-II upregulation, which promotes TNF-α release through p38 MAPK leading to β-cell apoptosis, insufficient insulin secretion, and glucose intolerance in female rather than male mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  2. Tumor recognition in wireless capsule endoscopy images using textural features and SVM-based feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baopu; Meng, Max Q-H

    2012-05-01

    Tumor in digestive tract is a common disease and wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology to examine diseases for digestive tract especially for small intestine. This paper addresses the problem of automatic recognition of tumor for WCE images. Candidate color texture feature that integrates uniform local binary pattern and wavelet is proposed to characterize WCE images. The proposed features are invariant to illumination change and describe multiresolution characteristics of WCE images. Two feature selection approaches based on support vector machine, sequential forward floating selection and recursive feature elimination, are further employed to refine the proposed features for improving the detection accuracy. Extensive experiments validate that the proposed computer-aided diagnosis system achieves a promising tumor recognition accuracy of 92.4% in WCE images on our collected data.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) enhances vascular and renal damage induced by hyperlipidemic diet in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Begoña; Moreno, Juan Antonio; López-Franco, Oscar; Sanz, Ana Belén; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco, Julia; Jakubowski, Aniela; Burkly, Linda C; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. TWEAK binds and activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in different pathological conditions. We have evaluated the effect of exogenous TWEAK administration as well as the role of endogenous TWEAK on proinflammatory cytokine expression and vascular and renal injury severity in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 4 to 10 weeks, then randomized and treated with saline (controls), TWEAK (10 microg/kg/d), anti-TWEAK neutralizing mAb (1000 microg/kg/d), TWEAK plus anti-TWEAK antibody (10 microg TWEAK +1000 microg anti-TWEAK/kg/d), or nonspecific IgG (1000 microg/kg/d) daily for 9 days. In ApoE(-/-) mice, exogenous TWEAK administration in ApoE(-/-) mice induced activation of NF-kappaB, a key transcription factor implicated in the regulation of the inflammatory response, in vascular and renal lesions. Furthermore, TWEAK treatment increased chemokine expression (RANTES and MCP-1), as well as macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques and renal lesions. These effects were associated with exacerbation of vascular and renal damage. Conversely, treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice with an anti-TWEAK blocking mAb decreased NF-kappaB activation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration, and vascular and renal injury severity, indicating a pathological role for endogenous TWEAK. Finally, in murine vascular smooth muscle cells or tubular cells, either ox-LDL or TWEAK treatment increased expression and secretion of both RANTES and MCP-1. Furthermore, ox-LDL and TWEAK synergized for induction of MCP-1 and RANTES expression and secretion. Our results suggest that TWEAK exacerbates the inflammatory response associated with a high lipid-rich diet. TWEAK may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent vascular and renal damage associated with

  4. Cortisol levels and expression of selected stress- and apoptosis-related genes in the embryos of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following short-term exposure to air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlowe, Christopher; Caipang, A.; Fagutao, Ferdinand F.

    2015-01-01

    Embryos (morula stage) of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., were collected and subjected to air exposure for 2 min. followed by recovery at ambient conditions in the rearing container. Total immunoreactive cortisol and transcription of selected stress- and apoptosis-related genes of the embryos were...

  5. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 inhibits Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and signalling in beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Christine; Heding, Peter E; Rønn, Sif G

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). TNFalpha in combination with interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta) and/or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) induces specific destruction...

  6. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  7. Selection of monoclonal anti-CEA antibody fragments for tumor detection by immunoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, J.P.; Buchegger, F.

    1986-01-01

    It is described how individual MAb directed against carcinoembryotic antigen (CEA) is selected which does not crossreact with granulocytes and gives the best tumor localization in the model of nude mice grafted with human colon carcinoma. Using this model, the superiority of F(ab')/sub 2/ and particularly Fab fragments from high affinity MAb for the localization of relatively small tumor nodules is demonstrated. These MAb fragments are also successfully used in an ongoing clinical trial for the detection of primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas

  8. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  9. Tumor-Selective Cytotoxicity of Nitidine Results from Its Rapid Accumulation into Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Iwasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified a nitidine- (NTD- accumulating organelle and evaluated the net cytotoxicity of accumulated NTD. To evaluate tumor cell selectivity of the drug, we evaluated its selective cytotoxicity against 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39 panel, and the profile was compared with those of known anticancer drugs. Organelle specificity of NTD was visualized using organelle-targeted fluorescent proteins. Real-time analysis of cell growth, proliferation, and cytotoxicity was performed using the xCELLigence system. Selectivity of NTD in the JFCR39 panel was evaluated. Mitochondria-specific accumulation of NTD was observed. Real-time cytotoxicity analysis suggested that the mechanism of NTD-induced cell death is independent of the cell cycle. Short-term treatment indicated that this cytotoxicity only resulted from the accumulation of NTD into the mitochondria. The results from the JFCR39 panel indicated that NTD-mediated cytotoxicity resulted from unique mechanisms compared with those of other known anticancer drugs. These results suggested that the cytotoxicity of NTD is only induced by its accumulation in mitochondria. The drug triggered mitochondrial dysfunction in less than 2 h. Similarity analysis of the selectivity of NTD in 39 tumor cell lines strongly supported the unique tumor cell specificity of NTD. Thus, these features indicate that NTD may be a promising antitumor drug for new combination chemotherapies.

  10. Serum pentraxin-3 and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK predict severity of infections in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK are new candidate prognostic markers for comorbidities and mortality in various inflammatory diseases. Acute decompensation of cirrhosis is characterized by acute exacerbation of chronic systemic inflammation. Recently, increased circulating PTX3 levels have been reported in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients and positively correlated with disease severity. This study aims to explore serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Methods: We analyzed serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels in relation to inhospital and 3-month new clinical events and survivals in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Results: During admission, serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels were significantly higher in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients than controls and positively correlated with protein-energy wasting (PEW, new infections, long hospital stays, high medical costs, and high mortality. During a 3-month follow-up, acute decompensated cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels had more episodes of unplanned readmission and high 3-month mortality. On multivariate analysis, high PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW were independent risk factors for high mortality. Conclusion: High serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW are common in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. As compared with low serum PTX3 and sTWEAK cases, cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels a have higher probability of new severe infections, severe sepsis, septic shock, type 1 hepatorenal syndrome, in-hospital, and 3-month follow-up mortalities. Therefore, high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels on hospital admission predict disease severity and case fatality in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Keywords: pentraxin-3, protein-energy wasting, soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Control Reactive Oxygen Species Release, Mitochondrial Autophagy and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/P38 Phosphorylation During Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Baregamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the disruption of the protective gut barrier through various mechanisms; mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and oxidative injury may potentially be a significant source of apoptosis during necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα is thought to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and activate the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/p38 pathway. Hence, the focus of our study was to examine the effects of TNFα/ROs on mitochondrial function, ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade activation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC.

  12. Major Vault Protein Regulates Class A Scavenger Receptor-mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Synthesis and Apoptosis in Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Rongmei; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hanwen; Li, Nan; Zhou, Xiaodan; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Li, Donghai; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a disease of chronic inflammation largely initiated and perpetuated by macrophage-dependent synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) expressed on macrophages plays a key role in this process. However, how SR-A-mediated pro-inflammatory response is modulated in macrophages remains ill defined. Here through immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we reported major vault protein (MVP) as a novel binding partner for SR-A. The interaction between SR-A and MVP was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and chemical cross-linking assay. Treatment of macrophages with fucoidan, a SR-A ligand, led to a marked increase in TNF-α production, which was attenuated by MVP depletion. Further analysis revealed that SR-A stimulated TNF-α synthesis in macrophages via the caveolin- instead of clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway linked to p38 and JNK, but not ERK, signaling pathways. Importantly, fucoidan invoked an enrichment of MVP in lipid raft, a caveolin-reliant membrane structure, and enhanced the interaction among SR-A, caveolin, and MVP. Finally, we demonstrated that MVP elimination ameliorated SR-A-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. As such, MVP may fine-tune SR-A activity in macrophages which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23703615

  13. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras -/- (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A and K-ras -/- ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras -/- cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras -/- cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice

  14. 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene induces apoptosis in RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells: Ligand-selective activation of cytochrome P450 1B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Gee [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin-Yong [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Eun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seunghoon [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Yong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Busan Medical Center, Busan 611-072 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Jo [Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-04-15

    7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, exhibits mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and apoptogenic properties in various cell types. To achieve these functions effectively, DMBA is modified to its active form by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1). Exposure to DMBA causes cytotoxicity-mediated apoptosis in bone marrow B cells and ovarian cells. Although uterine endometrium constitutively expresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, their apoptotic role after exposure to DMBA remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we chose RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells as a model system for studying DMBA-induced cytotoxicity and cell death and hypothesized that exposure to DMBA causes apoptosis in this cell type following CYP1A1 and/or CYP1B1 activation. We showed that DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells is associated with activation of caspases. In addition, mitochondrial changes, including decrease in mitochondrial potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial pathway is involved in DMBA-induced apoptosis. Exposure to DMBA upregulated the expression of AhR, Arnt, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 significantly; this may be necessary for the conversion of DMBA to DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (DMBA-DE). Although both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were significantly upregulated by DMBA, only CYP1B1 exhibited activity. Moreover, knockdown of CYP1B1 abolished DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells. Our data show that RL95-2 cells are susceptible to apoptosis by exposure to DMBA and that CYP1B1 plays a pivotal role in DMBA-induced apoptosis in this system. -- Highlights: ► Cytotoxicity-mediated apoptogenic action of DMBA in human endometrial cancer cells. ► Mitochondrial pathway in DMBA-induced apoptosis of RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells. ► Requirement of ligand-selective activation of CYP1B1 in DMBA-induced apoptosis.

  15. Kaempferol Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells-OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-Induced Apoptosis via JNK/ERK-CHOP Pathway and Up-Regulation of Death Receptors 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingmei; Tian, Binqiang; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haiying

    2017-10-26

    BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the most common gynecological malignancies in women, with high mortality rates worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily which preferentially induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL hampers its therapeutic application. Identification of compounds that sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL is vital in combating resistance to TRAIL. The effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cytotoxic effects of TRAIL (25 ng/mL) and kaempferol (20-100 µM) on human ovarian cancer cells OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 were assessed. Effect of kaempferol on the expression patterns of cell survival proteins (Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP, c-FLIP) and apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax) were studied. The influence of kaempferol on expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors on the cell surface and protein and mRNA levels was also analyzed. Apoptosis following silencing of DR5 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and activation of MAP kinases were analyzed as well. RESULTS Kaempferol enhanced apoptosis and drastically up-regulated DR4, DR5, CHOP, JNK, ERK1/2, p38 and apoptotic protein expression with decline in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Further transfection with siRNA specific to CHOP and DR5 indicated the involvement of CHOP in DR5 up-regulation and also the contribution of DR5 in kaempferol-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Kaempferol sensitized ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 through ERK/JNK/CHOP pathways.

  16. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa, E-mail: vendramini.debora@gmail.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Alcaide, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, João Ernesto de [Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Motilva, Virginia [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10 μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. - Highlights: • Goniothalamin (GTN) inhibits the development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. • Moreover, GTN prevents the development of spontaneous colitis in IL-10 deficient mice. • This activity relies on downregulation of TNF-α and upregulation of SIRT-1 expression

  17. Heat shock protein 90-mediated peptide-selective presentation of cytosolic tumor antigen for direct recognition of tumors by CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takemasa; Matsuzaki, Junko; Caballero, Otavia L; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Odunsi, Kunle; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2012-04-15

    Tumor Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells play important functions in tumor immunosurveillance, and in certain cases they can directly recognize HLA class II-expressing tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanism of intracellular Ag presentation to CD4(+) T cells by tumor cells has not yet been well characterized. We analyzed two naturally occurring human CD4(+) T cell lines specific for different peptides from cytosolic tumor Ag NY-ESO-1. Whereas both lines had the same HLA restriction and a similar ability to recognize exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein, only one CD4(+) T cell line recognized NY-ESO-1(+) HLA class II-expressing melanoma cells. Modulation of Ag processing in melanoma cells using specific molecular inhibitors and small interfering RNA revealed a previously undescribed peptide-selective Ag-presentation pathway by HLA class II(+) melanoma cells. The presentation required both proteasome and endosomal protease-dependent processing mechanisms, as well as cytosolic heat shock protein 90-mediated chaperoning. Such tumor-specific pathway of endogenous HLA class II Ag presentation is expected to play an important role in immunosurveillance or immunosuppression mediated by various subsets of CD4(+) T cells at the tumor local site. Furthermore, targeted activation of tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells by vaccination or adoptive transfer could be a suitable strategy for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  18. Selective changes in expression of HLA class I polymorphic determinants in human solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, P.G.; Nicotra, M.R.; Bigotti, A.; Venturo, I.; Giacomini, P.; Marcenaro, L.; Russo, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of surgical biopsies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to framework determinants of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens has shown that malignant transformation is frequently associated with a marked loss of these cell surface molecules. The present study sought to determine whether more selective losses of major histocompatibility complex class I expression occur. Multiple specimens from 13 different types of primary and metastatic tumors were tested utilizing mAb BB7.2, which recognizes a polymorphic HLA-A2 epitope. In each case, expression of HLA-A,B,C molecules was determined by testing with mAb W6/32 directed to a framework HLA class I determinant. The authors have found that in HLA-A2-positive patients, HLA-A2 products are not detectable or are reduced in their expression in 70-80% of endometrial, colorectal, mammary, and renal tumors; in 40-60% of soft-tissue, skin, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and stomach tumors; and in 25-30% of melanomas and lung carcinomas tested. All tumors expressed the framework HLA-A,B.C determinant. The HLA-A2 epitope recognized by mAb BB7.2 is located in a portion of the HLA-A2 molecule postulated to react with the T-cell receptor. The selective loss of an HLA class I polymorphic epitope shown in this study may explain the mechanism by which tumor cells escape both T-cell recognition and natural killer cell surveillance

  19. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mark W.; Shelly, Kenneth; Kane, Robert R.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  20. p53 and PCNA Expression in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Compared with Selected Odontogenic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Siadati, Sepideh; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Keshmiri, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    p53 and PCNA expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors compared with selected odontogenic cysts Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 and PCNA expression in different odontogenic lesions regarding their different clinical behaviors. Slices prepared from 94 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (25 radicular cysts (RC), 23 dentigerous cysts (DC), 23 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and 23 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT)) were stained with p53 and PCNA antibodies using immunohistochemistry procedure. The highest level of p53 expression was in the basal layer of RC, and the highest level of PCNA expression was in the suprabasal layer of KCOT. The differences of p53 expression in basal and suprabasal layers as well as PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer were significant but there was no significant difference in PCNA expression in the basal layer of these lesions. The expression of p53 in the basal layer of RC was higher than in other cysts. This may be due to intensive inflammatory infiltration. Also, the high level of PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer of KCOT may justify its neoplastic nature and tendency to recurrence. KCOT and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors did not show similar expression of studied biomarkers. PMID:24551811

  1. Selective killing of tumors deficient in methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a novel strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lubin

    2009-05-01

    .We describe a selective strategy to kill tumor cells lacking MTAP.

  2. GMP production and characterization of leucine zipper-tagged tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (LZ-TRAIL) for phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Xiaobin; Deng, Leixiu; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Shifu; Liu, Honghao; Su, Yunpeng

    2014-10-05

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exhibits potent antitumor activity in a wide range of cancers without deleterious side effects on normal tissues. Several TRAIL derivatives have been developed to improve its pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects through strategies such as adding a leucine zipper to increase the circulation half-life. To obtain clinical grade LZ-TRAIL for phase I clinical trial, a single batch of 30 L bioreactor culture was performed using the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain expressing the recombinant LZ-TRAIL. A robust LZ-TRAIL production fermentation process was developed, which could be scaled up from 5L to 50 L, and had a titer of approximately 1.4 g/l. A four-step purification strategy was carried out to obtain a final product with over 95% purity and 45% yield. The final material was filter sterilized, aseptically vialed, and stored at 4°C, and comprehensively characterized using multiple assays (vialed product was sterile, purity was 95%, aggregates were production of phase I clinical trial material. These preclinical investigations warrant further clinical development of this product for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Increased Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Levels Are Independent Predictors of Dyslipidemia in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenekli, Kudret; Oztas, Efser; Kuscu, Elif; Keskin, Uğur; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Tas, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Nafiye

    2017-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) irrespective of age. Our aim was to investigate soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK), a cardiovascular risk marker in PCOS, and to determine if it is associated with dyslipidemia in youth. A prospective-observational study was carried out including 35 PCOS patients and 35 healthy controls. Serum sTWEAK levels were measured using commercially available kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then performed to verify the statistically significant differences in the possible predictors of dyslipidemia. Serum sTWEAK levels and the percentage of women with dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p = 0.024 and p dyslipidemia. The percentage of women with PCOS was significantly higher in the dyslipidemic group when compared with controls; 70.7 vs. 20.7%, respectively (p 693 pg/ml; OR 3.810, 95% CI 1.075-13.501, p = 0.038) were independently associated with dyslipidemia. Increased levels of both sTWEAK and PCOS were found to be independently associated with dyslipidemia in youth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. c-Myc oncogene expression in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosvi, Zama; Rekha, K

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of c-Myc oncogene in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst were selected and primary monoclonal mouse anti-human c-Myc antibody was used in a dilution of 1: 50. Statistical Analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U test. Results: 80% positivity was observed in ameloblastoma, AOT and OKC; 50% positivity in radicular cyst and 20% positivity in dentigerous cyst. Comparison of c-Myc expression between ameloblastoma and AOT did not reveal significant results. Similarly, no statistical significance was observed when results of OKC were compared with ameloblastoma and AOT. In contrast, significant differences were seen on comparison of dentigerous cyst with ameloblastoma and AOT and radicular cyst with AOT. Conclusion: From the above data we conclude that (1) Ameloblastoma and AOT have similar proliferative potential and their biologic behavior cannot possibly be attributed to it. (2) OKC has an intrinsic growth potential which is absent in other cysts and reinforces its classification as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23798830

  5. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Novel Selective Detection Method of Tumor Angiogenesis Factors Using Living Nano-Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Alshraiedeh, Nida; Owies, Rami; Alshdaifat, Hala; Al-Mahaseneh, Omamah; Al-Tall, Khadijah; Alawneh, Rawan

    2017-07-14

    This paper reports a novel self-detection method for tumor cells using living nano-robots. These living robots are a nonpathogenic strain of E. coli bacteria equipped with naturally synthesized bio-nano-sensory systems that have an affinity to VEGF, an angiogenic factor overly-expressed by cancer cells. The VEGF-affinity/chemotaxis was assessed using several assays including the capillary chemotaxis assay, chemotaxis assay on soft agar, and chemotaxis assay on solid agar. In addition, a microfluidic device was developed to possibly discover tumor cells through the overexpressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Various experiments to study the sensing characteristic of the nano-robots presented a strong response toward the VEGF. Thus, a new paradigm of selective targeting therapies for cancer can be advanced using swimming E. coli as self-navigator miniaturized robots as well as drug-delivery vehicles.

  7. Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G

    2011-01-01

    Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

  8. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  9. Early circulating tumor DNA dynamics and clonal selection with palbociclib and fulvestrant for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ben; Hrebien, Sarah; Morden, James P; Beaney, Matthew; Fribbens, Charlotte; Huang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Koehler, Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Bliss, Judith M; Turner, Nicholas C

    2018-03-01

    CDK4/6 inhibition substantially improves progression-free survival (PFS) for women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, although there are no predictive biomarkers. Early changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) level may provide early response prediction, but the impact of tumor heterogeneity is unknown. Here we use plasma samples from patients in the randomized phase III PALOMA-3 study of CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib and fulvestrant for women with advanced breast cancer and show that relative change in PIK3CA ctDNA level after 15 days treatment strongly predicts PFS on palbociclib and fulvestrant (hazard ratio 3.94, log-rank p = 0.0013). ESR1 mutations selected by prior hormone therapy are shown to be frequently sub clonal, with ESR1 ctDNA dynamics offering limited prediction of clinical outcome. These results suggest that early ctDNA dynamics may provide a robust biomarker for CDK4/6 inhibitors, with early ctDNA dynamics demonstrating divergent response of tumor sub clones to treatment.

  10. Five-chlorodeoxycytidine, a tumor-selective enzyme-driven radiosensitizer, effectively controls five advanced human tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Sheldon; Alvarez, Marcy; Mas, Marisol; Wozniak, Chandra; Arnold, David; Knapinska, Anna; Norris, Christina; Burk, Ronald; Aller, Alex; Dauphinee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The study's goals were as follows: (1) to extend our past findings with rodent tumors to human tumors in nude mice, (2) to determine if the drug protocol could be simplified so that only CldC and one modulator, tetrahydrouridine (H 4 U), would be sufficient to obtain efficacy, (3) to determine the levels of deoxycytidine kinase and dCMP deaminase in human tumors, compared to adjacent normal tissue, and (4) to determine the effect of CldC on normal tissue radiation damage to the cervical spinal cord of nude mice. Methods and Materials: The five human tumors used were as follows: prostate tumors, PC-3 and H-1579; glioblastoma, SF-295; breast tumor, GI-101; and lung tumor, H-165. The duration of treatment was 3-5 weeks, with drugs administered on Days 1-4 and radiation on Days 3-5 of each week. The biomodulators of CldC were N-(Phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA), an inhibitor of aspartyl transcarbamoylase, 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (FdC), resulting in tumor-directed inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, and H 4 U, an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase. The total dose of focused irradiation of the tumors was usually 45 Gy in 12 fractions. Results: Marked radiosensitization was obtained with CldC and the three modulators. The average days in tumor regrowth delay for X-ray compared to drugs plus X-ray, respectively, were: PC-3 prostate, 42-97; H-1579 prostate, 29-115; glioblastoma, 5-51; breast, 50-80; lung, 32-123. Comparative studies with PC-3 and H-1579 using CldC coadministered with H 4 U, showed that both PALA and FdC are dispensable, and the protocol can be simplified with equal and possibly heightened efficacy. For example, PC-3 with X-ray and (1) no drugs, (2) CldC plus the three modulators, (3) a high dose of CldC, and (4) escalating doses of CldC resulted in 0/10, 3/9, 5/10, and 6/9 cures, respectively. The tumor regrowth delay data followed a similar pattern. After treating mice only 1((1)/(2)) weeks with CldC + H 4 U, 92% of the PC-3 tumor cells were found

  11. LncRNA-LET inhibits cell viability, migration and EMT while induces apoptosis by up-regulation of TIMP2 in human granulosa-like tumor cell line KGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingfang; Zhang, Wenke; Meng, Jinlai; Ma, Li; Li, Aihua

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses, and polycystic ovaries. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in PCOS patients; however, little is known about the effects of the lncRNA-low expression in tumor (lncRNA-LET) on PCOS. We aimed to explore the effects of lncRNA-LET on human granulosa-like tumor cell line, KGN. Expression of lncRNA-LET in normal IOSE80 cells and granulosa cells was determined by qRT-PCR. KGN cell viability, apoptosis and migration were measured by trypan blue exclusion method, flow cytometry assay and wound healing assay, respectively. TGF-β1 was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. LncRNA-LET expression and mRNA expressions of TIMP2 and EMT-related proteins were measured by qRT-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins, EMT-related proteins, TIMP2, and the proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. lncRNA-LET was down-regulated in KGN cells, and its overexpression inhibited cell viability and migration, and promoted apoptosis in KGN cells. Overexpression of lncRNA-LET increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of N-cadherin and vimentin in KGN cells. These effects of lncRNA-LET on KGN cells were reversed by TIMP2 suppression. Overexpression of TIMP2 inhibited cell viability, migration and EMT process, and increased apoptosis by activating the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Overexpression of lncRNA-LET inhibits cell viability, migration and EMT process, and increases apoptosis in KGN cells by up-regulating the expression of TIMP2 and activating the Wnt/β-catenin and notch signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected Alkylating Agents Can Overcome Drug Tolerance of G0-like Tumor Cells and Eradicate BRCA1-Deficient Mammary Tumors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Marina; Blatter, Sohvi; Guyader, Charlotte; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Kersbergen, Ariena; Küçükosmanoğlu, Aslι; Sol, Wendy; Drost, Rinske; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2017-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to characterize and target drug-tolerant BRCA1-deficient tumor cells that cause residual disease and subsequent tumor relapse. Experimental Design: We studied responses to various mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents in a genetically engineered mouse model for BRCA1/p53 -mutant breast cancer. Because of the large intragenic deletion of the Brca1 gene, no restoration of BRCA1 function is possible, and therefore, no BRCA1-dependent acquired resistance occurs. To characterize the cell-cycle stage from which Brca1 -/- ;p53 -/- mammary tumors arise after cisplatin treatment, we introduced the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI) construct into the tumor cells. Results: Despite repeated sensitivity to the MTD of platinum drugs, the Brca1 -mutated mammary tumors are not eradicated, not even by a frequent dosing schedule. We show that relapse comes from single-nucleated cells delaying entry into the S-phase. Such slowly cycling cells, which are present within the drug-naïve tumors, are enriched in tumor remnants. Using the FUCCI construct, we identified nonfluorescent G 0 -like cells as the population most tolerant to platinum drugs. Intriguingly, these cells are more sensitive to the DNA-crosslinking agent nimustine, resulting in an increased number of multinucleated cells that lack clonogenicity. This is consistent with our in vivo finding that the nimustine MTD, among several alkylating agents, is the most effective in eradicating Brca1 -mutated mouse mammary tumors. Conclusions: Our data show that targeting G 0 -like cells is crucial for the eradication of BRCA1/p53-deficient tumor cells. This can be achieved with selected alkylating agents such as nimustine. Clin Cancer Res; 23(22); 7020-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Promotes Hepatic Stellate Cells Migration via Canonical NF-κB/MMP9 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcui Xu

    Full Text Available In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line-LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65. The result of transwell assay revealed that TWEAK promoted LX-2 migration. Subsequently, our data testified that the expression and activity of MMP9 was induced by TWEAK in LX-2 cells, which enhanced the migration. Furthermore, our findings showed that TWEAK upregulated the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 protein to increase MMP9 expression in LX-2 cells. Meanwhile, the alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin expression were upregulated following TWEAK treatment. The results in the present study revealed that TWEAK promotes HSCs migration via canonical NF-κB/MMP9 pathway, which possibly provides a molecular basis targeting TWEAK for the therapy of liver fibrosis.

  14. Effects of high-fat diet and/or body weight on mammary tumor leptin and apoptosis signaling pathways in MMTV-TGF-α mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Maihle, Nita J; Grande, Joseph P; Cleary, Margot P

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with shortened mammary tumor (MT) latency in MMTV-TGF-α mice with dietary-induced obesity. One link between obesity and breast cancer is the adipokine, leptin. Here, the focus is on diet-induced obesity and MT and mammary fat pad (MFP) leptin and apoptotic signaling proteins. Methods MMTV-TGF-α mice were fed low-fat or high-fat diets from 10 to 85 weeks of age. High-Fat mice were divided into Obesity-Prone and Obesity-Resistant groups based on final body weights. Mice were followed to assess MT development and obtain serum, MFP, and MT. Results Incidence of palpable MTs was significantly different: Obesity-Prone > Obesity-Resistant > Low-Fat. Serum leptin was significantly higher in Obesity-Prone compared with Obesity-Resistant and Low-Fat mice. Low-Fat mice had higher MFP and MT ObRb (leptin receptor) protein and Jak2 (Janus kinase 2) protein and mRNA levels in comparison with High-Fat mice regardless of body weight. Leptin (mRNA) and pSTAT3 (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) (mRNA and protein) also were higher in MTs from Low-Fat versus High-Fat mice. Expression of MT and MFP pro-apoptotic proteins was higher in Low-Fat versus High-Fat mice. Conclusion These results confirm a connection between body weight and MT development and between body weight and serum leptin levels. However, diet impacts MT and MFP leptin and apoptosis signaling proteins independently of body weight. PMID:18162139

  15. [Expression of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in patients with gastric cancer and its relationship with nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Sun, Yuanshui

    2016-10-25

    To investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) in the serum and the rectus abdominis muscle in patients with gastric cancer and its relationship with the nutritional status. Method Clinical data of 102 patients with gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) and 53 patients with benign abdominal disease (control group) who were admitted to Zhejiang Province People's Hospital from January 2008 to October 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the serum expression of TWEAK. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of TWEAK in the rectus abdominis muscle. Relationship between TWEAK expression and nutritional status of gastric cancer patients was examined. The relative expression level of TWEAK protein in serum of gastric cancer group and control group was 0.403±0.065 and 0.148±0.036 respectively. The relative expression of TWEAK mRNA in the rectus abdominis muscle tissue was 0.313±0.089 (gastric cancer group) and 0.118±0.005 (control group). The relative expression of TWEAK protein in the rectus abdominis muscle tissue was 0.197±0.064 (gastric cancer group) and 0.066±0.014 (control group), and the differences were statistically significant (both P=0.000). The high expression of TWEAK (high than median) in rectus abdominis muscle of gastric cancer patients was related to the percentage of more than 10% decline in body weight (P=0.000), the small percentage of ideal body weight at the time of admission (P=0.000), BMInutritional risk screening score (P=0.000), lower prognostic nutrition index (P=0.000) and serum albumin gastric cancer patients up-regulates compared to non-tumor patients. The expression level of TWEAK in the rectus abdominis muscle of gastric cancer patients is closely related to poor nutritional status, suggesting that TWEAK may play a key role in the process of

  16. pH-Sensitive nanoparticles as smart carriers for selective intracellular drug delivery to tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xin; Chen, Jing; Shen, Jian-Min; Zhuang, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Qi; Zhu, Zi-Yun; Ma, Jing-Bo

    2018-05-05

    Herein, a smart pH-sensitive nanoparticle (DGL-PEG-Tat-KK-DMA-DOX) was prepared to achieve the selective intracellular drug delivery. In this nanoparticle, a PEG-grafted cell penetrating peptide (PEG-Tat-KK) was designed and acted as the cell penetrating segment. By introducing the pH-sensitive amide bonds between the peptide and blocking agent (2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, DMA), the controllable moiety (PEG-Tat-KK-DMA) endowed the nanoparticle with a charge-switchable shell and temporarily blocked penetrating function, thus improving the specific internalization. Besides, dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL) used as the skeleton can greatly improve the drug loading because of the highly dendritic framework. Under the stimuli of acidic pH, this nanoparticle exhibited a remarkable charge-switchable property. The drug release showed an expected behavior with little release in the neutral pH media but relatively fast release in the acidic media. The in vitro experiments revealed that the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were significantly enhanced after the pH was decreased. In vivo biodistribution and antitumor research indicated that the nanoparticle had noteworthy specificity and antitumor efficacy with a tumor inhibition rate of 79.7%. These results verified this nanoparticle could efficiently improve the selective intracellular delivery and possessed a great potential in tumor treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate and TRAIL selectively synergise in induction of apoptosis in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Rippo, M. R.; Alleva, R.; Moretti, S.; Anděra, Ladislav; Neuzil, J.; Procopio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, - (2004), s. 1644-1653 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026; GA AV ČR IAA5052001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : TRAiL, a-TOS, apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.742, year: 2004

  18. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate selectively induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells: potential therapy of malignancies of the nervous system?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swettenham, E.; Witting, P. K.; Salvatore, B.A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2005), s. 1448-1456 ISSN 0022-3042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : apoptosis * neuroblastoma * vitamin E analogues Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.604, year: 2005

  19. Radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Harumi

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction that can be induced in many cell types via numerous physiological and pathological stimuli. We found that interphasedeath of thymocytes is a typical apoptosis showing the characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Moderate dose of radiation induces extensive apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell population such as the epithelium of intestinal crypt. Recent reports indicate that the ultimate form of radiation-induced mitotic death in several cells is also apoptosis. One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the enzymatic internucleosomal degradation of chromatin DNA. We identified an endonuclease responsible for the radiation-induced DNA degradation in rat thymocytes. The death-sparing effects of interrupting RNA and protein synthesis suggested a cell genetic program for apoptosis. Apoptosis of thymocytes initiated by DNA damage, such as radiation and radio mimetic substance, absolutely requires the protein of p53 cancer suppresser gene. The cell death induced by glucocorticoid, or aging, has no such requirement. Expression of oncogene bcl-2 rescues cells from the apoptosis. Massive apoptosis in radiosensitive cells induced by higher dose radiation may be fatal. It is suggested that selective apoptotic elimination of cells would play an important role for protection against carcinogenesis and malformation through removal of cells with unrepaired radiation-induced DNA damages. Data to evaluate the significance of apoptosis in the radiation risk are still poor. Further research should be done in order to clarify the roles of the cell death on the acute and late effects of irradiation. (author)

  20. Tumor cell phenotype is sustained by selective MAPK oxidation in mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Galli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are major cellular sources of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2, the production of which is modulated by oxygen availability and the mitochondrial energy state. An increase of steady-state cell H(2O(2 concentration is able to control the transition from proliferating to quiescent phenotypes and to signal the end of proliferation; in tumor cells thereby, low H(2O(2 due to defective mitochondrial metabolism can contribute to sustain proliferation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs orchestrate signal transduction and recent data indicate that are present in mitochondria and regulated by the redox state. On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of tumor mitochondrial dysfunction, H(2O(2 yield, and activation of MAPKs in LP07 murine tumor cells with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging and directed mutagenesis. Two redox conditions were examined: low 1 microM H(2O(2 increased cell proliferation in ERK1/2-dependent manner whereas high 50 microM H(2O(2 arrested cell cycle by p38 and JNK1/2 activation. Regarding the experimental conditions as a three-compartment model (mitochondria, cytosol, and nuclei, the different responses depended on MAPKs preferential traffic to mitochondria, where a selective activation of either ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 by co-localized upstream kinases (MAPKKs facilitated their further passage to nuclei. As assessed by mass spectra, MAPKs activation and efficient binding to cognate MAPKKs resulted from oxidation of conserved ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 cysteine domains to sulfinic and sulfonic acids at a definite H(2O(2 level. Like this, high H(2O(2 or directed mutation of redox-sensitive ERK2 Cys(214 impeded binding to MEK1/2, caused ERK2 retention in mitochondria and restricted shuttle to nuclei. It is surmised that selective cysteine oxidations adjust the electrostatic forces that participate in a particular MAPK-MAPKK interaction. Considering that tumor mitochondria are dysfunctional, their inability to

  1. An activated form of ADAM10 is tumor selective and regulates cancer stem-like cells and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nayanendu; Eissman, Moritz F.; Xu, Kai; Llerena, Carmen; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Ding, Bi-Sen; Cao, Zhongwei; Rafii, Shahin; Ernst, Matthias; Scott, Andrew M.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM10 sheds a range of cell surface proteins, including ligands and receptors of the Notch, Eph, and erbB families, thereby activating signaling pathways critical for tumor initiation and maintenance. ADAM10 is thus a promising therapeutic target. Although widely expressed, its activity is normally tightly regulated. We now report prevalence of an active form of ADAM10 in tumors compared with normal tissues, in mouse models and humans, identified by our conformation-specific antibody mAb 8C7. Structure/function experiments indicate mAb 8C7 binds an active conformation dependent on disulfide isomerization and oxidative conditions, common in tumors. Moreover, this active ADAM10 form marks cancer stem-like cells with active Notch signaling, known to mediate chemoresistance. Importantly, specific targeting of active ADAM10 with 8C7 inhibits Notch activity and tumor growth in mouse models, particularly regrowth after chemotherapy. Our results indicate targeted inhibition of active ADAM10 as a potential therapy for ADAM10-dependent tumor development and drug resistance. PMID:27503072

  2. Imatinib and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST: a selective targeted therapy Imatinib y tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST: un tratamiento selectivo frente a una diana molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by an anomalous receptor for a growth factor with tyrosine-kinase activity (c-kit. This anomaly causes a permanent activation of the receptor and uncontrolled cell growth. These tumors show a poor response to traditional chemotherapy drugs, and are thus associated with low survival in cases of advanced disease. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an example of selective targeted oncologic therapy that induces improved survival in these patients. We discuss two cases of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a good response to imatinib, and also review the pathophysiology and treatment-related outcome of this type of tumors. We include results from clinical phase-III studies.Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal son los tumores mesenquimales más frecuentes del tracto digestivo y se originan de las células intersticiales de Cajal. Se caracterizan por presentar un receptor para el factor de crecimiento con actividad tirosin kinasa (c-kit anómalo que condiciona su activación permanente y un crecimiento celular incontrolado. Tienen una baja supervivencia en casos de enfermedad avanzada, con escasa respuesta a los agentes quimioterápicos tradicionales. El imatinib es un fármaco inhibidor de la tirosín kinasa y un ejemplo de terapia oncológica selectiva que condiciona un importante aumento en la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Se presentan 2 casos de enfermedad metastásica con buena respuesta a imatinib, así como una revisión sobre la fisiopatología y evolución en el tratamiento de este tipo de tumores, incluyendo resultados de estudios en fase III.

  3. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase......-reverse-transcriptase-positive cancer cells and expresses green-fluorescent-protein that identifies viable CTCs from a broad spectrum of malignancies. Our method recovered 75.5-87.2% of tumor cells spiked into healthy donor blood, as validated by different methods, including single cell sequencing. CTCs were detected in 59-100% of 326...

  4. Tenuifolide B from Cinnamomum tenuifolium Stem Selectively Inhibits Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells via Apoptosis, ROS Generation, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wang, Hui-Ru; Yang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-05

    The development of drugs that selectively kill oral cancer cells but are less harmful to normal cells still provide several challenges. In this study, the antioral cancer effects of tenuifolide B (TFB), extracted from the stem of the plant Cinnamomum tenuifolium are evaluated in terms of their effects on cancer cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Cell viability of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) was found to be significantly inhibited by TFB in a dose-responsive manner in terms of ATP assay, yielding IC 50 = 4.67 and 7.05 μM (24 h), but are less lethal to normal oral cells (HGF-1). Dose-responsive increases in subG1 populations as well as the intensities of flow cytometry-based annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and pancaspase activity suggested that apoptosis was inducible by TFB in these two types of oral cancer cells. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced the annexin V intensity of these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells, suggesting that TFB induced apoptosis-mediated cell death to oral cancer cells. Cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were upregulated in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells over time but less harmful for normal oral HGF-1 cells. Dose-responsive and time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP) in these two TFB-treated oral cancer cells suggest that TFB may generate oxidative stress as measured by flow cytometry. N -acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reduced the TFB-induced ROS generation and further validated that ROS was relevant to TFB-induced cell death. Both flow cytometry and Western blotting demonstrated that the DNA double strand marker γH2AX dose-responsively increased in TFB-treated Ca9-22 cells and time-dependently increased in two TFB-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, we infer that TFB can selectively inhibit cell proliferation of

  5. Vitamin E analogues inhibit angiogenesis by selective induction of apoptosis in proliferating endothelial cells: the role of oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dong, L.F.; Swettenham, E.; Eliasson, J.; Wang, X. F.; Gold, M.; Medunic, Y.; Stantic, M.; Low, P.; Procházka, L.; Witting, P. K.; Turánek, J.; Akporiaye, E.T.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 24 (2007), s. 11906-11913 ISSN 0008-5472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520703; GA AV ČR IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : mitocans * proliferating endothelial cells * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2007

  6. Emergent Stratification in Solid Tumors Selects for Reduced Cohesion of Tumor Cells: A Multi-Cell, Virtual-Tissue Model of Tumor Evolution Using CompuCell3D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej H Swat

    Full Text Available Tumor cells and structure both evolve due to heritable variation of cell behaviors and selection over periods of weeks to years (somatic evolution. Micro-environmental factors exert selection pressures on tumor-cell behaviors, which influence both the rate and direction of evolution of specific behaviors, especially the development of tumor-cell aggression and resistance to chemotherapies. In this paper, we present, step-by-step, the development of a multi-cell, virtual-tissue model of tumor somatic evolution, simulated using the open-source CompuCell3D modeling environment. Our model includes essential cell behaviors, microenvironmental components and their interactions. Our model provides a platform for exploring selection pressures leading to the evolution of tumor-cell aggression, showing that emergent stratification into regions with different cell survival rates drives the evolution of less cohesive cells with lower levels of cadherins and higher levels of integrins. Such reduced cohesivity is a key hallmark in the progression of many types of solid tumors.

  7. Sleep quality and methylation status of selected tumor suppressor genes among nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Damska, Agnieszka; Reszka, Edyta; Kaluzny, Pawel; Wieczorek, Edyta; Przybek, Monika; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Peplonska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited reports suggest also epigenetic effects, such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The study aims to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of selected tumor suppressor genes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 710 nurses and midwives aged 40-60 years. Data from interviews regarding sleep habits and potential confounders were used. The methylation status of tumor suppressor genes was determined via qMSP reactions using DNA samples derived from leucocytes. No significant findings were observed in the total study population or in the two subgroups of women stratified by the current system of work. A borderline significance association was observed between a shorter duration of sleep and an increased methylation level in CDKN2A among day working nurses and midwives. Further studies are warranted to explore this under-investigated topic.

  8. Sunitinib in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulet-Margalef N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuria Mulet-Margalef, Xavier Garcia-del-Muro Sarcoma Multidisciplinary Unit and Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia Hospitalet, IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. In advanced setting and after progression to imatinib, the multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has clearly demonstrated a clinical benefit in terms of response rate and progression-free survival with an acceptable toxicity profile. The recommended schedule for sunitinib administration is 50 mg per day 4 weeks ON and 2 weeks OFF; however, potential alternative schedules are also reviewed in the present article. Several biomarkers have been explored to better select candidates for sunitinib therapy, such as the value of early changes in standardized uptake value assessed by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, circulating biomarkers, clinical biomarkers such as the appearance of arterial hypertension during treatment that correlates with better outcomes, and the GIST genotype. GISTs with KIT mutations at exon 9 and the so-called wild-type GISTs seem to better respond to sunitinib. Nonetheless, further investigation is required to confirm these findings as well as to understand the mechanisms of sunitinib resistance such as the development of new KIT mutations or conformational changes in KIT receptor. Keywords: sunitinib, GIST, KIT, refractory GIST

  9. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells by Combining Immunomagnetic Selection and FICTION Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María; Prior, Celia; Warleta, Fernando; Zudaire, Isabel; Ruíz-Mora, Jesús; Catena, Raúl; Calvo, Alfonso; Gaforio, José J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients has been proven to have clinical relevance. Cytogenetic characterization of these cells could have crucial relevance for targeted cancer therapies. We developed a method that combines an immunomagnetic selection of CTCs from peripheral blood with the fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for investigation of neoplasm (FICTION) technique. Briefly, peripheral blood (10 ml) from healthy donors was spiked with a predetermined number of human breast cancer cells. Nucleated cells were separated by double density gradient centrifugation of blood samples. Tumor cells (TCs) were immunomagnetically isolated with an anti-cytokeratin antibody and placed onto slides for FICTION analysis. For immunophenotyping and genetic characterization of TCs, a mixture of primary monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibodies was used, followed by fluorescent secondary antibodies, and finally hybridized with a TOP2A/HER-2/CEP17 multicolor probe. Our results show that TCs can be efficiently isolated from peripheral blood and characterized by FICTION. Because genetic amplification of TOP2A and ErbB2 (HER-2) in breast cancer correlates with response to anthracyclines and herceptin therapies, respectively, this novel methodology could be useful for a better classification of patients according to the genetic alterations of CTCs and for the application of targeted therapies. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:667–675, 2008) PMID:18413646

  10. Stimulatory effect of oral administration of tea, coffee or caffeine on UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis of SKH-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conney, Allan H.; Zhou, Sherry; Lee Maojung; Xie Jianguo; Yang, Chung S.; Lou Yourong; Lu Yaoping

    2007-01-01

    Oral administration of green tea or a caffeine solution, but not decaffeinated green tea, inhibits UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Oral administration of green tea, coffee or a caffeine solution for 2 weeks enhanced UVB-induced increases in apoptosis in the epidermis, but these treatments had no effect in non-UVB treated normal epidermis. Our results suggest that administration of green tea, coffee and caffeine may inhibit UVB-induced carcinogenesis - at least in part - by enhancing UVB-induced apoptosis. Plasma levels of caffeine observed after its oral administration at cancer-preventive dose levels were within the range observed in moderate coffee drinkers. Topical applications of caffeine to mice previously treated with UVB for 20 weeks (high risk mice without tumors) inhibited the formation of tumors and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors but not in areas of the epidermis away from tumors. The selective effects of caffeine administration to stimulate UVB-induced apoptosis or apoptosis in tumors but not in normal epidermis or in areas of the epidermis away from tumors is of considerable interest, but the reasons for the selective effects of caffeine on apoptosis in DNA damaged tissues are unknown. Further studies are needed to determine mechanisms of these effects of caffeine and to determine the effects of caffeine administration on sunlight-induced actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas in humans

  11. Selection of radioresistant tumor cells and presence of ALDH1 activity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihatsch, Julia; Toulany, Mahmoud; Bareiss, Petra M.; Grimm, Sabrina; Lengerke, Claudia; Kehlbach, Rainer; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tumor resistance to radiotherapy has been hypothesized to be mediated by a tumor subpopulation, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Based on the proposed function of CSCs in radioresistance, we explored the cancer stem cell properties of cells selected for radioresistance phenotype. Materials and methods: A549 and SK-BR-3 cells were radioselected with four single doses of 4 or 3 Gy in intervals of 10-12 days and used for colony formation assay and γ-H2AX foci formation assay. Expression of putative stem cell markers, i.e. Sox2, Oct4, ALDH1, and CD133 were analyzed using Western blotting. A549 and SK-BR-3 cells sorted based on their ALDH1 activity were analyzed in clonogenic survival assays. Results: Radioselected A549 and SK-BR-3 cells (A549-R, SK-BR-3-R) showed increased radioresistance and A549-R cells presented enhanced repair of DNA-double strand breaks. PI3K inhibition significantly reduced radioresistance of A549-R cells. Cell line specific differences in the expression of the putative CSC markers Sox2 and Oct4 were observed when parental and radioselected cells were compared but could not be directly correlated to the radioresistant phenotype. However, enzyme activity of the putative stem cell marker ALDH1 showed a correlation to radioresistance. Conclusions: Subpopulations of pooled radioresistant colonies, selected by various radiation exposures were analyzed for the presence of putative stem cell markers. Although the pattern of Sox2, Oct4, and CD133 expression was not generally associated with radioresistance, presence of ALDH1 seems to be indicative for subpopulations with increased radioresistance.

  12. Inhibition of X-ray and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by butyrolactone I, a CDK-specific inhibitor, in human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanjun; Takebe, Hiraku; Yagi, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression is coordinately regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The inhibition of CDKs by p21 wafl/Cipl/Sdil prevents the apoptosis of cells treated with DNA-damaging agents. In this study, we found that butyrolactone I, a specific inhibitor of CDC2 family kinases, blocks the X-ray- or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of DLD1 (p21 +/+) human colorectal carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that butyrolactone I inhibits the CDK2 activity and enhances cell survival after an X-ray irradiation or doxorubicin treatment in both DLD1 (p21 -/-) and DLD1 (p21 +/+) cells. These findings suggest that butyrolactone I prevents apoptosis by the direct inhibition of CDK and also, possibly, by CDK-inhibition through p53-independent p21-induction. Our findings indicate that CDK activity is required for DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis. (author)

  13. The role of soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis and interleukin-17A in the etiopathogenesis of celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Mahmut; Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Kilic, Zeki Mesut Yalın; Kilic, Hasan; Suna, Nuretdin; Ates, Hale; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our aim in this study was to determine soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels in celiac disease, and their association with the gluten diet and autoantibodies. Eighty patients with celiac diagnosis and 80 healthy control individuals with similar age, gender and body mass index to the patient group were included in the study. Serum sTWEAK and IL-17A levels were measured by the serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The median IL-17A (117.5 pg/mL vs. 56.7 pg/mL; P = 0.001) level in celiac patients was higher than in the control group, while the median sTWEAK (543 pg/mL vs. 643 pg/mL; P = 0.016) level in patients was determined to be lower. In the patient group, patients who complied with the gluten diet had a lower level of median IL-17A (98.1 pg/mL vs. 197.5 pg/mL; P = 0.034) and a higher level of sTWEAK (606 pg/mL vs. 522.8 pg/mL; P = 0.031) than those who did not adhere. Furthermore, the IL-17A level was higher and the sTWEAK level was lower in celiac patients with positive antibody than those with negative antibody. A positive correlation was determined among anti-gliadin antibody IgA, anti-gliadin antibody IgG, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG levels and the IL-17A level, and a negative correlation was determined with the sTWEAK level. In celiac disease, the sTWEAK and IL-17A levels differ between patients who cannot adapt to the gluten diet and who are autoantibody positive, and patients who adapt to the diet and are autoantibody negative. We believe that sTWEAK and IL-17A are associated with the inflammation in celiac pathogenesis. PMID:27367991

  14. Reactivating p53 and Inducing Tumor Apoptosis (RITA) Enhances the Response of RITA-Sensitive Colorectal Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegering, Armin; Matthes, Niels; Mühling, Bettina; Koospal, Monika; Quenzer, Anne; Peter, Stephanie; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Linnebacher, Michael; Otto, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract with frequently dysregulated intracellular signaling pathways, including p53 signaling. The mainstay of chemotherapy treatment of CRC is 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin. The two anticancer drugs mediate their therapeutic effect via DNA damage-triggered signaling. The small molecule reactivating p53 and inducing tumor apoptosis (RITA) is described as an activator of wild-type and reactivator of mutant p53 function, resulting in elevated levels of p53 protein, cell growth arrest, and cell death. Additionally, it has been shown that RITA can induce DNA damage signaling. It is expected that the therapeutic benefits of 5FU and oxaliplatin can be increased by enhancing DNA damage signaling pathways. Therefore, we highlighted the antiproliferative response of RITA alone and in combination with 5FU or oxaliplatin in human CRC cells. A panel of long-term established CRC cell lines (n=9) including p53 wild-type, p53 mutant, and p53 null and primary patient-derived, low-passage cell lines (n=5) with different p53 protein status were used for this study. A substantial number of CRC cells with pronounced sensitivity to RITA (IC 50 RITA appeared independent of p53 status and was associated with an increase in antiproliferative response to 5FU and oxaliplatin, a transcriptional increase of p53 targets p21 and NOXA, and a decrease in MYC mRNA. The effect of RITA as an inducer of DNA damage was shown by a strong elevation of phosphorylated histone variant H2A.X, which was restricted to RITA-sensitive cells. Our data underline the primary effect of RITA, inducing DNA damage, and demonstrate the differential antiproliferative effect of RITA to CRC cells independent of p53 protein status. We found a substantial number of RITA-sensitive CRC cells within both panels of established CRC cell lines and primary patient-derived CRC cell lines (6/14) that provide a rationale for combining RITA with 5FU or

  15. Reactivating p53 and Inducing Tumor Apoptosis (RITA Enhances the Response of RITA-Sensitive Colorectal Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wiegering

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma (CRC is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract with frequently dysregulated intracellular signaling pathways, including p53 signaling. The mainstay of chemotherapy treatment of CRC is 5-fluorouracil (5FU and oxaliplatin. The two anticancer drugs mediate their therapeutic effect via DNA damage-triggered signaling. The small molecule reactivating p53 and inducing tumor apoptosis (RITA is described as an activator of wild-type and reactivator of mutant p53 function, resulting in elevated levels of p53 protein, cell growth arrest, and cell death. Additionally, it has been shown that RITA can induce DNA damage signaling. It is expected that the therapeutic benefits of 5FU and oxaliplatin can be increased by enhancing DNA damage signaling pathways. Therefore, we highlighted the antiproliferative response of RITA alone and in combination with 5FU or oxaliplatin in human CRC cells. A panel of long-term established CRC cell lines (n = 9 including p53 wild-type, p53 mutant, and p53 null and primary patient-derived, low-passage cell lines (n = 5 with different p53 protein status were used for this study. A substantial number of CRC cells with pronounced sensitivity to RITA (IC50< 3.0 μmol/l were identified within established (4/9 and primary patient-derived (2/5 CRC cell lines harboring wild-type or mutant p53 protein. Sensitivity to RITA appeared independent of p53 status and was associated with an increase in antiproliferative response to 5FU and oxaliplatin, a transcriptional increase of p53 targets p21 and NOXA, and a decrease in MYC mRNA. The effect of RITA as an inducer of DNA damage was shown by a strong elevation of phosphorylated histone variant H2A.X, which was restricted to RITA-sensitive cells. Our data underline the primary effect of RITA, inducing DNA damage, and demonstrate the differential antiproliferative effect of RITA to CRC cells independent of p53 protein status. We found a substantial number

  16. Smac Mimetic Bypasses Apoptosis Resistance in FADD- or Caspase-8-Deficient Cells by Priming for Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Induced Necroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Laukens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Searching for new strategies to bypass apoptosis resistance, we investigated the potential of the Smac mimetic BV6 in Jurkat leukemia cells deficient in key molecules of the death receptor pathway. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Smac mimetic primes apoptosis-resistant, FADD- or caspase-8-deficient leukemia cells for TNFα-induced necroptosis in a synergistic manner. In contrast to TNFα, Smac mimetic significantly enhances CD95-induced apoptosis in wild-type but not in FADD-deficient cells. Interestingly, Smac mimetic- and TNFα-mediated cell death occurs without characteristic features of apoptosis (i.e., caspase activation, DNA fragmentation in FADD-deficient cells. By comparison, Smac mimetic and TNFα trigger activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and DNA fragmentation in wild-type cells. Consistently, the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk fails to block Smac mimetic- and TNFα-triggered cell death in FADD- or caspase-8-deficient cells, while it confers protection in wild-type cells. By comparison, necrostatin-1, an RIP1 kinase inhibitor, abolishes Smac mimetic- and TNFα-induced cell death in FADD- or caspase-8-deficient. Thus, Smac mimetic enhances TNFα-induced cell death in leukemia cells via two distinct pathways in a context-dependent manner: it primes apoptosis-resistant cells lacking FADD or caspase-8 to TNFα-induced, RIP1-dependent and caspase-independent necroptosis, whereas it sensitizes apoptosis-proficient cells to TNFα-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to overcome apoptosis resistance.

  17. RITA (Reactivating p53 and Inducing Tumor Apoptosis) is efficient against TP53abnormal myeloma cells independently of the p53 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surget, Sylvanie; Descamps, Géraldine; Brosseau, Carole; Normant, Vincent; Maïga, Sophie; Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Gouy-Colin, Nadège; Godon, Catherine; Béné, Marie C; Moreau, Philippe; Le Gouill, Steven; Amiot, Martine; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine

    2014-06-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the p53-reactivating drugs RITA and nutlin3a in killing myeloma cells. A large cohort of myeloma cell lines (n = 32) and primary cells (n = 21) was used for this study. This cohort contained cell lines with various TP53 statuses and primary cells with various incidences of deletion of chromosome 17. Apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry with Apo2.7 staining of the cell lines or via the loss of the myeloma-specific marker CD138 in primary cells. Apoptosis was further confirmed by the appearance of a subG1 peak and the activation of caspases 3 and 9. Activation of the p53 pathway was monitored using immunoblotting via the expression of the p53 target genes p21, Noxa, Bax and DR5. The involvement of p53 was further studied in 4 different p53-silenced cell lines. Both drugs induced the apoptosis of myeloma cells. The apoptosis that was induced by RITA was not related to the TP53 status of the cell lines or the del17p status of the primary samples (p = 0.52 and p = 0.80, respectively), and RITA did not commonly increase the expression level of p53 or p53 targets (Noxa, p21, Bax or DR5) in sensitive cells. Moreover, silencing of p53 in two TP53(mutated) cell lines failed to inhibit apoptosis that was induced by RITA, which confirmed that RITA-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was p53 independent. In contrast, apoptosis induced by nutlin3a was directly linked to the TP53 status of the cell lines and primary samples (p RITA, in contrast to nutlin3a, effectively induced apoptosis in a subset of MM cells independently of p53. The findings and could be of interest for patients with a 17p deletion, who are resistant to current therapies.

  18. Inhibitory effects of a selective Jak2 inhibitor on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asari Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Asari, Kazunori Kageyama, Yuki Nakada, Mizuki Tasso, Shinobu Takayasu, Kanako Niioka, Noriko Ishigame, Makoto Daimon Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Purpose: The primary cause of Cushing’s disease is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas. EGFR signaling induces POMC mRNA-transcript levels and ACTH secretion from corticotroph tumors. The Jak–STAT pathway is located downstream of EGFR signaling; therefore, a Jak2 inhibitor could be an effective therapy for EGFR-related tumors. In this study, we determined the effect of a potent and selective Jak2 inhibitor, SD1029, on ACTH production and proliferation in mouse AtT20 corticotroph tumor cells.Materials and methods: AtT20 pituitary corticotroph tumor cells were cultured after transfection with PTTG1- or GADD45β-specific siRNA. Expression levels of mouse POMC, PTTG1, and GADD45β mRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ACTH levels were measured using ACTH ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to examine protein expression of phosphorylated STAT3/STAT3. Viable cells and DNA fragmentation were measured using a cell-proliferation assay and cell-death detection ELISA, respectively. Cellular DNA content was analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.Results: SD1029 decreased POMC and PTTG1 mRNA and ACTH levels, while increasing GADD45β levels. The drug also decreased AtT20-cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but did not alter cell-cycle progression. SD1029 also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. PTTG1 knockdown inhibited POMC mRNA levels and cell proliferation. However, combined treatment with PTTG1 knockdown and SD1029 had no additive effect on POMC mRNA levels or cell proliferation. GADD45β knockdown inhibited the SD1029-induced decrease in POMC mRNA levels and also partially inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation.Conclusion: Both

  19. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity

  20. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  1. Concomitant apoptosis and regeneration of liver cells as a mechanism of liver-tumor promotion by β-naphthoflavone involving TNFα-signaling due to oxidative cellular stress in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Hayashi, Hitomi; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (BNF) is a strong inducer of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, and exerts liver tumor-promoting activity through enhancement of oxidative stress responses in rats. This study investigated the role of the tissue environment surrounding hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions in the early tumor-promotion stage by BNF, using enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) as an anti-oxidative chemopreventive agent. Male F344 rats were fed a diet containing BNF (0.5%) for 6 weeks, with or without EMIQ (0.2%) in the drinking water, 2 weeks after initiation with N-diethylnitrosamine, and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after starting BNF-promotion. BNF-treatment increased concentrations of liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, single liver cells expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form or heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and concomitant apoptosis and proliferation of liver cells. Transcript upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes (Aldh1a1 and Nqo1), cell cycle-related molecules (Cdc20 and Cdkn2b) and inflammation-related molecules including proinflammatory cytokines (Ccl2, Col1a1, Il6, Nos2 and Serpine1) was also evident. Furthermore, BNF increased HO-1-expressing Kupffer cells and liver cells expressing tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the TNFR1-associated death domain. Most of these BNF-induced fluctuations disappeared or were suppressed by EMIQ in conjunction with suppression of tumor-promotion. Tnf transcript levels with BNF were also suppressed by EMIQ. These results suggest that BNF-induced oxidative stress causes single liver cell toxicity, allowing subsequent concomitant apoptosis and regeneration involving inflammatory responses including TNFα-signaling, contributing to tumor promotion. Kupffer cells may act to protect against inflammatory stimuli induced as a result of oxidative cellular stress by BNF, causing proinflammatory cytokine level fluctuations.

  2. Selective use of peri-operative steroids in pituitary tumor surgery: escape from dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Marie Regan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Traditional neurosurgical practice calls for administration of peri-operative stress-dose steroids for sellar-suprasellar masses undergoing operative treatment. This practice is considered critical to prevent peri-operative complications associated with hypoadrenalism, such as hypotension and circulatory collapse. However, stress-dose steroids complicate the management of these patients. It has been our routine practice to use stress steroids during surgery only if the patient has clinical or biochemical evidence of hypocortisolism pre-operatively. We wanted to be certain that this practice was safe.Methods: We present our retrospective analysis from a consecutive series of 114 operations in 109 patients with sellar and/or suprasellar tumors, the majority of whom were managed without empirical stress-dose steroid coverage. Only patients who were hypoadrenal pre-operatively or who had suffered apoplexy were given stress dose coverage during surgery. We screened for biochemical evidence of hypoadrenalism as a result of surgery by measuring immediate post-operative AM serum cortisol levels.Results: There were no adverse events related to the selective use of cortisol replacement in this patient population. Conclusions: Our experience demonstrates that selective use of corticosteroid replacement is safe; it simplifies the management of the patients, and has advantages over empiric dogmatic steroid coverage.

  3. The selection of patients for accelerated radiotherapy on the basis of tumor growth kinetics and intrinsic radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Kang-Sow Chan

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modelling was used to reach qualitative conclusions concerning the relative rate of local tumor control that might be achieved by using accelerated fractionation to treat only the patients with the most rapidly growing rumors, compared with the control rated that could be expected from either conventional or accelerated radiotherapy alone. The results suggest that concomitant boost therapy is equally or more effective than conventional dose fractionation for all tumors, regardless of their growth kinetics. For tumors with very short clonogen doubling times, CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy) may be even more effective than concomitant boost treatment, but CHART is less effective than conventional or concomitant boost therapy for tumors with longer clonogen doubling times. Thus, there is a rationale for using a predictive assay of tumor clonogen doubling times to identify the patients who should be treated with CHART. However, improvements in local tumor control resulting from concomitant boost treatment or the selective use of CHART are not likely to be apparent in the population as a whole, because the overall control rated are largely determined by refractory tumors having little chance of control with any of the treatments and by higher responsive tumors that are likely to be controlled regardless of the treatment choice. Differences in control rated with different treatment strategies are most apparent in the stochastic fraction of the population, which excludes those patients for whom there is either very little change (e.g. 99%) of achieving local control with both treatments. The stochastic fraction can be approximated by excluding those patients with the most radioresistant and the most radiosensitive tumors, since intrinsic tumor radiosensitivity appears to be the single most important factor determining treatment outcome. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. indicators of apoptosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and at the molecular level versus 20 age and socioeconomic matching healthy boys. ... to the tumor necrosis factor superfam- ily and induces apoptosis ... tory cell induced apoptosis in blood of ..... Brain 1997; 120 (Pt 6): 929-38. Butterfield TA ...

  5. Regulation of apoptosis by low serum in cells of different stages of neoplastic progression: enhanced susceptibility after loss of a senescence gene and decreased susceptibility after loss of a tumor suppressor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, G A; Lang, J E; Maronpot, R R; Barrett, J C

    1994-08-01

    A cell culture model system has been used to study the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic cell death during different stages of neoplastic progression. This system consists of normal diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, two preneoplastic cell lines [tumor suppressor stage I (sup +I) and non-tumor suppressor stage II (sup -II)], and hamster tumor cell lines. Stage I preneoplastic cells are nontumorigenic immortal clones that suppress tumorigenicity when hybridized to tumor cells, whereas stage II cells have lost the ability to suppress tumorigenicity in cell hybrids. We refer to these two types of preneoplastic cells as sup +I and sup -II, respectively. Neoplastic progression is generally associated with cellular alterations in growth factor responsiveness. Therefore, to study the regulation of apoptosis in the system described above, cells were cultured in low serum (0.2%) as a means of withdrawing growth factors. In low serum, normal SHE cells were quiescent (labeling index of 0.2%), with little cell death. The sup +I cells showed a relatively low labeling index (1.6%) but, in contrast to the normal cells, died at a high rate (55% cell loss after 48 h) by apoptosis, as evidenced by morphology, DNA fragmentation, and in situ end-labeling of fragmented DNA. The apoptotic cells did not go through a replicative cycle while in low serum, implying that apoptosis was initiated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The sup -II cell line showed a high labeling index (40%) after 48 h, but cell growth was balanced by cell death that occurred at approximately the same rate. The cells died, however, predominantly by necrosis. The tumor cell lines continued to proliferate in low serum, with high labeling indices (ranging from 27% to 43%) and a low level of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. To determine the relative ability of these cells to survive in vivo, normal SHE cells, sup +I cells, and sup -II cells were injected s.c. into nude mice. At 5 or 21 days after

  6. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 μM potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  7. Aplasia Ras homologue member Ⅰ overexpression inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt survival pathways in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaishan; Wang, Shuanke; Yang, Yong; Kang, Xuewen; Wang, Jing; Han, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Aplasia Ras homologue member Ⅰ (ARHI), an imprinted tumor-suppressor gene, is downregulated in various types of cancer. However, the expression, function and specific mechanisms of ARHI in human osteosarcoma (OS) cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ARHI on OS cell proliferation and apoptosis and its associated mechanism. In the study, ARHI mRNA and protein levels were markedly downregulated in OS cells compared with the human osteoblast precursor cell line hFOB1.19. By generating stable transfectants, ARHI was overexpressed in OS cells that had low levels of ARHI. Overexpression of ARHI inhibited cell viability and proliferation and induced apoptosis. However, caspase‑3 activity was not changed by ARHI overexpression. In addition, phosphorylated Akt protein expression decreased in the ARHI overexpression group compared to that in the control vector group. The knockdown of ARHI also resulted in the promotion of cell proliferation and the attenuation of apoptosis in MG‑63 cells. Additionally, ARHI silencing increased the level of p‑Akt. The present results indicate that ARHI inhibits OS cell proliferation and may have a key role in the development of OS.

  8. Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its implication for apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Chazin, Walter J; Yui, Satoru

    2005-10-24

    S100A8/A9 (calprotectin), which is released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions, has the capacity to induce apoptosis in various cells. We previously reported that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis of EL-4 lymphoma cells via the uptake of extracellular zinc in a manner similar to DTPA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. In this study, S100A8/A9-induced apoptosis was examined in several cell lines that are weakly sensitive to DTPA, suggesting S100A8/A9 is directly responsible for apoptosis in these cells. Since zinc inhibits apoptosis of MM46, one of these cells, the regulation by zinc of the capacity of S100A8/A9 to bind MM46 cells was studied. When MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in standard or zinc-depleted medium, the amounts of S100A8/A9 bound to cells was markedly lower at 3 h than at 1 h. In contrast, when MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in the presence of high levels of zinc, binding to cells was the same at 1 and 3 h. When the cells were permeabilized with saponin prior to analysis, a larger amount of cell-associated S100A8/A9 was detected at 3 h. The amount was further increased in cells treated with chloroquine, suggesting that S100A8/A9 was internalized and degraded in lysosomes. Although it has been reported that S100A8/A9 binds to heparan sulfate on cell membranes, the amount of S100A8/A9 bound to MM46 cells was not reduced by heparinase treatment, but was reduced by trypsin treatment. These results suggest that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis by direct binding to MM46 cells, and that this activity is regulated by zinc.

  9. Effects of boron neutron capture therapy using borocaptate sodium in combination with a tumor-selective vasoactive agent in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Baba, Hideo.

    1998-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) destroys tumor cells by means of α particles and recoil protons emitted by 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. For BNCT to be effective, the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B must be larger than 1.0, because neutron distribution is not selective. We examined the combination of 10 B-enriched borocaptate sodium (BSH) with flavone acetic acid (FAA) as a model compound which causes vascular collapse in squamous cell carcinoma in mice (SCCVII tumors) and would increase the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B. FAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected, and 5 min later BSH (75 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered, followed 15 to 180 min later by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The 10 B concentrations were measured by prompt gamma ray spectrometry. Without FAA, tumor 10 B concentrations were less than or equal to normal tissue concentrations at all time intervals, except that the concentrations were 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in tumor than muscle at 15 and 180 min after injection of BSH. With FAA, 10 B concentrations 2.1- to 6.9-fold greater in tumor than in muscle were achieved at all intervals tested. For blood and skin, significant differential accumulations were found in tumors at 120 and 180 min. Tumor/liver ratios were less than 1 at all times. Cell survival was determined by in vivo/in vitro colony assay, and increasing radiosensitization correlated with increasing tumor 10 B concentrations, whether or not they were achieved with FAA. Tumor control rates, determined at 180 days after BNCT, similarly appeared to depend only on 10 B levels at the time of irradiation. Because 10 B levels correlate with the radiation response of tissues, a therapeutic gain would be expected whenever the tumor levels exceed normal tissue levels, such as in tumors located in muscle irradiated at 15-180 min after FAA+BSH, or in those in skin irradiated at 120 and 180 min. (author)

  10. Selective cerebral perfusion prevents abnormalities in glutamate cycling and neuronal apoptosis in a model of infant deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Olson, Aaron K; Isern, Nancy G; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is often required for the repair of complex congenital cardiac defects in infants. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induces neuroapoptosis associated with later development of neurocognitive abnormalities. Selective cerebral perfusion theoretically provides superior neural protection possibly through modifications in cerebral substrate oxidation and closely integrated glutamate cycling. We tested the hypothesis that selective cerebral perfusion modulates glucose utilization, and ameliorates abnormalities in glutamate flux, which occur in association with neuroapoptosis during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Eighteen infant male Yorkshire piglets were assigned randomly to two groups of seven (deep hypothermic circulatory arrest or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective cerebral perfusion for 60 minutes at 18℃) and four control pigs without cardiopulmonary bypass support. Carbon-13-labeled glucose as a metabolic tracer was infused, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for metabolic analysis in the frontal cortex. Following 2.5 h of cerebral reperfusion, we observed similar cerebral adenosine triphosphate levels, absolute levels of lactate and citric acid cycle intermediates, and carbon-13 enrichment among three groups. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induced significant abnormalities in glutamate cycling resulting in reduced glutamate/glutamine and elevated γ-aminobutyric acid/glutamate along with neuroapoptosis, which were all prevented by selective cerebral perfusion. The data suggest that selective cerebral perfusion prevents these modifications in glutamate/glutamine/γ-aminobutyric acid cycling and protects the cerebral cortex from apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The incidence of parametrial tumor involvement in select patients with early cervix cancer is too low to justify parametrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, M.; Louwen, M.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; den Bakker, M. A.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of parametrial involvement in a select group of patients with early cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cervical cancer and a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm, infiltration depth <10 mm and negative pelvic lymph nodes

  12. Selective targeting of brain tumors with gold nanoparticle-induced radiosensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y Joh

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is limited in large part by the cumulative dose of Radiation Therapy (RT that can be safely given and the blood-brain barrier (BBB, which limits the delivery of systemic anticancer agents into tumor tissue. Consequently, the overall prognosis remains grim. Herein, we report our pilot studies in cell culture experiments and in an animal model of GBM in which RT is complemented by PEGylated-gold nanoparticles (GNPs. GNPs significantly increased cellular DNA damage inflicted by ionizing radiation in human GBM-derived cell lines and resulted in reduced clonogenic survival (with dose-enhancement ratio of ~1.3. Intriguingly, combined GNP and RT also resulted in markedly increased DNA damage to brain blood vessels. Follow-up in vitro experiments confirmed that the combination of GNP and RT resulted in considerably increased DNA damage in brain-derived endothelial cells. Finally, the combination of GNP and RT increased survival of mice with orthotopic GBM tumors. Prior treatment of mice with brain tumors resulted in increased extravasation and in-tumor deposition of GNP, suggesting that RT-induced BBB disruption can be leveraged to improve the tumor-tissue targeting of GNP and thus further optimize the radiosensitization of brain tumors by GNP. These exciting results together suggest that GNP may be usefully integrated into the RT treatment of brain tumors, with potential benefits resulting from increased tumor cell radiosensitization to preferential targeting of tumor-associated vasculature.

  13. In vitro gene imaging by luciferase to detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand in lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Na; Cui Jianling; Guo Zhiyuan; Guo Zhiping; Sun Yingcai; Liu Jicun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand(hTRAIL) in vitro by using a novel double expressing adenoviral vector encoding hTRAIL and firefly luciferase (luc) gene (Ad-hTRAIL-luc), in which luc was used as reporter gene. Methods: A549 cells were transduced with the adenoviral vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (Ad-EGFP) at variable multiplicity of infection (MOI). Adenoviral transduction efficiency was determined 48 h later. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc at variable MOI, and the following tests were performed 48h later, respectively: the expressive ratio of hTRAIL and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were measured by flow cytometer; counts per minute (cpm) of luminescence were measured by scintillation counters. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-luc at variable MOI, and cpm of luminescence was measured by scintillation counters 48 h later. After A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL, the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells and cpm of luminescence were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The positive ratio of EGFP and cpm of luminescence (Ad-luc) were analyzed by nonparametric ANOVA. Results: After A549 cells were transfected with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL on the cell membrane of the groups were (2.37±0.04)%, (3.16±0.03)%, (3.64± 0.03)%, (3.96±0.02)%, (4.24±0.02)%, (4.34±0.02)% respectively, which showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were (1.52±0.04)%, (2.93±0.02)%, (3.39±0.02)%, (3.64±0.02)%, (3.86±0.02)%, (4.08±0.02)%, (4.20± 0.02)%, respectively, and it showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); cpm of luminescence were 465 561 ± 26 801, 1 038 576 ± 29 417, 937 655 ± 23 197, 786 432 ± 20 028, 524 288 ± 16 338, 401 566 ± 15 961, respectively, and it also showed significant difference between each other (P<0

  14. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in mediating autophagy in myositis skeletal muscle: A potential non-immune mechanism of muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Heather M.; Raben, Nina; Pistilli, Emidio; Francia, Dwight; Rawat, Rashmi; Getnet, Derese; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Multinucleated cells are relatively resistant to classical apoptosis, and the factors initiating cell-death and damage in myositis are not well defined. We hypothesized that non-immune autophagic cell death may play a role in muscle fiber damage. Recent literature indicates that tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) may induce both NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells) activation and autophagic cell death in other systems. Here, we have investigated its role in cell death and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo using myositis (human and mouse) muscle tissues. Methods Gene expression profiling indicated that expression of TRAIL and several autophagy markers was specifically upregulated in myositis muscle tissue; these results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also analyzed TRAIL-induced cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) and NFκB activation in vitro in cultured cells. Results TRAIL was expressed predominantly in muscle fibers of myositis, but not in biopsies from normal or other dystrophic-diseased muscle. Autophagy markers were upregulated in human and mouse models of myositis. TRAIL expression was restricted to regenerating/atrophic areas of muscle fascicles, blood vessels, and infiltrating lymphocytes. TRAIL induced NFκB activation and IκB degradation in cultured cells that are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis but undergo autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that TRAIL is expressed in myositis muscle and may mediate both activation of NFκB and autophagic cell death in myositis. Thus, this non-immune pathway may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in myositis. PMID:21769834

  15. Quantitation of Murine Stroma and Selective Purification of the Human Tumor Component of Patient-Derived Xenografts for Genomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina E Schneeberger

    Full Text Available Patient-derived xenograft (PDX mouse models are increasingly used for preclinical therapeutic testing of human cancer. A limitation in molecular and genetic characterization of PDX tumors is the presence of integral murine stroma. This is particularly problematic for genomic sequencing of PDX models. Rapid and dependable approaches for quantitating stromal content and purifying the malignant human component of these tumors are needed. We used a recently developed technique exploiting species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplicon length (ssPAL differences to define the fractional composition of murine and human DNA, which was proportional to the fractional composition of cells in a series of lung cancer PDX lines. We compared four methods of human cancer cell isolation: fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, an immunomagnetic mouse cell depletion (MCD approach, and two distinct EpCAM-based immunomagnetic positive selection methods. We further analyzed DNA extracted from the resulting enriched human cancer cells by targeted sequencing using a clinically validated multi-gene panel. Stromal content varied widely among tumors of similar histology, but appeared stable over multiple serial tumor passages of an individual model. FACS and MCD were superior to either positive selection approach, especially in cases of high stromal content, and consistently allowed high quality human-specific genomic profiling. ssPAL is a dependable approach to quantitation of murine stromal content, and MCD is a simple, efficient, and high yield approach to human cancer cell isolation for genomic analysis of PDX tumors.

  16. Stimulation of cytolytic T lymphocytes by azaguanine-resistant mouse tumor cells in selective hat medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snick, J. van; Uyttenhove, C.; Pel, A. van; Boon, T.

    1981-01-01

    Primed syngeneic or umprimed allogeneic mouse spleen cells were stimulated with azaguanine-resistant P815 tumor cells that were killed by the addition of aminopterin to the stimulation medium. The recovery of lymphocytes and their cytolytic activity and specificity were similar to those obtained after stimulation with irradiated cells. This method conveniently replaces the inactivation of stimulatory cells by irradiation or mitomycin treatment. Moreover, it has the advantage of inactivating not only the stimulatory cells but also the tumor cells that often contaminate the spleens of tumor-bearing animals, provided these animals have been inoculated with azaguanine-resistant tumor cell mutants. (Auth.)

  17. In Vitro Tumor Models: Advantages, Disadvantages, Variables, and Selecting the Right Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Moriah E; Placone, Amanda L; Wong, Andrew D; Xu, Zinnia S; Searson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer-related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive toward precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment.

  18. CT perfusion of the liver during selective hepatic arteriography. Pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Shuji; Sawada, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma by using CT perfusion during selective hepatic arteriography. A total of 44 patients underwent liver CT perfusion study by injection of contrast medium via the hepatic artery. CT-perfusion parameters including arterial blood flow, arterial blood volume, and arterial mean transit time in the liver parenchyma and liver tumor were calculated using the deconvolution method. The CT-perfusion parameters and vascularity of the tumor were compared. A complete analysis could be performed in 36 of the 44 patients. For liver tumor and liver parenchyma, respectively, arterial blood flow was 184.6±132.7 and 41.0±27.0 ml/min/100 g, arterial blood volume was 19.4±14.6 and 4.8±4.2 ml/100 g, and arterial mean transit time was 8.9±4.2 and 10.2±5.3 sec. Arterial blood flow and arterial blood volume correlated significantly with the vascularity of the tumor; however no correlation was detected between arterial mean transit time and the vascularity of the tumor. This technique could be used to quantify pure hepatic arterial blood perfusion. (author)

  19. Photodetection of early cancer by laser-induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Cornaz, Piet F.; Chatelain, Andre; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1990-07-01

    An apparatus is designed and realized to detect "early" cancer at the surface of the hollow organs in the human body by endoscopic means. The tumor is localized by the laser induced fluorescence of a dye (HPD) which concentrates selectively in the neoplastic tissue after intravenous injection. Fluorescence contrast between the tumor and its normal surroundings is enhanced by subtracting the background autofluorescence which occurs in both types of tissue. This is done by means of 2-color digital images manipulation in real-time. Preliminary clinical tests of the apparatus demonstrated the detection of carcinoma in situ in the esophagus.

  20. Examination of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Mechanisms controlling survival and induction of apoptosis following selective inhibition

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary Clare

    2011-06-01

    Background: Platelet-type 12-LOX is an arachidonic acid metabolising enzyme resulting in the formation of 12(S)-HETE, which stimulates tumour cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to examine the expression profile and role of this enzyme in NSCLC, and determine if it is a potential target for intervention. Methods: A panel of retrospective resected lung tumours was stained for 12-LOX expression by IHC. Levels of the 12-LOX metabolite, 12(S)-HETE, were examined in 50 NSCLC serum samples, and correlated with serum VEGF. A panel of NSCLC cell lines were treated with baicalein (10 uM), a selective inhibitor of 12-LOX, or 12(S)-HETE (100 ng\\/ml) and cell survival\\/proliferation examined by BrdU. Apoptosis following 12-LOX inhibition was examined by HCS and validated by FACS and DNA laddering. The effect of 12-LOX inhibition on NSCLC tumour growth and survival was examined in-vivo using an athymic nude mouse model. Gene alterations following 12-LOX inhibition in NSCLC cell lines were assessed by qPCR arrays and validated by RT-PCR. Transient transfection methods were used to examine the effects of 12-LOX overexpression in NSCLC cells. Results: 12-LOX expression was observed to a varying degree in human lung cancers of varying histological subtypes. 12(S)-HETE levels were correlated (p<0.05) with those of VEGF. Baicalein inhibited proliferation\\/survival in all cell lines, while 12(S)-HETE increased proliferation. 12-LOX inhibition increased apoptosis, indicated by a reduction in f-actin content and mitochondrial mass potential. Treatment with baicalein significantly reduced the growth of NSCLC tumours and increased overall survival in athymic nude mice. qPCR array data implicated a number of apoptosis\\/angiogenesis genes regulating these effects, including bcl-2, VEGF, integrin A2 and A4. 12-LOX overexpression resulted in an increase in VEGF secretion, confirming qPCR observations. Conclusions: 12-LOX is a survival factor\\/potential target in

  1. Criteria for the Selection of Reference Groups in the Statistical Evaluation of Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec sen., L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1B (2002), s. 531 ISSN 0250-7005. [International Hamburg Symposium on Tumor Markers /11./. 27.01.2002-29.01.2002, Hamburg] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : reference groups * tumor markers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Risk-adaptive optimization: Selective boosting of high-risk tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A tumor subvolume-based, risk-adaptive optimization strategy is presented. Methods and Materials: Risk-adaptive optimization employs a biologic objective function instead of an objective function based on physical dose constraints. Using this biologic objective function, tumor control probability (TCP) is maximized for different tumor risk regions while at the same time minimizing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for organs at risk. The feasibility of risk-adaptive optimization was investigated for a variety of tumor subvolume geometries, risk-levels, and slopes of the TCP curve. Furthermore, the impact of a correlation parameter, δ, between TCP and NTCP on risk-adaptive optimization was investigated. Results: Employing risk-adaptive optimization, it is possible in a prostate cancer model to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing predicted normal tissue complications in organs at risk. For all tumor subvolume geometries investigated, we found that the EUD to high-risk tumor subvolumes could be increased significantly without increasing normal tissue complications above those expected from a treatment plan aiming for uniform dose coverage of the planning target volume. We furthermore found that the tumor subvolume with the highest risk classification had the largest influence on the design of the risk-adaptive dose distribution. The parameter δ had little effect on risk-adaptive optimization. However, the clinical parameters D 5 and γ 5 that represent the risk classification of tumor subvolumes had the largest impact on risk-adaptive optimization. Conclusions: On the whole, risk-adaptive optimization yields heterogeneous dose distributions that match the risk level distribution of different subvolumes within the tumor volume

  3. GLUT1-mediated selective tumor targeting with fluorine containing platinum(II) glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Gao, Xiangqian; Li, Hong; Mi, Qian; Liu, Pengxing; Yang, Jinna; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Qingzhi

    2017-06-13

    Increased glycolysis and overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) are physiological characteristics of human malignancies. Based on the so-called Warburg effect, 18flurodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has successfully developed as clinical modality for the diagnosis and staging of many cancers. To leverage this glucose transporter mediated metabolic disparity between normal and malignant cells, in the current report, we focus on the fluorine substituted series of glucose, mannose and galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-flouromalonato-platinum(II) complexes for a comprehensive evaluation on their selective tumor targeting. Besides highly improved water solubility, these sugar-conjugates presented improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin in glucose tranporters (GLUTs) overexpressing cancer cell lines and exhibited no cross-resistance to cisplatin. For the highly water soluble glucose-conjugated complex (5a), two novel in vivo assessments were conducted and the results revealed that 5a was more efficacious at a lower equitoxic dose (70% MTD) than oxaliplatin (100% MTD) in HT29 xenograft model, and it was significantly more potent than oxaliplatin in leukemia-bearing DBA/2 mice as well even at equimolar dose levels (18% vs 90% MTD). GLUT inhibitor mediated cell viability analysis, GLUT1 knockdown cell line-based cytotoxicity evaluation, and platinum accumulation study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of the sugar-conjugates was regulated by GLUT1. The higher intrinsic DNA reactivity of the sugar-conjugates was confirmed by kinetic study of platinum(II)-guanosine adduct formation. The mechanistic origin of the antitumor effect of the fluorine complexes was found to be forming the bifunctional Pt-guanine-guanine (Pt-GG) intrastrand cross-links with DNA. The results provide a rationale for Warburg effect targeted anticancer drug design.

  4. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  5. Peroxireduxin-4 is Over-Expressed in Colon Cancer and its Down-Regulation Leads to Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Leydold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to gain insight into the biological basis of colon cancer progression by characterizing gene expression differences between normal colon epithelium, corresponding colorectal primary tumors and metastases. We found a close similarity in gene expression patterns between primary tumors and metastases, indicating a correlation between gene expression and morphological characteristics. PRDX4 was identified as highly expressed both in primary colon tumors and metastases, and selected for further characterization. Our study revealed that “Prdx4” (PrxIV, AOE372 shows functional similarities to other Prx family members by negatively affecting apoptosis induction in tumor cells. In addition, our study links Prdx4 with Hif-1α, a key regulatory factor of angiogenesis. Targeting Prdx4 may be an attractive approach in cancer therapy, as its inhibition is expected to lead to induction of apoptosis and blockage of Hif-1α-mediated tumor angiogenesis.

  6. Mangosenone F, A Furanoxanthone from Garciana mangostana, Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Decreases Xenograft Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Hye; Ryu, Hyung Won; Park, Mi Jin; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Mi-Ja; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Sun Lim; Lee, Jin Hwan; Seo, Woo Duck

    2015-11-01

    Mangosenone F (MSF), a natural xanthone, was isolated form Carcinia mangotana, and a few studies have reported its glycosidase inhibitor effect. In this study we investigated the anti lung cancer effect of MSF both in vitro and in vivo. MSF inhibited cancer cell cytotoxicity and induced and induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NCI-H460. MSF treatment also showed in pronounced release of apoptogenic cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and upregulation of Bax, suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways were involved in MSF-induced apoptosis. ROS activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was shown to play a predominant role in the apoptosis mechanism of MSF. Compared with cisplatin treatment, MSF treatment showed significantly increased inhibition of the growth of NCI-H460 cells xenografted in nude mice. Together, these results indicate the potential of MSF as a candidate natural anticancer drug by promoting ROS production. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 17-AAG sensitized malignant glioma cells to death-receptor mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelin, Markus David; Habel, Antje; Gaiser, Timo

    2009-02-01

    17-AAG is a selective HSP90-inhibitor that exhibited therapeutic activity in cancer. In this study three glioblastoma cell lines (U87, LN229 and U251) were treated with 17-AAG, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or the combination of both. Treatment with subtoxic doses of 17-AAG in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces rapid apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant glioma cells, suggesting that this combined treatment may offer an attractive strategy for treating gliomas. 17-AAG treatment down-regulated survivin through proteasomal degradation. In addition, over-expression of survivin attenuated cytotoxicity induced by the combination of 17-AAG and TRAIL. In summary, survivin is a key regulator of TRAIL-17-AAG mediated cell death in malignant glioma.

  8. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of PCa cells by methyl selenium (Se)/selenol...

  9. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  10. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of PCa cells by methyl selenium (Se...

  11. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  12. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  13. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  14. Interferon-Tau has Antiproliferative effects, Represses the Expression of E6 and E7 Oncogenes, Induces Apoptosis in Cell Lines Transformed with HPV16 and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Quirarte, Herbey Oswaldo; Trejo-Moreno, Cesar; Fierros-Zarate, Geny; Castañeda, Jhoseline Carnalla; Palma-Irizarry, Marie; Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Burguete-Garcia, Ana Isabel; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a promising alternative antiviral and immunotherapeutic agent in a wide variety of diseases including infectious, neurodegenerative, autoimmune and cancer due to its low toxicity in comparison with other type I interferon´s. The objective of our study was established the effect of the bovine IFN-τ on human (SiHa) and murine (BMK-16/myc) cells transformed with HPV 16 and evaluates the antitumor effect in a murine tumor model HPV 16 positive. We determine that bovine IFN-τ has antiproliferative effects, pro-apoptotic activity and induces repression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes (time- and dose-dependent) on human and murine cells transformed with HPV 16 similar to the effects of IFN-β. However, IFN-τ induces greater antiproliferative effect, apoptosis and repression of both oncogenes in BMK-16/myc cells compared to SiHa cells. The differences were explained by the presence and abundance of the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) in each cell line. On the other hand, we treated groups of tumor-bearing mice (HPV16 positive) with IFN-τ and showed the inhibition tumor growth effect in vivo. Our finding indicates that bovine IFN-τ may be a good candidate for immunotherapy against cervical cancer. PMID:27994659

  15. CBT-501 Study for Select Advanced or Relapsed/Recurrent Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-07

    Solid Tumor; Advanced Cancer; ColoRectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Hepatocellular Cancer; Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer; Mesothelioma; Ovarian Cancer; Renal Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

  16. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24464222

  17. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-05-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent.

  18. Inhibition of human prostate cancer cells proliferation by a selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist labedipinedilol-A involves cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, S.-F.; Lin, H.-H.; Liang, J.-C.; Chen, I.-J.; Yeh, J.-L.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we conducted an in vitro analysis to evaluate the prostate cancer cells response to labedipinedilol-A in order to determine the effect of this selective α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we report that treatment of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive (PC-3) prostate cancer cells with labedipinedilol-A inhibited cell proliferation in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. Moreover, norepinephrine-stimulated proliferation of both cell lines are markedly inhibited by labedipinedilol-A. The probable involvement of α 1 -adrenoceptors in this cellular response is suggested. Labedipinedilol-A-induced growth inhibition was associated with G 0 /G 1 arrest, and G 2 /M arrest depending upon concentrations. Cell cycle blockade was associated with reduced amounts of cyclin D1/2, cyclin E, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 and increased levels of the Cdk inhibitory proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27). In addition, labedipinedilol-A also induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, as determined by using Hoechst 33342 staining, DNA fragmentation, and Annexin V staining assay. Furthermore, labedipinedilol-A triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by increasing the expression of Bax, but decreasing the level of Bcl-2, resulting in mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. We further investigated the role of MAPK cascades in the anti-proliferative and apoptosis effects of labedipinedilol-A, and confirmed that labedipinedilol-A could activate JNK1/2 but not p38 in both cell lines. Unlike JNK1/2, however, labedipinedilol-A treatment resulted in down-regulation of phospho-ERK1/2 expression. We concluded that labedipinedilol-A possessed the growth-suppressive and apoptotic effects on LNCaP and PC-3 cells by its α 1 -adrenoceptor blockade, and the apoptotic effects of labedipinedilol-A primarily through

  19. The potential of achiral sponge-derived and synthetic bromoindoles as selective cytotoxins against PANC-1 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig-Roach, Nicholas; Hamkins-Indik, Frances; Johnson, Tyler A; Tenney, Karen; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2018-01-11

    Our quest to isolate and characterize natural products with in vitro solid tumor selectivity is driven by access to repositories of Indo-Pacific sponge extracts. In this project an extract of a species of Haplosclerida sponge obtained from the US NCI Natural Products Repository displayed, by in vitro disk diffusion assay (DDA) and IC 50 determinations, selective cytotoxicity with modest potency to a human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) relative to the human lymphoblast leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). Two brominated indoles, the known 6-bromo conicamin ( 1 ) and the new derivative, 6-Br-8-keto-conicamin A ( 2 ), were identified and 2 (IC 50 1.5 μM for the natural product vs 4.1 μM for the synthetic material) was determined to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the extract against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. The new natural product and ten additional analogs were prepared for further SAR testing.

  20. Low concentrations of Rhodamine-6G selectively destroy tumor cells and improve survival of melanoma transplanted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutushov, M; Gorelik, O

    2013-01-01

    Rhodamine-6G is a fluorescent dye binding to mitochondria, thus reducing the intact mitochondria number and inhibiting mitochondrial metabolic activity. Resultantly, the respiratory chain functioning becomes blocked, the cell "suffocated" and eventually destroyed. Unlike normal cells, malignant cells demonstrate a priori reduced mitochondrial numbers and aberrant metabolism. Therefore, a turning point might exist, when Rhodamine-induced loss of active mitochondria would selectively destroy malignant, but spare normal cells. Various malignant vs. non-malignant cell lines were cultured with Rhodamine-6G at different concentrations. In addition, C57Bl mice were implanted with B16-F10 melanoma and treated with Rhodamine-6G at different dosage/time regimens. Viability and proliferation of cultured tumor cells were time and dose-dependently inhibited, up to 90%, by Rhodamine-6G, with profound histological signs of cell death. By contrast, inhibition of normal control cell proliferation hardly exceeded 15-17%. Melanoma-transplanted mice receiving Rhodamine-6G demonstrated prolonged survival, improved clinical parameters, inhibited tumor growth and metastases count, compared to their untreated counterparts. Twice-a-week 10-6M Rhodamine-6G regimen yielded the most prominent results. We conclude that malignant, but not normal, cells are selectively destroyed by low doses of Rhodamine-6G. In vivo, such treatment selectively suppresses tumor progression and dissemination, thus improving prognosis. We suggest that selective anti-tumor properties of Rhodamine-6G are based on unique physiologic differences in energy metabolism between malignant and normal cells. If found clinically relevant, low concentrations of Rhodamine-6G might be useful for replacing, or backing up, more aggressive nonselective chemotherapeutic compounds.

  1. Fullerene and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Orlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to practical medical use of them. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance to further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. This lecture provides modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on apoptosis pathway in normal and tumor cells.

  2. Targeted hyperthermia after selective embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a VX2 rabbit liver tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Sun,1 Linfeng Xu,1 Tianyuan Fan,2 Hongzhi Zhan,3 Xiaodong Wang,3 Yanfei Zhou,2 Ren-jie Yang3 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 2Pharmacy School of Beijing University, Beijing, 3Department of Interventional Therapy, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect and feasibility of hyperthermia and the influence of heat on surrounding organs in a VX2 rabbit liver model exposed to an alternating magnetic field after embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Methods: Forty rabbits containing implanted hepatic VX2 carcinomas were divided into four groups, each containing ten rabbits. Fourteen days after tumor transplantation, we opened the abdomen to observe the size and shape of the tumor. A transfemoral retrograde approach was then used for hepatic arterial catheterization in groups B, C, and D to perform angiography and embolization. The next day, three rabbits in group B and all rabbits in group D were exposed to an alternating magnetic field, and the temperature was recorded simultaneously in the center of the tumor, at the edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma. On day 28, all animals was euthanized to observe changes in the implanted liver tumor and the condition of the abdomen. A pathologic examination was also done. Results: Before surgery, there was no significant difference in tumor volume between the four groups. Three different temperature points (center of the tumor, edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma of group B under an alternating magnetic field were 37.2°C ± 1.1°C, 36.8°C ± 1.2°C, and 36.9°C ± 2.1°C, none of which were significantly different from pretreatment values. Three points basal temperature in group D showed no significant difference (F = 1.038, P = 0.413. Seven to 26

  3. Transcriptional Up-Regulation of APE1/Ref-1 in Hepatic Tumor: Role in Hepatocytes Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Di Maso

    Full Text Available Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most frequent neoplasm worldwide and the most serious complication of long-standing chronic liver diseases (CLD. Its development is associated with chronic inflammation and sustained oxidative stress. Deregulation of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1, a master regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress, has been associated with poor prognosis in several cancers including HCC.In the present study we investigated the APE1/Ref-1 mRNA levels in cirrhotic and HCC tissues obtained during HCC resection. The possible protective role of APE1/Ref-1 against oxidative stress and apoptosis was evaluated in vitro in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH over-expressing APE1/Ref-1.APE1/Ref-1 was up-regulated in HCC, regulation occurring at the transcriptional level. APE1/Ref-1 mRNA content increased with the progression of liver disease with the transcriptional up-regulation present in cirrhosis significantly increased in HCC. The up-regulation was higher in the less differentiated cancers. In vitro, over-expression of APE1/Ref-1 in normal hepatocytes conferred cell protection against oxidative stress and it was associated with BAX inhibition and escape from apoptosis.APE1/Ref-1 is up-regulated in HCC and this over-expression correlates with cancer aggressiveness. The up-regulation occurs at the transcriptional level and it is present in the earliest phases of hepatocarcinogenesis. The APE-1/Ref-1 over-expression is associated with hepatocyte survival and inhibits BAX activation and apoptosis. These data suggest a possible role of APE1/Ref-1 over-expression both in hepatocyte survival and HCC development calling attention to this molecule as a promising marker for HCC diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Clinical characteristics of patient selection and imaging predictors of outcome in solid tumors treated with checkpoint-inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Toschi, Luca; Castello, Angelo; Grizzi, Fabio; Mansi, Luigi; Lopci, Egesta

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly evolving knowledge on tumor immunology and the continuous implementation of immunotherapy in cancer have recently led to the FDA and EMA approval of several checkpoint inhibitors as immunotherapic agents in clinical practice. Anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PDL-1 antibodies are becoming standard of care in advanced melanoma, as well as in relapsed or metastatic lung and kidney cancer, demonstrating higher and longer response compared to standard chemotherapy. These encouraging results have fostered the evaluation of these antibodies either alone or in combination with other therapies in several dozen clinical trials for the treatment of multiple tumor types. However, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors, hence, specific biomarkers are necessary to guide and monitor therapy. The utility of PD-L1 expression as a biomarker has varied in different clinical trials, but, to date, no consensus has been reached on whether PD-L1 expression is an ideal marker for response and patient selection; approximately 20-25% of patients will respond to immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors despite a negative PD-L1 staining. On the other hand, major issues concern the evaluation of objective response in patients treated with immunotherapy. Pure morphological criteria as commonly used in solid tumors (i.e. RECIST) are not sufficient because change in size is not an early and reliable marker of tumor response to biological therapies. Thus, the scientific community has required a continuous adaptation of immune-related response criteria (irRC) to overcome the problem. In this context, metabolic information and antibody-based imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated, providing a powerful approach for an optimal stratification of patients at staging and during the evaluation of the response to therapy. In the present review we provide an overview on the clinical characteristics of patient selection when using imaging

  5. Clinical characteristics of patient selection and imaging predictors of outcome in solid tumors treated with checkpoint-inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Toschi, Luca [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Medical Oncology, Rozzano (Italy); Castello, Angelo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Immunology and Inflammation, Rozzano (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy); Lopci, Egesta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano (Italy); Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    The rapidly evolving knowledge on tumor immunology and the continuous implementation of immunotherapy in cancer have recently led to the FDA and EMA approval of several checkpoint inhibitors as immunotherapic agents in clinical practice. Anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PDL-1 antibodies are becoming standard of care in advanced melanoma, as well as in relapsed or metastatic lung and kidney cancer, demonstrating higher and longer response compared to standard chemotherapy. These encouraging results have fostered the evaluation of these antibodies either alone or in combination with other therapies in several dozen clinical trials for the treatment of multiple tumor types. However, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors, hence, specific biomarkers are necessary to guide and monitor therapy. The utility of PD-L1 expression as a biomarker has varied in different clinical trials, but, to date, no consensus has been reached on whether PD-L1 expression is an ideal marker for response and patient selection; approximately 20-25% of patients will respond to immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors despite a negative PD-L1 staining. On the other hand, major issues concern the evaluation of objective response in patients treated with immunotherapy. Pure morphological criteria as commonly used in solid tumors (i.e. RECIST) are not sufficient because change in size is not an early and reliable marker of tumor response to biological therapies. Thus, the scientific community has required a continuous adaptation of immune-related response criteria (irRC) to overcome the problem. In this context, metabolic information and antibody-based imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated, providing a powerful approach for an optimal stratification of patients at staging and during the evaluation of the response to therapy. In the present review we provide an overview on the clinical characteristics of patient selection when using imaging

  6. Hydroquinone analog 4-[(Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2‑yl) oxy] phenol induces C26 colon cancer cell apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qigen; Xin, Guang; Niu, Hai; Huang, Wen

    2015-06-01

    The 4[(Tetrahydro‑2H‑pyran‑2‑yl) oxy] phenol (XG‑d) hydroquinone analog, is found in Vaccinium vitis‑idaea  L. Although it is known for its antioxidant properties and high level of safety, its antitumor activity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the anticancer effect of XG‑d was determined in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity of XG‑d against C26 murine colon carcinoma cells was found to occur in a time‑ and concentration‑dependent manner, whereas little effect was observed in the two normal cell lines (HK‑2 and L02) investigated. Oral administration of XG‑d (100 mg/kg) had effects on the tumor growth of tumor‑bearing mice. Furthermore, marked apoptosis was observed using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis with annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. XG‑d also downregulated the expression of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), increased the expression levels of Bcl‑2‑associated X protein and activated caspase‑9, caspase‑3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate‑ribose) polymerase. The present study demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that XG‑d inhibited cancer cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and was also able to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrated that XG‑d may be used as a potential natural agent for cancer therapy with low toxicity.

  7. Therapeutic Silencing of Bcl-2 by Systemically Administered siRNA Nanotherapeutics Inhibits Tumor Growth by Autophagy and Apoptosis and Enhances the Efficacy of Chemotherapy in Orthotopic Xenograft Models of ER (− and ER (+ Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Tekedereli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bcl-2 is overexpressed in about a half of human cancers and 50–70% of breast cancer patients, thereby conferring resistance to conventional therapies and making it an excellent therapeutic target. Small interfering RNA (siRNA offers novel and powerful tools for specific gene silencing and molecularly targeted therapy. Here, we show that therapeutic silencing of Bcl-2 by systemically administered nanoliposomal (NL-Bcl-2 siRNA (0.15 mg siRNA/kg, intravenous twice a week leads to significant antitumor activity and suppression of growth in both estrogen receptor-negative (ER(− MDA-MB-231 and ER-positive (+ MCF7 breast tumors in orthotopic xenograft models (P < 0.05. A single intravenous injection of NL-Bcl-2-siRNA provided robust and persistent silencing of the target gene expression in xenograft tumors. NL-Bcl-2-siRNA treatment significantly increased the efficacy of chemotherapy when combined with doxorubicin in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 animal models (P < 0.05. NL-Bcl-2-siRNA treatment-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death, and inhibited cyclin D1, HIF1α and Src/Fak signaling in tumors. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that in vivo therapeutic targeting Bcl-2 by systemically administered nanoliposomal-siRNA significantly inhibits growth of both ER(− and ER(+ breast tumors and enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy, suggesting that therapeutic silencing of Bcl-2 by siRNA is a viable approach in breast cancers.

  8. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-08

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  9. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real‐time tumor tracking in external‐beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In external‐beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation‐based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two “Genetic” and “Ranker” searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four‐dimensional extended cardiac‐torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro‐fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F‐test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation‐based feature

  10. The Prognostic Significance of The Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL in Childhood Acute Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2015-12-01

    Results: The comparison of the average values of the TRAIL levels in acute leukemia patients and control group have shown that patients with leukemia have low serum TRAIL levels (p=0.002. In patients with high-risk-grade (HRG of ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in HRG of ALL (p=0.008. In patients with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen(CALLA(- B ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in CALLA(- B ALL (p=0.004. Children with acute leukemias (ALL, AML who died during treatment compared with survived group have shown low levels of serum TRAIL in expired patients (p=0.004. Conclusion: As a result, serum TRAIL might play a role in leukomegenesis. The low levels of serum TRAIL detected in our patients may be associated with leukomogenezis and impaired TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. To suggest soluble TRAIL's role in acute leukemias detection of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is needed. The low serum TRAIL may be used as a sign of bad prognosis. For more comphrensive results prospective studies with greaater number of patients are needed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 774-781

  11. Proton pump inhibitors induce apoptosis of human B-cell tumors through a caspase-independent mechanism involving reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milito, Angelo; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Lozupone, Francesco; Spada, Massimo; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Matarrese, Paola; Lugini, Luana; Nilsson, Anna; Fais, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Proton pumps like the vacuolar-type H+ ATPase (V-ATPase) are involved in the control of cellular pH in normal and tumor cells. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) induces sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics via modifications of cellular pH gradients. It is also known that low pH is the most suitable condition for a full PPI activation. Here, we tested whether PPI treatment in unbuffered culture conditions could affect survival and proliferation of human B-cell tumors. First, we showed that PPI treatment increased the sensitivity to vinblastine of a pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line. PPI, per se, induced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of tumor B cells, which was associated with a dose- and time-dependent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity in B-cell lines and leukemic cells from patients with pre-B ALL. The effect of PPI was mediated by a very early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that preceded alkalinization of lysosomal pH, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and cytosol acidification, suggesting an early destabilization of the acidic vesicular compartment. Lysosomal alterations were followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, release of cytochrome c, chromatin condensation, and caspase activation. However, inhibition of caspase activity did not affect PPI-induced cell death, whereas specific inhibition of ROS by an antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) significantly delayed cell death and protected both lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes. The proapoptotic activity of PPI was consistent with a clear inhibition of tumor growth following PPI treatment of B-cell lymphoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice. This study further supports the importance of acidity and pH gradients in tumor cell homeostasis and suggests new therapeutic approaches for human B-cell tumors based on PPI.

  12. Diphtheria toxin- and Pseudomonas A toxin-mediated apoptosis. ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 is required for DNA fragmentation and cell lysis and synergy with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, H; Bonavida, B

    1992-09-15

    We have reported that diphtheria toxin (DTX) mediates target cell lysis and intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) and also synergizes with TNF-alpha. In this paper, we examined which step in the pathway of DTX-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was important for induction of cytolytic activity and for synergy. Using a DTX-sensitive tumor cell line, we first examined the activity of the mutant CRM 197, which does not catalyze the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 (EF-2). CRM 197 was not cytolytic for target cells and did not mediate intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation of viable cells. The failure of CRM 197 to mediate target cell lysis suggested that the catalytic activity of DTX is prerequisite for target cell lysis. This was corroborated by demonstrating that MeSAdo, which blocks the biosynthesis of diphthamide, inhibited DTX-mediated protein synthesis inhibition and also blocked target cell lysis. Furthermore, the addition of nicotinamide, which competes with NAD+ on the DTX action site of EF-2, also blocked DTX-mediated lysis. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 may be a necessary step in the pathway leading to target cell lysis. In contrast to the sensitive line, the SKOV-3 tumor cell line is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition by DTX but is not susceptible to cytolysis and apoptosis by DTX. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition by DTX is not sufficient to mediate target cell lysis. The synergy in cytotoxicity obtained with the combination of DTX and TNF-alpha was examined in order to determine the pathway mediated by DTX in synergy. Like the direct lysis by DTX, synergy was significantly reduced by MeSAdo and by nicotinamide. Furthermore, synergy was not observed with combination of CRM 197 and TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that, in synergy, DTX may utilize the same pathway required for its cytolytic activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin shared most the properties shown for DTX. Altogether, these findings

  13. Selective drug-induced reduction of blood flow in tumor transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.; Debatin, J.; Layer, K.; Helus, F.; Altmann, A.; Sinn, H.J.; Ostertag, H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a calcium antagonist and a physiological amine on tumor and muscle perfusion was investigated with the aim of improving the preconditions for external hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Nisoldipine and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) were administered ip in Sprague-Dawley rats bearing Walker 256 carcinoma, Yoshida sarcoma, or a homologous tumor transplant derived from a spontaneous leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. At the maximum dosage used, nisoldipine injection caused a decrease of the regional washout rate of Xenon-133 in the Walker carcinoma and an increase in the muscle of the hind leg. 5-HT caused a drop in the Walker carcinoma and only a slight fall of the washout rate in muscle. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratios of 11 C-butanol fell. Both drugs representing two different rationales of vasomotor action were able to reduce blood flow specifically in transplanted tumors; nisoldipine increased muscle blood flow and decreased arterial blood pressure, whereas 5-HT acted without substantial systemic effects

  14. Minimally cultured or selected autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after a lympho-depleting chemotherapy regimen in metastatic melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Michal J; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Treves, Avraham J; Zippel, Dov; Itzhaki, Orit; Schallmach, Ester; Kubi, Adva; Shalmon, Bruria; Hardan, Izhar; Catane, Raphael; Segal, Eran; Markel, Gal; Apter, Sara; Nun, Alon Ben; Kuchuk, Iryna; Shimoni, Avichai; Nagler, Arnon; Schachter, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2), after nonmyeloablative chemotherapy, has been shown to result in tumor regression in half of refractory metastatic melanoma patients. In the present study, we describe 2 separate clinical protocols. Twelve patients were treated with "Selected"-TIL, as previously reported and 8 patients with the modified version of "Young"-TIL. Selected-TIL protocol required the establishment of multiple T-cell cultures from 1 patient and in vitro selection of cultures secreting interferon-gamma upon antigenic stimulation. In contrast, Young-TIL are minimally cultured T cells with superior in vitro features that do not require further selection. Two of 12 Selected-TIL patients experienced objective clinical responses (1 complete response, 1 partial response). Out of 8 treated Young-TIL patients, 1 experienced complete response, 2 partial response, and 4 patients had disease stabilization. Twenty-one of 33 enrolled Selected-TIL patients were excluded from the protocol, mainly as cultures failed the interferon-gamma selection criteria or due to clinical deterioration, compared with only 3 Young-TIL patients. Expected bone marrow suppression and high-dose IL-2 toxicity were transient. There was no treatment-related mortality. This study vindicates the feasibility and effectiveness of TIL technology and calls for further efforts to implement and enhance this modality. The use of minimally cultured, unselected Young-TIL enables the treatment of most enrolled patients. Although the cohort of Young-TIL patients treated so far is rather small and the follow-up short, the response rate is encouraging.

  15. Selective tumor irradiation without normal tissue exposure in non-resectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order, S.E.; Siegel, J.A.; Lustig, R.A.; Principato, L.S.; Zeiger, L.; Lang, P.; Wallner, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum dose of colloidal 32 P that may be interstitially infused in non-resectable pancreatic cancer prior to external radiation [60 Gy + 5FU]. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with non-resectable pancreatic cancer with and without metastasis entered a dose escalation Phase I study beginning at a specific activity of 4 mCi. Under CT guidance the center of the pancreatic tumor was localized by computer the distance and angle from a grid on the abdomen to the center of the tumor mass determined. Three drugs were infused: 4 mg Decadron - 10 minute delay; 2.5 million particles of macroaggregated albumin [MAA]; and with final dose escalation two infusions of 30 mCi colloidal chromic phosphate 32 P [3.5 ml] followed by a needle cleansing dose of .25 ml of macroaggregated albumin. Bremsstrahlung scans on three separate days determined tumor localization and radiation dose. One week later infusional brachytherapy was repeated, that is Decadron, MAA, colloidal 32 P, followed by three additional bremsstrahlung scans. Two weeks later a course of 60 Gy external radiation was initiated with four doses of 5FU [500 mg] administered with every other radiation treatment day. Toxicity was recorded using RTOG cooperative group criteria. CA19-9 and CEA were used as biomarkers to evaluate tumor progression or remission in conjunction with CT scans and clinical course. Results: Completion of the Phase I study was limited, not by toxicity, but by the volume of colloidal 32 P that could be infused into the stroma of the tumor, i.e. 3.5 ml containing 30 mCi. No significant (grade 3-4) toxicity occurred in patients with pancreatic cancer only. Patients without metastasis had reduction and, in some cases, elimination of CA19-9, etc. The median survival in 28 patients within the Phase I non-resectable pancreas cancer study without metastasis was one year in 19 patients; with metastasis was 6.9 months. The two infusions of 30 mCi 32 P ordinarily yields a

  16. The soybean peptide lunasin promotes apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells via induction of tumor suppressor PTEN: similarities and distinct actions from soy isoflavone genistein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Diet and lifestyle are major contributing factors to increased breast cancer risk. While mechanisms underlying dietary protection of mammary tumor formation are increasingly elucidated, there remains a dearth of knowledge on the nature an...

  17. An anti-tumor protein produced by Trichinella spiralis and identified by screening a T7 phage display library, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma H7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic m...

  18. CD8+ T Cells Specific to Apoptosis-Associated Antigens Predict the Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Citro

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells specific to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from apoptotic T cells (apoptotic epitopes represent a principal player in chronic immune activation, which is known to amplify immunopathology in various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship involving these autoreactive T cells, the rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology, and the response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy. The frequency of autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific to various apoptotic epitopes, as detected by both enzyme-linked immunospot assay and dextramers of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes, was longitudinally analyzed in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients who were submitted to etanercept treatment (or other tumor necrosis factor inhibitors as a control. The percentage of apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in healthy donors, and correlated with the disease activity. More important, it was significantly more elevated in responders to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy than in non-responders before the start of therapy; it significantly dropped only in the former following therapy. These data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells may be involved in rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology through the production of inflammatory cytokines and that they may potentially represent a predictive biomarker of response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy to validate in a larger cohort of patients.

  19. Deciphering the molecular events necessary for synergistic tumor cell apoptosis mediated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat and the BH3 mimetic ABT-737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Alsop, Amber E.; Bots, Michael; Cluse, Leonie A.; Williams, Steven P.; Banks, Kellie-Marie; Ralli, Rachael; Scott, Clare L.; Frenzel, Anna; Villunger, Andreas; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of personalized anticancer therapy is based on the use of targeted therapeutics through in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of action of these agents when used alone and in combination. We have identified the apoptotic proteins and pathways necessary for synergistic tumor cell

  20. MicroRNA-128b suppresses tumor growth and promotes apoptosis by targeting A2bR in gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Guo, Xueyan; Zong, Wei [Department of Gastroenterology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710068 (China); Song, Bin [Department of General Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710068 (China); Liu, Guisheng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710068 (China); He, Shuixiang, E-mail: fisrstsxianghe@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-11-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the development and progression of human cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). The discovery of miRNAs may provide a new and powerful tool for studying the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of GC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of miR-128b in the development and progression of GC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression level of miR-128b in GC tissues and cell lines. We found that miR-128b was significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. In addition, over-expression of miR-128b inhibited GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further showed that the miR-128b mimic significantly promoted GC cell apoptosis. Subsequent dual-luciferase reporter assay identified one of the proto-oncogene A2bR as direct target of miR-128b. Therefore, our results indicate that miR-128b is a proto-oncogene miRNA that can suppresses GC proliferation and migration through down-regulation of the oncogene gene A2bR. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-128b could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human GC in the near future. - Highlights: • The expression of MiR-128b is significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. • Ectopic expression of miR-128b directly affects cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. • Overexpression of miR-128b increases apoptosis in GC cells. • A2bR is a candidate target gene of miR-128b. • MiR-128b represses cell proliferation, migration and invasion and promotes apoptosis by targeting A2bR in GC.

  1. Radiation- and Photo-induced Activation of 5-Fluorouracil Prodrugs as a Strategy for the Selective Treatment of Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-ichi Nishimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is used widely as an anticancer drug to treat solid cancers, such as colon, breast, rectal, and pancreatic cancers, although its clinical application is limited because 5-FU has gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity. Many groups are searching for prodrugs with functions that are tumor selective in their delivery and can be activated to improve the clinical utility of 5-FU as an important cancer chemotherapeutic agent. UV and ionizing radiation can cause chemical reactions in a localized area of the body, and these have been applied in the development of site-specific drug activation and sensitization. In this review, we describe recent progress in the development of novel 5-FU prodrugs that are activated site specifically by UV light and ionizing radiation in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the chemical mechanisms underlying this activation.

  2. Phosphotyrosine-based-phosphoproteomics scaled-down to biopsy level for analysis of individual tumor biology and treatment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, Mariette; van der Mijn, Johannes C; Beekhof, Robin; Piersma, Sander R; de Goeij-de Haas, Richard R; Pham, Thang V; Knol, Jaco C; Dekker, Henk; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Verheul, Henk M W; Jiménez, Connie R

    2017-06-06

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics of cancer cell and tissue lysates provides insight in aberrantly activated signaling pathways and potential drug targets. For improved understanding of individual patient's tumor biology and to allow selection of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in individual patients, phosphoproteomics of small clinical samples should be feasible and reproducible. We aimed to scale down a pTyr-phosphopeptide enrichment protocol to biopsy-level protein input and assess reproducibility and applicability to tumor needle biopsies. To this end, phosphopeptide immunoprecipitation using anti-phosphotyrosine beads was performed using 10, 5 and 1mg protein input from lysates of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT116. Multiple needle biopsies from 7 human CRC resection specimens were analyzed at the 1mg-level. The total number of phosphopeptides captured and detected by LC-MS/MS ranged from 681 at 10mg input to 471 at 1mg HCT116 protein. ID-reproducibility ranged from 60.5% at 10mg to 43.9% at 1mg. Per 1mg-level biopsy sample, >200 phosphopeptides were identified with 57% ID-reproducibility between paired tumor biopsies. Unsupervised analysis clustered biopsies from individual patients together and revealed known and potential therapeutic targets. This study demonstrates the feasibility of label-free pTyr-phosphoproteomics at the tumor biopsy level based on reproducible analyses using 1mg of protein input. The considerable number of identified phosphopeptides at this level is attributed to an effective down-scaled immuno-affinity protocol as well as to the application of ID propagation in the data processing and analysis steps. Unsupervised cluster analysis reveals patient-specific profiles. Together, these findings pave the way for clinical trials in which pTyr-phosphoproteomics will be performed on pre- and on-treatment biopsies. Such studies will improve our understanding of individual tumor biology and may enable future p

  3. An Antigen-Presenting and Apoptosis-Inducing Polymer Microparticle Prolongs Alloskin Graft Survival by Selectively and Markedly Depleting Alloreactive CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs has been developed by co-coupling peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI-coated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticle (PLGA MP was fabricated as a cell-sized scaffold to covalently co-couple H-2Kb-Ig dimer and anti-Fas mAb for the generation of alloantigen-presenting and apoptosis-inducing MPs. Intravenous infusions of the biodegradable KaAPCs prolonged the alloskin graft survival for 43 days in a single MHC-mismatched murine model, depleted the most of H-2Kb-alloreactive CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and alloskin graft in an antigen-specific manner and anti-Fas-dependent fashion. The cell-sized KaAPCs circulated throughout vasculature into liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, and heart, but few ones into local allograft at early stage, with a retention time up to 36 h in vivo. They colocalized with CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs while few ones contacted with CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophage, and dendritic cells, or internalized by phagocytes. Importantly, the KaAPC treatment did not significantly impair the native T cell repertoire or non-pathogenic immune cells, did not obviously suppress the overall immune function of host, and did not lead to visible organ toxicity. Our results strongly document the high potential of PLGA MP-based KaAPCs as a novel antigen-specific immunotherapy for allograft rejection and autoimmune disorder. The in vivo mechanism of alloinhibition, tissue

  4. Split and Splice Approach for Highly Selective Targeting of Human NSCLC Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    development and implementation of the “split-and- spice ” approach required optimization of many independent parameters, which were addressed in parallel...verify the feasibility of the “split and splice” approach for targeting human NSCLC tumor cell lines in culture and prepare the optimized toxins for...for cultured cells (months 2- 8). 2B. To test the efficiency of cell targeting by the toxin variants reconstituted in vitro (months 3-6). 2C. To

  5. CARbodies: Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Alonso-Camino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibody library was expressed on the surface of human T cells after transduction with lentiviral vectors (LVs. The repertoire was fused to a first-generation T cell receptor ζ (TCRζ-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR. We used this library to isolate antibodies termed CARbodies that recognize antigens expressed on the tumor cell surface in a proof-of-principle system. After three rounds of activation-selection there was a clear repertoire restriction, with the emergence dominant clones. The CARbodies were purified from bacterial cultures as soluble and active proteins. Furthermore, to validate its potential application for adoptive cell therapy, human T cells were transduced with a LV encoding a second-generation costimulatory CAR (CARv2 bearing the selected CARbodies. Transduced human primary T cells expressed significant levels of the CARbodies-based CARv2 fusion protein on the cell surface, and importantly could be specifically activated, after stimulation with tumor cells. This approach is a promising tool for the generation of antibodies fully adapted to the display format (CAR and the selection context (cell synapse, which could extend the scope of current adoptive cell therapy strategies with CAR-redirected T cells.

  6. ONC201 selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells via activating pro-apoptotic integrated stress response and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Langridge, Timothy; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Allen, Joshua E.; Oster, Wolfgang; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are extremely symptomatic and still incurable, and more effective and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. ONC201, an imipridone compound, has shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies in multiple advanced cancers. This study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ONC201 on CTCL cells. The effect of ONC201 on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated in CTCL cell lines (n=8) and primary CD4+ malignant T cells isolated from CTCL patients (n=5). ONC20...

  7. Meta-Analysis of DNA Tumor-Viral Integration Site Selection Indicates a Role for Repeats, Gene Expression and Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Doolittle-Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncoviruses cause tremendous global cancer burden. For several DNA tumor viruses, human genome integration is consistently associated with cancer development. However, genomic features associated with tumor viral integration are poorly understood. We sought to define genomic determinants for 1897 loci prone to hosting human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV or Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. These were compared to HIV, whose enzyme-mediated integration is well understood. A comprehensive catalog of integration sites was constructed from the literature and experimentally-determined HPV integration sites. Features were scored in eight categories (genes, expression, open chromatin, histone modifications, methylation, protein binding, chromatin segmentation and repeats and compared to random loci. Random forest models determined loci classification and feature selection. HPV and HBV integrants were not fragile site associated. MCPyV preferred integration near sensory perception genes. Unique signatures of integration-associated predictive genomic features were detected. Importantly, repeats, actively-transcribed regions and histone modifications were common tumor viral integration signatures.

  8. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  9. Tumor-Selective Targeting of Androgen Receptor Expression by Novel Small-Molecule Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Cancer Res 2003;9(17):6395–6400. 24. Vanaja DK, Grossmann ME, Cheville JC, Gazi MH, Gong A, Zhang JS, Ajtai K, Burghardt TP, Young CY. PDLIM4, an...2627−2633. (22) Young , C. D.; Anderson, S. M. Sugar and fat - that’s where it’s at: metabolic changes in tumors. Breast Cancer Res. 2008, 10, 202... anabolic pathways to synthesize the nucleic acids, proteins, and fatty acids needed for extensive cell proliferation (3–7). Although this metabolic

  10. Cyanine 5.5 conjugated nanobubbles as a tumor selective contrast agent for dual ultrasound-fluorescence imaging in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyi Mai

    Full Text Available Nanobubbles and microbubbles are non-invasive ultrasound imaging contrast agents that may potentially enhance diagnosis of tumors. However, to date, both nanobubbles and microbubbles display poor in vivo tumor-selectivity over non-targeted organs such as liver. We report here cyanine 5.5 conjugated nanobubbles (cy5.5-nanobubbles of a biocompatible chitosan-vitamin C lipid system as a dual ultrasound-fluorescence contrast agent that achieved tumor-selective imaging in a mouse tumor model. Cy5.5-nanobubble suspension contained single bubble spheres and clusters of bubble spheres with the size ranging between 400-800 nm. In the in vivo mouse study, enhancement of ultrasound signals at tumor site was found to persist over 2 h while tumor-selective fluorescence emission was persistently observed over 24 h with intravenous injection of cy5.5-nanobubbles. In vitro cell study indicated that cy5.5-flurescence dye was able to accumulate in cancer cells due to the unique conjugated nanobubble structure. Further in vivo fluorescence study suggested that cy5.5-nanobubbles were mainly located at tumor site and in the bladder of mice. Subsequent analysis confirmed that accumulation of high fluorescence was present at the intact subcutaneous tumor site and in isolated tumor tissue but not in liver tissue post intravenous injection of cy5.5-nanobubbles. All these results led to the conclusion that cy5.5-nanobubbles with unique crosslinked chitosan-vitamin C lipid system have achieved tumor-selective imaging in vivo.

  11. The role of hypoxia, p53, and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Charlotte Y.; Tsai, Mitchell H.; Osmanian, Cynthia; Calkins, Dennise P.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Greenspan, David L.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Rinker, Lillian H.; Varia, Mahesh A.; DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Peehl, Donna M.; Raleigh, James A.; Giaccia, Amato J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Low oxygen tension in the tumor microenvironment may have an important role during tumor growth, and is of particular prognostic significance in human cervical carcinoma. Because some human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with cervical neoplasia, the relationship between hypoxia and apoptosis in primary cervical epithelial cells containing HPV16 E6 and E7, intact HPV 16 genome, and HPV positive cervical carcinoma cell lines, was examined. In addition, the relationship between hypoxia and apoptosis in spontaneous human cervical carcinomas was determined in situ. Materials and Methods: Primary normal human cervical epithelial cells were infected with retroviral vectors containing HPV16 E6 and E7 or transfected with a plasmid containing the whole HPV 16 genome. Clones were selected in neomycin containing medium. Exponentially growing cells were incubated under aerobic conditions (20% O 2 ), anaerobic conditions (0.02% O 2 ), or irradiated with 6 Gy. Analysis of apoptotic cells was performed by staining with Hoechst dye and propidium iodide and viewing with a fluorescent microscope. To determine the level of expression of the apoptotic modulators p53 and Bax, immunoblots were performed on whole cell extracts from treated cells. A clinical tumor hypoxia study was conducted at the University of North Carolina utilizing pimonidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole compound which binds irreversibly to cellular macromolecules under low oxygen conditions. Nine patients were enrolled with biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and no prior treatment. Biopsies of the gross tumor were obtained after pimonidazole infusion. Contiguous histological sections were analyzed for hypoxia using a immunohistochemical technique and for apoptosis using TUNEL. Results: In vitro, hypoxia uncoupled p53 from E6 mediated degradation, and stimulated both p53 induction and apoptosis in primary cervical epithelial cells infected with the HPV E6 and E7 genes. In contrast

  12. Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

    2010-02-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer.

  13. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, M R; Welch, G R; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2016-06-01

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 d leads to a progressive increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associated with fatty acid metabolism (8), apoptosis (7), and oxidative stress (16) pathways to better understand the basis of embryo mortality during egg storage. A total of 642 broiler eggs in 2 separate trials were subjected to the following egg treatments: stored 4 d (Control 1, C1); stored 21 d but subjected to short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES); stored un-manipulated 21 d (NonSPIDES, NS); and stored 4 d then incubated for 10 h to advance the embryos to the same developmental stages as the SPIDES embryos (Control 2, C2). Hatchability trials (277 eggs) confirmed the efficacy of SPIDES compared to NS treatments in both trials. To determine relative expression of 31 selected genes, 365 blastoderms were isolated, staged, and flash frozen in batches of 5 to 10 blastoderms per vial (7 vials per egg treatment) prior to RNA extractions. Analysis of gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR and the results presented as relative expression normalized to C1. The relative expression of genes in which the SPIDES and C2 treatments were significantly up- or down-regulated in tandem indicated that the stage-specific expression of those genes was maintained by the SPIDES treatment. This study provides the relative gene expressions of blastodermal cells before and after prolonged egg storage as well as insight as to how SPIDES impacts blastodermal cell gene expression. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. The Enigmatic Roles of Caspases in Tumor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, Richard; Zwacka, Ralf M., E-mail: ralf.zwacka@nuigalway.ie [National University of Ireland, Galway, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science and Apoptosis Research Centre, Molecular Therapeutics Group, Galway (Ireland)

    2010-11-24

    One function ascribed to apoptosis is the suicidal destruction of potentially harmful cells, such as cancerous cells. Hence, their growth depends on evasion of apoptosis, which is considered as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Apoptosis is ultimately carried out by the sequential activation of initiator and executioner caspases, which constitute a family of intracellular proteases involved in dismantling the cell in an ordered fashion. In cancer, therefore, one would anticipate caspases to be frequently rendered inactive, either by gene silencing or by somatic mutations. From clinical data, however, there is little evidence that caspase genes are impaired in cancer. Executioner caspases have only rarely been found mutated or silenced, and also initiator caspases are only affected in particular types of cancer. There is experimental evidence from transgenic mice that certain initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 and -2, might act as tumor suppressors. Loss of the initiator caspase of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-9, however, did not promote cellular transformation. These data seem to question a general tumor-suppressive role of caspases. We discuss several possible ways how tumor cells might evade the need for alterations of caspase genes. First, alternative splicing in tumor cells might generate caspase variants that counteract apoptosis. Second, in tumor cells caspases might be kept in check by cellular caspase inhibitors such as c-FLIP or XIAP. Third, pathways upstream of caspase activation might be disrupted in tumor cells. Finally, caspase-independent cell death mechanisms might abrogate the selection pressure for caspase inactivation during tumor development. These scenarios, however, are hardly compatible with the considerable frequency of spontaneous apoptosis occurring in several cancer types. Therefore, alternative concepts might come into play, such as compensatory proliferation. Herein, apoptosis and/or non-apoptotic functions of caspases may

  15. The Enigmatic Roles of Caspases in Tumor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäger, Richard; Zwacka, Ralf M.

    2010-01-01

    One function ascribed to apoptosis is the suicidal destruction of potentially harmful cells, such as cancerous cells. Hence, their growth depends on evasion of apoptosis, which is considered as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Apoptosis is ultimately carried out by the sequential activation of initiator and executioner caspases, which constitute a family of intracellular proteases involved in dismantling the cell in an ordered fashion. In cancer, therefore, one would anticipate caspases to be frequently rendered inactive, either by gene silencing or by somatic mutations. From clinical data, however, there is little evidence that caspase genes are impaired in cancer. Executioner caspases have only rarely been found mutated or silenced, and also initiator caspases are only affected in particular types of cancer. There is experimental evidence from transgenic mice that certain initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 and -2, might act as tumor suppressors. Loss of the initiator caspase of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-9, however, did not promote cellular transformation. These data seem to question a general tumor-suppressive role of caspases. We discuss several possible ways how tumor cells might evade the need for alterations of caspase genes. First, alternative splicing in tumor cells might generate caspase variants that counteract apoptosis. Second, in tumor cells caspases might be kept in check by cellular caspase inhibitors such as c-FLIP or XIAP. Third, pathways upstream of caspase activation might be disrupted in tumor cells. Finally, caspase-independent cell death mechanisms might abrogate the selection pressure for caspase inactivation during tumor development. These scenarios, however, are hardly compatible with the considerable frequency of spontaneous apoptosis occurring in several cancer types. Therefore, alternative concepts might come into play, such as compensatory proliferation. Herein, apoptosis and/or non-apoptotic functions of caspases may

  16. Apoptosis: Targets in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalthoff Holger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis, because of late diagnosis and lack of response to chemo- and/or radiation therapies. Resistance to apoptosis mainly causes this insensitivity to conventional therapies. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a central regulator of tissue homeostasis. Certain genetic disturbances of apoptotic signaling pathways have been found in carcinomas leading to tumor development and progression. In the past few years, the knowledge about the complex pathways of apoptosis has strongly increased and new therapeutic approaches based on this knowledge are being developed. This review will focus on the role of apoptotic proteins contributing to pancreatic cancer development and progression and will demonstrate possible targets to influence this deadly disease.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  18. Study of CT-guided iodine-125 implantation in the treatment of rabbit VX2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kewu; Gao Bin; Li Jiajia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of CT-guided iodine-125 seed( 125 I) implantation to rabbit model VX2 tumor cell apoptosis. Methods: VX2 tumor cells were implanted into muscle of 40 rabbits legs, 3 weeks later, as the diameter of tumor reached 2 cm available for test. Randomly selected the sampling tumor on one leg of rabbit as for the test team and tumor on the contralateral leg as for control team. Under CT guidance, 125 I seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the test team, and hollow seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the control team. Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after operation, percutaneous tumor tissue sampling was done 0.5-1.0 cm and 1.0-1.5 cm away from seed implanted site under CT guidance; and apoptosis was investigated by FCM. Results: Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after treatment with iodine-125 ( 125 I) implantation, the tissue sampling away from seed 0.5-1.0 cm showed the apoptosis rates of control team and test team were respectively as follows: (5.43±0.67)% and (5.48±0.66)%, (P>0.05), (5.45±0.58)% and (11.60±0.87)%, (P O.05)of the control team and test team. Conclusions: 125 I seeds implantation can induce tumor cell apoptosis, beginning at 72 h and reached peak at 2 w and kept the high level here afterword. The apoptosis rate descended rapidly along with the increase of distance away from the 125 I seedling. (authors)

  19. Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

  20. Selective translational repression of truncated proteins from frameshift mutation-derived mRNAs in tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Tae You

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Frameshift and nonsense mutations are common in tumors with microsatellite instability, and mRNAs from these mutated genes have premature termination codons (PTCs. Abnormal mRNAs containing PTCs are normally degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD system. However, PTCs located within 50-55 nucleotides of the last exon-exon junction are not recognized by NMD (NMD-irrelevant, and some PTC-containing mRNAs can escape from the NMD system (NMD-escape. We investigated protein expression from NMD-irrelevant and NMD-escape PTC-containing mRNAs by Western blotting and transfection assays. We demonstrated that transfection of NMD-irrelevant PTC-containing genomic DNA of MARCKS generates truncated protein. In contrast, NMD-escape PTC-containing versions of hMSH3 and TGFBR2 generate normal levels of mRNA, but do not generate detectable levels of protein. Transfection of NMD-escape mutant TGFBR2 genomic DNA failed to generate expression of truncated proteins, whereas transfection of wild-type TGFBR2 genomic DNA or mutant PTC-containing TGFBR2 cDNA generated expression of wild-type protein and truncated protein, respectively. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of gene expression regulation for PTC-containing mRNAs in which the deleterious transcripts are regulated either by NMD or translational repression.

  1. ZFP226 is a novel artificial transcription factor for selective activation of tumor suppressor KIBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelleckes, Katrin; Schmitz, Boris; Lenders, Malte; Mewes, Mirja; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2018-03-09

    KIBRA has been suggested as a key regulator of the hippo pathway, regulating organ size, cell contact inhibition as well as tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. Recently, alterations of KIBRA expression caused by promotor methylation have been reported for several types of cancer. Our current study aimed to design an artificial transcription factor capable of re-activating expression of the tumor suppressor KIBRA and the hippo pathway. We engineered a new gene named 'ZFP226' encoding for a ~23 kDa fusion protein. ZFP226 belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and recognizes a nine base-pair DNA sequence 5'-GGC-GGC-GGC-3' in the KIBRA core promoter P1a. ZFP226 showed nuclear localization in human immortalized kidney epithelial cells and activated the KIBRA core promoter (p < 0.001) resulting in significantly increased KIBRA mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.001). Furthermore, ZFP226 led to activation of hippo signaling marked by elevated YAP and LATS phosphorylation. In Annexin V flow cytometry assays ZFP226 overexpression showed strong pro-apoptotic capacity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells (p < 0.01 early-, p < 0.001 late-apoptotic cells). We conclude that the artificial transcription factor ZFP226 can be used for target KIBRA and hippo pathway activation. This novel molecule may represent a molecular tool for the development of future applications in cancer treatment.

  2. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized

    OpenAIRE

    van Delft, Mark F.; Wei, Andrew H.; Mason, Kylie D.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E.; Willis, Simon N.; Scott, Clare L.; Day, Catherine L.; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Huang, David C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since apoptosis is impaired in malignant cells overexpressing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, drugs mimicking their natural antagonists, BH3-only proteins, might overcome chemoresistance. Of seven putative BH3 mimetics tested, only ABT-737 triggered Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis. Despite its high affinity for Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, many cell types proved refractory to ABT-737. We show that this resistance reflects its inability to target another pro-survival relative, Mcl-1. Down-regulation of Mc...

  3. Two Chitotriose-Specific Lectins Show Anti-Angiogenesis, Induces Caspase-9-Mediated Apoptosis and Early Arrest of Pancreatic Tumor Cell Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Singh

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative activity of two chito-specific agglutinins purified from Benincasa hispida (BhL and Datura innoxia (DiL9 of different plant family origin was investigated on various cancer cell lines. Both lectins showed chitotriose specificity, by inhibiting lectin hemagglutinating activity. On further studies, it was revealed that these agglutinins caused remarkable concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic cancerous cells but not on the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at higher doses determined using MTT assay. The GI50 values were approximately 8.4 μg ml(-1 (0.247 μM and 142 μg ml(-1 (14.8 μM for BhL and DiL9, respectively, against PANC-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of these lectins on pancreatic cancer cells were shown to be a consequence of lectin cell surface binding and triggering G0/G1 arrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, sustained increase of the intracellular calcium release and the apoptotic signal is amplified by activation of caspases executing cell death. Interestingly, these lectins also showed anti-angiogenic activity by disrupting the endothelial tubulogenesis. Therefore, we report for the first time two chito-specific lectins specifically binding to tumor glycans; they can be considered to be a class of molecules with antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells mediated through caspase dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  4. HRAS1-selected chromosome transfer generates markers that colocalize aniridia- and genitourinary dysplasia-associated translocation breakpoints and the Wilms tumor gene within band 11p13.

    OpenAIRE

    Porteous, D J; Bickmore, W; Christie, S; Boyd, P A; Cranston, G; Fletcher, J M; Gosden, J R; Rout, D; Seawright, A; Simola, K O

    1987-01-01

    We show that chromosome-mediated gene transfer can provide an enriched source of DNA markers for predetermined, subchromosomal regions of the human genome. Forty-four human DNA recombinants isolated from a HRAS1-selected chromosome-mediated gene transformant map exclusively to chromosome 11, with several sublocalizing to the Wilms tumor region at 11p13. We present a detailed molecular map of the deletion chromosomes 11 from five WAGR (Wilms tumor/aniridia/genitourinary abnormalities/mental re...

  5. FasL and FADD delivery by a glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon virus enhanced apoptosis in primary human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Paula Y

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors. Results We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas. Conclusion Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.

  6. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  7. Chk2 mediates RITA-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, J; Verlaan-de Vries, M; Teunisse, A F A S; Jochemsen, A G

    2012-06-01

    Reactivation of the p53 tumor-suppressor protein by small molecules like Nutlin-3 and RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis) is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The molecular mechanisms involved in the responses to RITA remain enigmatic. Several groups reported the induction of a p53-dependent DNA damage response. Furthermore, the existence of a p53-dependent S-phase checkpoint has been suggested, involving the checkpoint kinase Chk1. We have recently shown synergistic induction of apoptosis by RITA in combination with Nutlin-3, and we observed concomitant Chk2 phosphorylation. Therefore, we investigated whether Chk2 contributes to the cellular responses to RITA. Strikingly, the induction of apoptosis seemed entirely Chk2 dependent. Transcriptional activity of p53 in response to RITA required the presence of Chk2. A partial rescue of apoptosis observed in Noxa knockdown cells emphasized the relevance of p53 transcriptional activity for RITA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed an early p53- and Chk2-dependent block of DNA replication upon RITA treatment. Replicating cells seemed more prone to entering RITA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the RITA-induced DNA damage response, which was not a secondary effect of apoptosis induction, was strongly attenuated in cells lacking p53 or Chk2. In conclusion, we identified Chk2 as an essential mediator of the cellular responses to RITA.

  8. Apoptosis induced by radionuclide 153Sm and expression of relevant genes in three different cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Baomin; Duan Xiaoyi; Chen Wei; Hu Guoying

    2003-01-01

    To study apoptosis of PC-3, ER-75-30 and A549 cells induced by radionuclide 153 Sm and the expression of bcl-2, bax in apoptosis cells, MTT assay was used to detect the anti-tumor effect, light microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer were used to detect apoptosis, while image analysis was used to detect the expression of bcl-2 and bax. 153 Sm showed anti-tumor effect and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. Both bcl-2 and bax played an important role in apoptosis. Different kind of cells had different sensitivity to 153 Sm

  9. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Three 14 C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[ 14 C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

  10. The role of tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennewith, Kevin L; Huang, Xin; Ham, Christine M; Graves, Edward E; Erler, Janine T; Kambham, Neeraja; Feazell, Jonathan; Yang, George P; Koong, Albert; Giaccia, Amato J

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly aggressive and refractory to existing therapies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a fibrosis-related gene that is thought to play a role in pancreatic tumor progression. However, CCN2 can be expressed in a variety of cell types, and the contribution of CCN2 derived from either tumor cells or stromal cells as it affects the growth of pancreatic tumors is unknown. Using genetic inhibition of CCN2, we have discovered that CCN2 derived from tumor cells is a critical regulator of pancreatic tumor growth. Pancreatic tumor cells derived from CCN2 shRNA-expressing clones showed dramatically reduced growth in soft agar and when implanted s.c. We also observed a role for CCN2 in the growth of pancreatic tumors implanted orthotopically, with tumor volume measurements obtained by positron emission tomography imaging. Mechanistically, CCN2 protects cells from hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, providing an in vivo selection for tumor cells that express high levels of CCN2. We found that CCN2 expression and secretion was increased in hypoxic pancreatic tumor cells in vitro, and we observed colocalization of CCN2 and hypoxia in pancreatic tumor xenografts and clinical pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, we found increased CCN2 staining in clinical pancreatic tumor tissue relative to stromal cells surrounding the tumor, supporting our assertion that tumor cell-derived CCN2 is important for pancreatic tumor growth. Taken together, these data improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pancreatic tumor growth and progression, and also indicate that CCN2 produced by tumor cells represents a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Mid-Ventilation Concept for Mobile Pulmonary Tumors: Internal Tumor Trajectory Versus Selective Reconstruction of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Frames Based on External Breathing Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Wilbert, Juergen; Krieger, Thomas; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of direct reconstruction of mid-ventilation and peak-phase four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) frames based on the external breathing signal. Methods and Materials: For 11 patients with 15 pulmonary targets, a respiration-correlated CT study (4D CT) was acquired for treatment planning. After retrospective time-based sorting of raw projection data and reconstruction of eight CT frames equally distributed over the breathing cycle, mean tumor position (P mean ), mid-ventilation frame, and breathing motion were evaluated based on the internal tumor trajectory. Analysis of the external breathing signal (pressure sensor around abdomen) with amplitude-based sorting of projections was performed for direct reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame and frames at peak phases of the breathing cycle. Results: On the basis of the eight 4D CT frames equally spaced in time, tumor motion was largest in the craniocaudal direction, with 12 ± 7 mm on average. Tumor motion between the two frames reconstructed at peak phases was not different in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions but was systematically smaller in the left-right direction by 1 mm on average. The 3-dimensional distance between P mean and the tumor position in the mid-ventilation frame based on the internal tumor trajectory was 1.2 ± 1 mm. Reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame at the mean amplitude position of the external breathing signal resulted in tumor positions 2.0 ± 1.1 mm distant from P mean . Breathing-induced motion artifacts in mid-ventilation frames caused negligible changes in tumor volume and shape. Conclusions: Direct reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame and frames at peak phases based on the external breathing signal was reliable. This makes the reconstruction of only three 4D CT frames sufficient for application of the mid-ventilation technique in clinical practice.

  12. Disrupting established tumor blood vessels: an emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Mark J; Baguley, Bruce C

    2010-04-15

    The unique characteristics of tumor vasculature represent an attractive target that may be exploited by vascular-targeting anticancer agents. A promising strategy involves the selective disruption of established tumor blood vessels by tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDAs), which exhibit antivascular activity, resulting in inhibition of tumor blood flow and extensive necrosis within the tumor core. The tumor-VDA class can be subdivided into flavonoid compounds, which are related to flavone acetic acid, and tubulin-binding compounds. ASA404, of the flavonoid class, is the most advanced tumor-VDA in clinical development and has been evaluated preclinically and in several phase 1 and phase 2 studies. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and the inhibition of tumor blood flow. Synergistic activity was observed with ASA404 and with several chemotherapeutic agents, particularly taxanes. In clinical trials, compared with chemotherapy alone, ASA404 was tolerated well and produced improved activity in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Phase 3 clinical trials are ongoing. Selectively targeting established tumor vasculature with tumor-VDAs represents a promising and innovative approach to improving the efficacy of standard anticancer therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  13. PIK3CA mutations enable targeting of a breast tumor dependency through mTOR-mediated MCL-1 translation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Grace R.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Cakir, Merve; Crawford, Lorin; Leeds, Jim C.; Nussbaum, Daniel P.; Shankar, Pallavi S.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Stein, Elizabeth M.; Tingley, Jennifer P.; Winter, Peter S.; Zieser-Misenheimer, Elizabeth K.; Alley, Holly M.; Yllanes, Alexander; Haney, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Therapies that efficiently induce apoptosis are likely to be required for durable clinical responses in patients with solid tumors. Using a pharmacological screening approach, we discovered that the combined inhibition of BCL-XL and the mTOR/4E-BP axis results in selective and synergistic induction of apoptosis in cellular and animal models of PIK3CA mutant breast cancers, including triple negative tumors. Mechanistically, inhibition of mTOR/4E-BP suppresses MCL-1 protein translation only in ...

  14. Apoptose no tumor venéreo transmissível canino: características morfológicas e evidenciação bioquímica Apoptosis in the canine transmissible venereal tumor: morphological features and biochemical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2001-10-01

    , until DNA could be extracted for agarose gel electrophoresis. Cytological and histological results confirmed the diagnosis of the neoplasia and showed characteristic cellular and tissular patterns, with well-defined clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Shorr stained sections showed several shrunken cells, with cytoplasmic acidophilia, chromatin condensation, besides nuclear and cellular fragmentation, typical of apoptosis. Shorr was better than hematoxylin - eosin to distinguish apoptotic cells. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA showed the internucleosomal fragmentation of the genome, which was recognized as the classic "ladder pattern". Apoptosis does occur in the natural evolution of canine transmissible venereal tumor.

  15. JALUR MOLEKULER MEKANISME APOPTOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a normal condition for development and live multicellular organism. Apoptosis is a morphological phenomenon that plays an important role in physiologic processes during fetal development and in adult. Mitochondria play an important role in apoptosis. Mitochondria can do apoptosis directly. Mitochondria has 2 family of protein Bcl-2. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti apoptosis while Bad an Bax are pro apoptosis. There are 3 different mechanism to receptors at the cell surface and a third may be triggered by dangerous agent that different from two ways before. Apoptosis also need caspase as cell death executor. Study of apoptosis still done especially in case of disease. Some disease have known related with disturbing of apoptosis mechanism for example cancer and auto immune. This article reviews about molecular mechanism of apoptosis for understanding disease and future therapy.

  16. Imatinib mesylate inhibits Leydig cell tumor growth: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basciani, Sabrina; Brama, Marina; Mariani, Stefania; De Luca, Gabriele; Arizzi, Mario; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Dolci, Susanna; Spera, Giovanni; Gnessi, Lucio

    2005-03-01

    Leydig cell tumors are usually benign tumors of the male gonad. However, if the tumor is malignant, no effective treatments are currently available. Leydig cell tumors express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), kit ligand and their respective receptors, PDGFR and c-kit. We therefore evaluated the effects of imatinib mesylate (imatinib), a selective inhibitor of the c-kit and PDGFR tyrosine kinases, on the growth of rodent Leydig tumor cell lines in vivo and in vitro, and examined, in human Leydig cell tumor samples, the expression of activated PDGFR and c-kit and the mutations in exons of the c-kit gene commonly associated with solid tumors. Imatinib caused concentration-dependent decreases in the viability of Leydig tumor cell lines, which coincided with apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of c-kit and PDGFRs. Mice bearing s.c. allografts of a Leydig tumor cell line treated with imatinib p.o., had an almost complete inhibition of tumor growth, less tumor cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a lesser amount of tumor-associated mean vessel density compared with controls. No drug-resistant tumors appeared during imatinib treatment but tumors regrew after drug withdrawal. Human Leydig cell tumors showed an intense expression of the phosphorylated form of c-kit and a less intense expression of phosphorylated PDGFRs. No activating mutations in common regions of mutation of the c-kit gene were found. Our studies suggest that Leydig cell tumors might be a potential target for imatinib therapy.

  17. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (Pselective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  18. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  19. Molecular mechanisms of celery seed extract induced apoptosis via s phase cell cycle arrest in the BGC-823 human stomach cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Lei; Yao, Shu-Tong; Jiao, Peng; Qin, Shu-Cun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ya-Bin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. Loss of cell cycle control, leading to uncontrolled proliferation, is common in cancer. Therefore, the identification of potent and selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors is a priority for anti-cancer drug discovery. There are at least two major apoptotic pathways, initiated by caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively, which can activate caspase cascades. Apoptosis triggered by activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway represents the main programmed cell death mechanism. This is activated by various intracellular stresses that induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Anti-tumor effects of celery seed extract (CSE) and related mechanisms regarding apoptosis were here investigated in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. CSE was produced by supercritical fluid extraction. Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry using Annexin/PI staining and DAPI staining and a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Cell cycling was evaluated using PI staining with flow cytometry and expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins cyclin A, CDK2, bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. CSE had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment, the apoptotic rate significantly increased, with morphological changes typical of apoptosis observed with LSCM by DAPI staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2 and bcl-2 were all down-regulated, whereas bax was up-regulated. The molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of CSE may be associated with cycle arrest in the S phase.

  20. Induction of selective blood-tumor barrier permeability and macromolecular transport by a biostable kinin B1 receptor agonist in a glioma rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jérôme; Bovenzi, Veronica; Savard, Martin; Dubuc, Céléna; Fortier, Audrey; Neugebauer, Witold; Tremblay, Luc; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Lepage, Martin; Fortin, David; Gobeil, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). B1 receptors (B1R), inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg(9)BK (LDBK) and SarLys[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)BK (NG29), in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer) at tumoral sites (T(1)-weighted imaging). These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry). We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peri)tumoral sites.

  1. RNAi screen reveals a role of SPHK2 in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis in hepatic cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atthapan Morchang

    Full Text Available Hepatic dysfunction is a feature of dengue virus (DENV infection. Hepatic biopsy specimens obtained from fatal cases of DENV infection show apoptosis, which relates to the pathogenesis of DENV infection. However, how DENV induced liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that influence cell death by employing an apoptosis-related siRNA library screening. Our results show the effect of 558 gene silencing on caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in DENV-infected Huh7 cells. The majority of genes that contributed to apoptosis were the apoptosis-related kinase enzymes. Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 12 (TNFSF12, and sphingosine kinase 2 (SPHK2, were selected as the candidate genes to further validate their influences on DENV-induced apoptosis. Transfection of siRNA targeting SPHK2 but not TNFSF12 genes reduced apoptosis determined by Annexin V/PI staining. Knockdown of SPHK2 did not reduce caspase 8 activity; however, did significantly reduce caspase 9 activity, suggesting its involvement of SPHK2 in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Treatment of ABC294649, an inhibitor of SPHK2, reduced the caspase 3 activity, suggesting the involvement of its kinase activity in apoptosis. Knockdown of SPHK2 significantly reduced caspase 3 activity not only in DENV-infected Huh7 cells but also in DENV-infected HepG2 cells. Our results were consistent across all of the four serotypes of DENV infection, which supports the pro-apoptotic role of SPHK2 in DENV-infected liver cells.

  2. Tunicamycin promotes apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS generation and downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jin; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Tunicamycin (TN), one of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth and exhibit anticarcinogenic activity. However, the mechanism by which TN initiates apoptosis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of TN on the apoptotic pathway in U937 cells. We show that TN induces apoptosis in association with caspase-3 activation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and downregulation of survivin expression. P38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the generation of ROS signaling pathway play crucial roles in TN-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. We hypothesized that TN-induced activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway is responsible for cell death. To test this hypothesis, we selectively inhibited MAPK during treatment with TN. Our data demonstrated that inhibitor of p38 (SB), but not ERK (PD) or JNK (SP), partially maintained apoptosis during treatment with TN. Pre-treatment with NAC and GSH markedly prevented cell death, suggesting a role for ROS in this process. Ectopic expression of survivin in U937 cells attenuated TN-induced apoptosis by suppression of caspase-3 cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release in U937 cells. Taken together, our results show that TN modulates multiple components of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells and raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies.

  3. Two step mechanisms of tumor selective delivery of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer conjugated with pirarubicin via an acid-cleavable linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, H.; Etrych, Tomáš; Chytil, Petr; Ohkubo, M.; Fang, J.; Ulbrich, Karel; Maeda, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, 28 January (2014), s. 81-87 ISSN 0168-3659 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA polymer conjugate * pirarubicin (THP) * tumor selectivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.705, year: 2014

  4. Resistance of tumor cells to hydrogen peroxide as a factor of selection of highly metastatic cell variants in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, G.I.; Vendrov, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the theory that tumor cells which catabolize H 2 O 2 more actively may possibly have selected advantages in vivo (of different origin). The authors tested the sensitivity to H 2 O 2 of parental cells of strain STHE (which did not progress in vivo) and 17 of its daughter variants isolated from lung tissue of experimental animals at different stages of formation of metastases (before and after their formation) and differing in metastatic activity. Intact cells were placed into test tube No. 6 of each series. After 30 min of exposure at 20 0 C, cells treated with H 2 O 2 and intact cells were washed out by centrifugation, and resuspended in nutritive medium containing 10% bovine serum and 3 H-thymidine, and each sample was diffused at a volume of 2.0 ml of cell suspension in each of three scintillation vials. The proliferative pool of cells in each sample was determined according to incorporation (for 22 h at 37 0 C) of 3 H-thymidine into cell nuclei. Data concerning incorporation of 3 H-thymidine was expressed for each sample of cells in percentages in relation to corresponding intact control (incorporation of label in a control culture of intact cells was taken as 100%). Each cell variant was investigated repeatedly in two-three more experiments

  5. Squalene Selectively Protects Mouse Bone Marrow Progenitors Against Cisplatin and Carboplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity In Vivo Without Protecting Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikul Das

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity. We have previously published that squalene protects light-density bone marrow cells against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum( II (cisplatin-induced toxicity without protecting tumor cells in vitro. Here, we developed an in vivo mouse model of cisplatin and cis-diammine (cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato platinum(II (carboplatin-induced toxicity to further investigate squalene-mediated LD-BM cytoprotection including the molecular mechanism behind selective cytoprotection. We found that squalene significantly reduced the body weight loss of cisplatin and carboplatin-treated mice. Light-density bone marrow cells from squalene-treated mice exhibited improved formation of hematopoietic colonies (colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage. Furthermore, squalene also protected mesenchymal stem cell colonies (colony-forming unit-fibroblast from cisplatin and carboplatin-induced toxicity. Squalene-induced protection was associated with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione-S-transferase. Importantly, squalene did not protect neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma, or medulloblastoma xenografts against cisplatin-induced toxicity. These results suggest that squalene is a potential candidate for future development as a cytoprotective agent against chemotherapeutic toxicity.

  6. Systemic combinatorial peptide selection yields a non-canonical iron-mimicry mechanism for targeting tumors in a mouse model of human glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Moya, Catherine A.; Driessen, Wouter H.P.; Barbu, E. Magda; Nishimori, Hiroyuki; Soghomonyan, Suren; Flores, Leo G.; Liang, Xiaowen; Paolillo, Vincenzo; Alauddin, Mian M.; Basilion, James P.; Furnari, Frank B.; Bogler, Oliver; Lang, Frederick F.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Höök, Magnus; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2010-01-01

    The management of CNS tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vascular interface that restricts the passage of mos