WorldWideScience

Sample records for selective bioparticle retention

  1. Selective Bioparticle Retention and Characterization in a Chip-Integrated Confocal Ultrasonic Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennebring, J.; Manneberg, O.; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate selective retention and positioning of cells or other bioparticles by ultrasonic manipulation in a microfluidic expansion chamber during microfluidic perfusion. The chamber is designed as a confocal ultrasonic resonator for maximum confinement of the ultrasonic force field at the c...

  2. Selective recovery of micrometer bioparticles using aggregation and air flotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hee, P.

    2006-01-01

    Air flotation is a separation technique that makes use of the air-water interface for separation of particles and molecules from mixtures. This thesis discusses its use for separation of bioparticle mixtures. Particulate bioproducts, such as crystals, inclusion bodies, virus-like particles and

  3. Process arrangements for variety, retention, and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, J.A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that process management aimed at introducing variety, retention, and selection into complex decision-making processes can make a substantial contribution to improving them. It also describes process arrangements for variety, retention, and selection.

  4. Recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, P; Hoeben, M A; van der Lans, R G J M; Kwant, G; van der Wielen, L A M

    2002-05-20

    In this article, a qualitative study of the recovery of small bioparticles by interfacial partitioning in liquid-liquid biphasic systems is presented. A range of crystallised biomolecules with varying polarities have been chosen such as glycine, phenylglycine and ampicillin. Liquid-liquid biphasic systems in a range of polarity differences were selected such as an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), water-butanol and water-hexanol. The results indicate that interfacial partitioning of crystals occurs even when their density exceeds that of the individual liquid phases. Yet, not all crystals partition to the same extent to the interface to form a stable and thick interphase layer. This indicates some degree of selectivity. From the analysis of these results in relation to the physicochemical properties of the crystals and the liquid phases, a hypothetical mechanism for the interfacial partitioning is deduced. Overall these results support the potential of interfacial partitioning as a large scale separation technology. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Selective Exposure and Retention of Political Advertising: A Regional Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Gordon, Thomas F.

    The results presented in this article are but a portion of the information gathered in a larger survey examining the relative roles of "selective exposure" to and "selective retention" of political advertising during the 1972 presidential election. Random samples in two metropolitan areas in different regions of the country (Atlanta, Ga., n=281;…

  6. VERTICALLY INTEGRATED OPTICAL TRANSDUCER FOR BIO-PARTICLE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANAH MASRIE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical transducer with vertical structure integrated with MEMS microfluidic device is developed for the detection of bio-particle. The system consists of optical detection part; electronics control part and microfluidic part. Integrating of these parts, using optical transducer as a label-free method can provide the diagnosis of low volume biological samples as well as leading to direct detection with no significant change in physical forms of the samples. A collimated light source of deep UV-AlGaN based LED and a SiC photodiode operating at 260 nm are utilized as a light transmitter and detector, respectively. The principle of bio-particle detection is based on absorption of ultraviolet (UV range of DNA biological samples extracted from a Caco-2 cell in a fluidic medium. The outcomes show that the signal is detected by the SiC photodiode for the rise time of τr ~ 118.1371 µs which shows sufficient response time to enable the detection of the bio-particle. Testing on various samples showed that the detector has no response to non-absorbance samples such as deionized (DI water, Tris-EDTA (TE buffer and protein samples. However, a significant outcome in the detection of a Caco-2 cell line with the absorbance coefficient of average 0.08 a.u was achieved.

  7. Pragmatic setup for bioparticle responses by dielectrophoresis for resource limited environment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Anuar Md; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Kayani, Aminuddin Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Various dielectrophoretic responses of bioparticles, including cell-chain, spinning, rotation and clustering, are of high interest in the field due to their benefit into application for biomedical and clinical implementation potential. Numerous attempts using sophisticated equipment setup have been studied to perform those dielectrophoretic responses, however, for development into resource limited environment application, such as portable, sustainable and environmental friendly diagnostic tools, establishment of pragmatic setup using standard, non-sophisticated and low-cost equipment is of important task. Here we show the advantages in the judicious design optimization of tip microelectrode, also with selection of suspending medium and optimization of electric signal configuration in establishing setup that can promote the aforementioned dielectrophoretic responses within standard equipments, i.e. pragmatic setup.

  8. Oculomotor selection underlies feature retention in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Nina M; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner; Szinte, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Oculomotor selection, spatial task relevance, and visual working memory (WM) are described as three processes highly intertwined and sustained by similar cortical structures. However, because task-relevant locations always constitute potential saccade targets, no study so far has been able to distinguish between oculomotor selection and spatial task relevance. We designed an experiment that allowed us to dissociate in humans the contribution of task relevance, oculomotor selection, and oculomotor execution to the retention of feature representations in WM. We report that task relevance and oculomotor selection lead to dissociable effects on feature WM maintenance. In a first task, in which an object's location was encoded as a saccade target, its feature representations were successfully maintained in WM, whereas they declined at nonsaccade target locations. Likewise, we observed a similar WM benefit at the target of saccades that were prepared but never executed. In a second task, when an object's location was marked as task relevant but constituted a nonsaccade target (a location to avoid), feature representations maintained at that location did not benefit. Combined, our results demonstrate that oculomotor selection is consistently associated with WM, whereas task relevance is not. This provides evidence for an overlapping circuitry serving saccade target selection and feature-based WM that can be dissociated from processes encoding task-relevant locations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The value of information in conservation planning: Selecting retention trees for lichen conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin Perhans; Robert G. Haight; Lena. Gustafsson

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning studies at small scales such as forest stands and below are uncommon. However, for retention forestry, developed during the last two decades and with current wide and increasing application in boreal and temperate regions, the need for cost-effective selection of individual trees is evident. In retention forestry certain trees are left at final...

  10. Reverse depletion effects and the determination of ligand density on some spherical bioparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Liu, Yanhui; Fan, Yangtao; Liu, Yijun; Li, Qiancheng; Xu, Houqiang

    2016-06-01

    In cell environments crowded with macromolecules, the depletion effects act and assist in the assembly of a wide range of cellular structures, from the cytoskeleton to the chromatin loop, which are well accepted. But a recent quantum dot experiment indicated that the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins in cell environments. In this article, a continuum elastic model is constructed to resolve the competition between the dimension of the receptor-ligand complex and depletion effects in the endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle. Our results show that the depletion effects do not always assist endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle; while the dimension of the ligand-receptor complex is larger than the size of a small bioparticle in cell environments, the depletion effects do not work and reverse effects appear. The ligand density covered on the virus can be identified quantitatively.

  11. Reverse depletion effects and the determination of ligand density on some spherical bioparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunxiang [Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University (China); Liu, Yanhui, E-mail: ionazati@itp.ac.cn; Fan, Yangtao; Liu, Yijun; Li, Qiancheng; Xu, Houqiang, E-mail: houqiangxu@yahoo.com [Guizhou University (China)

    2016-06-15

    In cell environments crowded with macromolecules, the depletion effects act and assist in the assembly of a wide range of cellular structures, from the cytoskeleton to the chromatin loop, which are well accepted. But a recent quantum dot experiment indicated that the dimensions of the receptor–ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins in cell environments. In this article, a continuum elastic model is constructed to resolve the competition between the dimension of the receptor–ligand complex and depletion effects in the endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle. Our results show that the depletion effects do not always assist endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle; while the dimension of the ligand–receptor complex is larger than the size of a small bioparticle in cell environments, the depletion effects do not work and reverse effects appear. The ligand density covered on the virus can be identified quantitatively.

  12. Quantitative structure-retention relationship of selected imidazoline derivatives on α1-acid glycoprotein column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipic, Slavica; Ruzic, Dusan; Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-08-05

    The retention behaviour of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives was investigated on α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column using Sørensen phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 2-propanol as organic modifier. Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) models were built using extrapolated logkw values as well as isocratic retention factors (logk5, logk8, logk10, logk12, logk15 obtained for 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 15%, of 2-propanol in mobile phase, respectively) as dependant variables and calculated physicochemical parameters as independant variables. The established QSRR models were built by stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of the stepwise and PLS models was tested by cross-validation and the external test set prediction. The validated QSRR models were compared and the optimal PLS-QSRR model for logkw and each isocratic retention factors (PLS-QSRR(logk5), PLS-QSRR(logk8), PLS-QSRR(logk10), MLR-QSRR(logk12), MLR-QSRR(logk15)) were selected. The QSRR results were further confirmed by Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER). LSER analysis indicated on hydrogen bond basicity, McGowan volume and excess molar refraction as the most significant parameters for all AGP chromatographic retention factors and logkw values of 22 selected imidazoline drugs and derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining a Retention Model for the Selected Marine Corps Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...model for the Selected Marine Corps Reserve (SMCR). Data for this model were pulled from the Marine Corps’ Total Force Data Warehouse for the fiscal...SMCR). Data for this model were pulled from the Marine Corps’ Total Force Data Warehouse for the fiscal years 2009 through 2015. The model forecasts

  14. Selective interference with image retention and generation: evidence for the workspace model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Marian; Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-08-01

    We address three types of model of the relationship between working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM): (a) the gateway model, in which WM acts as a gateway between perceptual input and LTM; (b) the unitary model, in which WM is seen as the currently activated areas of LTM; and (c) the workspace model, in which perceptual input activates LTM, and WM acts as a separate workspace for processing and temporary retention of these activated traces. Predictions of these models were tested, focusing on visuospatial working memory and using dual-task methodology to combine two main tasks (visual short-term retention and image generation) with two interference tasks (irrelevant pictures and spatial tapping). The pictures selectively disrupted performance on the generation task, whereas the tapping selectively interfered with the retention task. Results are consistent with the predictions of the workspace model.

  15. Evaluation of coverage, retention patterns and selectivity of seven liquid chromatographic methods for metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Wernisch, Stefanie; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics studies require highly selective and efficient chromatographic techniques. Typically employed reversed-phase (RP) methods fail to target polar metabolites but the introduction of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is slow due to perceived issues of reproducibility and ruggedness and a limited understanding of the complex retention mechanisms.

  16. Enhanced genetic analysis of single human bioparticles recovered by simplified micromanipulation from forensic 'touch DNA' evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-03-09

    DNA profiles can be obtained from 'touch DNA' evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a 'blind-swabbing' approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals' cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim's DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator's DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, 'smart analysis' method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., "clumps") bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material.

  17. Recruitment, selection and retention of nursing and midwifery students in Scottish Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Sheila; Stenhouse, Rosie; McCreaddie, May; Small, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    High attrition rates from pre-registration nursing and midwifery programmes have been reported in both the UK and in other countries. A study was conducted to identify best practice in recruitment, selection and retention across Scottish Universities providing pre-registration programmes. A survey of all universities providing pre-registration programmes in Scotland was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key personnel in each university. Documentary evidence was collected to supplement interview data and evidence recruitment, selection and retention practices. All universities in Scotland providing pre-registration nursing and/or midwifery programmes. All 10 identified universities agreed to take part and a total of 18 interviews were conducted. Semi-structured face to face and telephone interviews were conducted. Relevant documentary evidence was collected. All data were subject to thematic analysis. Universities are predominantly concerned with recruiting to the institution and not to the professions. Interviews are widely used, and are a requirement in the United Kingdom. However, there is no evidence base within the literature that they have predictive validity despite creating scales and scoring systems which are largely unvalidated. The study identified initiatives aimed at addressing attrition/retention, however most had not been evaluated often due to the multi-factorial nature of attrition/retention and difficulties with measurement. Recruitment selection and retention initiatives were rarely evaluated, and if so, adopted a relatively superficial approach. Evidence from existing studies to support practices was mostly weakly supportive or absent. The study highlights the need for a coordinated approach, supporting the development of a robust evidence base through the evaluation of local initiatives, and evaluation of new strategies. Evaluation strategies must take account of the local context to facilitate transferability of findings

  18. Selection for career course and impact on retention of Brazilian Air Force officers

    OpenAIRE

    De Mello Takahashi, Marcus Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research examines the effect of a particular non-monetary incentive on the retention of active duty Brazilian Air Force colonels. The objective is to provide evidence to support the Brazilian Air Force Manpower decision makers in establishing policies regarding the selection of colonels for a career course. The characteristics of the incentives and the links to Expectancy Theory were reviewed to frame the hypotheses. Using two sou...

  19. Selection, Appraisal, and Retention of Digital Scientific Data: Highlights of an ERPANET/CODATA Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Esanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CODATA and ERPANET collaborated to convene an international archiving workshop on the selection, appraisal, and retention of digital scientific data, which was held on 15-17 December 2003 at the Biblioteca Nacional in Lisbon, Portugal. The workshop brought together more than 65 researchers, data and information managers, archivists, and librarians from 13 countries to discuss the issues involved in making critical decisions regarding the long-term preservation of the scientific record. One of the major aims for this workshop was to provide an international forum to exchange information about data archiving policies and practices across different scientific, institutional, and national contexts. Highlights from the workshop discussions are presented.

  20. Computational Modeling and Simulations of Bioparticle Internalization Through Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of the most important endocytic pathways for the internalization of bioparticles at lipid membrane of cells, which plays crucial roles in fundamental understanding of viral infections and interacellular/transcelluar targeted drug delivery. During CME, highly dynamic clathrin-coated pit (CCP), formed by the growth of ordered clathrin lattices, is the key scaffolding component that drives the deformation of plasma membrane. Experimental studies have shown that CCP alone can provide sufficient membrane curvature for facilitating membrane invagination. However, currently there is no computational model that could couple cargo receptor binding with membrane invagination process, nor simulations of the dynamic growing process of CCP. We develop a stochastic computational model for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis based on Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. In our model, the energetic costs of bending membrane and CCP are linked with antigen-antibody interactions. The assembly of clathrin lattices is a dynamic process that correlates with antigen-antibody bond formation. This model helps study the membrane deformation and the effects of CCP during functionalized bioparticles internalization through CME. This work is supported by NSF Grants: CBET-1250107 and CBET-1604211.

  1. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDY ON THE PNEUMOALLERGENIC BIOPARTICLES DURING JULY 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ianovici

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important airborne bioparticles are: anemophile plants’ pollen and the conidia of some deuteromycotins (Cladosporium, Alternaria. The aim of this study is that to emphasize the incidence of the allergenic bioparticles in the SW of Romania. In July 2003 we have identified the following pollen types: Urtica (dominant, Poaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia, Rumex and Plantago. We noticed that during July, fungi exceed 4.65 times the pollen concentrations. The prevailing fungal type is Cladosporium. Fungus conidia concentration increases for air humidity over 60%. The spreading means in the air differs from that of pollen, whose concentration increases at high temperatures and humidity under 60%. Sensitizing for fungal conidia is a powerful risk factor for the respiratory conditions in grown-ups and children. Therefore, a special importance must be granted to these allergenic factors in order to be taken under consideration for the primary prevention, in the therapeutic conduct and patients training. Patients must be encouraged to diminish the exposing to high humidity during hot days, essential factor facilitating the fungal development and its massive atmospheric dispersion.

  2. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families.

  3. Selective retention of basic compounds by metal aquo-ion affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Asakawa, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    A novel metal aquo-ion affinity chromatography has been developed for the analysis of basic compounds using heat-treated silica gel containing hydrated metal cations (metal aquo-ions) as the packing material. The packing materials of the metal aquo-ion affinity chromatography were prepared by the immobilization of a single metal component such as Fe(III), Al(III), Ag(I), and Ni(II) on silica gel followed by extensive heat treatment. The immobilized metals form aquo-ions to present cation-exchange ability for basic analytes and the cation-exchange ability for basic analytes depends on pKa of the immobilized metal species. In the present study, to evaluate the retention characteristics of metal aquo-ion affinity chromatography, the on-line solid-phase extraction of drugs was investigated. Obtained data clearly evidence the selective retention capability of metal aquo-ion affinity chromatography for basic analytes with sufficient capacity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection drive retention of RPL36a paralogs in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication events have driven to a large degree the evolution of angiosperm genomes. Although the majority of redundant gene copies after a genome duplication are lost, subfunctionalization or gene balance account for the retention of gene copies. The Arabidopsis 80S ribosome represents an excellent model to test the gene balance hypothesis as it consists of 80 ribosomal proteins, all of them encoded by genes belonging to small gene families. Here, we present the isolation of mutant alleles of the APICULATA2 (API2) and RPL36aA paralogous genes, which encode identical ribosomal proteins but share a similarity of 89% in their coding sequences. RPL36aA was found expressed at a higher level than API2 in the wild type. The loss-of-function api2 and rpl36aa mutations are recessive and affect leaf development in a similar way. Their double mutant combinations with asymmetric leaves2-1 (as2-1) caused leaf polarity defects that were stronger in rpl36aa as2-1 than in api2 as2-1. Our results highlight the role of combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection in the retention of these paralogous genes in the Arabidopsis genome. PMID:24535089

  5. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denmond, Constance M; Johnson, Derek N; Lewis, Chavius G; Zegley, Christopher R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community...

  6. Success of Underrepresented Nursing Students at Selected Southwest Institutions: Impact of a Nursing Retention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined retention initiatives and strategies provided to underserved students in the nursing programs at three community colleges in the Southwest region. This research addressed nursing student retention, as well as ways to increase retention among underrepresented populations in the three community colleges, representing a unique…

  7. Creative thought as blind-variation and selective-retention: Combinatorial models of exceptional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-06-01

    Campbell (1960) proposed that creative thought should be conceived as a blind-variation and selective-retention process (BVSR). This article reviews the developments that have taken place in the half century that has elapsed since his proposal, with special focus on the use of combinatorial models as formal representations of the general theory. After defining the key concepts of blind variants, creative thought, and disciplinary context, the combinatorial models are specified in terms of individual domain samples, variable field size, ideational combination, and disciplinary communication. Empirical implications are then derived with respect to individual, domain, and field systems. These abstract combinatorial models are next provided substantive reinforcement with respect to findings concerning the cognitive processes, personality traits, developmental factors, and social contexts that contribute to creativity. The review concludes with some suggestions regarding future efforts to explicate creativity according to BVSR theory.

  8. Recent developments in capillary and chip electrophoresis of bioparticles: Viruses, organelles, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Xavier; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

    2011-06-01

    In appropriate aqueous buffer solutions, biological particles usually exhibit a particular electric surface charge due to exposed charged or chargeable functional groups (amino acid residues, acidic carbohydrate moieties, etc.). Consequently, these bioparticles can migrate in solution under the influence of an electric field allowing separation according to their electrophoretic mobilities or their pI values. Based on these properties, electromigration methods are of eminent interest for the characterization, separation, and detection of such particles. The present review discusses the research papers published between 2008 and 2010 dealing with isoelectric focusing and zone electrophoresis of viruses, organelles and microorganisms (bacteria and yeast cells) in the capillary and the chip format. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Kupec Michal; Stradiot Peter; Rehák Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density) of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980). The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991). For the determination of the soil water retention curve p...

  10. Feature selection methods for characterizing and classifying adaptive Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinli; Shao, Junming; Scholz, Miklas; Plant, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's Flood Directive 2007/60/EC requires member states to produce flood risk maps for all river basins and coastal areas at risk of flooding by 2013. As a result, flood risk assessments have become an urgent challenge requiring a range of rapid and effective tools and approaches. The Sustainable Flood Retention Basin (SFRB) concept has evolved to provide a rapid assessment technique for impoundments, which have a pre-defined or potential role in flood defense and diffuse pollution control. A previous version of the SFRB survey method developed by the co-author Scholz in 2006 recommends gathering of over 40 variables to characterize an SFRB. Collecting all these variables is relatively time-consuming and more importantly, these variables are often correlated with each other. Therefore, the objective is to explore the correlation among these variables and find the most important variables to represent an SFRB. Three feature selection techniques (Information Gain, Mutual Information and Relief) were applied on the SFRB data set to identify the importance of the variables in terms of classification accuracy. Four benchmark classifiers (Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbours, C4.5 Decision Tree and Naïve Bayes) were subsequently used to verify the effectiveness of the classification with the selected variables and automatically identify the optimal number of variables. Experimental results indicate that our proposed approach provides a simple, rapid and effective framework for variable selection and SFRB classification. Only nine important variables are sufficient to accurately classify SFRB. Finally, six typical cases were studied to verify the performance of the identified nine variables on different SFRB types. The findings provide a rapid scientific tool for SFRB assessment in practice. Moreover, the generic value of this tool allows also for its wide application in other areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Genetic Analysis of Single Human Bioparticles Recovered by Simplified Micromanipulation from Forensic ‘Touch DNA’ Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    DNA profiles can be obtained from ‘touch DNA’ evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a ‘blind-swabbing’ approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals’ cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim’s DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator’s DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, ‘smart analysis’ method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., “clumps”) bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material. PMID:25867046

  12. Low-consumption phase change material with good data retention selected from SbxTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zhitang; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Various compositions of SbxTe phase-change films have been investigated by means of in situ temperature-dependent resistance measurement. Although crystallization temperature of Sb3Te is about 536 K, a little lower than those of Sb2Te and Sb4Te, it has a better data retention performance than the other two compositions. X-ray diffraction patterns imply that poly-crystalline structures of Sb-Te alloys are all hexagonal, and phase separation appears in SbTe3, Sb2Te, Sb3Te and Sb4Te alloys. Sb2Te and Sb3Te have been selected for phase-change random access memory devices. RESET voltage for Sb3Te is 1.2 V when the voltage pulse width is 50 ns, 0.3 V lower than that for Sb2Te. By using the voltage pulse width of 200 ns, Sb3Te needs 1.8 V and 4 V to complete SET-RESET performance, 0.4 V and 0.5 V lower than Sb2Te respectively. It indicates that Sb3Te is more suitable for the application of phase-change random access memory.

  13. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and dimensionality reduction techniques in quantitative structure retention relationship modeling of retention in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghir-Wojtkowiak, Emilia; Wiczling, Paweł; Bocian, Szymon; Kubik, Łukasz; Kośliński, Piotr; Buszewski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał Jan

    2015-07-17

    The objective of this study was to model the retention of nucleosides and pterins in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) via QSRR-based approach. Two home-made (Amino-P-C18, Amino-P-C10) and one commercial (IAM.PC.DD2) HILIC stationary phases were considered. Logarithm of retention factor at 5% of acetonitrile (logkACN) along with descriptors obtained for 16 nucleosides and 11 pterins were used to develop QSRR models. We used and compared the predictive performance of three regression techniques: partial least square (PLS), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and the LASSO followed by stepwise multiple linear regression. The highest predictive squared correlation coefficient (QLOOCV(2)) in PLS analysis was found for Amino-P-C10 (QLOOCV(2)=0.687) and IAM.PC.DD2 (QLOOCV(2)=0.506) and the lowest for IAM.PC.DD2 (QLOOCV(2)=-0.01). Much higher values were obtained for the LASSO model. The QLOOCV(2) equaled 0.9 for Amino-P-C10, 0.66 for IAM.PC.DD2 and 0.59 for Amino-P-C18. The combination of LASSO with stepwise regression provided models with comparable predictive performance as the LASSO, however with possibility of calculating the standard error of estimates. The use of LASSO itself and in combination with classical stepwise regression may offer greater stability of the developed models thanks to more smooth change of coefficients and reduced susceptibility towards chance correlation. Application of QSRR-based approach, along with the computational methods proposed in this work, may offer a useful approach in the modeling of retention of nucleoside and pterin compounds in HILIC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A zero discharge green roof system and species selection to optimize evapotranspiration and water retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J.S.; Whitlow, T.H. [Cornell, Univ., Urban Horticulture Inst., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Horticulture

    2006-07-01

    Economic benefits must outweigh costs, with or without governmental subsidies or enforcement in order for green roofs to become commonplace in American cities. Municipal advantages to green roofs include stormwater management, environmental quality and an expansion of the native plant palette. These benefits are difficult to quantify monetarily for the owner of the roof, yet greater water evaporation from storm water attenuation has the ability to increase cooling of the building, an economic benefit to the owner. Current green roof design and testing methods fail to explore systems that maximize stormwater retention and evaporative cooling benefits that are often associated with green roofs. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated an alternate approach that optimizes water loss through evapotranspiration using a zero discharge target and plants that tolerate both medium drought and saturation. Species selection emphasizes native species and salt tolerance, which allows the possibility of grey water irrigation. Species studied include spartina alternafiora and solidago canadensis. Plants were studied over a growing season to examine the rates of ET as they relate to weather conditions, growing media composition and saturation levels, and plant species. The study was conducted on top of a four storey school building located in the South Bronx, New York City. In June 2005, a 3,500 square foot extensive green roof was installed. The conference described the site and study in detail followed by a discussion of the results. This includes a discussion of the planting containers, planting mediums, plant materials, data collection, and irrigation trials. It was concluded that further research is needed to test this concept, and to examine the possibility of supplemental irrigation via off-season rainwater catchment or grey water irrigation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Effect of mobile phase composition on the retention of selected alkaloids in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with chaotropic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, J

    2007-12-21

    Sodium hexafluorophosphate, perchlorate and trifluoroacetate were applied as ion-ion interaction reagents in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The separation of chosen alkaloids was performed by changing the kind of the organic modifier (methanol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran), concentration of the ion-ion-interaction reagents and the concentration of phosphate buffer at constant pH (2.7) in the mobile phase. Obtained results were analyzed in connection to a dynamic ion-exchange model of retention and ion-ion interaction effects. The perturbation method was applied to test proposed retention theories. The formation of ion-complexes controlling the retention in chaotropic systems was confirmed. On the basis of the relationships of capacity factors (k) versus salt concentrations derived experimentally, absolute increases in capacity factors, the desolvation parameters and the limiting retention factors were calculated and compared for all the investigated compounds in eluent systems studied. The selectivity of the proposed mobile phases was compared on the basis of the separation of alkaloid mixture.

  16. Assessment of the possibility of applying selected pedotransfer functions for indicating the retention of forest soils in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Hewelke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape retention influences the water balance of a catchment and the course of flooding events. The degree of retention capabilities of forest soils are much less known than the retention of land used for agriculture. Soil retention capacity influences the formation of a given forest habitat type, floristic species composition, as well as the type and quality of the stand of trees. The analysis was carried out for a regression model dedicated to selected forest soils within the area of Poland, as well as van Genuchten’s and Wösten’s, and Varallyay’s and Mironienko’s models. In order to assess the fit of the models, an independent series of forest soils were used. The models prepared for soils used for agricultural purposes do not result in statistically acceptable fit when it comes to the analyzed forest soils. The analysis of measured and calculated values of total available water indicate good fit of the regression model developed for the analyzed group of podzolic and brown forest soils.

  17. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupec Michal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980. The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991. For the determination of the soil water retention curve parameters, two pedotransfer functions (PTF were also used that were derived for this area by Skalová (2003 and the Rosetta computer program (Schaap et al., 2001. The performance of the PTFs was characterized using the mean difference and root mean square error.

  18. Improved nutrient digestibility and retention partially explains feed efficiency gains in pigs selected for low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Patience, J F; Lonergan, S M; J M Dekkers, C; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a unique measure of feed efficiency (FE) and an alternative to traditional measures. The RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake of a pig and its expected feed intake based on a given amount of growth and backfat. Therefore, selecting pigs with a low RFI (LRFI) results in a more feed-efficient animal for a given rate of growth. Our objective was to determine the extent to which apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy use and retention may explain FE differences between pigs divergently selected for LRFI or high RFI (HRFI). After 7 generations of selection, 12 HRFI and 12 LRFI pigs (62 ± 3 kg BW) were randomly assigned to metabolism crates. Pigs had free access to a standard diet based on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal containing 0.4% TiO(2), an exogenous digestibility marker. After a 7-d acclimation, total urine and feces were collected for 72 h. Nutrient and energy digestibility, P digestibility, and N balance were then measured and calculated to determine differences between the RFI lines. As expected, ADFI was lower (2.0 vs. 2.6 kg; P energy and nutrient digestibility, use, and retention may partially explain the superior FE seen in pigs selected for LRFI.

  19. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The authors used a reverse combinatorial auction to examine the effects of offering a “ menu ” of retention incentives. The following explanation of...the menu ), and the eight different combinations of non- traditional incentives (including “none” as an option), there are 64 unique packages that could...SWOCP model that is similar to a cafeteria auction, where officers would be guaranteed homeport, platform type, and job type but required to accept a

  20. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...... concentrations of Non-Western ethnic minorities followed by ethnic attraction. White flight has a smaller impact and ethnic retention is without importance....

  1. Nanofluids and chemical highly retentive hydrogels for controlled and selective removal of overpaintings and undesired graffiti from street art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-06-01

    One of the main problems connected to the conservation of street art is the selective removal of overlying undesired graffiti, i.e., drawings and tags. Unfortunately, selective and controlled removal of graffiti and overpaintings from street art is almost unachievable using traditional methodologies. Recently, the use of nanofluids confined in highly retentive pHEMA/PVP semi-interpenetrated polymer networks was proposed. Here, we report on the selective removal of acrylic overpaintings from a layer of acrylic paint on mortar mockups in laboratory tests. The results of the cleaning tests were characterized by visual and photographic observation, optical microscopy, and FT-IR microreflectance investigation. It was shown that this methodology represents a major advancement with respect to the use of nonconfined neat solvents.

  2. Tumour tissue selectivity in the uptake and retention of SN 28049, a new topoisomerase II-directed anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukka, Pradeep B; Chen, Ying Yi; Finlay, Graeme J; Joseph, Wayne R; Richardson, Emma; Paxton, James W; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-11-01

    A variety of anticancer drugs, including doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, have structures in which a DNA-intercalating chromophore is linked to a positively charged side chain. These drugs generally inhibit tumour growth and survival by poisoning the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II. SN 28049, a benzonaphthyridine derivative with these properties, has curative activity against the Colon 38 tumour in mice. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated tumour-selective retention with approximately 20-fold higher area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. We have investigated here whether such retention is tumour specific. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics were assessed in the murine Lewis lung (LL3) tumour in C57 BL/6 mice and in xenografts of the NZM4, NZM10 and NZM52 human melanoma lines in Balb/c Rag-1 immunodeficient mice. The in vitro cellular localisation of SN 28049 in murine and human cell lines was studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy. A 260-fold variation, from 8.9 μM h (NZM4) to 2,334 μM h (Colon 38), was found among the different tumours. Only small variations were observed in the corresponding plasma AUC (2.9-5 μM h). Moreover, in vivo activity, as measured by tumour growth delay, varied from 1 day (NZM4) to curative (Colon 38), consistent with the tumour pharmacokinetic data. In cultured cell lines, SN 28049 was found in cytoplasmic bodies, suggesting that drug sequestration could contribute to tumour pharmacokinetics. SN 28049 shows dramatic differences in both tumour AUC and antitumour activity against different tumours. These differences point to the presence of a tumour-specific uptake and retention mechanism.

  3. Limits of Bioparticle Detection in NanoLaser Microfluidic Chips and Application to Cancer Detection in Single Cells and Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Gourley, Brett A.

    2010-03-01

    BioChips comprising light-emitting semiconductors can be configured as microfluidic laser cavities used for ultrafast analysis of bioparticles such as whole cells, organelles, virons, and macromolecules (protein,DNA,RNA). Three regimes of operation include: 1.Geometrical limit (particle radius a>>λ the laser wavelength), laser exhibits multimode spectra useful to study particle morphology, shape, and composition. 2. Mie regime (a λ) laser exhibits nano-squeezed light with single mode operation to study particle size and composition. 3.Rayleigh limit (acancer in single cells. These high-speed, nanophotonic tools may play an important role in advancing early detection of cancer and offer improvements over conventional tumor pathology that relies on labor-intensive microscopic examination and/or older cell-staining methods that can be time-consuming and may give false readings.

  4. The Role of Enrollment Choice in Online Education: Course Selection Rationale and Course Difficulty as Factors Affecting Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Claire; Wladis, Katherine; Hachey, Alyse C.

    2014-01-01

    There is well-documented evidence that online retention rates are lower than face-to-face retention rates. However, most past research on online retention focuses on student characteristics, with little knowledge existing on the impact of course type. This study uses a matched sample of 2,330 students at a large urban community college to analyze…

  5. Selective extraction of carotenoids from microalga Dunadiella salina with retention of viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.A.; Lamarliere, de C.; Rocha, J.M.S.; Vermuë, M.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous production and selective extraction of -carotene from living cells of Dunaliella salina in a two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases has been investigated. Solvents with values of log Poctanol, which denotes hydrophobicity of a compound, ranging from 3 to 9 were used as organic

  6. Comparison of ridge regression, partial least-squares, pairwise correlation, forward- and best subset selection methods for prediction of retention indices for aliphatic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Héberger, Károly

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) study based on multiple linear regression (MLR) was performed for the description and prediction of Kováts retention indices (RI) of alcohol compounds. Alcohols were of saturated, linear or branched types and contained a hydroxyl group on the primary, secondary or tertiary carbon atoms. Constitutive and weighted holistic invariant molecular (WHIM) descriptors were used to represent the structure of alcohols in the MLR models. Before the model building, five variable selection methods were applied to select the most relevant variables from a large set of descriptors, respectively. The selected molecular properties were included into the MLR models. The efficiency of the variable selection methods was also compared. The selection methods were as follows: ridge regression (RR), partial least-squares method (PLS), pair-correlation method (PCM), forward selection (FS) and best subset selection (BSS). The stability and the validity of the MLR models were tested by a cross-validation technique using a leave-n-out technique. Neither RR nor PLS selected variables were able to describe the Kováts retention index properly, and PCM gave reliable results in the description but not for prediction. We built models with good predicting ability using FS and BSS as a selection method. The most relevant variables in the description and prediction of RIs were the mean electrotopological state index, the molecular mass, and WHIM indices characterizing size and shape.

  7. Selective cathodic microbial biofilm retention allows a high current-to-sulfide efficiency in sulfate-reducing microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Guillermo; Lu, Yang; Pongy, Sebastien; Keller, Jürg; Ledezma, Pablo; Freguia, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Selective microbial retention is of paramount importance for the long-term performance of cathodic sulfate reduction in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the slow growth rate of autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this work, we investigate the biofilm retention and current-to-sulfide conversion efficiency using carbon granules (CG) or multi-wall carbon nanotubes deposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (MWCNT-RVC) as electrode materials. For ~2months, the MECs were operated at sulfate loading rates of 21 to 309gSO4 -S/m2/d. Although MWCNT-RVC achieved a current density of 57±11A/m2, greater than the 32±9A/m2 observed using CG, both materials exhibited similar sulfate reduction rates (SRR), with MWCNT-RVC reaching 104±16gSO4 -S/m2/d while 110±13gSO4 -S/m2/d were achieved with CG. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA at the end of experimentation revealed a core community dominated by Desulfovibrio (28%), Methanobacterium (19%) and Desulfomicrobium (14%), on the MWCNT-RVC electrodes. While a similar Desulfovibrio relative abundance of 29% was found in CG-biofilms, Desulfomicrobium was found to be significantly less abundant (4%) and Methanobacterium practically absent (0.2%) on CG electrodes. Surprisingly, our results show that CG can achieve higher current-to-sulfide efficiencies at lower power consumption than the nano-modified three-dimensional MWCNT-RVC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergence, Retention and Selection: A Trilogy of Origination for Functional De Novo Proteins from Ancestral LncRNAs in Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While some human-specific protein-coding genes have been proposed to originate from ancestral lncRNAs, the transition process remains poorly understood. Here we identified 64 hominoid-specific de novo genes and report a mechanism for the origination of functional de novo proteins from ancestral lncRNAs with precise splicing structures and specific tissue expression profiles. Whole-genome sequencing of dozens of rhesus macaque animals revealed that these lncRNAs are generally not more selectively constrained than other lncRNA loci. The existence of these newly-originated de novo proteins is also not beyond anticipation under neutral expectation, as they generally have longer theoretical lifespan than their current age, due to their GC-rich sequence property enabling stable ORFs with lower chance of non-sense mutations. Interestingly, although the emergence and retention of these de novo genes are likely driven by neutral forces, population genetics study in 67 human individuals and 82 macaque animals revealed signatures of purifying selection on these genes specifically in human population, indicating a proportion of these newly-originated proteins are already functional in human. We thus propose a mechanism for creation of functional de novo proteins from ancestral lncRNAs during the primate evolution, which may contribute to human-specific genetic novelties by taking advantage of existed genomic contexts.

  9. Water retention of selected microorganisms and Martian soil simulants under close to Martian environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Flemming, H.-C.; Szewzyk, U.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the latest knowledge about microorganisms resistant towards extreme conditions on Earth and results of new complex models on the development of the Martian atmosphere we quantitatively examined the water-bearing properties of selected extremophiles and simulated Martian regolith components and their interaction with water vapor under close to Martian environmental conditions. Three different species of microorganisms have been chosen and prepared for our study: Deinococcus geothermalis, Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406, and Xanthoria elegans. Further, two mineral mixtures representing the early and the late Martian surface as well as montmorillonite as a single component of phyllosilicatic minerals, typical for the Noachian period on Mars, were selected. The thermal mass loss of the minerals and bacteria-samples was measured by thermoanalysis. The hydration and dehydration properties were determined under close to Martian environmental conditions by sorption isotherm measurements using a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance. It was possible to determine the total water content of the materials as well as the reversibly bound water fraction as function of the atmospheres humidity by means of these methods. Our results are important for the evaluation of future space mission outcomes including astrobiological aspects and can support the modeling of the atmosphere/surface interaction by showing the influence on the water inventory of the upper most layer of the Martian surface.

  10. An Investigation on Teacher Retention and Teachers' Perceptions of Cultural Leadership in Selected North Carolina Year Round and Traditional Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Ve-Lecia Selene

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher retention and teachers' perceptions of cultural leadership in select North Carolina elementary year round and traditional elementary schools. The participants in this study were North Carolina elementary teachers that participated in the 2008 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey…

  11. Exploring the Influence of Select Demographic, Academic, and Athletic Variables on the Retention of Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Wessel, Roger D.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The population of 674 first-year student-athletes culled from 5 successive freshman classes (2004-2008) at a mid-size midwestern university was examined to determine what combination of demographic, academic, and athletic variables best predicted retention into the 2nd academic year. The dependent variable of retention was chosen because it is a…

  12. Retention of alkali ions by hydrated low-pH cements: Mechanism and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, T.T.H.; Chabas, E. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Pochard, I., E-mail: isabelle.pochard@u-bourgogne.fr [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France); Cau Dit Coumes, C. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Haas, J. [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France); Frizon, F. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Nonat, A. [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2013-09-15

    Low-pH cements, also referred to as low-alkalinity cements, can be designed by replacing significant amounts of Portland cement by pozzolanic materials. Their pore solution is characterized by a pH near 11, and an alkali concentration much lower than that of Portland cement. This work investigates the retention of sodium and potassium by a hydrated low-pH cement comprising 60% Portland cement and 40% silica fume. It is shown that sorption of potassium is higher than that of sodium and mainly results from counterion charge balancing of the C-S-H negative surface charge. To explain the greater retention of potassium compared to sodium, it is postulated that potassium, unlike sodium, may enter the interlayer of C-S-H to compensate the negative charges in the interlayer, in addition to the external surfaces. This assumption is supported by structural characterization of C-S-H using X-ray diffraction.

  13. One-step coating of silica capillaries for selective protein retention by Cu(II)-IDA IMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyou, Zeina; Lobinski, Ryszard; Hagège, Agnès

    2011-12-15

    A simple protocol to obtain Cu(II)-IDA (iminodiacetic acid)-modified capillaries was developed for immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). It consisted in the synthesis of IDA-silane used for a one-step coating of fused silica capillaries. The approach prevented the hydrolysis of silica potentially induced by two step coatings (γ-GPTMS, then IDA) employed in the conventional method of bonding iminodiacetic acid. The IDA content was quantified using a model relating the electroosmotic flow generated in IDA-modified capillaries to the charges induced by IDA species. The retention behavior of holotransferrin and bovine serum albumin on these IMAC columns was then investigated. Holotransferrin revealed a high affinity for Cu(II)-supports through a specific interaction with Cu(II) ions whereas albumin did not show any retention. The use of such columns for sample pretreatment before an HPLC analysis was proved to be successful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Shuffling cross-validation-bee algorithm as a new descriptor selection method for retention studies of pesticides in biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Kobra; Atabati, Morteza; Ahmadi, Monire

    2017-05-04

    Bee algorithm (BA) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the natural foraging behaviour of honey bees to find the optimal solution which can be proposed to feature selection. In this paper, shuffling cross-validation-BA (CV-BA) was applied to select the best descriptors that could describe the retention factor (log k) in the biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) of 79 heterogeneous pesticides. Six descriptors were obtained using BA and then the selected descriptors were applied for model development using multiple linear regression (MLR). The descriptor selection was also performed using stepwise, genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods and MLR was applied to model development and then the results were compared with those obtained from shuffling CV-BA. The results showed that shuffling CV-BA can be applied as a powerful descriptor selection method. Support vector machine (SVM) was also applied for model development using six selected descriptors by BA. The obtained statistical results using SVM were better than those obtained using MLR, as the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) for whole data set (training and test), using shuffling CV-BA-MLR, were obtained as 0.1863 and 0.9426, respectively, while these amounts for the shuffling CV-BA-SVM method were obtained as 0.0704 and 0.9922, respectively.

  15. Grade Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia A. Renaud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic accountability is of great concern, therefore grade retention is being considered for both students with and without disabilities who are not meeting end-of-the-year achievement benchmarks. The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward grade retention and whether practices differ when recommending retention of students with or without disabilities. This mixed-methods study utilized a paper-and-pencil questionnaire using a Likert-type scale, as well as two open-ended questions and a checklist. Teacher interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicate that teachers are considering a multitude of factors when considering grade retention for their struggling students. Academic performance was the factor that teachers (77% indicated the most frequently. Although teachers felt pressure and accountability from high stakes testing, they felt test results should be one of many factors considered in the retention decision.

  16. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    , chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages......The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial...

  17. Utilization, retention and bio-efficacy studies of PermaNet® in selected villages in Buie and Fentalie districts of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkew Meshesha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets are one of the major tools available for the prevention and control of malaria transmission. PermaNet® is a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN recommended by WHO for malaria control. Objective The objective of the study was to assess utilization and retention of PermaNet® nets distributed for malaria control in Buie and Fentalie districts and monitor the bio-efficacy of the nets using the WHO cone bioassay test procedures. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out by interviewing household heads or their representative in Buie and Fentalie districts. The two districts were selected based on a priori knowledge of variations on ethnic background and housing construction. Clusters of houses were chosen within each of the study villages for selection of households. 20 households that had received one or more PermaNet® nets were chosen randomly from the clusters in each village. A total of eight used PermaNet® nets were collected for the bio-efficacy test. The bio-efficacy of PermaNet® nets was monitored according to the standard WHO procedures using a susceptible colony of Anopheles arabiensis to deltamethrin. Results A total of 119 household heads were interviewed during the study. The retention rate of nets that were distributed in 2005 and 2006 season was 72%. A total of 62.2% of the interviewees claimed children under five years of age slept under LLIN, while only 50.7% of the nets were observed to be hanged inside houses when used as a proxy indicator of usage of LLIN. For the bio-efficacy test the mean knock-down was 94% and 100%, while the mean mortality rate observed after 24 hr holding period was 72.2% and 67% for Buie and Fentalie districts respectively. Conclusion The study revealed a moderately high retention of PermaNet® in the study villages and effectiveness of the nets when tested according to the

  18. The role of personality and self-efficacy in the selection and retention of successful nursing students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Moutray, Marianne; Muldoon, Orla T

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the role of personality and self-efficacy in predicting academic performance and attrition in nursing students. Despite a considerable amount of research investigating attrition in nursing students and new nurses, concerns remain. This particular issue highlights the need for a more effective selection process whereby those selected are more likely to complete their preregistration programme successfully, and remain employed as Registered Nurses. A longitudinal design was adopted. A questionnaire, which included measures of personality and occupational and academic self-efficacy, was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the study. At the end of the programme, final marks and attrition rates were obtained from university records for a total of 350 students. The data were collected from 1999 to 2002. Individuals who scored higher on a psychoticism scale were more likely to withdraw from the programme. Occupational self-efficacy was revealed to be a statistically significant predictor of final mark obtained, in that those with higher self-efficacy beliefs were more likely to achieve better final marks. Extraversion was also shown to negatively predict academic performance in that those with higher extraversion scores were more likely to achieve lower marks. More research is needed to explore the attributes of successful nursing students and the potential contribution of psychological profiling to a more effective selection process.

  19. A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method to measure a selected panel of uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loor, Henriette de; Poesen, Ruben [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Leger, Wout; Dehaen, Wim [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Division of Molecular Design and Synthesis, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Augustijns, Patrick [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Drug Delivery and Disposition, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Evenepoel, Pieter [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Meijers, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.meijers@uzleuven.be [KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Nephrology, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-09-14

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease, which is, at least partly, mediated by the accumulation of so-called uremic retention solutes. Although there has been an increasing interest in the behavior of these solutes, derived from both the endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism, methods to simultaneously and accurately measure a broad panel of relevant uremic retention solutes remain scarce. We developed a highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. A high throughput sample preparation was used with extraction of analytes from 50 μl serum using Ostro plate technology. For most solutes, stable isotopes labelled metabolites were used as internal standards. Chromatography was achieved using an Acquity UPLC CSH Fluoro Phenyl column. The total run time was 8 min, the mobile phase was a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water and pure methanol at a flow rate of 0.5 ml min{sup −1}. Detection was performed using a tandem mass spectrometer with alternated positive and negative electrospray ionization. Calibration curves were linear for all solutes. Precision was assessed according to the NCCLS EP5-T guideline, being below 15% for all metabolites. Mean recoveries were between 83 and 104% for all metabolites. The validated method was successfully applied in a cohort of 488 patients with CKD. We developed and validated a sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of 15 uremic retention solutes derived from endogenous and colonic microbial metabolism. This method allows for studying the behavior and relevance of these solutes in patients with CKD. - Highlights: • Simultaneous quantification of fifteen relevant uremic retention solutes. • Comprehensive validation, highly sensitive and high through-put LC-MSMS method. • Comparison of different blood tubes. • Freeze-thaw stability. • Successful implementation in a

  20. Gas chromatographic retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-substituted PAHs on two stationary phases of different selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Federica; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Retention indices (I) for 45 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 63 methyl-substituted PAHs were determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using two different stationary phases: a Rxi-PAH phase (a "higher phenyl-content stationary phase") and a 50% (mole fraction) liquid crystalline dimethylpolysiloxane phase. Retention data were obtained for parent PAHs from molecular mass (MM) 128 g/mol (naphthalene) to 328 g/mol (benzo[c]picene) and for 12 sets of methyl-PAHs (methylfluorenes, methylanthracenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylfluoranthenes, methylpyrenes, methylbenz[a]anthracenes, methylbenzo[c]phenanthrenes, methylchrysenes, methyltriphenylenes, methylbenzo[a]pyrenes, methylperylenes, and methylpicenes). Molecular shape descriptors such as length-to-breath ratio (L/B) and thickness (T) were determined for all the PAHs studied. Correlation between I and L/B ratio was evaluated for both stationary phases with a better correlation observed for the 50% liquid crystalline phase (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.22 to 1.00). Graphical Abstract GC separation of six methylchrysene isomers (m/z 242) on two different stationary phases: 50 % phenyl-like methylpolysiloxane phase and 50 % liquid crystalline phase. Retention indices (I) are plotted as a function of L/B for both phases. The data marker numbers identify each isomer based on methyl-substitution position.

  1. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received…

  2. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  3. Characterization of sulfur compounds in whisky by full evaporation dynamic headspace and selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous element-specific detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; MacNamara, Kevin

    2012-12-28

    A method is described for characterization of sulfur compounds in unaged and aged whisky. The method is based on full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) of 100 μL of whisky samples followed by selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) retention-time-locked (RTL) gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) with simultaneous element-specific detection using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) and a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). Sequential heart-cuts of the 16 sulfur fractions were used to identify each individual sulfur compound in the unaged whisky. Twenty sulfur compounds were positively identified by a MS library search, linear retention indices (LRI), and formula identification using MS calibration software. Additionally eight formulas were also identified for unknown sulfur compounds. Simultaneous heart-cuts of the 16 sulfur fractions were used to produce the (2)D RTL GC-SCD chromatograms for principal component analysis. PCA of the (2)D RTL GC-SCD data clearly demonstrated the difference between unaged and aged whisky, as well as two different whisky samples. Fourteen sulfur compounds could be characterized as key sulfur compounds responsible for the changes in the aging step and/or the difference between two kinds of whisky samples. The determined values of the key sulfur compounds were in the range of 0.3-210 ng mL(-1) (RSD: 0.37-12%, n=3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between visual working memory and attention: retention of precise colour information in the absence of effects on perceptual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Hwang, Seongmin

    2013-10-19

    We examined the conditions under which a feature value in visual working memory (VWM) recruits visual attention to matching stimuli. Previous work has suggested that VWM supports two qualitatively different states of representation: an active state that interacts with perceptual selection and a passive (or accessory) state that does not. An alternative hypothesis is that VWM supports a single form of representation, with the precision of feature memory controlling whether or not the representation interacts with perceptual selection. The results of three experiments supported the dual-state hypothesis. We established conditions under which participants retained a relatively precise representation of a parcticular colour. If the colour was immediately task relevant, it reliably recruited attention to matching stimuli. However, if the colour was not immediately task relevant, it failed to interact with perceptual selection. Feature maintenance in VWM is not necessarily equivalent with feature-based attentional selection.

  5. 'All that glisters is not gold': the appreciation of religious textiles in the Netherlands and the formulation of selection criteria for retention or disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtigheid, R.; Bridgland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of Catholic Church property in The Netherlands consists of textiles. Selection within liturgical textile collections is a necessity due to the larming rate at which churches are closing and the sheer numbers of objects within these edifices. It is unrealistic to assume that

  6. Responsibilities and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Littlewood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of orthodontic relapse has improved, there is an increasing move toward long-term retention. Safely reducing relapse using appropriate long-term retention imposes considerable responsibilities on the orthodontist, the patient, and the patient's general dentist. This article will describe these responsibilities.

  7. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.

  8. Selective Inhibition of ADAM17 Efficiently Mediates Glycoprotein Ibα Retention During Ex Vivo Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shinji; Murata, Takahiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakamura, Sou; Jono-Ohnishi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hidenori; Sawaguchi, Akira; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Naoshi; Eto, Koji

    2016-10-05

    : Donor-independent platelet concentrates for transfusion can be produced in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, culture at 37°C induces ectodomain shedding on platelets of glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), the von Willebrand factor receptor critical for adhesive function and platelet lifetime in vivo, through temperature-dependent activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). The shedding can be suppressed by using inhibitors of panmetalloproteinases and possibly of the upstream regulator p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), but residues of these inhibitors in the final platelet products may be accompanied by harmful risks that prevent clinical application. Here, we optimized the culture conditions for generating human iPSC-derived GPIbα(+) platelets, focusing on culture temperature and additives, by comparing a new and safe selective ADAM17 inhibitor, KP-457, with previous inhibitors. Because cultivation at 24°C (at which conventional platelet concentrates are stored) markedly diminished the yield of platelets with high expression of platelet receptors, 37°C was requisite for normal platelet production from iPSCs. KP-457 blocked GPIbα shedding from iPSC platelets at a lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration than panmetalloproteinase inhibitor GM-6001, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors did not. iPSC platelets generated in the presence of KP-457 exhibited improved GPIbα-dependent aggregation not inferior to human fresh platelets. A thrombus formation model using immunodeficient mice after platelet transfusion revealed that iPSC platelets generated with KP-457 exerted better hemostatic function in vivo. Our findings suggest that KP-457, unlike GM-6001 or p38 MAPK inhibitors, effectively enhances the production of functional human iPSC-derived platelets at 37°C, which is an important step toward their clinical application. This study is a tip for overcoming a practical but critical barrier for manufacturing human

  9. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  10. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  11. Urinary retention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Amihay; Mano, Roy; Livne, Pinhas M; Sivan, Bezalel; Ben-Meir, David

    2014-12-01

    To describe the causes and outcome of urinary retention in children and assess its prevalence by gender and age. The medical records of all children (aged <18 years) who presented to the emergency room with acute urinary retention from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients with postoperative urinary retention, a known neurologic disorder, and neonates were excluded. Data were collected on patient demographics and cause, treatment, and outcome of the urinary retention. Findings were evaluated and compared by age and gender. The study group comprised 42 boys (75%) and 14 girls (25%). Median follow-up time was 25 months. Causes of urinary retention were mechanical obstruction in 14 patients (25%), infection or inflammation in 10 (18%), fecal impaction in 7 (13%), neurologic disorders in 6 (11%), gynecologic disorders in 4 (7%), and behavioral processes in 3 patients (5%); 12 patients (21%) were idiopathic. All patients with mechanical obstruction were boys, of whom 5 had a pelvic tumor. Age distribution was bimodal: 29% of the events occurred between ages 3 and 5 years, and 32%, between ages 10 and 13 years. Fifteen children underwent surgery. Three children required continuous catheterization during follow-up. Urinary retention in children is characterized by a variable etiology and bimodal age distribution. The high rate of severe underlying disease is noteworthy and should alert physicians to the importance of a prompt, comprehensive, primary evaluation of this patient population in a hospital setting to initiate appropriate treatment and avoid complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing a Better Navy Aviation Retention Bonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    human worth, community.  Military bearing/character—Appearance, conduct, physical fitness , adherence to Navy Core Values.  Teamwork—Contributions...Federal Aviation Administration FITREP fitness report FOS failure of selection FRG Fleet Replenishment Group FRS Fleet Replenishment Squadron IFS...retention bonus while fitting within the current promotion and advancement system. C. STUDY ORGANIZATION The study is separated into six chapters that

  13. Meningitis retention syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of meningitis preceded by a 3 day history of flu-like symptoms and progressive difficulty with urination. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis. She was found to have a significant urinary retention secondary to atonic bladder. MRI of the brain and spine were normal and CSF-PCR (polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-2. Urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS. MRS is a rare but important complication of meningitis most commonly associated with HSV-2. Involvement of central pathways may have a role in the pathogenesis of MRS but this is poorly documented. MRS is different from Elsberg syndrome wherein patients display features of lumbosacral polyradiculitis or radiculomyelitis. Early treatment with antiviral therapy was associated with a favorable outcome in our patient.

  14. Improving College Freshman Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  15. Employment Retention Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, E; Stafford, B.

    2007-01-01

    This Report investigates the potential for a statutory model of employment retention leave. A Private Members Bill (HC Bill 2006-07) [79] currently in progress through Parliament would, if enacted, offer disabled employees the right to paid leave for employment assessment, rehabilitation or re-training.

  16. Tritium retention in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  17. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  18. Designing a customer retention plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, G

    1992-01-01

    What is your company's customer retention rate? How many customers are price defectors? Have you identified barriers that prevent customers from switching to a competitor? In this article, the author outlines a game plan to increase customer retention.

  19. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  20. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  1. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach.

  2. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  3. Magnetomicrofluidics Circuits for Organizing Bioparticle Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh

    Single-cell analysis (SCA) tools have important applications in the analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity, which is difficult or impossible to analyze in bulk cell culture or patient samples. SCA tools thus have a myriad of applications ranging from better credentialing of drug therapies to the analysis of rare latent cells harboring HIV infection or in Cancer. However, existing SCA systems usually lack the required combination of programmability, flexibility, and scalability necessary to enable the study of cell behaviors and cell-cell interactions at the scales sufficient to analyze extremely rare events. To advance the field, I have developed a novel, programmable, and massively-parallel SCA tool which is based on the principles of computer circuits. By integrating these magnetic circuits with microfluidics channels, I developed a platform that can organize a large number of single particles into an array in a controlled manner. My magnetophoretic circuits use passive elements constructed in patterned magnetic thin films to move cells along programmed tracks with an external rotating magnetic field. Cell motion along these tracks is analogous to the motion of charges in an electrical conductor, following a rule similar to Ohm's law. I have also developed asymmetric conductors, similar to electrical diodes, and storage sites for cells that behave similarly to electrical capacitors. I have also developed magnetophoretic circuits which use an overlaid pattern of microwires to switch single cells between different tracks. This switching mechanism, analogous to the operation of electronic transistors, is achieved by establishing a semiconducting gap in the magnetic pattern which can be changed from an insulating state to a conducting state by application of electrical current to an overlaid electrode. I performed an extensive study on the operation of transistors to optimize their geometry and minimize the required gate currents. By combining these elements into integrated circuits, I have built devices which are capable of organizing a precise number of cells into individually addressable array sites, similar to how a random access memory (RAM) stores electronic data. My programmable magnetic circuits allow for the organization of both cells and single-cell pairs into large arrays. Single cells can also potentially be retrieved for downstream high-throughput genomic analysis. In order to enhance the efficiency of the tool and to increase the delivery speed of the particles, I have also developed microfluidics systems that are combined with the magnetophoretic circuits. This hybrid system, called magnetomicrofluidics, is capable of rapidly organizing an array of particles and cells with the high precision and control. I have also shown that cells can be grown inside these chips for multiple days, enabling the long-term phenotypic analysis of rare cellular events. These types of studies can reveal important insights about the intercellular signaling networks and answer crucial questions in biology and immunology.

  4. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  5. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  6. Analysis of heavy soils water retention curves with respect to volume changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, B.; Tall, A.; Gomboš, M.; Pavelková, D.

    2017-10-01

    This work analyses the problem of measuring water retention curves in heavy soils. The results present the differences between soil water retention curves measured in soil samples collected from the selected localities of the Czech and Slovak area. In the drying process, the results showed an increased rate of soil shrinkage depending on clay content and water content. The rate of shrinkage affected the results of the water retention curves points measurement.

  7. Increasing Army Retention Through Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beerman, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    .... This study examines current retention issues and the Army Incentive Model. The model appears to offer a range of benefits that may retain a segment of what demographers have labeled as the Millennium Generation...

  8. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  9. Air Force Pilot Retention-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Politica l Science from Texas A&M University in 1973. He earned his commission S’- ,t the same time. This project will fulfill partial r(,quir(,m,nts...12 years of Air Force pilot retention rates , (2:12: 5:2). 0>. _ , FISCAL YEAR PILOT RETENTION RATES 1976 50.6% 1977 47.9% 1978 39.6% 1979 26.0% 1980

  10. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  11. Antecedent growth conditions alter retention of environmental Escherichia coli isolates in transiently wetted porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, H.-H.; Morrow, J. B.; Grasso, D.

    2008-01-01

    retentive capacity, may present one such approach. Eight environmental E coli isolates were selected to conduct operational retention tests (ORT) with potential biobarrier materials Pyrax or dolomite, or silica glass as control. The conditions in the ORT were chosen to simulate conditioning by manure...

  12. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  13. Effect of Multimedia on Primary School Pupils Retention and Interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of multimedia on male and female pupil‟s retention and interest in basic science. Forty-four (44), primary five (5) pupils were randomly selected from two (2) private primary schools in Port Harcourt. The study employed quasi-experimental and control design. The instrument for data collection ...

  14. Designing Retention Research for Assessment and Enhanced Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal study of entering freshmen at a selective, private college in northeastern USA, this article provides a model for designing retention studies for assessment. Results from discriminant analysis revealed average high school grade, admission rating, and first semester average college grade as significant predictors of…

  15. Cadmium and lead retention in fresh and rotten red meat

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Mariangela V.; Korn,Mauro; Pereira,Madson de Godoi; Santana,Eliziane Pedra de; Oliveira,Fabio Santos de; Korn,Maria das Graças A.

    2007-01-01

    The metal sorption capacity in fresh and rotten red meat was evaluated for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions at pH 6 and the process involved in the studied metal retention was discussed. For the experimental set, an eight channels multi-port selection valve was employed to mechanise the sample preparation. The cadmium and lead concentrations were determined by ICP-OES. A high retention (> 80%, m/m) of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions, in fresh and rotten bovine muscle was found, indicating the potential contamination ri...

  16. Program directors' perceptions of undergraduate athletic training student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M; Wathington, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    The average retention rate for students enrolled in undergraduate athletic training programs (ATPs) nationwide has been reported to be 81%, and slightly more than half of program directors (PDs) have indicated that retention of athletic training students (ATSs) is a problem. However, why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic is unknown. To determine why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic. Qualitative study. Undergraduate ATPs. We obtained responses from 177 of the 343 PDs (51.6%). Using data saturation as a guide, we randomly selected 16 PDs from the survey responses to participate in follow-up telephone interviews; 8 believed retention was a problem and 8 did not. During audio-recorded telephone interviews, we asked PDs why they thought retention was or was not a problem for athletic training education. Following verbatim transcription, we used grounded theory to analyze the interview data and maintained trustworthiness by using intercoder agreement, member checks, and peer review. Program directors believed that retaining ATSs was a problem because students lack information regarding athletic training and the rigor of the ATP. Program directors were consistent in their perception that ATPs do not have a retention challenge because of the use of a secondary admissions process. This finding was likely based on personal use of a secondary admissions process in the ATPs these PDs lead. Program directors who lead ATPs that struggle to retain ATSs should consider using a secondary admissions process. During the preprofessional phase of the ATP, faculty and staff should work to socialize students to the demands of the ATP and the professional lives of athletic trainers.

  17. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  18. Employee voice and employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed.

  19. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  20. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  1. Potential possibilities of water retention in agricultural loess catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing water deficit and the increased demand for water, as well as economic problems and inadequate spatial planning in many regions indicate a necessity of developing more effective rules of programming and realisation of works concerning the water management in small catchments. The paper presents a sample analysis of the possibilities of increasing water retention in the agricultural loess catchments with periodic streams. The scope of the study included the determination of physical parameters of selected sub-catchments (geometry, soil cover, land use, etc. and of the sources of threat to water resources, resulting from construction and geomorphological conditions. Pre-design assumptions of dammings were developed, taking into account anti-erosion protective measures, and treatments increasing the landscape retention of water were proposed. Creating surface retention objects should be an important source of water in simplified agroecosystems, especially in regions, where productivity to a great extent depends on natural weather conditions. Proper management of the fourth-order loess basin of the Ciemięga River (area of about 150 km2, the presence of 50 lateral valleys could give a temporary reservoir retention reaching 500 thousand m3. Farmers should be encouraged to seek “own water sources” (including the accumulation of water within wasteland, using appropriate economic instruments (tax reliefs for the documented volume of retained water, e.g. in small retention reservoirs.

  2. Donor retention in health care in Iran: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababa, Sara; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long-term financial support is essential for the survival of a charitable organization. Health charities need to identify the effective factors influencing donor retention. Methods: In the present study, the items of a questionnaire were derived from both literature review and semi-structured interviews related to donor retention. Using a purposive sampling, 300 academic and executive practitioners were selected. After the follow- up, a total of 243 usable questionnaires were prepared for factor analysis. The questionnaire was validated based on the face and content validity and reliability through Cronbach's α-coefficient. Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis extracted 2 factors for retention: donor factor (variance = 33.841%; Cronbach's α-coefficient = 90.2) and charity factor (variance = 29.038%; Cronbach's α-coefficient = 82.8), respectively. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to support the overall reasonable fit. Conclusions: In this study, it was found that repeated monetary donations are supplied to the charitable organizations when both aspects of donor factor (retention factor and charity factor) for retention are taken into consideration. This model could provide a perspective for making sustainable donations and charitable giving.

  3. Population Ration, Intermarriage and Mother Tongue Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An explanatory model of the relationship between mother tongue retention, population ratio, and intermarriage is presented. In general, data collected on mother tongue retention in Singapore, a multilingual and multiethnic society, support the proposed model. (DS)

  4. A national study of the retention of Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, Louise

    2012-07-02

    Background: Retention in treatment is a key indicator of methadone treatment success. The study aims to identify factors that are associated with retention. Objectives: To determine retention in treatment at 12 months for Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment and to indicate factors that increase the likelihood of retention. Methods: National cohort study of randomly selected opiate users commencing methadone treatment in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (n = 1269). Results: Sixty-one percent of patients attending methadone treatment remained in continuous treatment for more than 1 year. Retention in treatment at 12 months was associated with age, gender, facility type, and methadone dose. Age and gender were no longer significant when adjusted for other variables in the model. Those who attended a specialist site were twice as likely to leave methadone treatment within 12 months compared with those who attended a primary care physician. The most important predictor of retention in treatment was methadone dose. Those who received <60 mg of methadone were three times more likely to leave treatment. Conclusion: Retention in methadone treatment is high in Ireland in a variety of settings. The main factors influencing retention in methadone treatment was an adequate methadone dose and access to a range of treatment settings including from primary care physicians. Scientific Significance: Providing an adequate dose of methadone during treatment will increase the likelihood of treatment retention. Methadone treatment by the primary care physician is a successful method of retaining opioid users in treatment.

  5. 27 CFR 26.276 - Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 26.276 Section 26.276 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... of Liquors From the Virgin Islands Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 26.276 Retention...

  6. 27 CFR 27.137 - Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 27.137 Section 27.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 27.137 Retention. All records required by this part...

  7. Factors affecting orthodontists' management of the retention phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibona, Kevin; Shroff, Bhavna; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    To test the null hypothesis that orthodontist characteristics and factors related to retainer choice do not influence the management of the retention phase with regard to frequency and duration of follow-up care provided. Orthodontists (n  =  1000) were randomly selected to participate in an online survey divided into three categories: background, retainer choice, and time management. Of the 1000 selected participants, 894 responded. When deciding the type of retainer to use, the following were considered most frequently: pretreatment malocclusion (91%), patient compliance (87%), patient oral hygiene (84%), and patients' desires (81%). Orthodontists who considered the presence of third molars (P  =  .03) or "special needs" patients (P  =  .02) had significantly more follow-up visits than those who did not. When vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) were prescribed, there were significantly fewer visits (P  =  .02) compared to when other types of retainers were used. As practitioner experience increased, so did the number of visits (P Orthodontists who considered the primary responsibility of retention to fall on the patient had significantly fewer follow-up visits (P orthodontist-only responsibility. The null hypothesis was rejected because the number of follow-up visits during the retention phase was affected by practitioner experience, whether VFRs were used, whether the orthodontist considered the presence of third molars or special-needs patients when choosing the type of retainer, and to whom the orthodontist attributed responsibility during the retention phase.

  8. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  9. Unlearning the Past: New Foundations for Online Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sutton, Ph.D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect students selecting a university to attend and almost as many factors that can present challenges once they enroll and begin attending classes. Once they start taking courses, the next challenge is completing them, and this can be particularly taxing for online students. In the case of online universities, quality assessment criteria of the online courses and faculty may vary. Thus, it is important not only to get feedback from students, but also to look at course completion rates. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned regarding factors that significantly increased student online course completion rates at one online for-profit university. This study looked at a researcher's search for strategic factors that considerably increase course completion rates and identified assessment strategies to improve those course completion rates. The researcher’s collaboration with researchers from another university led to findings that revealed best practices and assessments factors successfully applied in online courses. Administrative changes at the researcher’s university led to retention efforts that have positively affected student retention. One major factor observed by the researcher included analytical writing assessments and their predictive value for doctoral student retention. Results of the implementation of the changes at the researcher’s university included a 39% increase in retention of first year doctoral candidates, from a low of 39% in 2011 to 75% in 2012.

  10. Nonimposed Overpractice and Skill Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    half of acquisition. This first ratio is an inverse measure of nonimposed overpractice. The second ratio is the change from the last day of acquisition...0.04. This second ratio is an inverse measure of relative retention. It makes use of the same baseline, that is, the increase from day I to day 8, as...relatively (R-A). The first-order correlations between an externa . ability or ability-;rlated measure X and these two measures may, of course, be different

  11. Rice straw biochar affects water retention and air movement in a sand-textured tropical soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Fauziatu

    2017-01-01

    sampling times, soil water retention was significantly higher (20–150%) for the BC treatment due to increased fraction of smaller pores (Although there was no consistent effect of BC on air-filled porosity, BC significantly reduced air permeability and gas....../w) on water retention, gas transport and structure of a sand-textured tropical soil. We sampled 3 months and 15 months after BC application and measured wet- and dry-region soil water retention, air permeability and gas diffusivity at selected matric potentials. At all measured potentials and for both...

  12. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  13. Retention prediction of low molecular weight anions in ion chromatography based on quantitative structure-retention relationships applied to the linear solvent strength model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Haddad, Paul R; Talebi, Mohammad; Tyteca, Eva; Amos, Ruth I J; Szucs, Roman; Dolan, John W; Pohl, Christopher A

    2017-02-24

    Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs) represent a popular technique to predict the retention times of analytes, based on molecular descriptors encoding the chemical structures of the analytes. The linear solvent strength (LSS) model relating the retention factor, k to the eluent concentration (log k=a-blog [eluent]), is a well-known and accurate retention model in ion chromatography (IC). In this work, QSRRs for inorganic and small organic anions were used to predict the regression parameters a and b in the LSS model (and hence retention times) for these analytes under a wide range of eluent conditions, based solely on their chemical structures. This approach was performed on retention data of inorganic and small organic anions from the "Virtual Column" software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). These retention data were recalibrated via a "porting" methodology on three columns (AS20, AS19, and AS11HC), prior to the QSRR modeling. This provided retention data more applicable on recently produced columns which may exhibit changes of column behavior due to batch-to-batch variability. Molecular descriptors for the analytes were calculated with Dragon software using the geometry-optimized molecular structures, employing the AM1 semi-empirical method. An optimal subset of molecular descriptors was then selected using an evolutionary algorithm (EA). Finally, the QSRR models were generated by multiple linear regression (MLR). As a result, six QSRR models with good predictive performance were successfully derived for a- and b-values on three columns (R(2)>0.98 and RMSE0.7 and RMSEP<0.4). Moreover, it was demonstrated that the obtained QSRR models for the a- and b-values can predict the retention times for new analytes with good accuracy and predictability (R(2) of 0.98, RMSE of 0.89min, Qext(F3)(2) of 0.96 and RMSEP of 1.18min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Elekaei; Sajad Faramarzi; Mansour Koosha

    2015-01-01

    The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and...

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  16. Respiratory dust retention in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, P.E.; McNerney, J.M.; Hatch, T.

    1956-01-01

    Guinea pigs were indirectly measured for retention of 9 dusts (mean 0.1 to 3.0 ..mu..m) in various serial fractions. Total retention varies from approx. 90% for 3 ..mu..m dropping systematically with decreasing particle size to approx. 45% at 0.1 ..mu..m. Upper respiratory retention drops rapidly from approx. 70% at 3 ..mu..m to 10 to 20% at 1 ..mu..m or less. Alveolar retention drops somewhat with wide scatter from approx. 75 to approx. 50%. Alveolar deposition showed peak at approx. 1 ..mu..m. With monkeys, retention is similar to that of man although there is somewhat less deposition in 1 to 2 ..mu..m range. Retention was directly measured by killing experimental animals at different intervals after exposure to antimony trioxide dust and measuring antimony. Within 1 h after exposure, 80 to 82% was retained in entire system, 1/2 of which was in upper respiratory including bronchi. Retention after 6 h was approx. 45% in entire tract, 30% in upper tract alone, so lung retention was approx. 15% after 6 h. After 8 and up to 18 h, lung retention was about 10%, and that left in upper tract was only about 5% of original inhaled. Upper respiratory clearance was essentially completed in 2 to 6 h (subsiquent small removal from alveoli), so lung retention of 15% probably represents initial alveolar retention.Direct and indirect methods compared well. Smaller test animals have greater retention because of smaller dimensions of upper tract, especially the nose.

  17. Student selection and retention at the University of Asmara, Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonida, Tekie Asehun

    2004-01-01

    Eritrea is a new and developing country in East Africa that was declared independent in May 1993. Since independence, Eritrea has been engaged in all-out efforts to rebuild its war-shattered social and economic infrastructure. One of the vital programs in the campaign for national rehabilitation has

  18. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available as is typically the case when skull geometries are considered. These differences in topology can arise from the geometry itself, such as a missing tooth or bullet wound in one skull with no equivalent trauma on the other, or as a result of post-processing when..., location of a crack or hole due to decay, a broken zygomatic arch, wound caused by some kind of trauma and even angle of the cut made during an autopsy unless it is the reason for the comparison. Aimed at only matching features relevant to a study also...

  19. Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David B

    2009-01-01

    To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step.

  20. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  1. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  2. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...

  3. Towards a chromatographic similarity index to establish localized quantitative structure-retention models for retention prediction: Use of retention factor ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyteca, Eva; Talebi, Mohammad; Amos, Ruth; Park, Soo Hyun; Taraji, Maryam; Wen, Yabin; Szucs, Roman; Pohl, Christopher A; Dolan, John W; Haddad, Paul R

    2017-02-24

    Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) have the potential to speed up the screening phase of chromatographic method development as the initial exploratory experiments are replaced by prediction of analyte retention based solely on the structure of the molecule. The present study offers further proof-of-concept of localized QSRR modelling, in which the retention of any given compound is predicted using only the most chromatographically similar compounds in the available dataset. To this end, each compound in the dataset was sequentially removed from the database and individually utilized as a test analyte. In this study, we propose the retention factor k as the most relevant chromatographic similarity measure and compare it with the Tanimoto index, the most popular similarity measure based on chemical structure. Prediction error was reduced by up to 8 fold when QSRR was based only on chromatographically similar compounds rather than using the entire dataset. The study therefore shows that the design of a practically useful structural similarity index should select the same compounds in the dataset as does the k-similarity filter in order to establish accurate predictive localized QSRR models. While low average prediction errors (Mean Absolute Error (MAE)1min) and significant deviations from the reference slope of 1.0. The Tanomoto similarity index therefore appears to have limited general utility in QSRR studies. Future studies therefore aim at designing a more appropriate chromatographic similarity index that can then be applied for unknown compounds (that is, compounds which have not been tested previously on the chromatographic system used, but for which the chemical structures are known). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing Successful Retention Programs: An Interview with Michael Hovland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; Hovland, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Michael Hovland, the senior consultant at Noel-Levitz Centers, responds to questions about summer bridge programs, first-year seminar programs, Rutgers' retention model, faculty reactions to retention programs, the impact of retention programs on institutional mission, administrative involvement in retention, student assessment, retention efforts…

  5. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later reference...

  6. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  7. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  8. Employee Retention Strategies And Organizational Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically examines the relationship between employee retention strategies and organizational performance. Using a sample size of 120 respondents in a leading beverage establishment in Nigeria, the results shows that organizations with adequate employee retention strategies in form of enhanced and ...

  9. 27 CFR 478.129 - Record retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention. 478.129 Section 478.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND....129 Record retention. (a) Records prior to Act. Licensed importers and licensed manufacturers may...

  10. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

  11. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Victoria Jane

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the constructs of a Multi-Intelligence Model of Retention with four constructs: cognitive and emotional-social intelligence, student characteristics, and environmental factors. Data were obtained from sophomore students entering two diploma, nine associate, and five baccalaureate nursing programs. One year later, retention and…

  13. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  14. Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Christine M; Roche, Michael A; Blay, Nicole; Stasa, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of leadership characteristics of nursing unit managers, as perceived by staff nurses, on staff satisfaction and retention. A positive work environment will increase levels of job satisfaction and staff retention. Nurse leaders play a critical role in creating a positive work environment. Important leadership characteristics of the front-line nurse manager include visibility, accessibility, consultation, recognition and support. Secondary analysis of data collected on 94 randomly selected wards in 21 public hospitals across two Australian states between 2004-2006. All nurses (n = 2488, 80·3% response rate) on the selected wards were asked to complete a survey that included the 49-item Nursing Work Index-Revised [NWI-R] together with measures of job satisfaction, satisfaction with nursing and intention to leave. Subscales of the NWI-R were calculated. Leadership, the domain of interest, consisted of 12 items. Wards were divided into those reporting either positive or negative leadership. Data were analysed at the nurse level using spss version 16. A nursing manager who was perceived to be a good leader, was visible, consulted with staff, provided praise and recognition and where flexible work schedules were available was found to distinguish the positive and negative wards. However, for a ward to be rated as positive overall, nurse leaders need to perform well on all the leadership items. An effective nursing unit manager who consults with staff and provides positive feedback and who is rated highly on a broad range of leadership items is instrumental in increasing job satisfaction and satisfaction with nursing. Good nurse managers play an important role in staff retention and satisfaction. Improved retention will lead to savings for the organisation, which may be allocated to activities such as training and mentorship to assist nurse leaders in developing these critical leadership skills. Strategies also need to be put in place to

  15. Modelling Soil Water Retention for Weed Seed Germination Sensitivity to Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Bullied

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water retention is important for the study of water availability to germinating weed seeds. Six soil water retention models (Campbell, Brooks-Corey, four- and five-parameter van Genuchten, Tani, and Russo with residual soil water parameter derivations were evaluated to describe water retention for weed seed germination at minimum threshold soil water potential for three hillslope positions. The Campbell, Brooks-Corey, and four-parameter van Genuchten model with modified or estimated forms of the residual parameter had superior but similar data fit. The Campbell model underestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.5 MPa for the upper hillslope that could result in underestimating seed germination. The Tani and Russo models overestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.1 MPa for all hillslope positions. Model selection and residual parameter specification are important for weed seed germination by representing water retention at the level of minimum threshold water potential for germination. Weed seed germination models driven by the hydrothermal soil environment rely on the best-fitting soil water retention model to produce dynamic predictions of seed germination.

  16. Who Participates? Longitudinal Retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25–75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Results Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. Discussion The authors’ analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors. PMID:20103686

  17. Retention period after treatment of posterior crossbite with maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Julia Garcia; Galindo, Thaís Magalhães; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the duration of the retention period in growing patients undergoing maxillary expansion and its relation with posterior crossbite stability. METHODS: Search strategies were executed for electronic databases Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus, which were completed on January 15, 2016. The inclusion criteria included randomized, prospective or retrospective controlled trials in growing subjects with posterior crossbite; treated with maxillary expanders; retention phase after expansion; post-retention phase of at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria were anterior crossbite, craniofacial anomalies, surgery or another orthodontic intervention; case reports; author’s opinions articles, thesis, literature reviews and systematic reviews. The risk of bias of selected articles was assessed with Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and Downs and Black checklist for non-RCTs. RESULTS: A total of 156 titles/abstracts was retrieved, 44 full-texts were examined, and 6 articles were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. The retention period after maxillary expansion ranged between 4 weeks and 16 months. Fixed (acrylic plate, Haas, Hyrax and quad-helix) or removable (Hawley and Hawley expander) appliances were used for retention. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of retention with either fixed or removable appliances seem to be enough to avoid relapse or to guarantee minimal changes in a short-term follow-up. PMID:28658354

  18. Retention period after treatment of posterior crossbite with maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Garcia Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the duration of the retention period in growing patients undergoing maxillary expansion and its relation with posterior crossbite stability. METHODS: Search strategies were executed for electronic databases Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus, which were completed on January 15, 2016. The inclusion criteria included randomized, prospective or retrospective controlled trials in growing subjects with posterior crossbite; treated with maxillary expanders; retention phase after expansion; post-retention phase of at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria were anterior crossbite, craniofacial anomalies, surgery or another orthodontic intervention; case reports; author’s opinions articles, thesis, literature reviews and systematic reviews. The risk of bias of selected articles was assessed with Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and Downs and Black checklist for non-RCTs. RESULTS: A total of 156 titles/abstracts was retrieved, 44 full-texts were examined, and 6 articles were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. The retention period after maxillary expansion ranged between 4 weeks and 16 months. Fixed (acrylic plate, Haas, Hyrax and quad-helix or removable (Hawley and Hawley expander appliances were used for retention. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of retention with either fixed or removable appliances seem to be enough to avoid relapse or to guarantee minimal changes in a short-term follow-up.

  19. Posttreatment and retention outcomes with and without periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics assessed using ABO objective grading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The posttreatment and retention outcomes following nonextraction orthodontic therapy, with and without corticotomy, were assessed using the American Board of Orthodontists objective grading system (OGS. Purpose: The purpose was to determine if the course of retention was any different following alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting, i.e., periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO. Materials and Methods: Study casts and panoramic radiographs of patients with and without PAOO (28 subjects each were selected on the basis of the following: (1 comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment using straight wire edgewise appliances for Class I crowding, (2 availability of immediate posttreatment records and retention records at least 1 year post de-bracketing, and (3 use of Hawley removable retainers with similar wearing instructions. Results: Independent and paired t-test statistical testing revealed the following: (1 Posttreatment orthodontic outcomes were the same, with or without corticotomy. (2 During retention, 5 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the sample without corticotomy, and 6 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the group with corticotomy. (3 Retention outcome scores were lower (better for alignment and marginal ridges in the corticotomy-facilitated group. (4 The total score was significantly lower (better for the corticotomy group at retention and the increment of total score change decreased (improved significantly more during retention following corticotomy. Conclusions: The retention phase was more favorable following corticotomy because the amount of OGS total score change demonstrated a significantly improved retention outcome following PAOO therapy.

  20. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K; Kavyarani, B S; Pradeep, M C

    2015-03-01

    The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of our study period (12(th) month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled).

  1. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rajashekar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th , 8 th , 10 th and 12 th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12 th month, 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled.

  2. Retention Models on Core-Shell Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Růžičková, Marie

    2017-07-13

    A thin, active shell layer on core-shell columns provides high efficiency in HPLC at moderately high pressures. We revisited three models of mobile phase effects on retention for core-shell columns in mixed aqueous-organic mobile phases: linear solvent strength and Snyder-Soczewiński two-parameter models and a three-parameter model. For some compounds, two-parameter models show minor deviations from linearity due to neglect of possible minor retention in pure weak solvent, which is compensated for in the three-parameter model, which does not explicitly assume either the adsorption or the partition retention mechanism in normal- or reversed-phase systems. The model retention equation can be formulated as a function of solute retention factors of nonionic compounds in pure organic solvent and in pure water (or aqueous buffer) and of the volume fraction of an either aqueous or organic solvent component in a two-component mobile phase. With core-shell columns, the impervious solid core does not participate in the retention process. Hence, the thermodynamic retention factors, defined as the ratio of the mass of the analyte mass contained in the stationary phase to its mass in the mobile phase in the column, should not include the particle core volume. The values of the thermodynamic factors are lower than the retention factors determined using a convention including the inert core in the stationary phase. However, both conventions produce correct results if consistently used to predict the effects of changing mobile phase composition on retention. We compared three types of core-shell columns with C18-, phenyl-hexyl-, and biphenyl-bonded phases. The core-shell columns with phenyl-hexyl- and biphenyl-bonded ligands provided lower errors in two-parameter model predictions for alkylbenzenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds in comparison with C18-bonded ligands.

  3. Water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    .... The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation...

  4. Self-curing concrete types; water retention and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to compare among concretes without or with silica fume (SF along with chemical type of shrinkage reducing admixture, polyethylene-glycol (Ch, and leca as self-curing agents for water retention even at elevated temperature (50 °C and their durability. The cement content of 400 kg/m3, silica fume of 15% by weight of cement, polyethylene-glycol of 2% by weight of cement, pre-saturated lightweight aggregate (leca 15% by volume of sand and water with Ch/binder ratio of 0.4 were selected in this study. Some of the physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 28 days in case of exposure to air curing in temperature of (25 °C and (50 °C while up to 6 months of exposure to 5% of carbon dioxide and wet/dry cycles in 8% of sodium chloride for durability study. The concrete mass loss and the volumetric water absorption were measured, to evaluate the water retention of the investigated concretes. Silica fume concrete either without or with Ch gave the best results under all curing regimes; significant water retention and good durability properties.

  5. Application-Based Crossword Puzzles: Players’ Perception and Vocabulary Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulfikri Dzulfikri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the perceptions of students towards Application-Based Crossword Puzzles and how playing this game can affect the development of vocabulary amongst students. Drawing on Vygostky’s Socio-Cultural Theory which states that the human mind is mediated by cultural artifacts, the nature of this game poses challenges and builds curiosity, allowing players to pay more attention to the words to fill in the boxes which subsequently enhances their retention of vocabulary. This game has very good potential to build positive perceptions and to develop cognition in the linguistic domain of players, i.e. the amount of their vocabulary. In this study, the researcher conducted interviews with eligible or selected student players to find out their perceptions toward this game and administered a vocabulary test to find out how this game had added to the retention in memory of new words acquired by the players from the game. The study findings showed that the participants perceive this game positively and it affects the players’ vocabulary retention positively as indicated by their test results. It is recommended that English teachers consider using Application-Based Crossword Puzzles to help students build their vocabularies especially as part of extracurricular activities.

  6. A strategic approach to employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, John; Conner, John

    2002-11-01

    A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market.

  7. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  8. Cross-column prediction of gas-chromatographic retention indices of saturated esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2014-08-15

    We combine computational molecular descriptors and variables related with the gas-chromatographic stationary phase into a comprehensive model able to predict the retention of solutes in external columns. To explore the quality of various approaches based on alternative column descriptors, we analyse the Kováts retention indices (RIs) of 90 saturated esters collected with seven columns of different polarity (SE-30, OV-7, DC-710, OV-25, XE-60, OV-225 and Silar-5CP). Cross-column retention prediction is evaluated on an internal validation set consisting of data of 40 selected esters collected with each of the seven columns, sequentially excluded from calibration. The molecular descriptors are identified by a genetic algorithm variable selection method applied to a large set of non-empirical structural quantities aimed at finding the best multi-linear quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) for the column OV-25 having intermediate polarity. To describe the columns, we consider the sum of the first five McReynolds phase constants and, alternatively, the coefficients of the corresponding QSRRs. Moreover, the mean RI value for the subset of esters used in QSRR calibration or RIs of a few selected compounds are used as column descriptors. For each combination of solute and column descriptors, the retention model is generated both by multi-linear regression and artificial neural network regression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. “To be or not to be Retained … That’s the Question!” Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Peixoto; Vera Monteiro; Lourdes Mata; Cristina Sanches; Joana Pipa; Leandro S. Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected fr...

  10. Water Retention: Relieve This Premenstrual Symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you? Here's help to feel better. Premenstrual water retention is likely caused by fluctuations in your hormones. Your diet also might play a role. Most women who menstruate experience symptoms ...

  11. International perspectives on retention and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burkholder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to higher education globally is increasing dramatically; attainment of tertiary degrees is a high priority, as educational attainment is associated with increased personal incomes as well as growth of the middle class in developing countries. The purpose of this essay is to briefly examine retention and persistence issues from a global perspective, review some retention strategies that have been employed at schools outside the United States, and to identify several key factors that related to retention and persistence globally, including access, infrastructure, financial consideration, and readiness for tertiary education.  There exists an opportunity to utilize knowledge gained in the evolution of the higher education system in the United States to help address the problems associated with retention and persistence.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.208

  12. Linkage between psychological contract and employee retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... employees' participation. This is necessary if organizations need to maintain their vibrant and resourceful workforce that will competitively drive organizational goals in this globalized economy and society. Keywords: Psychological contract, Employer, Employee retention, Performance, Productivity, Organization, Nigeria.

  13. Sleep physiology predicts memory retention after reactivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Kevin J; Cote, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    ...) received reminders designed to leave these memories in a stable state. No significant differences in memory retention were found between blocks or groups the following morning. Frontal delta (0.5–4 Hz...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: chylomicron retention disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (1 link) CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases ... R, Biselli R, Bosman C. Chylomicron retention disease--the role of ultrastructural examination in differential diagnosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2001;197(11):753-7. ...

  15. Poor retention does not have to be the rule: retention of volunteer community health workers in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwick, Teralynn; Brenner, Jennifer L; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Wotton, Kathryn A; Kabakyenga, Jerome Kahuma

    2014-05-01

    Globally, health worker shortages continue to plague developing countries. Community health workers are increasingly being promoted to extend primary health care to underserved populations. Since 2004, Healthy Child Uganda (HCU) has trained volunteer community health workers in child health promotion in rural southwest Uganda. This study analyses the retention and motivation of volunteer community health workers trained by HCU. It presents retention rates over a 5-year period and provides insight into volunteer motivation. The findings are based on a 2010 retrospective review of the community health worker registry and the results of a survey on selection and motivation. The survey was comprised of qualitative and quantitative questions and verbally administered to a convenience sample of project participants. Between February 2004 and July 2009, HCU trained 404 community health workers (69% female) in 175 villages. Volunteers had an average age of 36.7 years, 4.9 children and some primary school education. Ninety-six per cent of volunteer community health workers were retained after 1 year (389/404), 91% after 2 years (386/404) and 86% after 5 years (101/117). Of the 54 'dropouts', main reasons cited for discontinuation included 'too busy' (12), moved (11), business/employment (8), death (6) and separation/divorce (6). Of 58 questionnaire respondents, most (87%) reported having been selected at an inclusive community meeting. Pair-wise ranking was used to assess the importance of seven 'motivational factors' among respondents. Those highest ranked were 'improved child health', 'education/training' and 'being asked for advice/assistance by peers', while the modest 'transport allowance' ranked lowest. Our findings suggest that in our rural, African setting, volunteer community health workers can be retained over the medium term. Community health worker programmes should invest in community involvement in selection, quality training, supportive supervision and

  16. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Janu?rio, Nuno; Rosado, Ant?nio; Mesquita, Isabel; Gallego, Jos?; Aguilar-Parra, Jos? M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzed soccer players? retention of coaches? feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes? personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level), the quantity of information included in coach?s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy), athletes? perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes? motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted...

  17. Best practices in doctoral retention: Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judie L. Brill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186

  18. Best practices in doctoral retention: Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judie L. Brill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186

  19. The Effect of Gradual Increase in Contextual Interference on Acquisition, Retention and Transfer of Volleyball Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A general viewpoint on contextual interference shows that a blocked practice schedule facilitates the acquisition of a skill while a random practice is more useful in the retention and transfer of that skill. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gradual increase in contextual interference upon acquisition, retention and transfer of volleyball skills. Methods: For this purpose, 45 participants were randomly selected from male students at Shiraz University-Iran. After pre-test, the participants were equally distributed in three experimental groups: blocked (low CI, random (high CI and percentile gradual increase. After nine training sessions and recording the scores, the students were tested for acquisition, retention and transfer. p≤0.05 was considered as significance level in all the tests. Results: There was significant difference between the groups in acquisition sessions in favor of the blocked group. Retention and transfer test results also showed a significant difference between the groups in favor of random training and gradual increase groups compared to blocked training group .However no significant difference was observed between random with gradual increase training groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, it can be concluded that random and gradual increase in contextual interference training methods may increase the performance of subjects in terms of volleyball skills in retention and transfer tests. Keywords: Gradual Increase of Contextual Interference, Blocked, Random, Volleyball, Acquisition, Retention, Transfer

  20. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of parmesan cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Bostley, A L; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2004-09-01

    The effects of using cold ultrafiltered (UF) retentates (both whole and skim milk) on the coagulation, yield, composition, and ripening of Parmesan cheese were investigated. Milks for cheese making were made by blending cold UF retentates with partially skimmed milk to obtain blends with 14.2% solids and a casein:fat ratio of 1.1. Cutting times, as selected by the cheese-maker, were approximately 15 and approximately 20 min for experimental and control milks, respectively. Storage modulus values at cutting were similar, but yield stress values were significantly higher in UF retentate standardized milks. Cheese yields were significantly higher in UF retentate standardized milks (approximately 12%) compared with control milk (cream removed) (approximately 7 to 8%). Significantly higher protein recoveries were obtained in cheeses manufactured using cold UF retentates. There were no differences in the pH and moisture contents of the cheeses prior to brining, and there was no residual lactose or galactose left in the cheeses. Using UF retentates resulted in a significant reduction in whey volume as well as a higher proportion of protein in the solids of the whey. Proteolysis, free fatty acids, and sensory properties of the cheeses were similar. The use of milk concentrated by cold UF is a promising way of improving the yield of Parmesan cheese without compromising cheese quality. The question remaining to be answered by the cheesemaker is whether it is economical to do so.

  1. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention device is a device, such as a retention bridge, a surgical...

  2. Optimization of artificial neural networks used for retention modelling in ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srecnik, Goran; Debeljak, Zeljko; Cerjan-Stefanović, Stefica; Novic, Milko; Bolancab, Tomislav

    2002-10-11

    The aim of this work is the development of an artificial neural network model, which can be generalized and used in a variety of applications for retention modelling in ion chromatography. Influences of eluent flow-rate and concentration of eluent anion (OH-) on separation of seven inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, sulfate, bromide, nitrate, and phosphate) were investigated. Parallel prediction of retention times of seven inorganic anions by using one artificial neural network was applied. MATLAB Neural Networks ToolBox was not adequate for application to retention modelling in this particular case. Therefore the authors adopted it for retention modelling by programming in MATLAB metalanguage. The following routines were written; the division of experimental data set on training and test set; selection of data for training and test set; Dixon's outlier test; retraining procedure routine; calculations of relative error. A three-layer feed forward neural network trained with a Levenberg-Marquardt batch error back propagation algorithm has been used to model ion chromatographic retention mechanisms. The advantage of applied batch training methodology is the significant increase in speed of calculation of algorithms in comparison with delta rule training methodology. The technique of experimental data selection for training set was used allowing improvement of artificial neural network prediction power. Experimental design space was divided into 8-32 subspaces depending on number of experimental data points used for training set. The number of hidden layer nodes, the number of iteration steps and the number of experimental data points used for training set were optimized. This study presents the very fast (300 iteration steps) and very accurate (relative error of 0.88%) retention model, obtained by using a small amount of experimental data (16 experimental data points in training set). This indicates that the method of choice for retention modelling in ion

  3. Postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John

    2017-02-01

    vigilance when they are due to void postprocedure. A greater understanding of POUR may also prevent longer hospital stays in select at-risk patients. Postoperative retention is rarely caused by a postoperative cauda equina syndrome due to epidural hematoma, which is also associated with saddle anesthesia, leg pain, and weakness, yet the delineation of isolated POUR from this urgent complication is necessary for optimal patient care.

  4. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies for organic pollutants in textile wastewaters and landfill leachate in LC-APCI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Arman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure-retention relation (QSRR study was conducted on the retention times of organic pollutants in textile wastewaters and landfill leachate which obtained by liquid chromatography-reversed phase-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS. The genetic algorithm was used as descriptor selection and model development method. Modeling of the relationship between selected molecular descriptors and retention time was achieved by linear (partial least square; PLS and nonlinear (Levenberg-Marquardt artificial neural network; L-M ANN methods. Linear and nonlinear methods resulted in accurate prediction whereas more accurate results were obtained by L-M ANN model. This is the first research on the QSRR of the organic pollutants in textile wastewaters and landfill leachate against the retention time.

  5. Impact of Using Instructional Video Games as an on EFL Learners' Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Maryam; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of Instructional Video Games (IVGs) on the vocabulary retention of Iranian language learners. To do so, 32 male and 43 female, between the ages thirteen to thirty one years old, in Padideh Derakhshan Institute, Sahinshahr, Isfahan, Iran were selected as a whole population. First, the World English…

  6. Exploring Student Characteristics of Retention That Lead to Graduation in Higher Education Using Data Mining Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Dheeraj; Schumacker, Randall

    2015-01-01

    The study used earliest available student data from a flagship university in the southeast United States to build data mining models like logistic regression with different variable selection methods, decision trees, and neural networks to explore important student characteristics associated with retention leading to graduation. The decision tree…

  7. Study of Female Junior Officer Retention and Promotion in the U.S. Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    14 4. JOB PERFORMANCE ...............................................................15 III. LITERATURE REVIEW... representation in the military. Further, once commissioned in the military, the retention rates of mid-level female officers tend to be lower than those of...III reviews selected literature on the topic of gender integration in the military. Chapter IV describes the variables used in the study. Chapter IV

  8. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Biology through Video-Based Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yaki, Akawo Angwal; Gana, Eli S.; Ughovwa, Queen Eguono

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of video-based multimedia instruction on secondary school students' achievement and retention in biology. In Nigeria, 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls) were randomly selected from four secondary schools assigned either into one of three experimental groups: Animation + Narration; Animation + On-screen Text;…

  9. Effects of Eclectic Learning Approach on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in English at Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…

  10. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  11. Towards a chromatographic similarity index to establish localised Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships for retention prediction. III Combination of Tanimoto similarity index, logP, and retention factor ratio to identify optimal analyte training sets for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Haddad, Paul R; Amos, Ruth I J; Talebi, Mohammad; Szucs, Roman; Pohl, Christopher A; Dolan, John W

    2017-10-20

    Retention prediction for unknown compounds based on Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) can lead to rapid "scoping" method development in chromatography by simplifying the selection of chromatographic parameters. The use of retention factor ratio (or k-ratio) as a chromatographic similarity index can be a potent method to cluster similar compounds into a training set to generate an accurate predictive QSRR model provided that its limitation - that the method is impractical for retention prediction for unknown compounds - is successfully addressed. In this work, we propose a localised QSRR modelling approach with the aim of compensating the critical limitation in the otherwise successful k-ratio filter-based QSRR modelling. The approach is to combine a k-ratio filter with both Tanimoto similarity (TS) and a ΔlogP index (i.e., logP-Dual filter). QSRR models for two retention parameters (a and b) in the linear solvent strength (LSS) model in ion chromatography (IC), logk=a - blog[eluent], were generated for larger organic cations (molecular mass up to 506) on a Thermo Fisher Scientific CS17 column. The application of the developed logP-Dual filter resulted in the production of successful QSRR models for 50 organic cations out of 87 in the dataset. The predicted a- and b-values of the models were then applied to the LSS model to predict the corresponding retention times. External validation showed that QSRR models for a-, b- and tR- values with excellent accuracy and predictability (Qext(F2)(2) of 0.96, 0.95, and 0.96, RMSEP of 0.06, 0.02, and 0.38min) were created successfully, and these models can be employed to speed up the "scoping" phase of method development in IC. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the

  13. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherryl W. Johnson, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention remains under review. This study includes a healthcare learning community as a cutting-edge teaching and learning modality. The results of an introspective survey of 22 students in a learning community explore strategies to enhance culturally relevant teaching, learning, and retention. Although learning and retention studies have been conducted at numerous universities, few have included feedback from students in a healthcare learning community. Frequencies from student responses were tabulated using five thematic factors: social support, career knowledge/opportunities, academic support, networking and faculty rapport/relationship building. Of the five theme areas, social support was identified most frequently by students as a means to support their learning and retention in the university setting.

  14. Association of Fewer Hours of Sleep at 6 Months Postpartum with Substantial Weight Retention at 1 Year Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2007-01-01

    Shorter sleep duration is linked to obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Whether sleep deprivation during the postpartum period affects maternal postpartum weight retention remains unknown. This study examined the association of sleep at 6 months postpartum with substantial postpartum weight retention (SPPWR), defined as 5 kg or more above pregravid weight at 1 year postpartum. The authors selected 940 participants in Project Viva who enrolled during early pregnancy from 1999 to 20...

  15. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  16. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).

  17. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  18. Huge anterior sacral meningocele simulating bladder retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Emanuele; Rosso, Rodolfo; Leucci, Giuliana; Luparello, Vincenzo; Collura, Devis; Giacobbe, Alessandro; Muto, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Anterior sacral meningocele (ASM) is a rare congenital disorder involving herniation of the dural sac through a defect in the anterior surface of the sacrum. We report the case of a young patient with an enormous ASM that simulated bladder retention in terms of symptoms as well as on physical examination and at ultrasonography. After introducing a catheter that excluded urinary retention, computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the ASM. The patient underwent surgical repair of the ASM through a sacral laminectomy and recovered normal lower urinary tract function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England.

  20. INTERLABORATORY APPLICABILITY OF A RETENTION INDEX LIBRARY OF DRUGS FOR SCREENING BY REVERSED-PHASE HPLC IN SYSTEMATIC TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOGUSZ, M; ERKENS, M; FRANKE, JP; WIJSBEEK, J; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    The retention indices (RI) of 47 selected acidic, neutral and basic drugs were determined on 7 reversed-phase (octyl- and octadecylsilica) columns in two laboratories in the 1-nitroalkane scale, using either 1-nitroalkane homologues or selected drugs, whose RI values were previously determined on

  1. Real-time detection of airborne fluorescent bioparticles in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian; Gallagher, Martin W.; Bower, Keith N.; Choularton, Thomas W.; Flynn, Michael J.; Ruske, Simon; Listowski, Constantino; Brough, Neil; Lachlan-Cope, Thomas; Fleming, Zoë L.; Foot, Virginia E.; Stanley, Warren R.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, continuous real-time observations of airborne bio-fluorescent aerosols recorded at the British Antarctic Survey's Halley VI Research Station, located on the Brunt Ice Shelf close to the Weddell Sea coast (lat 75°34'59'' S, long 26°10'0'' W) during Antarctic summer, 2015. As part of the NERC MAC (Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds) aircraft aerosol cloud interaction project, observations with a real-time ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer were conducted to quantify airborne biological containing particle concentrations along with dust particles as a function of wind speed and direction over a 3-week period. Significant, intermittent enhancements of both non- and bio-fluorescent particles were observed to varying degrees in very specific wind directions and during strong wind events. Analysis of the particle UV-induced emission spectra, particle sizes and shapes recorded during these events suggest the majority of particles were likely a subset of dust with weak fluorescence emission responses. A minor fraction, however, were likely primary biological particles that were very strongly fluorescent, with a subset identified as likely being pollen based on comparison with laboratory data obtained using the same instrument. A strong correlation of bio-fluorescent particles with wind speed was observed in some, but not all, periods. Interestingly, the fraction of fluorescent particles to total particle concentration also increased significantly with wind speed during these events. The enhancement in concentrations of these particles could be interpreted as due to resuspension from the local ice surface but more likely due to emissions from distal sources within Antarctica as well as intercontinental transport. Likely distal sources identified by back trajectory analyses and dispersion modelling were the coastal ice margin zones in Halley Bay consisting of bird colonies with likely associated high bacterial activity together with contributions from exposed ice margin bacterial colonies but also long-range transport from the southern coasts of Argentina and Chile. Dispersion modelling also demonstrated emissions from shipping lanes, and therefore marine anthropogenic sources cannot be ruled out. Average total concentrations of total fluorescent aerosols were found to be 1.9 ± 2.6 L-1 over a 3-week period crossing over from November into December, but peak concentrations during intermittent enhancement events could be up to several tens per litre. While this short pilot study is not intended to be generally representative of Antarctic aerosol, it demonstrates the usefulness of the UV-LIF measurement technique for quantification of airborne bioaerosol concentrations and to understand their dispersion. The potential importance for microbial colonisation of Antarctica is highlighted.

  2. [Study on the haemostatic efficiency of composite bio-particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghong; Gao, Hua; Zang, Jiatao; Diao, Junlino; Liu, Jiancang

    2011-12-01

    A porous composite particle (CP) was fabricated by the methods of emulsification and cross-link based on chitosan, alginate and collagen protein, and the tranexamic acid-loaded composite particles (TACP) was prepared by immersing the composite particle into the solution of tranexamic acid and by freeze drying. In the hepatic and splenic hemorrhage model of rabbits, CP and TACP were randomly used as haemostatic agents, and the Suxiaozhixuefen (Flashclot) was used as control. The corresponding hemostatic time and bleeding amount were observed respectively. The hemostatic time of CP and Flashclot were (2.48 +/- 0.88) min and (3.07 +/- 0.84) min, respectively, no significant difference was observed. However, the hemostatic time of TACP was (1.90 +/- 0.75) min, which was significantly shorter than that of CP and Flashclot (P TACP might be one of promising haemostatic powders due to its more excellent hemostatic efficiency.

  3. Intrinsic viscosity of bead models for macromolecules and bioparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, L

    2001-10-01

    A new method based on the fractal dimension dependence of the hydrodynamic radius is proposed for calculation of the intrinsic viscosity of bead models. The method describes properly the viscosity increment except for elongated structures such as linear aggregates and ellipsoids. It is expected to be useful for very compact structures, for which the volume correction does not improve the results calculated by the modified Oseen tensor. The results obtained for the viscosity increment lie between the volume corrected ones and those determined by the cubic substitution procedure. They are close to the values recalculated from the falling velocities of the models analyzed.

  4. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout.1 Recently Urlings-Strop et al. found the relative risk of dropout to be 2.6 times lower for ‘selected students’ than for ‘lottery admitted controls’.2 The main aim of our study was to evaluate...... the predictive validity of admission testing versus grade-based admission on dropout. METHOD This prospective cohort study followed 6 cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at University of Southern Denmark (USD) in 2002-2007 (N=1544). Half the students were admitted based on highest prior....... The outcome of interest was students’ dropout status 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. RESULTS Quota 2 (admission tested) students had a lower relative risk of dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission compared to quota 1 students...

  5. Participant retention practices in longitudinal clinical research studies with high retention rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Abshire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for improving cohort retention in longitudinal studies. Our objective was to identify cohort retention strategies and implementation approaches used in studies with high retention rates. Methods Longitudinal studies with ≥200 participants, ≥80% retention rates over ≥1 year of follow-up were queried from an Institutional Review Board database at a large research-intensive U.S. university; additional studies were identified through networking. Nineteen (86% of 22 eligible studies agreed to participate. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews, participants provided retention strategies based on themes identified from previous literature reviews. Synthesis of data was completed by a multidisciplinary team. Results The most commonly used retention strategies were: study reminders, study visit characteristics, emphasizing study benefits, and contact/scheduling strategies. The research teams were well-functioning, organized, and persistent. Additionally, teams tailored their strategies to their participants, often adapting and innovating their approaches. Conclusions These studies included specialized and persistent teams and utilized tailored strategies specific to their cohort and individual participants. Studies’ written protocols and published manuscripts often did not reflect the varied strategies employed and adapted through the duration of study. Appropriate retention strategy use requires cultural sensitivity and more research is needed to identify how strategy use varies globally.

  6. Early removal of urinary catheters after rectal surgery is associated with increased urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaan, Mary R; Lee, Janet T; Rothenberger, David A; Melton, Genevieve B; Madoff, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary retention after rectal resection is common and managed prophylactically by prolonging urinary catheterization. However, because indwelling urinary catheterization is a well-established risk factor for urinary tract infection, the ideal timing for urinary catheter removal following a rectal resection is unknown. We hypothesized that early urinary catheter removal (on or before postoperative day 2) would be associated with urinary retention. This study is a retrospective review of medical records. This study was conducted at a colorectal surgery service at a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. Adults undergoing rectal resection operations by colorectal surgeons in 2005 to 2010 were selected. The primary outcome measured was urinary retention. Of 205 patients included, 41 (20%) developed urinary retention. Male sex (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-9), increased intraoperative intravenous fluid (OR for each liter, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48), and urinary catheter removal on postoperative day 2 or earlier (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.5) were associated with urinary retention on multivariable analysis. Early catheter removal was not associated with decreased urinary tract infection rates (p = 0.29) but was associated with shorter length of stay (6.5 vs 8.9 days; p = 0.005). The retrospective nature of this study did not allow for a precise definition of urinary retention. Preoperative urinary function was not available, and the patient sample was heterogeneous, including several indications for rectal resection. Urinary catheters were not removed per protocol and therefore subject to bias. The study is likely underpowered to detect differences in urinary tract infection between urinary catheter removal groups. In patients undergoing rectal resection, we found that urinary catheter removal on or before postoperative day 2 was associated with urinary retention (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/DCR/A172).

  7. A motivational intervention can improve retention in PCIT for low-motivation child welfare clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Valle, Linda Anne; Funderburk, Beverly; Gurwitch, Robin; Silovsky, Jane; Bard, David; McCoy, Carol; Kees, Michelle

    2009-11-01

    A motivational orientation intervention designed to improve parenting program retention was field tested versus standard orientation across two parenting programs, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and a standard didactic parent training group. Both interventions were implemented within a frontline child welfare parenting center by center staff. Participants had an average of six prior child welfare referrals, primarily for neglect. A double-randomized design was used to test main and interaction effects. The motivational intervention improved retention only when combined with PCIT (cumulative survival = 85% vs. around 61% for the three other design cells). Benefits were robust across demographic characteristics and participation barriers but were concentrated among participants whose initial level of motivation was low to moderate. There were negative effects for participants with relatively high initial motivation. The findings suggest that using a motivational intervention combined with PCIT can improve retention when used selectively with relatively low to moderately motivated child welfare clients.

  8. [Screening of water retention agent for moisture content regulation in the biocover of municipal landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-jing; Mou, Zi-shen; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Hong-tao; Zhao, Chen-xi

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic materials of polyacrylamide (PAM) are known as the flocculating agent as well as water retention agents. In this study, ten types of water-soluble PAM as well as four types of water-insoluble ones were selected and the influences of relative molecular weight, ion types, charge density and particle size on water retention and service life were determined. Based on the results, evaluation method for performance of water retention agent was established and two optimal PAM (water-insoluble JB and water-soluble WSN20) were screened for further study. It showed that JB increased the degree of hydration of testing soil for 32% compared with that of control. Moreover, multiple-step-outflow test using municipal waste showed that addition of JB (0.1%) had significantly effect on its moisture characteristic curve as evidenced by increasing of equilibrium moisture content over 12% under high matrix potential.

  9. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  10. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10...

  11. Employee Retention: A Challenge of the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Tony

    1990-01-01

    Considers ways in which community colleges can help employers implement programs to improve the work environment and retain trained workers. Presents a model for employee retention that has worked effectively in Pueblo, Colorado. Describes Pueblo Community College's cooperative program with the Wats Marketing Group to help reduce employee…

  12. Managing talent retention: an ROI approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Jack J; Edwards, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    .... Employee retention will continue to be an important issue for most job groups in the next decade. Unwanted talent departure continues to be one of the most unappreciated and undervalued issues facing business leaders. This stems from several important assumptions and conclusions about turnover: 1. All stakeholders involved in the issue, including human ...

  13. Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

  14. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Grant Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

  15. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  16. Associations between stormwater retention pond parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database. Included are ...

  17. The Case for Focusing on Millennial Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jenna; Deline, Marisa; Virkstis, Katherine

    A concern for nurse leaders is rapid turnover of engaged, early-tenure millennial nurses. In this 1st article in a 2-part series, the authors describe why leaders should supplement their organization's current investments in engagement with retention strategies targeted at millennial nurses.

  18. Retention practices in education human resources management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The public education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. The review of retention practices for teachers is premised on the principles of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in education human resources management. This research revealed that ...

  19. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  20. Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Variable retention is a flexible silvicultural system that provides forest managers with an alternative to clearcutting. While much of the standing volume is removed in one harvesting operation, residual stems are retained to provide structural complexity and wildlife habitat functions, or to accrue volume before removal during subsequent stand entries. The residual...

  1. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  2. Global distribution of soil phosphorus retention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Limited availability of P in soils to crops may be due to deficiency and/or severe P retention. Earlier studies that drew on large soil profile databases have indicated that it is not (yet) feasible to present meaningful values for “plant-available” soil P, obtained according to comparable

  3. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 400.412 Section 400.412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General Administrative Regulations; Collection and Storage of...

  4. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.21 Records retention. (a) The State official shall maintain all records for ten years following completion of...

  5. Longitudinal Literature Review on Grade Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Carleton R.; Range, Bret; Pijanowski, John

    2009-01-01

    Literature on retention focuses on both short term and long term outcomes for retained students. Short term outcomes typically include academic achievement, self-esteem issues, and occurrence of behavior problems. Long term outcomes include academic growth and persistence to graduation. Regardless of the focus and intent of the study, research on…

  6. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  7. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  8. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... prescribe and consistent with § 293.405(a). (3) Appraisals of unacceptable performance, where a notice of... performance-related documents five years old or less shall be forwarded in the Employee Performance File along...

  9. Retention practices in education human resources management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The public education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. The review of retention practices for teachers is premised on the principles of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in education human resources management. This research revealed that ...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  11. Moisture Retention Characteristics of Soils of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Least total available water was found in soils over alluvium (4.03). Total available water had a significant relationship with total sand (R2 = 0.56, P=0.01). Soil moisture retention characteristic dependent variable was highly predicted by independent variables of total sand, clay content and organic carbon at various tension ...

  12. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  13. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Pim A; Biersteker, Heleen A; Biert, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Tan, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78%) and 69 (58%) participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  14. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  15. Biological plasticity in penguin heat-retention structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2012-02-01

    Insulation and vascular heat-retention mechanisms allow penguins to forage for a prolonged time in water that is much cooler than core body temperature. Wing-based heat retention involves a plexus of humeral arteries and veins, which redirect heat to the body core rather than to the wing periphery. The humeral arterial plexus is described here for Eudyptes and Megadyptes, the only extant penguin genera for which wing vascular anatomy had not previously been reported. The erect-crested (Eudyptes sclateri) and yellow-eyed (Megadyptes antipodes) penguins both have a plexus of three humeral arteries on the ventral surface of the humerus. The wing vascular system shows little variation between erect-crested and yellow-eyed penguins, and is generally conserved across the six extant genera of penguins, with the exception of the humeral arterial plexus. The number of humeral arteries within the plexus demonstrates substantial variation and correlates well with wing surface area. Little penguins (Eudyptula minor) have two humeral arteries and a wing surface area of ∼ 75 cm(2) , whereas emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) have up to 15 humeral arteries and a wing surface area of ∼ 203 cm(2) . Further, the number of humeral arteries has a stronger correlation with wing surface area than with sea water temperature. We propose that thermoregulation has placed the humeral arterial plexus under a strong selection pressure, driving penguins with larger wing surface areas to compensate for heat loss by developing additional humeral arteries. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Retention of key employees in the oil field service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    1999-07-01

    Before 1994, Core Laboratories Canada Ltd. adopted local country benefit plans as stipulated by the government of the day. This approach meant that the company had many different benefit plans in place or in some situations no benefit plans at all, if the law of the land allowed such an approach. The company at this time viewed the lack of or minimal benefit plans as a cost saving venture. The parent company did not take onto account the effect on morale, employee retention and loyalty that these limited plans provided. A change in ownership in 1994 presented the opportunity for Core to re-assess its benefits package and introduce an incentive plan for its worldwide employees. The introduction of a pension with profits plan proved to be satisfying to employees, and the manager's incentive plan enabled the company to retain, with the exception of people who retired from the business, its entire management staff over a four year period. The stock option plan led to the retention of essential employees and reduced the turnover in this area. Discretionary bonuses succeeded in promoting recognition amongst employees as well as providing monetary reward, and the combination of benefits, incentive and stock option plans enabled the company to retain the vast majority of key employees and to entice selected individuals to the company from other organizations. 3 refs.

  17. Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees’ performance and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which employees in private universities in Nigeria jump from one university to the other is becoming more disturbing and this could be as a result of compensation packages of different universities to attract competent employees. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a selected private University in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using one hundred and eleven valid questionnaires which were completed by academics and non-academic staff of the university. The collected data were carefully analyzed using simple percentage supported by structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses and relationships that may exist among the variables under consideration. The results showed strong relationship between compensation packages and employees’ performance and retention. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent and independent variables (salary, bonus, incentives, allowances, and fringe benefits. However, management and decision makers should endeavour to review compensation packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ satisfaction and prevention of high labour turnover among the members of staff.

  18. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Retention And Moving Beyond Acquisition. : Refining Consumer Customer Retention at Vaarani Works Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Muriuki, Mike

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive cloud business market, increasing customer retention strategies emerges as an important challenge faced by most marketers. An even more demanding task, is minimizing customer churn rates within organisations. Organisations are striving to move beyond just acquiring customers and towards excellence through retention. For businesses to remain competitive and successful, they have to develop methods and strategies that ensure they acquire and retain only the profita...

  20. Recruitment, advising, and retention programs - Challenges and solutions to the international problem of poor nursing student retention: A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooring, Quanza E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify emerging themes in current research to identify challenges to nursing student retention internationally, as well as strategies to improve persistence. A narrative literature review was conducted. Using CINAHL and HealthSource databases, journal articles were reviewed and evaluated for emerging themes related to the causes of high nursing student attrition rates and strategies to overcome this issue. A five-step approach was used to complete the narrative review, beginning with problem identification, followed by the literature search, data analysis, theme emergence and synthesis of the information. The literature review supports the idea that poor retention is related not only to student ability, but also to a lack of necessary intervention by faculty beginning with the admission process and continuing throughout the curriculum. Alterations should be made in the recruitment and student selection process. Aggressive academic advising strategies should be implemented, and retention programs should be interwoven in to the nursing curriculum. Student retention is a multifaceted issue that requires a multi-modal approach. Changes in recruitment, implementation of academic advising, and curriculum integration have the potential to help correct the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: a case control study in Pune, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sahay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Men attending Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinics (n = 10, 801 were followed in a cohort study spanning over a ten year period (1993-2002 in Pune, India. Using pre-set definitions, cases with optimal retention in prevention program (n = 1286, cohort study (n = 940 and clinical trial (n = 896 were identified from this cohort. Equal number of controls matched for age and period of enrollment were selected. A case control analysis using conditional logistic regression was performed. Being employed was a predictor of lower retention in all the three modeled scenarios. Presence of genital ulcer disease (GUD, history of commercial sex work and living away from the family were predictors of lower retention in primary prevention, cohort study and clinical trial models respectively. Alcohol consumption predicted lower retention in cohort study and clinical trial models. Married monogamous men were less likely to be retained in the primary prevention and cohort study models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Predicting potential drop-outs among the beneficiaries or research participants at entry point in the prevention programs and research respectively is possible. Suitable interventions might help in optimizing retention. Customized counseling to prepare the clients properly may help in their retention.

  2. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based sealants is a proven method of preventing occlusal caries. Retention of the sealant is very essential for its efficiency. This study evaluated the retention of glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant when compared to a self-cure resin-based sealant. One hundred and seven children between the ages of 6-9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Two permanent first molars on one side of the mouth were sealed with Delton, a resin-based sealant, and the contralateral two permanent first molars were sealed with Fuji VII glass ionomer cement. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria. At the end of the study period, the retention of the resin sealant was seen to be superior to that of the glass ionomer sealant.

  3. The influence of bleaching agent and temperature on bleaching efficacy and volatile components of fluid whey and whey retentate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A J; Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2013-10-01

    Fluid whey or retentate are often bleached to remove residual annatto Cheddar cheese colorant, and this process causes off-flavors in dried whey proteins. This study determined the impact of temperature and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and volatile components in fluid whey and fluid whey retentate. Freshly manufactured liquid whey (6.7% solids) or concentrated whey protein (retentate) (12% solids, 80% protein) were bleached using benzoyl peroxide (BP) at 100 mg/kg (w/w) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) at 250 mg/kg (w/w) at 5 °C for 16 h or 50 °CC for 1 h. Unbleached controls were subjected to a similar temperature profile. The experiment was replicated three times. Annatto destruction (bleaching efficacy) among treatments was compared, and volatile compounds were extracted and separated using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Bleaching efficacy of BP was higher than HP (P whey at both 5 and 50 °C. HP bleaching efficacy was increased in retentate compared to liquid whey (P whey retentate, there was no difference between bleaching with HP or BP at 50 or 5 °C (P > 0.05). Retentate bleached with HP at either temperature had higher relative abundances of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal than BP bleached retentate (P wheys generally had lower concentrations of selected volatiles compared to retentates. These results suggest that the highest bleaching efficacy (within the parameters evaluated) in liquid whey is achieved using BP at 5 or 50 °C and at 50 °C with HP or BP in whey protein retentate. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. 7 CFR 277.12 - Retention and custody of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention and custody of records. 277.12 Section 277.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.12 Retention and custody of records. (a) Retention period. All financial...

  5. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  6. Evaluation of the water retention curve of Abidjan Quaternary aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Results: The water retention curve is difficult to measure in situ on large sites like this aquifer. Kovac's modified model to predict the water retention curve is tested. Predicted curves are compared with in situ measurements points. The results show that, overall, the model predicts well the water retention curves.

  7. 49 CFR 382.401 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.401 Retention of records. (a) General requirement. Each employer shall maintain records of its alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records. 382.401 Section 382.401...

  8. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elejalde, C. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inpelsac@bi.ehu.es; Herranz, M. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Baeza, A. [Dpto. de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  9. The Impact of Playing Word Games on Young Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning and Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Kabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring adequate vocabulary in a foreign language is very important but often difficult. Considering the importance of learner’s vocabulary learning and retention, the present study aimed at examining the impact of playing word games on young Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and retention at Irandoostan language Institute in Tabriz. To that end, 50 female learners at the age range of 8-12 were selected and assigned into an experimental (n=25 and a control (n=25 group. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest. The content of the tests were based on the students’ course books and consisted of 20 items. The researcher utilized the word games in order to teach the selected vocabulary items during the course which lasted for a month and a half. The games were played each session for about 15 minutes. The experimental group was engaged in playing word games as a treatment and the control group received usual instruction. After the treatment, the participants in both groups took the post-test and after two weeks the learners were asked to take the test once more. This time their scores were assigned as the retention post-test scores. The mean scores of two groups were compared three times through the independent samples t-test. The results of the data analysis revealed that playing word games were effective in helping learners to improve their vocabulary learning and retention.

  10. Marker compounds for the determination of retention factors in EKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Susanne K; Lokajová, Jana; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2010-02-01

    EKC and its sub-techniques, such as MEKC and microemulsion EKC, have attracted wide interest in recent years. Investigations on this topic have covered several analytical applications, but attention has also been paid more and more to basic studies. This review provides an overview of the different approaches to calculating retention factors, which express the ratio of the amount of sample component in the pseudostationary and mobile phases. Special attention is given to the selection of markers for the determination of the electrophoretic mobility or migration time of a marker describing the behavior of the pseudostationary phase in EKC. Introduction of a hydrophobic marker is by far the most common approach, but the use of a homologous series of compounds is also quite popular. In addition, other possible approaches found in the literature will be described.

  11. Architectural Epigenetics: Mitotic Retention of Mammalian Transcriptional Regulatory Information ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Young, Daniel W.; Montecino, Martin; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic regulatory information must be retained during mammalian cell division to sustain phenotype-specific and physiologically responsive gene expression in the progeny cells. Histone modifications, DNA methylation, and RNA-mediated silencing are well-defined epigenetic mechanisms that control the cellular phenotype by regulating gene expression. Recent results suggest that the mitotic retention of nuclease hypersensitivity, selective histone marks, as well as the lineage-specific transcription factor occupancy of promoter elements contribute to the epigenetic control of sustained cellular identity in progeny cells. We propose that these mitotic epigenetic signatures collectively constitute architectural epigenetics, a novel and essential mechanism that conveys regulatory information to sustain the control of phenotype and proliferation in progeny cells by bookmarking genes for activation or suppression. PMID:20696837

  12. Architectural epigenetics: mitotic retention of mammalian transcriptional regulatory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Young, Daniel W; Montecino, Martin; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Gary S

    2010-10-01

    Epigenetic regulatory information must be retained during mammalian cell division to sustain phenotype-specific and physiologically responsive gene expression in the progeny cells. Histone modifications, DNA methylation, and RNA-mediated silencing are well-defined epigenetic mechanisms that control the cellular phenotype by regulating gene expression. Recent results suggest that the mitotic retention of nuclease hypersensitivity, selective histone marks, as well as the lineage-specific transcription factor occupancy of promoter elements contribute to the epigenetic control of sustained cellular identity in progeny cells. We propose that these mitotic epigenetic signatures collectively constitute architectural epigenetics, a novel and essential mechanism that conveys regulatory information to sustain the control of phenotype and proliferation in progeny cells by bookmarking genes for activation or suppression.

  13. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S; Araújo, Maria Christina B

    2014-01-15

    An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of management development on nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexis A

    2005-01-01

    Nurse retention is essential to maintain quality healthcare organizations. In an effort to mitigate the loss of nurse managers, a management education program was created for new and transitioning nurse managers that included scholarships for nurses from long-term and rural acute care settings. Program evaluation was based upon the outcomes of anticipated turnover and employee satisfaction. Using a preprogram and postprogram evaluation, the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) and the Anticipated Turnover Scale (ATS) were used to survey participants. Descriptive statistics as well as Wilcoxon statistics for group comparisons were used for analysis. ATS scores were significantly reduced (P attrition, findings can only be considered preliminary. While the high level of attrition among the scholarship recipients is disappointing, potential attendance barriers are discussed, particularly from long-term care settings. Management development programs may improve the satisfaction and retention of critically needed managers and enhance development of future nursing leaders.

  15. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self...

  16. Teacher professionalisation in relation to retention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    within Danish VET. The main research questions are: Is it possible to train teachers to be able to focus on the students’ completion of the program and not only on the subject matter? Do teachers change their attitudes and actual performance in the classroom after training programs? And do new......Teacher professionalization in relation to retention strategies Bjarne Wahlgren, professor, director National Centre of Competence Development, University of Aarhus, Denmark The research project ‘New roles for the teacher’ was initiated due to a concern about the increasing number of dropouts...... pedagogical strategies have any impact on retention? The project started in 2010 and includes annual interventions and measurements of the output of these inventions. The intervention includes various teacher training programs e.g. about training in cooperative learning, classroom management, conflict...

  17. Adolescent student nurses: implications for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jean

    2008-04-01

    Students on child branch programmes tend to be younger than those joining other branches. There appear to be issues that are specific to younger children's nursing students that could have an impact on student retention. In this article, young student nurses (under 21 years of age) are viewed as late adolescents. Issues that may impact on retention are explored including: identity development, transition to university life, adolescents as learners and coping strategies and support. Younger children's nursing students also face the specific challenge of nursing adolescents not much younger than themselves. Educationalists need to be mindful of the differing needs of students across the age range, especially younger students who are immersed in the transitions to adulthood and the sometimes difficult times encountered when exploring their personal identity as well as their university identity.

  18. A model of nursing student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Elisabeth N

    2012-03-18

    A model of nursing student retention was studied in nontraditional, associate degree nursing students. Student retention was defined as persistence, or choosing to continue in a nursing program, and successful academic performance, or meeting the necessary academic standards to continue in a nursing program. The model shows the interaction of background variables, internal psychological processes, and external supports, and their relationships to persistence and academic performance. Participants were 458 nontraditional associate degree nursing students. There were significant differences in background variables between students who persisted and those who withdrew voluntarily or failed academically. Perceived faculty support was related to both persistence and academic performance, such that students with higher perceived faculty support were more likely to continue in a nursing program until graduation and were more likely to be successful academically. Students with higher perceived faculty support also had higher outcome expectations of earning an associate degree in nursing.

  19. Determinants of Student Retention of Microeconomic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    John Kane; Larry Spizman

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we examine a variety of individual, institutional, and course-specific factors that influence students' retention of concepts from the microeconomics principles course. Students in 15 upper-division courses in the SUNY-Oswego economics department completed a survey instrument and the TUCE exam at the beginning of the Spring 1999 semester. A regression analysis is used to examine the effect of principles course characteristics on student recall (as measured by TUCE score), contr...

  20. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short M...

  1. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A convenient process design methodology which accounts also for product quality is Conceptual Process Design (CPD). An approach to follow CPD methodology is first to explore, the material properties...

  2. Customer Retention in E-commerce business

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Feihua

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is growing fast with the fast development of internet and communication technology. Now E-commerce brings the businesses a world wide market and a huge population of protential csutomer. For customers the price information is more transparent and there are much more buying choices than before. Online businesses are competeing for customers on a word wide market like never before. The customer retention gained increased value among the E-commerc businesses. But the research of cust...

  3. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  4. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  5. The use of Bayesian nonlinear regression techniques for the modelling of the retention behaviour of volatile components of Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Heravi, M; Mani-Varnosfaderani, A; Taherinia, D; Mahmoodi, M M

    2012-07-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the ability of Bayesian multivariate adaptive regression splines (BMARS) and Bayesian radial basis function (BRBF) techniques for modelling the gas chromatographic retention indices of volatile components of Artemisia species. A diverse set of molecular descriptors was calculated and used as descriptor pool for modelling the retention indices. The ability of BMARS and BRBF techniques was explored for the selection of the most relevant descriptors and proper basis functions for modelling. The results revealed that BRBF technique is more reproducible than BMARS for modelling the retention indices and can be used as a method for variable selection and modelling in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies. It is also concluded that the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) search engine, implemented in BRBF algorithm, is a suitable method for selecting the most important features from a vast number of them. The values of correlation between the calculated retention indices and the experimental ones for the training and prediction sets (0.935 and 0.902, respectively) revealed the prediction power of the BRBF model in estimating the retention index of volatile components of Artemisia species.

  6. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire.

  7. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário Nuno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.

  8. RAINWATER RETENTION ON THE HEAVILY INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  9. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  10. Validity of sealant retention as surrogate for caries prevention--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION/AIM: To appraise the clinical literature in determining whether loss of complete sealant retention as surrogate endpoint is directly associated with caries occurrence on sealed teeth as its clinical endpoint and to apply the appraised evidence in testing the null-hypothesis that the retention/caries ratio between different types of sealant materials (resin and glass-ionomer cement is not statistically significant (= Prentice criterion for surrogate endpoint validity. METHODS: Databases searched PubMed/Medline, Directory of Open Access Journals; IndMed, Scielo. Systematic reviews were checked for suitable trials. The search terms: "fiss* AND seal*" and "fissure AND sealant" were used. Article selection criteria were: clinical trial reporting on the retention and caries occurrence of resin and/or glass-ionomer cement (GIC fissure sealed permanent molar teeth; minimum 24-month follow-up period; systematic review or meta-analysis. Datasets and information were extracted from accepted trials. The principle outcome measure was the ratio of Risk of loss of complete retention to the Risk of caries occurrence per sealant type (RCR. Risk of bias was assessed in trials and sensitivity analysis with regard to potential confounding factors conducted. The null-hypothesis was tested by graphical and statistical methods. RESULTS: The risk of loss of complete retention of sealant materials was associated with the risk of caries occurrence for resin but not for GIC based sealants. The difference between RCR values of the two sealant types was statistically significant (p<0.05. The null-hypothesis was rejected. CONCLUSIONS: The current clinical evidence suggests that complete retention of pit and fissure sealants may not be a valid surrogate endpoint for caries prevention as its clinical endpoint. Further research is required to corroborate the current results.

  11. Validity of Sealant Retention as Surrogate for Caries Prevention – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Aim To appraise the clinical literature in determining whether loss of complete sealant retention as surrogate endpoint is directly associated with caries occurrence on sealed teeth as its clinical endpoint and to apply the appraised evidence in testing the null-hypothesis that the retention/caries ratio between different types of sealant materials (resin and glass-ionomer cement) is not statistically significant ( = Prentice criterion for surrogate endpoint validity). Methods Databases searched PubMed/Medline, Directory of Open Access Journals; IndMed, Scielo. Systematic reviews were checked for suitable trials. The search terms: “fiss* AND seal*” and “fissure AND sealant” were used. Article selection criteria were: clinical trial reporting on the retention and caries occurrence of resin and/or glass-ionomer cement (GIC) fissure sealed permanent molar teeth; minimum 24-month follow-up period; systematic review or meta-analysis. Datasets and information were extracted from accepted trials. The principle outcome measure was the ratio of Risk of loss of complete retention to the Risk of caries occurrence per sealant type (RCR). Risk of bias was assessed in trials and sensitivity analysis with regard to potential confounding factors conducted. The null-hypothesis was tested by graphical and statistical methods. Results The risk of loss of complete retention of sealant materials was associated with the risk of caries occurrence for resin but not for GIC based sealants. The difference between RCR values of the two sealant types was statistically significant (p<0.05). The null-hypothesis was rejected. Conclusions The current clinical evidence suggests that complete retention of pit and fissure sealants may not be a valid surrogate endpoint for caries prevention as its clinical endpoint. Further research is required to corroborate the current results. PMID:24194861

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry in recognition memory: effects of retention level on the recognition of Portuguese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Perea, Maria Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Gamito, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Early findings from Broca and Wernicke led to the classical view of hemispheric specialization, where the main idea relates to left-hemisphere language capabilities compared to right-hemisphere visual capabilities. Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) have suggested that semantic encoding for verbal information in the right hemisphere can be more effective when memory demands are higher. In light of this, our main goal was to study the effect of retention level of verbal information on hemispheric processes. However, regarding the cross-linguistic differences in orthography and their subsequent effects on word recognition (Frost, Katz, & Bentin, 1987), our intent was also to test prior predictions of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) for a "shallow" orthography language, where words have a clear correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, as opposed to English, which is a "deep" orthography language. Portuguese concrete nouns were selected. The participants were submitted to a visual half-field word presentation using a continuous recognition memory paradigm. The retention level included 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 or 40 words. Results showed that recognition accuracy was higher for words studied in the right visual field, compared to those studied in the left visual field, when the retention interval included 2, 4, or 20 words. No significant differences were found for the remaining intervals. Further analysis on accuracy data for intermediate retention levels showed that recognition accuracy was higher for the 2 words retention level than for the levels including 4, 8, or 20 words; it was higher for left-hemisphere encoding as well. Our results also indicated that reaction times were slower for left-hemisphere encoding and for the 40 words retention level when compared to that of 20 words. In summary, the current results are in partial agreement with those of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) and suggest different hemispheric memory strategies for the semantic encoding of verbal

  13. Predicting Retention Times of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: A Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship (QSRR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wei Chan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs have successfully been developed for naturally occurring phenolic compounds in a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC system. A total of 1519 descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures of the molecules using MOPAC2009 and DRAGON softwares. The data set of 39 molecules was divided into training and external validation sets. For feature selection and mapping we used step-wise multiple linear regression (SMLR, unsupervised forward selection followed by step-wise multiple linear regression (UFS-SMLR and artificial neural networks (ANN. Stable and robust models with significant predictive abilities in terms of validation statistics were obtained with negation of any chance correlation. ANN models were found better than remaining two approaches. HNar, IDM, Mp, GATS2v, DISP and 3D-MoRSE (signals 22, 28 and 32 descriptors based on van der Waals volume, electronegativity, mass and polarizability, at atomic level, were found to have significant effects on the retention times. The possible implications of these descriptors in RPLC have been discussed. All the models are proven to be quite able to predict the retention times of phenolic compounds and have shown remarkable validation, robustness, stability and predictive performance.

  14. GABAA receptors determine the temporal dynamics of memory retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABAA receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate intervals (1–4 h), retention was poor. Activity at GABAA receptors was critical for impairing memory retention at the intermediate intervals because injection of the GABAA receptor partial inverse agonist FG7142 prior to test significantly improved performance. These retention enhancing effects of FG7142 were dose-dependent and not due to any nonspecific effects of FG7142 on activity. Our results suggest that the temporal dynamics of memory retention may be caused by variations in neurotransmission through the GABAA receptor in the post-training period. PMID:18285469

  15. Differential effect of alcoholism and HIV infection on visuomotor procedural learning and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-10-01

    Selective declarative memory processes are differentially compromised in chronic alcoholism (ALC) and HIV infection (HIV) and likely reflect neuropathology associated with each condition: frontocerebellar dysfunction in ALC and frontostriatal dysfunction in HIV infection. Evidence for disease overlap derives from observed exacerbated impairments in these declarative memory processes in ALC-HIV comorbidity. Less is known about nondeclarative memory processes in these disease conditions. Examination of visuomotor learning in chronic ALC and HIV infection could provide insight into the differential and combined contribution of selective disease-related injury to visuomotor procedural memory processes. We examined component processes of visuomotor learning and retention on the rotary pursuit task in 29 ALC, 23 HIV, 28 ALC + HIV, and 20 control subjects. Participants were given 4 rotary pursuit learning sessions over 2 testing days, typically separated by 1 week, to assess visuomotor learning and retention patterns. Ancillary measures of simple motor, psychomotor, explicit memory, and balance abilities were administered to test which component processes independently predicted visuomotor learning. All clinical groups showed visuomotor learning across rotary pursuit testing sessions, despite impairment in visuomotor speed in the HIV groups and impairment in explicit memory and psychomotor speed in the alcohol groups. The 2 alcoholic groups showed retention and consolidation over time (i.e., improved performance without further training), whereas the HIV-infected group showed learning and retention but no consolidation effect. The comorbid group shared impairments associated with the ALC-only group (explicit memory and psychomotor speed) and the HIV-only group (visuomotor speed), although there was no clear compounded effect of alcohol and HIV infection on visuomotor learning performance. This study supports the hypothesis that ALC and HIV infection exert differential

  16. “To be or not to be retained … That’s the question!”Retention,self - esteem,self - concept,achievement goalsand grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Peixoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders of a larger group of students followed over a three-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: 1 students with past and recent retention; 2 students with past but no recent retention; 3 students with no past but recent retention; 4 students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA were collected for all students.Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones.Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can

  17. “To be or not to be Retained … That’s the Question!” Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine

  18. "To be or not to be Retained … That's the Question!" Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade - retention - has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine students

  19. A multiple linear regression model for predicting zone A retention by military occupational specialty.

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, Ronald P.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Selective Reenlistment Bonus (SRB) program is designed to offer an attractive reenlistment incentive to improve manning in critical skills. To efficiently manage the SRB program, a requirement exists to maintain MOS level estimating factors for use in projecting retention rate improvement as a function of SRB award level. This thesis formulates and solves a mathematical model which explains the variation in zone A re...

  20. Impact Of Customer Relationship Management On Customer Retention A Case Of Private Banks Of Sialkot Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Nayab Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Customer relationship management is good for banking sector to increase in any economic condition and for customers to receive quality services This research check the impact of customer relationship management activities on banks customer retention in Sialkot Punjab. For the purpose of study a sampling analysis was conducted among 330 customers of selected private banks that is Habib Bank limited United Bank limited Faysal Bank limited with the help of a structured questionnaire. 316 questio...

  1. Self-efficacy, stress, and social support in retention of student registered nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Megan

    2015-04-01

    Many studies document the presence of stress and the need for social support in anesthesia students. By addressing these, one can increase students' self-efficacy, which is related to beliefs in one's ability to accomplish an objective. By measuring and instituting measures to increase self-efficacy, we could improve student selection in nurse anesthesia programs, and increase academic success and likelihood of retention. This article reviews the literature on this topic and makes recommendations for increasing student self-efficacy.

  2. Comparison of retention and stability of two implant-retained overdentures based on implant location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Seghi, Robert R; Campagni, Wayne V

    2014-09-01

    The location of dental implants and the choice of retentive attachments for implant-retained overdentures are selected based on clinician preference, expert opinion, or empirical information. Limited information is available regarding implant position and the effect on the retention and stability of 2-implant mandibular implant overdentures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of implant location on the in vitro retention and stability of a simulated 2-implant-supported overdenture and to examine the differences among different attachment systems. A model that simulates a mandibular edentulous ridge with dental implants in positions that approximate tooth positions, and a cobalt-chromium cast framework attached to a universal testing machine was used to measure the peak load (N) required to disconnect the attachments. Four different types of attachments (Ball/Cap, ERA, Locator, and O-Ring) were used in sequence in various positions on the model to evaluate the effect of implant location on the retention and stability of a simulated 2-implant-retained overdenture. Means were calculated, and differences among the systems, directions, and groups were identified by using a repeated measured ANOVA (α=.05). For differences observed between measurements, the Bonferroni post hoc method at the 5% level of significance was used to determine the location and magnitude of difference. The interactions between the attachment system, direction of force, and implant location were statistically significant (P=.01). The vertical retention and horizontal stability of a simulated overdenture prosthesis increased with the distal implant location up to the second premolar, and the anteroposterior stability increased with distal implant location. The attachment type affected retention and stability differently by location. Ball attachments produced the highest levels of retention and stability, followed by Locator (pink), O-Ring, and ERA (orange). The retention

  3. Retention and wear behaviors of two implant overdenture stud-type attachments at different implant angulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-05-01

    Implant angulation should be considered when selecting an attachment. Some in vitro studies have investigated the relationship between implant angulation and changes in the retention force of the stud attachment, but few studies have evaluated the effect of cyclic loading and repeated cycles of insertion and removal on the stud attachment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of implant angulation on the retentive characteristics of overdentures with 2 different stud attachments, an experimental system and O-rings in red and orange, after cyclic loading and repeated insertion and removal cycles. The canine region of a mandibular experimental model was fitted with 2 implant fixtures with 2 different stud attachment systems at implant angulations of 0, 15, or 30 degrees. A mastication simulator was used to simulate cyclic loading, and a universal testing machine was used to evaluate retentive force changes after repeated insertion and removal cycles. To simulate the numbers of mastication and insertion and removal cycles per annum, 400000 cyclic loadings and 1080 insertion and removal cycles were performed. Wear patterns and attachment surface deformations were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05/3=.017), and the paired-sample Student t test (α=.05). When retentive forces before and after testing were compared, O-ring showed significant retention loss at all implant angulations (P.05), whereas the 30-degree model showed a significant increase in retentive force (P=.001). At all implant angulations, retention loss increased significantly for the orange O-ring, followed by the red O-ring, and the experimental system (PO-ring rubber matrix than of the experimental zirconia ball. Upon completion of the experiment, wear and deformation were found for all attachment systems. Even when implants are not installed in parallel, the

  4. Factors influencing the retention of midwives in the public sector in Afghanistan: a qualitative assessment of midwives in eight provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly E; Mansoor, G Farooq; Hashemy, Pashton; Namey, Emily; Gohar, Fatima; Ayoubi, Saadia Fayeq; Todd, Catherine S

    2013-10-01

    to examine factors that affect retention of public sector midwives throughout their career in Afghanistan. qualitative assessment using semi-structured in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs). health clinics in eight provinces in Afghanistan, midwifery education schools in three provinces, and stakeholder organisations in Kabul. purposively sampled midwifery profession stakeholders in Kabul (n=14 IDIs); purposively selected community midwifery students in Kabul (n=3 FGDs), Parwan (n=1 FGD) and Wardak (n=1 FGD) provinces (six participants per FGD); public sector midwives, health facility managers, and community health workers from randomly selected clinics in eight provinces (n=48 IDIs); midwives who had left the public sector midwifery service (n=5 IDIs). several factors affect a midwife throughout her career in the public sector, including her selection as a trainee, the training itself, deployment to her pre-assigned post, and working in clinics. Overall, appropriate selection is the key to ensuring deployment and retention later on in a midwife's career. Other factors that affect retention of midwives include civil security concerns in rural areas, support of family and community, salary levels, professional development opportunities and workplace support, and inefficient human resources planning in the public sector. Factors affecting midwife retention are linked to problems within the community midwifery education (CME) programme and those reflecting the wider Afghan context. Civil insecurity and traditional attitudes towards women were major factors identified that negatively affect midwifery retention. Factors such as civil insecurity and traditional attitudes towards women require a multisectoral response and innovative strategies to reduce their impact. However, factors inherent to midwife career development also impact retention and may be more readily modified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pattern of protein retention in growing boars of different breeds, and estimation of maximum protein retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering...... and metabolic body weight, indicating that maximum protein retention was not reached until 135 kg BW. Differences in capacity for protein retention were recorded between boars of different breeds, with Duroc and Hampshire boars being superior to Danish Landrace boars. Additionally, the crucial importance...

  6. The grit effect: predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eEskreis-Winkler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Remaining committed to goals is necessary (albeit not sufficient to attaining them, but very little is known about domain-general individual differences that contribute to sustained goal commitment. The current investigation examines the association between grit, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, other individual difference variables, and retention in four different contexts: the military, workplace sales, high school, and marriage. Grit predicted retention over and beyond established context-specific predictors of retention (e.g. intelligence, physical aptitude, Big Five personality traits, job tenure and demographic variables in each setting. Grittier soldiers were more likely to complete an Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF selection course, grittier sales employees were more likely to keep their jobs, grittier students were more likely to graduate from high school, and grittier men were more likely to stay married. The relative predictive validity of grit compared to other traditional predictors of retention is examined in each of the four studies. These findings suggest that in addition to domain-specific influences, there may be domain-general individual differences which influence commitment to diverse life goals over time.

  7. Predictors of Vaccination Card Retention in Children 12-59 months old in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Sadiq Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children’s vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Results: Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797 and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970. Gender of the child, and the caretaker’s education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Conclusion: Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33% in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions.

  8. Predictors of Vaccination Card Retention in Children 12-59 months old in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana Sadiq; Ali, Syed Asad

    2014-05-01

    To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children's vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797) and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970). Gender of the child, and the caretaker's education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33%) in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions.

  9. Hydraulic analysis of functioning of the drainage channel with increased retention capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochwat Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic overload of networks and its related objects is a problem that is more and more common in drainage systems. The most popular way to prevent it from its occurring is to increase the storage capacity of the system. At present, there are numerous solutions allowing to increase retention in drainage systems, with the selection of the most beneficial one being dependent on numerous factors; it must also be preceded by a technical and financial analysis. Financial analysis is of particular importance here, since due to significant dimensions and complicated structure, these objects require high investment outlays for its construction. As a consequence, it is a priority to undertake actions aimed at developing such solutions that will allow for significant increases of retention in the drainage system, and cost reductions at the same time. One of such solutions is the Underground tank for combined sewage and stormwater that is now patent-pending. The application of this solution allows to multiply retention capacity of the drainage system, without the necessity of modernizing the existing sewer system. This paper presents the application potential of the subject method for increasing sewer retention, along with its hydraulic function analysis. The research carried out and presented was based on the analysis of individual phases of functioning of the subject solution.

  10. Youth retention: factors associated with treatment drop-out from youth alcohol and other drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Ria; Sellman, Doug; Frampton, Chris; Deering, Daryle

    2009-11-01

    This study examined factors associated with treatment drop-out among young people aged 13-19 years attending alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Data were gathered from structured interviews (n = 79) and a clinical file search of 184 randomly selected young people who had attended youth specific AOD treatment services in Aotearoa, New Zealand during 2003 or 2004. The median length of stay was 2.7 months for those attending day/residential services (n = 42) and 4.0 sessions for those attending outpatient services (n = 37) 16.7% of participants from day/residential services dropped out of treatment early (within the first month) and 32.4% of participants from outpatient treatment services dropped out of treatment early (before the third session). Fixed client characteristics, such as age, sex, ethnicity, substance use and mental health diagnoses were not found to be associated with treatment retention. Dynamic client characteristics, such as motivation to attend treatment and expectations about treatment outcomes and program characteristics, such as positive experiences with treatment staff and feeling involved in the treatment process were found to be associated with treatment retention. The findings of this study support previous research indicating that fixed client characteristics are not sufficient to explain youth retention in AOD treatment. Of more use are dynamic client characteristics and program variables. These findings stress the potential for improving treatment retention by creating more youth appropriate services.

  11. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  12. Membrane bioreactor sludge rheology at different solid retention times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laera, G; Giordano, C; Pollice, A; Saturno, D; Mininni, G

    2007-10-01

    Rheological characterization is of crucial importance in sludge management both in terms of biomass dewatering and stabilization properties and in terms of design parameters for sludge handling operations. The sludge retention time (SRT) has a significant influence on biomass properties in biological wastewater treatment systems and in particular in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The aim of this work is to compare the rheological behaviour of the biomass in a MBR operated under different SRTs. A bench-scale MBR was operated for 4 years under the same conditions except for the SRT, which ranged from 20 days to complete sludge retention. The rheological properties were measured over time and the apparent viscosity was correlated with the concentration of solid material when equilibrium conditions were reached and maintained. The three models most commonly adopted for rheological simulations were evaluated and compared in terms of their parameters. Then, steady-state average values of these parameters were related to the equilibrium biomass concentration (MLSS). The models were tested to select the one better fitting the experimental data in terms of mean root square error (MRSE). The relationship between the apparent viscosity and the shear rate, as a function of solid concentration, was determined and is proposed here. Statistical analysis showed that, in general, the Bingham model provided slightly better results than the Ostwald one. However, considering that a strong correlation between the two parameters of the Ostwald model was found for all the SRTs tested, both in the transient growth phases and under steady-state conditions, this model might be used more conveniently. This feature suggests that the latter model is easier to be used for the determination of the sludge apparent viscosity.

  13. LARES Mission: Separation and Retention Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursi, Alessandro; Camilli, Pierluigi; Piredda, Claudio; Babini, Gianni; Mangraviti, Elio

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Lares (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission, an all-Italian scientific mission launched with the Vega maiden flight in February 2012, a mechanical separation and retention subsystem (SSEP) has been developed to retain the LARES satellite during launch and release it in the final orbit. The design flow was based on the identification of the driving requirements and critical areas to guide the trade-off, design, analysis and test activities. In particular, the SSEP had to face very high environmental loads and to minimize the contact areas with the satellite that had a spherical shape. The test activity overview is provided.

  14. Haemodynamics and fluid retention in liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    1998-01-01

    blood volume and systemic vascular resistance are decreased. A systemic and splanchnic vasodilatation is of pathogenic importance to the low systemic vascular resistance and abnormal volume distribution. These are important elements in the development of the low arterial blood pressure and hyperkinetic......, and elevated circulation vasopressin, endothelin-1 may also be implicated in the haemodynamic counter-regulation in cirrhosis. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the haemodynamic and neurohumoral abnormalities in cirrhosis are part of a general circulatory dysfunction, influencing the course...... of the disease with reduction of kidney function and sodium-water retention as the outcome....

  15. A quantitative structure- property relationship of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric retention data of 85 volatile organic compounds as air pollutant materials by multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Ayati, Mahnaz

    2012-05-02

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study is suggested for the prediction of retention times of volatile organic compounds. Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structure of compounds. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). The stepwise regression was used for the selection of the variables which gives the best-fitted models. After variable selection ANN, MLR methods were used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental values. MLR as the linear regression method shows good ability in the prediction of the retention times of the prediction set. This provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatography retention index for the volatile organic compounds.

  16. A quantitative structure- property relationship of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric retention data of 85 volatile organic compounds as air pollutant materials by multivariate methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhosh Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR study is suggested for the prediction of retention times of volatile organic compounds. Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structure of compounds. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN. The stepwise regression was used for the selection of the variables which gives the best-fitted models. After variable selection ANN, MLR methods were used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental values. MLR as the linear regression method shows good ability in the prediction of the retention times of the prediction set. This provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatography retention index for the volatile organic compounds.

  17. Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in Chemistry at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Suleman, Qaiser; ud Din, M. Naseer; Shafique, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigated the effects of information and communication technology on the students' academic achievement and retention in chemistry. Fifty students of 9th grade were selected randomly from Kohsar Public School and College Latamber Karak. The students were grouped into equivalent groups based on pretest score. In order to…

  18. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  19. Measuring memory monitoring with judgements of retention (JORs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Most prior research has examined predictions of future memory performance by eliciting judgements of learning (JOLs). In six experiments, we explored monitoring with an alternative prospective measure. Specifically, participants made judgements of retention (JORs) predicting how long (in min) they would be able to remember information. Results revealed that participants provided relatively short predictions of how long they would remember information. Further, participants' JORs were sensitive to recall performance as well as manipulations that influenced memory performance indicating that they were able to effectively monitor learning using JORs. JORs influenced study decisions as well, with participants selecting more items for restudy following JORs than following JOLs or no monitoring judgement. However, restudy selection did not vary between a JOR and a JOL condition framed in terms of forgetting. Thus, we suggest that, much like forget-framed JOLs, JORs may bring different information-such as memory failure-to mind. In all, the inferential mechanisms underlying metacognitive monitoring with JOLs extends to monitoring when measured with JORs. Assessing monitoring with JORs provides information not available with JOLs (i.e., memory duration estimates) and a different basis for study decisions from remember-framed JOLs.

  20. Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students.…

  1. A parametric study of helium retention in beryllium and its effect on deuterium retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, D.; Baldwin, M. J.; Simmonds, M.; Nishijima, D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Brezinsek, S.; Doerner, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Beryllium samples have been exposed in the PISCES-B linear plasma device to conditions relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in pure He, D, and D/He mixed plasmas. Except at intermediate sample exposure temperatures (573–673 K) He addition to a D plasma is found to have a beneficial effect as it reduces the D retention in Be (up to ∼55%), although the mechanism is unclear. Retention of He is typically around 1020–1021 He m‑2, and is affected primarily by the Be surface temperature during exposition, by the ion fluence at <500 K exposure, but not by the ion impact energy at 573 K. Contamination of the Be surface with high-Z elements from the mask of the sample holder in pure He plasmas is also observed under certain conditions, and leads to unexpectedly large He retention values, as well as changes in the surface morphology. An estimation of the tritium retention in the Be first wall of ITER is provided, being sufficiently low to allow a safe operation of ITER.

  2. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xu, Yu-Ping [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Zhao, Ming-Zhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mao, Hong-Min [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  3. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  5. Forecasting Mobile Games' Retention using Weka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ioana STIRCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the actual market, when thousands of mobile, PC or console games are released every year, developing and publishing a successful and profitable game is a very challenging process. The gaming industry is very competitive, and all the distribution channels are full of projects competing for players. More and more companies are investing a lot of time and resources in developing an effective way to save and store all the data used and generated by their game's users. In order to develop effective and successful projects, companies adopted a lot of tools and techniques from other domains, like Statistics, Business Intelligence, or Project Management. The method most currently used is Analytics, defined as the process of discovering and communicating patterns in data, to better understand players' behavior, analyze their in-game interaction, and predicting their next in-game actions. This represents a huge step forward for the gaming industry, towards successful projects and user-tailored gaming experience. In this article the problem of users' retention is discussed, and a regression model is proposed in order to forecast players' retention, and prevent players from leaving the game.

  6. Retention priorities for the intergenerational nurse workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, K Lynn; Dols, Jean; Landrum, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Retention of senior, Gen-X, and Millennial nurses is influenced by manager interactions and efforts to create a satisfying work experience. The purpose of this project was a generational assessment of job satisfaction, work environment, and desired characteristics of managers in an effort to improve nurse retention. Data from staff nurses at 22 southern hospitals collected by online survey included measures of job satisfaction and perceptions of safety, the Nurse Manager Desired Traits survey, and the Nursing Work Index-Revised. The satisfaction with work environment scores for the whole group (n = 1,773) were high. Subscale scores showed highest satisfaction with nurse/physician relationships; lowest was nurse control of practice. A specific satisfaction question showed the younger nurses were less satisfied than those over age 40. Nurse safety concerns were expressed by 40% of the sample. One third of Millennial nurses plan to leave their job within the next 2 years. Over two thirds plan to be gone within the next 5 years. Especially alarming is the fact that 61% of the nurse group stated they plan to leave their current jobs within 10 years. (a) Create model managers; (b) empower staff nurse councils; (c) stabilize staffing; (d) revamp incentives; and (e) focus on safety.

  7. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions.

  8. Job embeddedness as a nurse retention strategy for rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    RN turnover is expensive and disruptive for rural hospitals, constraining finances, impacting patient care, and stressing remaining nurses. Recent investigations have described a promising new construct related to employee retention: job embeddedness. Leaders in nonhealthcare organizations have adopted a job-embeddedness model to guide retention strategies and experienced a subsequent reduction in turnover. The author explores job embeddedness as an effective retention plan strategy for rural hospitals.

  9. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Omray, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet co...

  10. Evaluation of compost influence on soil water retention

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Zemánek

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was focused on evaluation of influence of compost application on soil water retention. Soil retention is a major soil water property that governs soil functioning as a ecosystem. Soil moisture forms a major buffer against flooding, and water capacity in subsoil is a major factor for plant growth. The effects of changes in soil water retention depend on the proportions of the textural components and the amount of organic carbon present in the soil. During seasons of 2009 and 201...

  11. Designing Incentives for Marine Corps Cyber Workforce Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    CORPS CYBER WORKFORCE RETENTION 6. AUTHOR(S) Lucas F. Hemandez and Derek K. Jolmson 7. PERFORMING OR GANI ZATION NA:i\\ IIE (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...bureaucracy). These fmdings were incmporated into a Design Thinking process that resulted in three prototype solutions to cyber retention. This study...that resulted in three prototype solutions to cyber retention. This study demonstrates how the unique characteristics of cyber personnel require

  12. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition.......Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  13. Proteinuric diseases with sodium retention: Is plasmin the link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Skøtt, Ole; Jensen, Boye L

    2012-01-01

    1. Sodium retention in disease states characterized by proteinuria, such as nephrotic syndrome, preeclampsia, and diabetic nephropathy, occurs through poorly understood mechanism(s). 2. In the nephrotic syndrome, data from experimental and clinical studies indicate that the sodium retention...... and diabetic nephropathy, which are also characterized by proteinuria and sodium retention. 7. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of urinary serine protease activity in the development of sodium and water retention in diseases characterised by proteinuria with a focus on the nephrotic...

  14. Unfired clay bricks – retention curves and liquid diffusivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Kristensen, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents retention curves and liquid diffusivities of two different types of unfired clay bricks, both produced in Denmark on commercial basis. The retention curves are determined by use of pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatuses. The liquid diffusivity is calculated on the ba......This paper presents retention curves and liquid diffusivities of two different types of unfired clay bricks, both produced in Denmark on commercial basis. The retention curves are determined by use of pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatuses. The liquid diffusivity is calculated...

  15. Retention of Content Utilizing a Flipped Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatto, Bobbi; LʼEcuyer, Kristine; Quinn, Jerod

    The flipped classroom experience promotes retention and accountability for learning. The authors report their evaluation of a flipped classroom for accelerated second-degree nursing students during their primary medical-surgical nursing course. Standardized HESI® scores were compared between a group of students who experienced the flipped classroom and a previous group who had traditional teaching methods. Short- and long-term retention was measured using standardized exams 3 months and 12 months following the course. Results indicated that short-term retention was greater and long- term retention was significantly great in the students who were taught using flipped classroom methodology.

  16. Influence of cement film thickness on the retention of implant-retained crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Steiner, Martin; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to establish a new, high precision procedure to evaluate the influence of cement film thickness on the retention of cemented implant-retained crowns. Ninety-six tapered titanium abutments (6° taper, 4.3 mm diameter, Camlog) were shortened to 4 mm. Computer-aided design was used to design the crowns, and selective laser sintering, using a cobalt-chromium alloy, was used to produce the crowns. This method used a focused high-energy laser beam to fuse a localized region of metal powder to build up the crowns gradually. Before cementing, preset cement film thicknesses of 15, 50, 80, or 110 μm were established. Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or resin cements were used for cementation. After 3 days storage in demineralized water, the retention of the crowns was measured in tension using a universal testing machine. The cement film thicknesses could be achieved with a high level of precision. Interactions between the factors cement and cement film thickness could be found (p ≤ 0.001). For all cements, crown retention decreased significantly between a cement film thickness of 15 and 50 μm (p ≤ 0.001). At 15 μm cement film thickness, the resin cement was the most retentive cement, followed by the polycarboxylate and then the glass ionomer cement (p ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that cement film thickness has an influence on the retentive strength of cemented implant-retained crowns. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. [Characteristics and associated factors of long-term retention for methadone maintenance treatment patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-bin; Wu, Zun-you; Rou, Ke-ming; Pang, Lin; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chang-he; Yin, Wen-yuan; Li, Jian-hua

    2012-11-01

    To describe the characteristics and factors associated with long-term retention for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. This study was conducted in eight MMT clinics located in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou and Zhejiang provinces. Five hundred and thirty-nine MMT patients who enrolled in MMT clinics in 2004 and retained in treatment by June 2010 were selected as study subjects. Chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and drug abuse history at enrollment and treatment characteristics during the follow-up period between continuous treatment patients and discontinuous treatment patients. Of the 539 patients, 110 (20.4%) were continuous treatment patients whereas 429 (79.6%) were discontinuous treatment patients. Of these 429 discontinuous treatment patients, 84.1% (361/429) had 2-4 treatment episodes whereas 15.9% (68/429) had 5 or more episodes during follow-up period. When continuous treatment patients were compared with discontinuous treatment patients, living with family members or friends (88.2% (97/110), 78.5% (337/429)), age of first drug use under 25 (61.8% (68/110), 71.3% (306/429)), low urine morphine positive test results (67.3% (74/110), 38.2% (164/429)) and living within 5 kilometers of the MMT clinic (72.7% (80/110), 61.3% (263/429)) were positively associated with higher possibility of continuous treat retention (P relationship, injection, needle sharing, criminal behavior, contacts with drug users, MMT daily dosage and family members receiving MMT were not significantly associated with treatment retention (P > 0.05). Illicit drug use during the treatment and longer distance travelling to MMT clinic might have negative impact on patients' continuous treatment retention. Mobile MMT vehicles and expanded MMT service sites could be introduced to improve compliance of treatment retention of MMT patients.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the retention of prefabricated posts luted with two different cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastnaei Peimaneh Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: In case of nonsurgical endodontic re-treatment or replacing a restoration, one of the best methods for removing post from the canal is using an ultrasonic vibration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the retention of post luted with zinc phosphate or glass ionmer cements.   Materials and Methods: 96 sound extracted lower premolars were selected. The coronal section of specimen was removed and the roots were endodontically treated. A 9-mm post space was prepared in each specimens and a stainless steel Parapost XP was cemented into the post space. Half of the specimens were cemented with the Zinc phosphate cement and the other by g lass ionomer cement. After 7 days of storage, both groups were equally divided into 4 subgroups of 12 teeth. Control group did not receive any treatment. The other subgroups subjected to ultrasonic vibration for 4, 8 or 12 minutes. The retention of all specimens was evaluated and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests.   Results: In control (no ultrasonic group and 4 minute ultrasonic group, the retention of posts luted with Zinc phosphate cement were not significantly differen t from those luted with g lass ionomer cement. (P=0.372. On the other hand , applying of ultrasonic vibration for 8 and 12 minutes in zinc phosphate and 12 minutes in g lass ionomer caused a significant reduction in the retention of posts (P=0.01.   Conclusion: Although, the initial retention of two cements was not different, the ultrasonic vibration had more catastrophic effect on zinc phosphate in comparison to glass ionomer.

  19. Retention mechanism of proteins in hydroxyapatite chromatography - multimodal interaction based protein separations: A model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-10-24

    Retention mechanism of proteins in hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) was investigated by linear gradient elution experiments. Several mobile phase (buffer) solution strategies and solutes were evaluated in order to probe the relative contributions of two adsorption sites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, C-site due to Ca (metal affinity) and P-site due to PO4 (cation-exchange). When P-site was blocked, two basic proteins, lysozyme (Lys) and ribonuclease A(RNase), were not retained whereas cytochrome C(Cyt C) and lactoferrin (LF) were retained and also retention of acidic proteins became stronger as the repulsion due to P-site was eliminated. The number of the binding site B values determined from LGE also increased, which also showed reduction of repulsion forces. The selectivity (retention) of four basic proteins (RNase, Lys, Cyt C, LF) in HAC was different from that in ion-exchange chromatography. Moreover, it was possible to tune the selectivity by using NaCl gradient. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Does skill retention benefit from retentivity and symbolic rehearsal? - two studies with a simulated process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Frank, Barbara; Maafi, Sanaz; Kuzmanovska, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were designed to compare two symbolic rehearsal refresher interventions (imaginary practice, a hidden introspective process) and investigate the role of retentivity in skill retention. Retentivity is investigated as the ability to memorise and reproduce information and associations that were learned a short time ago. Both experiments comprised initial training (week 1), a symbolic rehearsal for the experimental group (week 2) and a retention assessment (week 3). In the first study, the experimental group received a symbolic rehearsal, while the control group received no rehearsal. In the second study, the experimental group received the same symbolic rehearsal used in study 1, enhanced with rehearsal tasks addressing human-computer interaction. The results showed that both symbolic rehearsal interventions were equally likely to mitigate skill decay. The retentivity showed medium to high correlations with skill retention in both studies, and the results suggest that subjects high in retentivity benefit more from a symbolic rehearsal refresher intervention. Practitioner Summary: Skill decay becomes a problem in situations in which jobs require the correct mastery of non-routine situations. Two experimental studies with simulated process control tasks showed that symbolic rehearsal and retentivity can significantly mitigate skill decay and that subjects higher in retentivity benefit more from refresher interventions.

  1. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  2. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  3. Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Terttaliisa, E-mail: terttaliisa.lind@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dehbi, Abdel; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with high gas flow rates

  4. Are self-etch adhesive systems effective in the retention of occlusal sealants? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Graziela; Morgental, Caroline Sonego; Scherer, Maitê Munhoz; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Occlusal sealants are an effective method for caries prevention, although the effectiveness of different application strategies has not been established yet. This systematic review compared the retention rate of sealants placed on occlusal surfaces following the use of self-etch adhesive systems and traditional acid etching, with or without the application of adhesive system. Literature searching was carried out until June 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials databases selecting randomized clinical trials that evaluated self-etch adhesive systems associated with pit and fissure sealants in primary or permanent molars comprising retention as outcome. From 683 potentially eligible studies, 10 were selected for full-text analysis and 5 were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the bias risk. Pooled-effect estimates were obtained by comparing the retention failure rate between groups (self-etch systems vs acid etching with or without adhesive systems). Significant difference was found between groups, favoring the control group (prior acid etching) (P self-etch systems show lower retention throughout time than sealants applied in the conventional approach, regardless of the use of adhesive systems. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Strategy for reduced calibration sets to develop quantitative structure-retention relationships in high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Jan P M; Claessens, Henk A; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2009-10-12

    In high-performance liquid chromatography, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) are applied to model the relation between chromatographic retention and quantities derived from molecular structure of analytes. Classically a substantial number of test analytes is used to build QSRR models. This makes their application laborious and time consuming. In this work a strategy is presented to build QSRR models based on selected reduced calibration sets. The analytes in the reduced calibration sets are selected from larger sets of analytes by applying the algorithm of Kennard and Stone on the molecular descriptors used in the QSRR concerned. The strategy was applied on three QSRR models of different complexity, relating logk(w) or logk with either: (i) logP, the n-octanol-water partition coefficient, (ii) calculated quantum chemical indices (QCI), or (iii) descriptors from the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). Models were developed and validated for 76 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography systems. From the results we can conclude that it is possible to develop logP models suitable for the future prediction of retentions with as few as seven analytes. For the QCI and LSER models we derived the rule that three selected analytes per descriptor are sufficient. Both the dependent variable space, formed by the retention values, and the independent variable space, formed by the descriptors, are covered well by the reduced calibration sets. Finally guidelines to construct small calibration sets are formulated.

  6. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

    2014-01-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24 h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ∼5.8 cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ∼25.6 cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72 h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

  7. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

    2014-12-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24 h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ∼5.8 cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ∼25.6 cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72 h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis.

  8. Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility as an Attraction and Retention Factor for Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates if company social-environmental responsibility (SER is an attraction and retention factor for young professionals in two studies. The first study, an experiment, investigates whether such practices influence the attraction exerted by the company as a prospect employer among undergraduate students, considering different wage and professional development conditions. The second study, a survey, investigates the impact of company SER on voluntary turnover among trainees, controlling for individual differences and satisfaction with income, growth and interests. The results suggest that SER is an important element in the attractiveness exercised by companies as they recruit young professionals, and in the retention of trainees, since it is statistically associated with the likelihood of them leaving their companies after disputed selection processes and expensive training programs.

  9. Acute urine retention induced by ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceftriaxone is known to cause biliary pseudolithiasis and, rarely, nephrolithiasis. When used in neonates receiving intravenous calcium, fatal lung and kidney calcifications occur. There is no satisfactory explanation for the pseudolithiasis, and the mechanism of stone formation remains unknown. Herein, we report a child with acute urinary retention (AUR secondary to ceftriaxone therapy. The AUR developed on the second hospital day. The urinary excretion of uric acid was elevated. In retrospect, there was a positive paternal family history of gout and stones. A positive family history of gout or stones is a pointer to the possibility of AUR or urolithiasis in patients on treatment with ceftriaxone. If urinary symptoms develop, it is worth checking for crystalluria. This will avoid many unnecessary investigations and procedures.

  10. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  11. Retention Rates in New Contact Lens Wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; McCready, Sarah; Targett, Marie-Therese; Craven, Ruth

    2017-06-14

    To determine the retention rate (RR) for neophyte patients fitted with contact lenses (CLs) and to identify factors associated with retention and dropout. This multisite, sponsor-masked registry study evaluated the 1-year status of neophyte CL wearers fitted in a representative range of UK practices. A total of 26 UK investigational sites each recruited up to 89 neophyte patients. The participants were requested to complete surveys at 1 month (±1 week from date of fitting), 3 months (±2 weeks), and 12 months (±3 weeks) online or through phone. Participants were contacted by email (or phone) and invited to complete an online survey that asked a range of questions regarding their CL wearing experience. Of the 531 participants recruited, 65.3% (347/531) responded to at least one follow-up survey and 42.3% (225/531) responded to all three surveys. One in four patients showed discontinued CL wear by 12 months. Based on evaluable subjects at 12 months, the RR was 77.6% (194/250, 95% confidence interval: 72.0-82.3). The most common reason for discontinuation was problems with vision (41%), followed by discomfort (36%) and handling problems (25%). The factors affecting first-year RRs: sex, spherical refraction, lens usage (full time or part time), and supply method (collected or posted). In this prospective study, the first-year RR for neophyte CL wearers was 77.6%. This was consistent with that noted in a retrospective study: 74.0%. As with the previous study, the commonly cited reason for discontinuation was visual problems.

  12. Building 310 retention tanks characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholeen, C.M.; Geraghty, D.C.

    1996-12-01

    The Health Physics Section of ANL performed a characterization of the Building 310 Service Floor Retention Tank Facility during the months of July and August, 1996. The characterization included measurements for radioactivity, air sampling for airborne particles and sampling to determine the presence and quantity of hazardous materials requiring remediation. Copies of previous lead and asbestos sampling information was obtained from ESH-IH. The facility consists of ten retention tanks located in rooms, A-062A, A-050A, A-038A, A-026A, and an entry room A-068A which contained miscellaneous pumps and other scrap material. Significant contamination was found in each room except room A-068A which had two contaminated spots on the floor and a discarded contaminated pump. Room A-062A: This room had the highest radiation background. Therefore, beta readings reflected the background readings. The floor, west wall, and the exterior of tank No. 1 had areas of alpha contamination. The piping leading from the tank had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on the west wall-Room A-050A: Alpha and Beta contamination is wide spread on the floor, west wall and the lower portion of the north wall. An area near the electrical box on the west wall had alpha and beta loose contamination. The exterior of tank No. 4 also had contaminated areas. The grate in front of tank No. 4 was contaminated. The piping leading from tanks No. 2, 3, and 4 had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on tank No. 4 and on the tar paper that is glued to the floor.

  13. Retention of Medical Records in Ghanaian Teaching Hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention of Medical Records in Ghanaian Teaching Hospitals: Some International Perspectives. ... The study revealed that the problems inherent in the retention of management of non-current medical records are due to the absence of formal guidelines and procedures, and to the fact that those that exist are not properly ...

  14. Satisfaction with retention factors as predictors of the job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether employees' satisfaction with retention factors (measured by the Retention Factors Scale) significantly predicted their job embeddedness (measured by the Job Embeddedness Scale). A quantitative survey was conducted on a purposive sample (n=206) of early career ...

  15. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT... employee's basic pay based on a critical agency need. In addition to the determination required by § 575... result of approval of a waiver of the maximum limit on the amount of a retention incentive under...

  16. Characterization of Soil-Water Retention with Coarse Fragments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of coarse fragments can have profound impact on soil moisture retention characteristics. The study was conducted to assess the effects of coarse fragments on the moisture retention characteristics of 16 soil series, developed over five different parent materials in the Densu basin. Soil profiles were excavated ...

  17. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out at the Urology and Accident and Emergency Units of KATH. A complete work-up to establish the cause of urine retention preceded data collection. The subject's demographic data, causes and management of urine retention with outcomes were recorded on data sheet. Data was analyzed using ...

  18. Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

  19. Perceptions of the Impact of School Administrators on Teacher Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zsa Zsa L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the behaviors of administrators and their impact on teacher retention. Teachers' perceptions were obtained in order to gain further understanding of the impact that administrators have on teachers' job satisfaction as well as of administrators' motivation to increase teacher retention. According to M. Fullan…

  20. Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retention of surface-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles in the porous media near the point of injection has been reported in the recent studies. Retention of excess particles in porous media can alter the media properties. The main objectives of this study are, therefore, to evaluate the effect of particle ...

  1. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  2. Informing Institutional Management: Institutional Strategies and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Frolich, Nicoline; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2013-01-01

    European universities are facing demands for better student retention, especially in countries where state funding is no longer based on the number of students, but on the number of graduates. An extensive literature on retention focuses on the characteristics of students who leave higher education without a degree. Much less is known about the…

  3. 21 CFR 320.63 - Retention of bioequivalence samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of bioequivalence samples. 320.63... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.63 Retention of bioequivalence samples...

  4. Intron retention as a component of regulated gene expression programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Aishwarya G; Smith, Christopher W J

    2017-09-01

    Intron retention has long been an exemplar of regulated splicing with case studies of individual events serving as models that provided key mechanistic insights into the process of splicing control. In organisms such as plants and budding yeast, intron retention is well understood as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation. In contrast, in mammalian systems, the extent and functional significance of intron retention have, until recently, remained greatly underappreciated. Technical challenges to the global detection and quantitation of transcripts with retained introns have often led to intron retention being overlooked or dismissed as "noise". Now, however, with the wealth of information available from high-throughput deep sequencing, combined with focused computational and statistical analyses, we are able to distinguish clear intron retention patterns in various physiological and pathological contexts. Several recent studies have demonstrated intron retention as a central component of gene expression programs during normal development as well as in response to stress and disease. Furthermore, these studies revealed various ways in which intron retention regulates protein isoform production, RNA stability and translation efficiency, and rapid induction of expression via post-transcriptional splicing of retained introns. In this review, we highlight critical findings from these transcriptomic studies and discuss commonalties in the patterns prevalent in intron retention networks at the functional and regulatory levels.

  5. Leadership and nurse retention: the pivotal role of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Mary K; Standing, Theresa S; Glick, JoAnn; Duffy, Martha; Paschall, Fran; Sauer, Mary R; Sweeney, Denise Kosty; Modic, Mary Beth; Dumpe, Michelle L

    2005-03-01

    As the link between executives and bedside nurses, nurse managers assume roles that bridge both organizational and professional goals. Nurse retention is one of the many responsibilities that characterize the nurse manager's work. To better understand the pivotal role of nurse managers, the authors describe the views of 32 nurse managers regarding their roles and the characteristics they need to promote retention.

  6. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention of settlement records. Accounting authorities must maintain, for the purpose of compliance with... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of settlement records. 3.50 Section 3...

  7. Urinary Retention in Women: Causes and Management | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Urinary retention in women is uncommon and there are numerous etiological factors. Most reported studies are from Europe and North America, with few studies from developing countries. The aim of this study was to review the etiology of urinary retention in women referred to our institution, a public sector ...

  8. Customer Retention Strategies for Information Services Delivery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer retention is critical to the long term survival and growth of any library and information centers. This paper discusses customer retention strategies for information service delivery in University Libraries in North Western States of Nigeria. Survey research method was used and questionnaire was the instrument for ...

  9. 27 CFR 17.170 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 17.170 Section 17.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Records § 17.170 Retention of records. Each manufacturer shall retain for a period of not less...

  10. 27 CFR 28.45 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 28.45 Section 28.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Miscellaneous Provisions Retention of Records § 28...

  11. 27 CFR 40.524 - Retention of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of documents. 40.524 Section 40.524 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Tobacco § 40.524 Retention of documents. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must retain all records...

  12. 27 CFR 19.987 - Maintenance and retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance and retention of records. 19.987 Section 19.987 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Accounting for Spirits § 19.987 Maintenance and retention of records. The proprietor shall retain at the...

  13. 27 CFR 31.191 - Period of retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of retention. 31.191 Section 31.191 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retention of Records and...

  14. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be...

  15. 27 CFR 40.185 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 40.185 Section 40.185 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Records § 40.185 Retention of...

  16. 27 CFR 41.22 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 41.22 Section 41.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO General § 41.22 Retention of records. All records required to be kept under this...

  17. 27 CFR 18.17 - Retention of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of documents. 18.17 Section 18.17 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous Provisions Document Requirements § 18.17 Retention of documents. The proprietor shall maintain a...

  18. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  19. Acute Retention of Urine Following Intraocular Surgery | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperosmolar agents and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to lower the intraocular pressure and thus minimize the chances of vitreous loss during intraocular surgery. However, these agents could precipitate urinary retention. This is a report on two elderly men who had perioperative acute urinary retention following ...

  20. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by patients. Subject to the rules of the station or hospital, patients may be accorded the privilege of retaining...

  1. Personnel Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos State Civil Service (LSCS) exists to implement policies of government. To realize this goal, personnel are needed, which are products of personnel recruitment and retention strategies (PR & RSs) of the civil service (CS). This study empirically examined personnel recruitment and retention strategies in LSCS.

  2. Flying Blind: National Graduation Goals and Adult Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article is to shed light on a variety of metrics institutions and some accreditors currently use to track the retention of working adults. Further, it identifies a number of important principles that all stakeholders should consider when creating a standard measure of adult student retention. Finally, it describes a few errors to…

  3. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental Industrial...

  4. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records... officials to implement such instructions. (b) Disposal (records). The permanent removal of records or... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal...

  5. 40 CFR 761.209 - Retention of manifest records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.209 Retention of manifest records. (a) A generator of... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention of manifest records. 761.209... generator receives a signed copy from the designated commercial storage or disposal facility which received...

  6. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.M.T. Yenli

    them were men. Of the 34 (16.5%) patients presenting with CUR,. 29 were men. A complete work-up to establish the cause of uri- nary retention in each patient preceded data collection. The patients ... Causes of acute and chronic urinary retention in men. ... urethral repair was done for the patient with urethral trauma follow-.

  7. 11 CFR 9039.1 - Retention of books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of books and records. 9039.1 Section... PRIMARY MATCHING FUND REVIEW AND INVESTIGATION AUTHORITY § 9039.1 Retention of books and records. The candidate and his or her authorized committee(s) shall keep all books, records and other information...

  8. Predictors of Early Retention in Rural Baccalaureate Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dokagari

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of student retention in generic baccalaureate nursing programs. The following question was addressed: How well do the independent variables of Self-Directed Learning Readiness (SDLR), nursing self-efficacy (NSE), and program admission predict retention of students enrolled in the first two…

  9. Retention and Progression of Postgraduate Business Students: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, David; Ng, Eric; Birch, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory case study that investigated factors affecting the retention and progression of postgraduate business students at a major Australian distance education university. The majority of prior research addressing student retention focuses on undergraduate on-campus students, while this research…

  10. Satisfaction with retention factors as predictors of the job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... 6Key words: retention factors, perceived job embeddedness, training and development, career opportunities, job ... organisations as important in the retention of valuable and talented staff (Döckel. 2003). ..... benefits that they would have to sacrifice should they decide to leave the organisation or their jobs.

  11. Mineral Retention Values for Blends of Cereal Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food intakes were affected by supplements and fermentation period. Mineral retention values were a function of food intakes, supplements, fermentation period, fecal and urinary mineral outputs. The group fed the unfermented modified standard (PR:DSB:MR72:CF0) blend had the highest foodintake and mineral retention ...

  12. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  13. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  14. The Association Between Health Program Participation and Employee Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Hartley, Stephen K

    2016-09-01

    Using health plan membership as a proxy for employee retention, the objective of this study was to examine whether use of health promotion programs was associated with employee retention. Propensity score weighted generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the association between telephonic programs or health risk surveys and retention. Analyses were conducted with six study samples based on type of program participation. Retention rates were highest for employees with either telephonic program activity or health risk surveys and lowest for employees who did not participate in any interventions. Participants ranged from 71% more likely to 5% less likely to remain with their employers compared with nonparticipants, depending on the sample used in analyses. Using health promotion programs in combination with health risk surveys may lead to improvements in employee retention.

  15. Manager leadership and retention of hospital staff nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunton, R L; Boyle, D K; Woods, C Q; Hansen, H E; Bott, M J

    1997-04-01

    This study used causal modeling to trace the effects of manager leadership characteristics on staff registered nurse (RN) retention in 4 urban hospitals. Unique to the study were the all-RN sample, using Leavitt's (1958) model of behavior within an organization to group variables, manager characteristics and unit structure variables as predictors, and focus on the work unit rather than the hospital. Effects of manager characteristics were traced to retention through work characteristics, job stress, job satisfaction, commitment, and intent to stay. Theoretical variables explained 22% of the retention variance. Manager consideration of staff and RN intent to remain directly affected retention; other variable effects passed through intent to stay. Different predictors were important to retention, unit separation, and turnover.

  16. Antecedents to Customer Retention in a Corporate Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Eberle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for relational practice can vary considerably, depending on which constructs are driving customer retention. In this sense, we developed and tested a theoretical model considering the constructs: perceived value, service provider reputation, trust, and switching costs as antecedents to customer retention. This quantitative descriptive study began from a survey, which was applied to a sample of 269 companies-customers of a health plans operator. The data was analyzed with the use of a structural equation modeling. The results show that the perceived value influences on reputation; that reputation impacts on trust and switching costs; that switching costs are configured as antecedent to customer retention; and that customer retention is influenced by reputation. Finally, the moderating effect of customer time was investigated by means of the hierarchical regression, there being no statistically significant relationship between switching costs and customer retention.

  17. Quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of gas chromatographic retention times based on thermodynamic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Harynuk, James J

    2014-09-05

    Thermodynamic parameters of ΔH(T0), ΔS(T0), and ΔCP for 156 compounds comprising alkanes, alkyl halides and alcohols were determined for a 5% phenyl 95% methyl stationary phase. The determination of thermodynamic parameters relies on a Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to rapidly obtain the parameters. Two methodologies of external and leave one out cross validations were applied to assess the robustness of the estimations of thermodynamic parameters. The largest absolute errors in predicted retention time across all temperature ramps and all compounds were 1.5 and 0.3s for external and internal sets, respectively. The possibility of an in silico extension of the thermodynamic library was tested using a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) methodology. The estimated thermodynamic parameters were utilized to develop QSRR models. Individual partial least squares (PLS) models were developed for each of the three classes of the molecules. R(2) values for the test sets of all models across all temperature ramps were larger than 0.99 and the average of relative errors in retention time predictions of the test sets for alkanes, alcohols, and alkyl halides were 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concept of Compound Retention Time for Organic Micro Pollutants in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jiangjiang

    2011-12-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) have received more and more attention in recent years due to their potential harmful effects on public health and aquatic ecosystems, and eliminating OMPs in wastewater treatment systems is an important solution to control OMPs wastage. An innovative hybrid process, anaerobic membrane bioreactor with nanofiltration (AnMBR-NF), in which enhanced OMPs removal is possible based on the concept of compound retention time (CRT) through coupling anaerobic biodegradation and NF rejection, is proposed and examined in terms of preliminary feasibility in this study. First, NF membrane screening through sludge water dead-end filtration tests demonstrated that KOCH NF200 (molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) 200 Da, acid/base stable) performed best in organic matter rejection. Then, selected OMPs (ketobrofen and naproxen) in MQ water and a biologically treated wastewater matrix were filtered through NF200 under constant-pressure dead-end mode, with and without stirring, and several methods (contact angle, scanning electronic microscopy, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy) were used to characterize membranes. Results show selected OMPs in MQ could be rejected (about 40%) by a clean NF200 membrane. The main rejection mechanism was initial absorption by the membrane followed by size exclusion (electric charge interaction plays a less important role). The wastewater matrix could enhance the rejection significantly (up to 90%) because effluent organic matter (EfOM) enhanced size exclusion and electric charge interaction through blocking membrane pores and forming a gel layer as well as binding some OMPs through partitioning followed by retention by NF. Third, an anaerobic bioreactor was set up to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of selected OMPs. Results showed selected OMPs could be absorbed by sludge and reached equilibrium within one day, and then were consumed by anaerobic microorganism with a half life 9.4 days for

  19. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  20. A Cost Benefit Analysis Between the Current Naval Officer Retention Bonus Plan and the Enlisted Retention Bonus Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    understanding retention, no single cookie -cutter model will apply to all. The requirements needed to retain one person will invariably be different...2014, but have spiked to 51% utilization . Seven out of 10 organizations base the decision to award a retention bonus on management discretion and

  1. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A

    2014-03-01

    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short Message Service. This study was carried out at a standalone blood bank during the period from January to December 2011 with objectives of donor retention, relationship management with the support of personnel with good communication skills, Donor data base, Integrated software and communication facility. For Initial 4 months there was no tele-recruiter, then for 2 months two tele-recruiter and for next 6 months three tele-recruiter were dedicated. Only impact of tele-recruitment on in-house donation was taken into consideration. 2,091 donors were recruited through tele-recruitment in this eight-month period. This was 63 % of in-house donations and 13 % of total donations. In other words out of every five in-house donations, three donations were from people contacted through tele-recruitment. Repeat voluntary blood donation is the safest donation. Tele-recruitment does this by converting 'first-time' donors into repeat/regular donors. Simple intervention like reminder calls on telephone can be highly effective tool to retain donors. Tele-recruitment helped the blood center establish relationships with individual donors, and, maybe, even the society at large. Tele-recruitment is a very low-cost model which can be easily replicated in all kind of blood banks, be it standalone, or a hospital based. Even the blood centers which are largely dependent on replacement donors can possibly have good results and convert replacement donors into repeat/regular voluntary blood donors.

  2. Surface water retention systems for cattail production as a biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pamela; Yassin, Fuad; Grosshans, Richard; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-12-01

    Surface water retention systems act to reduce nutrient pollution by collecting excess nutrients within a watershed via runoff. Harvesting aquatic biomass, such as the invasive cattail, from retention systems removes nutrients absorbed by the plant from the ecosystem permanently. Harvested biomass can be used as a renewable energy source in place of fossil fuels, offsetting carbon emissions. The purpose of this research was to simulate cattail harvest from surface water retention systems to determine their ability to provide suitable growing conditions with annual fluctuations in water availability. The economic and environmental benefits associated with nutrient removal and carbon offsets were also calculated and monetized. A proposed upstream and existing downstream water retention system in southern Manitoba were modelled using a system dynamics model with streamflow inputs provided by a physical hydrologic model, Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology (MESH). Harvesting cattail and other unconventional feedstocks, such as reeds, sedges, and grasses, from retention systems provided a viable revenue stream for landowners over a ten-year period. This practice generates income for landowners via biomass and carbon credit production on otherwise underutilized marginal cropland invaded with cattail. The economic benefits promote wetland habitat restoration while managing cattail growth to maintain biodiversity. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus are also removed from the ecosystem, reducing downstream nutrient loading. Utilizing surface water retention systems for cattail harvest is a best management strategy for nutrient retention on the landscape and improving agricultural resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Elimination and Retention using CT-FMT and Kinetic Whole-body Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawashdeh, Wa'el; Zuo, Simin; Melle, Andrea; Appold, Lia; Koletnik, Susanne; Tsvetkova, Yoanna; Beztsinna, Nataliia; Pich, Andrij; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Gremse, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) is a quantitative three-dimensional imaging technique for preclinical research applications. The combination with micro-computed tomography (µCT) enables improved reconstruction and analysis. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of µCT-FMT and kinetic modeling to determine elimination and retention of typical model drugs and drug delivery systems. We selected four fluorescent probes with different but well-known biodistribution and elimination routes: Indocyanine green (ICG), hydroxyapatite-binding OsteoSense (OS), biodegradable nanogels (NG) and microbubbles (MB). µCT-FMT scans were performed in twenty BALB/c nude mice (5 per group) at 0.25, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after intravenous injection. Longitudinal organ curves were determined using interactive organ segmentation software and a pharmacokinetic whole-body model was implemented and applied to compute physiological parameters describing elimination and retention. ICG demonstrated high initial hepatic uptake which decreased rapidly while intestinal accumulation appeared for around 8 hours which is in line with the known direct uptake by hepatocytes followed by hepatobiliary elimination. Complete clearance from the body was observed at 48 h. NG showed similar but slower hepatobiliary elimination because these nanoparticles require degradation before elimination can take place. OS was strongly located in the bones in addition to high signal in the bladder at 0.25 h indicating fast renal excretion. MB showed longest retention in liver and spleen and low signal in the kidneys likely caused by renal elimination or retention of fragments. Furthermore, probe retention was found in liver (MB, NG and OS), spleen (MB) and kidneys (MB and NG) at 72 h which was confirmed by ex vivo data. The kinetic model enabled robust extraction of physiological parameters from the organ curves. In summary, µCT-FMT and kinetic modeling enable differentiation of hepatobiliary and

  5. The effect of brumation on memory retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Hloch, Anne; Mueller-Paul, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Long-term torpor is an adaptive strategy that allows animals to survive harsh winter conditions. However, the impact that prolonged torpor has on cognitive function is poorly understood. Hibernation causes reduced synaptic activity and experiments with mammals reveal that this can have adverse effects on memories formed prior to hibernation. The impact of brumation, the winter dormancy that is observed in ectotherms, on memory remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether an amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), was able to retain learned spatial information after a period of brumation. Twelve fire salamanders were trained to make a simple spatial discrimination using a T-maze. All subjects learned the initial task. Upon reaching criterion, half of the subjects were placed into brumation for 100 days while the other half served as controls and were maintained under normal conditions. A post-brumation memory retention test revealed that animals from both conditions retained the learned response. Control tests showed that they solved the task using learned information and not olfactory cues. This finding contrasts with much of the mammalian research and suggests that the processes involved in prolonged torpor may have a fundamentally different impact on memory in mammals and amphibians. PMID:28074838

  6. Emotion enhanced retention of cognitive skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Razik, Fathima; Anderson, Adam K

    2011-02-01

    Ample evidence suggests that emotional arousal enhances declarative/episodic memory. By contrast, there is little evidence that emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) extends to procedural skill based memory. We examined remote EEM (1.5-month delay) for cognitive skill learning using the weather prediction (WP) probabilistic classification task. Participants viewed interleaved emotionally arousing or neutral pictures during WP acquisition. Arousal retarded initial WP acquisition. While participants in the neutral condition showed substantial forgetting of WP learning across the 1.5-month delay interval, the arousal condition showed no evidence of forgetting across the same time period. Thus, arousal during encoding determined the mnemonic fate of cognitive skill learning. Emotional enhancement of WP retention was independent of verbally stated knowledge of WP learning and EEM for the picture contexts in which learning took place. These results reveal a novel demonstration of EEM for cognitive skill learning, and suggest that emotional arousal may in parallel enhance the neural systems that support procedural learning and its declarative context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The use of LC predicted retention times to extend metabolites identification with SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Tobias; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2017-12-15

    The application of predicted LC retention time to support metabolite identification was evaluated for a metabolomics MS/MS database containing 532 compounds representative for the major human metabolite classes. LC retention times could be measured for two C18 type columns using a mobile phase of pH=3.0 for positive ESI mode (n=337, 228) and pH=8.0 for negative ESI mode (n=410, 233). A QSRR modelling was applied with a small set of model compound selected based on the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The models were implemented in the R environment and can be applied to any library. The prediction model was built with two molecular descriptors, LogD2 and the molecular volume. A limited set of model compounds (LC CalMix, n=16) could be validated on two different C18 reversed phase LC columns and with comparable prediction accuracy. The CalMix can be used to compensate for different LC systems. In addition, LC retention prediction was found, in combination with SWATH-MS, to be attractive to eliminate false positive identification as well as for ranking purpose different metabolite isomeric forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT.

  9. The comparative impact of lexical translation and lexical inferencing on EFL learners’ vocabulary retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shangarfam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate the comparative effects of lexical translation and lexical inferencing techniques on Female intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary retention. For this purpose, 90 female learners attending the Jahad Daneshgahi Center in Qom took a piloted sample KET test, 60 of whom were selected as homogenous learners. They were randomly divided into two experimental groups-one learning new vocabulary items through lexical translation technique and the other with the lexical inferencing technique. They were given a pre-test on vocabulary to ensure that the participants had no prior knowledge of the target words. Then all participants in both groups were taught using the same material and received the same amount of instruction. The only difference was for teaching of new lexical items. One experimental group was taught mainly through the lexical translation technique while the other experimental group learned by the lexical inferencing technique. After conducting the treatment, a post-test was administered to both groups in order to measure the students' ability in the retention of the lexical items taught through lexical translation and lexical inferencing techniques after a two-week interval. The analysis of the test scores using independent sample t-test revealed that the lexical inferencing group significantly outperformed the lexical translation group on the retention of the lexical items suggesting its benefits for teaching new words. Findings provide insights to teachers as well as students on how to best approach learning new lexical items.

  10. Impact Of Customer Relationship Management On Customer Retention A Case Of Private Banks Of Sialkot Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Bashir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management is good for banking sector to increase in any economic condition and for customers to receive quality services This research check the impact of customer relationship management activities on banks customer retention in Sialkot Punjab. For the purpose of study a sampling analysis was conducted among 330 customers of selected private banks that is Habib Bank limited United Bank limited Faysal Bank limited with the help of a structured questionnaire. 316 questionnaires were usable. Statistical answers give support on the high positive relationship between customer relationship management CRM and customer satisfaction. This study exposed that there is a important positive relationship among the variables. This study exposes that the suitable execution of CRM will increases the number of customer satisfaction or make long term healthy relations with the current or potential customers through managing information or improve the performance of services that assist customer retention. Acronyms CRM Customer relationship management CS Customer satisfaction CR Customer retention Abbreviations Customer relationship management

  11. The strategic retention of task-relevant objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory (VWM). We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention of task-relevant objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; (b) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; (c) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; (d) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and (e) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement.

  12. Mechanisms of renal NaCl retention in proteinuric disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Friis, Ulla G; Versland, Jostein B

    2013-01-01

    In diseases with proteinuria, for example nephrotic syndrome and pre-eclampsia, there often are suppression of plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components, expansion of extracellular volume and avid renal sodium retention. Mechanisms of sodium retention in proteinuria are reviewed...... pressure. Aberrant filtration of plasminogen and conversion within the urinary space to plasmin may activate gamma ENaC proteolytically and contribute to inappropriate NaCl retention and oedema in acute proteinuric conditions and to hypertension in diseases with chronic microalbuminuria/proteinuria....

  13. Employee satisfaction and employee retention: catalysts to patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kevin S; Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard; Jensen, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, most health care facilities have become intensely aware of the need to increase patient satisfaction. However, with today's more consumer-driven market, this can be a daunting task for even the most experienced health care manager. Recent studies indicate that focusing on employee satisfaction and subsequent employee retention may be strong catalysts to patient satisfaction. This study offers a review of how employee satisfaction and retention correlate with patient satisfaction and also examines the current ways health care organizations are focusing on employee satisfaction and retention.

  14. Dislocation mechanism of deuterium retention in tungsten under plasma implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinko, V I; Grigorev, P; Bakaev, A; Terentyev, D; van Oost, G; Gao, F; Van Neck, D; Zhurkin, E E

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a new theoretical model for deuterium (D) retention in tungsten-based alloys on the basis of its being trapped at dislocations and transported to the surface via the dislocation network with parameters determined by ab initio calculations. The model is used to explain experimentally observed trends of D retention under sub-threshold implantation, which does not produce stable lattice defects to act as traps for D in conventional models. Saturation of D retention with implantation dose and effects due to alloying of tungsten with, e.g. tantalum, are evaluated, and comparison of the model predictions with experimental observations under high-flux plasma implantation conditions is presented.

  15. Employee retention within the Information Technology Division of a South African Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Mohlala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The information technology industry is faced with a shrinking pool of skilled employees causing demand to increase for these employees. This places organisations under pressure to devise retention strategies to retain these employees. This study was conducted in the Information Technology Division of a South African Bank.Research purpose: To understand the challenges faced by the bank’s information technology leadership team to retain employees.Motivation for the study: To understand the challenges faced in attracting and retaining information technology professionals, and how this can serve as input for reducing skills shortages in Information Technology Divisions.Research design, approach and method: An interpretive approach employing a case study strategy and qualitative methods was employed. Semi structured interviews were conducted with thirteen senior managers and four directors of the bank’s Information Technology Division, who were selected on a purposive basis. Data were subjected to Creswell’s four stage data analysis process.Main findings: Findings indicate that employee turnover is the main contributor of skills shortages within the studied division. The lack of a retention strategy is making it difficult for leadership to identify crucial skills that must be retained.Practical/managerial implications: Evidence suggests that this bank, although they would like to retain information technology professionals, is not creating an environment conducive to do this, as little attention is paid to the unique demands of this group of employees.Contribution/value-add: This study investigates a specific group of employees for which a unique retention strategy does not exist. In understanding the challenges that impact on attracting and retaining information technology professionals, this study can contribute to the development of a retention strategy for these employees.

  16. A first aid training course for primary health care providers in Nagorno Karabagh: assessing knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H

    2012-12-01

    Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.

  17. Cross-Linked Fluorescent Supramolecular Nanoparticles as Finite Tattoo Pigments with Controllable Intradermal Retention Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Sil; Zhu, Yazhen; Li, Hongsheng; Peyda, Parham; Nguyen, Thuy Tien; Shen, Mo Yuan; Yang, Yang Michael; Zhu, Jingyi; Liu, Mei; Lee, Mandy M; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Kai; Chuang, Gary S; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2017-01-24

    Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to the long interval (i.e., up to 3 months) between the initial diagnostic biopsy and surgical treatment. Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses. The ideal tattoo pigment for labeling of skin biopsy sites for NMSC requires (i) invisibility under ambient light, (ii) fluorescence under a selective light source, (iii) a finite intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months), and (iv) biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce cross-linked fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles (c-FSNPs) as a "finite tattoo" pigment, with optimized photophysical properties and intradermal retention time to achieve successful in vivo finite tattooing. Fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles encapsulate a fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV), into a core via a supramolecular synthetic approach. FSNPs which possess fluorescent properties superior to those of the free MPS-PPV are obtained through a combinatorial screening process. Covalent cross-linking of FSNPs results in micrometer-sized c-FSNPs, which exhibit a size-dependent intradermal retention. The 1456 nm sized c-FSNPs display an ideal intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months) for NMSC lesion labeling, as observed in an in vivo tattoo study. In addition, the c-FSNPs induce undetectable inflammatory responses after tattooing. We believe that the c-FSNPs can serve as a "finite tattoo" pigment to label potential malignant NMSC lesions.

  18. Effect of two types of FRC posts on the root canal wall retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Zar Bakhsh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The zirconia coated FRC posts (Ice light is the next generation of aesthetic posts , ice light features 70% fill of zirconia enriched, parallel glass fiber for exceptional strength. Its flexibility is close to dentine so stress is distributed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post type (FRC post and the zirconia coated FRC post on the retention to the root canal wall. Materials and Methods: 20 extracted human premolar teeth with 14 mm length were selected. After post space preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into two groups: Group1: the zirconia coated FRC post (Danville, USA Group2: FRC post (RTD DT light post, France. All posts were cemented with a dual-cure resin cement (Panavia, Kuraray, Japan. All specimens were mount in acrylic cylinders, and the push-out test was done using a universal testing machine (Instron 5500 R, USA at 1 mm/min speed. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: The retentive strengths were in coronal (75.27+14.81 MPa, in middle (64.38+15.29 MPa and in apical (51.46+13.29 MPa for the zirconia coated FRC post, and also were in Coronal (59.16+1.91 MPa, in middle (66.83+12.32 MPa and in apical (67.88+17.47 MPa for the FRC post. There was no significant difference in mean retentive strength between two groups in each region (P=0.07. Conclusion: The FRC post and zirconia coated FRC post had similar retention to the root canal walls.

  19. Relevant Drivers for Customers` Churn and Retention Decision in the Nigerian Mobile Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for better support marketing decision on customers who are likely to leave a service provider for a competitor is very essential to the survival of most telecommunication firms. The application of logistic regression to the study of customer churn and retention decision in the Nigerian telecommunication industry falls into proactive methods, which helps in a better understanding of the needs of subscribers, to be able to predict their churn and retention decision in the industry and enhance better marketing strategies with a research driven policy guide for the operators in the industry. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relevant drivers of customers` churn and retention in the growing Nigerian mobile telecommunication industry. Considering this issue, the logistic regression models have been used as the evaluating method. Four hundred and eight questionnaires have been used in this study. The population of this questionnaire consists of subscribers of mobile telecommunication in the six selected campuses of higher institution of learning in Lagos-state, Nigeria. The data collected was analysed by STATA 12 software. The results showed that the coefficients of mobile number portability (MNP services and dubious promotions are positive and significant. Furthermore, low coverage and unwanted calls and SMS are positive and significant. This implies that the better the availability of MNP services, the greater the likelihood of customers’ churn. More so, an increase in quality of calls provided by mobile telecom firms will increase the likelihood of customers’ loyalty by retention. The study recommends strong institutional measures for the overhaul of mobile services provision towards an improved service delivery in Nigeria.

  20. Student-Retention and Career-Placement Rates Between Bachelor's and Master's Degree Professional Athletic Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Dodge, Thomas M; Hertel, Jay

    2015-09-01

    The debate over what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training has heightened. A comparison of retention and career-placement rates between bachelor's and master's degree professional athletic training programs may inform the debate. To compare the retention rates and career-placement rates of students in bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 192 program directors (PDs) from bachelor's degree (n = 177) and master's degree (n = 15) professional programs. The PDs completed a Web-based survey. We instructed the PDs to provide a retention rate and career-placement rate for the students in the programs they lead for each of the past 5 years. We also asked the PDs if they thought retention of students was a problem currently facing athletic training education. We used independent t tests to compare the responses between bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. We found a higher retention rate for professional master's degree students (88.70% ± 9.02%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.71, 93.69) than bachelor's degree students (80.98% ± 17.86%, 95% CI = 78.30, 83.66) (t25 = -2.86, P = .008, d = 0.55). Similarly, PDs from professional master's degree programs reported higher career-placement percentages (88.50% ± 10.68%, 95% CI = 82.33, 94.67) than bachelor's degree professional PDs (71.32% ± 18.47%, 95% CI = 68.54, 74.10) (t20 = -5.40, P training (χ(2)1 = 0.720, P = .40, Φ = .061). Professional master's degree education appears to facilitate higher retention rates and greater career-placement rates in athletic training than bachelor's degree education. Professional socialization, program selectivity, and student commitment and motivation levels may help to explain the differences noted.

  1. International Undergraduates' Retention, Graduation, and Time to Degree

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry Fass-Holmes

    2016-01-01

      The present study tested the hypothesis that the international undergraduates at a West Coast American public university during recent years of dramatic enrollment growth should have low retention and graduation rates...

  2. Recruitment and retention of women in fishing communities in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment and retention of women in fishing communities in HIV prevention research. A Ssetaala, J Nakiyingi-Miiro, S Asiimwe, A Nanvubya, J Mpendo, G Asiki, L Nielsen, N Kiwanuka, J Seeley, A Kamali, P Kaleebu ...

  3. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  4. Israeli nurse practice environment characteristics, retention, and job satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dekeyser Ganz, Freda; Toren, Orly

    2014-01-01

    There is an international nursing shortage. Improving the practice environment has been shown to be a successful strategy against this phenomenon, as the practice environment is associated with retention and job satisfaction...

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...

  6. Estimating Monetized Benefits of Groundwater Recharge from Stormwater Retention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study is to inform valuation of groundwater recharge from stormwater retention in areas projected for new development and redevelopment. This study examined a simplified methodology for estimating recharge volume.

  7. EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

  8. 19 CFR 143.37 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.37 Retention of records. (a... time of permanent termination of the brokerage business shall be accounted for pursuant to § 111.30(e...

  9. Retention of faculty of color in academic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nalo; Haozous, Emily A

    Racial and ethnic diversity among nursing faculty is low, preventing schools of nursing (SON) from reflecting the populations that they serve academically and clinically. Few studies address the experience and success of faculty of color (FOC) in nursing. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature related to FOC retention and promotion. We reviewed 25 articles from the nursing literature following PRISMA guidelines, using a critical race theory framework. We describe barriers and promoters to retention, benefits of retaining FOC, and proposed solutions to FOC attrition. We also highlight polices by several SON that netted increased retention and promotion of nursing FOC. FOC meet substantial challenges that influence their career pathway. SON can improve faculty retention through focused efforts on improving the institutional culture to promote an inclusive environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Statistics of wood assays for preservative retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Scott W. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers general statistical concepts that apply to interpreting wood assay retention values. In particular, since wood assays are typically obtained from a single composited sample, the statistical aspects, including advantages and disadvantages, of simple compositing are covered.

  11. Methods to improve patient recruitment and retention in stroke trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Eivind; Stapf, Christian; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The success of randomized-controlled stroke trials is dependent on the recruitment and retention of a sufficient number of patients, but fewer than half of all trials meet their target number of patients. Methods: We performed a search and review of the literature, and conducted...... a survey and workshop among 56 European stroke trialists, to identify barriers, suggest methods to improve recruitment and retention, and make a priority list of interventions that merit further evaluation. Results: The survey and workshop identified a number of barriers to patient recruitment...... and retention, from patients’ incapacity to consent, to handicaps that prevent patients from participation in trial-specific follow-up. Methods to improve recruitment and retention may include simple interventions with individual participants, funding of research networks, and reimbursement of new treatments...

  12. 40 CFR 792.195 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 792.195 Retention of records... retained only as long as the quality of the preparation affords evaluation. Specimens obtained from...

  13. The Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healy, Alice

    1998-01-01

    .... The second class of guidelines concerned ways to optimize the strategies used. We found that in tasks that require deliberate retrieval from memory, training that promotes efficient encoding strategies maximizes long-term retention...

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation for t...... for the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curve moisture content have been estimated from the results of the interlaboratory comparison. The statical analysis was made along the guidelines given in ISO 5725-2....

  15. Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A

    2010-01-01

    This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and

  16. Retention of Homeless Smokers in the Power to Quit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christina M; Sharif, Faduma; Eischen, Sara; Thomas, Janet; Wang, Qi; Guo, Hongfei; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about retention are a major barrier to conducting studies enrolling homeless individuals. Since smoking is a major problem in homeless communities and research on effective methods of promoting smoking cessation is needed, we describe strategies used to increase retention and participant characteristics associated with retention in smoking cessation study enrolling homeless adults. The parent study was a 2-group randomized controlled trial with 26-week follow-up enrolling 430 homeless smokers from emergency shelters and transitional housing units in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN, USA. Multiple strategies were used to increase retention, including conducting visits at convenient locations for participants, collecting several forms of contact information from participants, using a schedule that was flexible and included frequent low-intensity visits, and providing incentives. Participant demographics as well as characteristics related to tobacco and drug use and health status were analyzed for associations with retention using univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall retention was 75% at 26 weeks. Factors associated with increased retention included greater age; having healthcare coverage; history of multiple homeless episodes, lower stress level; and higher PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) score. A history of excessive drinking and drug use were associated with decreased retention. It is possible to successfully retain homeless individuals in a smoking cessation study if the study is designed with participants' needs in mind. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of denture cleansing solutions on different retentive attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkcüoğlu, Isin; Özkir, Serhat E; Köroğlu, Aysegül; Sahin, Onur; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    Various Locator abutments and attachments are available commercially for use in overdenture patients. Patients are advised to use cleansing agents to keep their overdentures clean. The effect of different cleansing agents on attachments with different retention is not known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the retention of 3 Locator abutment attachments after they were soaked in 3 different cleansing solutions. An implant analog with a diameter of 4.1 mm was embedded into acrylic resin, and 1 Locator abutment was placed onto the analog. Seven specimens of clear, pink, and blue Locator attachments (n=7) were soaked in 3 different denture-cleansing solutions (NaOCl, sodium perborate, sodium perborate-sodium bicarbonate) for a time simulating 6 months of clinical use. The control group was soaked in tap water. A testing machine was used to test the attachments' retention. The retention of the attachments after they were soaked in denture cleansers was compared among the groups with repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The retention of the clear attachments was significantly less after they had been soaked in sodium bicarbonate-containing denture cleanser (P=.001). The retention of the pink Locator attachments was no different after they had been soaked in the different solutions, and the retention of the blue Locator attachments decreased significantly after they had been soaked in the NaOCl and sodium bicarbonate cleansing agents (P=.002). Attachments of different colors and retention were affected differently by cleansing agents. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximizing Retention with High Risk Participants in a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Romina; Hickman, Norval; Gali, Kathleen; Orozco, Nicholas; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe effective retention strategies in a clinical trial with a high risk, low income, and vulnerable patient population with serious mental illness. Design Follow-up assessments were conducted for a randomized clinical tobacco treatment trial at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-baseline. Initial follow-up rates of jails and prisons; text messaging, e-mailing, and messaging via social networking sites; identifying appointments via electronic medical record; and field outreach to treatment facilities, residences, and parks. Setting Large urban public hospital Subjects Participants were current smokers recruited from 100% smoke-free locked psychiatry units. Measures Assessments covered demographics, substance use, and mental health functioning. Analysis Retention rates were plotted over time in relation to key retention strategies. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine participant predictors of retention at each follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, the retention strategies that most frequently led to assessment completion were identified. Results The sample (N=100) was 65% male; age M=39.5 years (SD=11.3); 44% non-Hispanic White; 46% on Medicaid and 34% uninsured; 79% unemployed; and 48% unstably housed. Proactive retention strategies dramatically increased follow-up rates, concluding at 3-months=82.65%, 6-months=89.69%, and 12-months=92.78%. Married and divorced/separated/widowed participants, those with higher income, and participants with alcohol or illicit drug problems had increased retention from 3 to 12-months follow-up. Conclusion Follow-up rates improved as proactive methods to contact participants were implemented. Dedicated research staff, multiple methods, community networking, and outreach within drug treatment settings improved retention. PMID:23875989

  19. Motivational Factors of Employee Retention and Engagement in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Balbuena Aguenza; Ahmad Puad Mat Som

    2012-01-01

    Retention is the process of physically keeping employee members in an organization as it is one of the key fundamentals that are necessary for organizational success. In a globalized environment, retention and engagement of high prospective employees are a huge challenge to organizations especially in times of high turnover rates. In many cases, even engaged employees are sometimes dissatisfied with the outcomes of organizational performance which may lead them to look elsewhere. ...

  20. Do Dimensions of TC Treatment Predict Retention and Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Wallace; Edelen, Maria O.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Dahl, James; Ebener, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    First week Dimensions of Change Instrument (DCI) assessments from a cohort of 519 adults entering six TCs were used to predict treatment retention and outcomes. More positive first week response to TC social processes, Community Responsibility; Resident Sharing Support and Enthusiasm; Group Process; and Clarity and Safety, and to one TC personal development process, Positive Self-Attitude and Commitment to Abstinence, predicted retention for the first month. Improvement at 30 days in Clarity ...

  1. Customer Retention & Customer Relationship Marketing: Strategi Pemasaran Yang Potensial

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, Ariesya

    2004-01-01

    The traditional marketing approach advocates the marketing mix principles and the quest for market share dominance through mass marketing techniques and a focus on new customer acquisition. This approach has guided managers for decades in planning in implementing their marketing strategies. But nowadays, traditional approach has been changed by customer retention. Customer retention, in the traditional marketing approach, is however seen as the 'end' rather than the means to delivering long-t...

  2. Scales of water retention dynamics observed in eroded Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Herbrich, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure is known to change dynamically due to swelling and shrinkage, wetting and drying or tillage operations. For erosion-affected soils with truncated profiles and due to soil management changes, the water retention dynamics could be even more complex. The objective was to separate shorter-term hysteretic from longer-term seasonal dynamics in field-measured water retention data of eroded Luvisols. Tensiometers and TDR sensors were installed in 10, 30, and 50 cm depths of six lysimeter soil monoliths from two field sites. The water content and suction data of three years (2012-2014) allowed identifying drying and wetting periods for which separate parameters of the van Genuchten (VG) retention function were fitted. The water retention curves of the initial or main drying in spring were generally steeper than those obtained in the lab. During intra-seasonal wet/dry cycles, steepness increased and the saturated VG parameter successively decreased; these data indicated a limitation in re-wetting with dry/wet cycles. The water retention of an annual maximum drying curve increased in the three years with the pH-values due to changes in the soil management. When dealing with soils of cultivated arable landscapes, water flow modelling should consider management-induced gradual changes in hydraulic properties in addition to hysteresis and seasonal dynamics. The disentangling of dry/wet cycles from highly-resolved time series' may help identifying processes responsible for retention dynamics.

  3. Assessing knowledge retention in construction organisations: Cases from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present different issues facing the problem of knowledge retention by construction sector companies in the UAE. Methodology: Existing framework in the area of knowledge retention has been used to assess three large construction consultancies in the UAE. The case study methodology used in this paper highlights some key issues in the area of knowledge retention in the UAE. Findings: Based on the analysis of the knowledge retention system the major drivers for its successful implementation are prevalence of a culture of sharing knowledge, reward and recognition for sharing knowledge, a technology platform that can accommodate multi formats of files, awareness of knowledge retention system and its benefits among its employees, and top management support. Research Limitations: The paper presents three case studies and draws conclusions about the UAE construction sector. Although the three companies are large companies, there are several Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME operating in the construction sector in the UAE. Future researchers need to look at these SMEs. Originality / Value: Through the three case studies, several issues related to the implementation of robust knowledge retention practices have been identified and highlighted for the UAE construction sector.

  4. Increase in weight and water retention on overfeeding dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, P; O'Connor, W J; Potts, D J

    1984-04-01

    Dogs, kept in metabolism cages, were weighed daily and the daily water intake, urine volume and evaporative loss of water measured or calculated. When the daily meal was doubled, the weight increased in two phases: during the first 4 d the increase in weight was more than could be accounted for by the deposition of protein, glycogen and fat so that water retention must have occurred; after the fourth day the increase in weight was slower and could have been due to the deposition of solids, without water retention. When carbohydrate was added to the meal either as starch or glucose, the increase in weight in the first 3 d was more than the weight of the added carbohydrate, showing water retention. After the third day the slower increase in weight could be explained by the deposition of solids. When the daily meal was supplemented with fat, increase in weight occurred uniformly throughout the period of overfeeding and was equal to or less than the added fat. There was thus no evidence for water retention. Addition of meat to the daily meal caused an increase in weight larger than the fat and protein of the extra meat. Meat therefore caused water retention. The results indicate that during overfeeding, deposition in the body of protein and glycogen, but not fat, determines water retention.

  5. Retention rates on RBANS memory subtests in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J; Moser, David J; Bayless, John D; Mold, James; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L

    2008-03-01

    Identification of memory impairment is important for neuropsychological diagnostic and research applications, and retention rates on verbal and visual memory tests can provide useful information when characterizing a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is becoming a popular screening battery for cognitive functions, normative data on retention rates are not available. The retention rates of verbal and visual material were evaluated in a sample of clinical patients (n = 109) compared to a healthy control group (n = 718). Individual subtest retention rates were converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on the cumulative distribution of raw scores obtained by an elderly community-dwelling sample. Compared with the healthy normative sample, the percent retention found for the clinical group was significantly lower on all 3 RBANS memory subtests. These preliminary data suggest that retention rates of the RBANS memory subtests may add to the clinical utility of this test as a neuropsychological diagnostic and research tool.

  6. Single-Session Alcohol-Retention Sclerotherapy for Simple Renal Cysts: Comparison of 2- and 4-Hr Retention Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Yih-Huie; Pan, Huay-Ben; Liang, Huei-Lung; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Chou, Kang-Ju; Chen, Clement K.-H; Lai, Pin-Hong; Yang, Chien-Fang

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives of our study were to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol sclerotherapy in treating simple renal cysts with prolonged ethanol retention and to compare the therapeutic results of 2...

  7. Learning and retention through predictive inference and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Love, Bradley C

    2010-12-01

    Work in category learning addresses how humans acquire knowledge and, thus, should inform classroom practices. In two experiments, we apply and evaluate intuitions garnered from laboratory-based research in category learning to learning tasks situated in an educational context. In Experiment 1, learning through predictive inference and classification were compared for fifth-grade students using class-related materials. Making inferences about properties of category members and receiving feedback led to the acquisition of both queried (i.e., tested) properties and nonqueried properties that were correlated with a queried property (e.g., even if not queried, students learned about a species' habitat because it correlated with a queried property, like the species' size). In contrast, classifying items according to their species and receiving feedback led to knowledge of only the property most diagnostic of category membership. After multiple-day delay, the fifth-graders who learned through inference selectively retained information about the queried properties, and the fifth-graders who learned through classification retained information about the diagnostic property, indicating a role for explicit evaluation in establishing memories. Overall, inference learning resulted in fewer errors, better retention, and more liking of the categories than did classification learning. Experiment 2 revealed that querying a property only a few times was enough to manifest the full benefits of inference learning in undergraduate students. These results suggest that classroom teaching should emphasize reasoning from the category to multiple properties rather than from a set of properties to the category. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Standardized Consent: The Effect of Information Sheets on Information Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keara; OʼLoughlin, Padhraig; Cashman, James

    2015-11-10

    Informed consent embodies the ethical principle of autonomy of the surgical patient. Effective communication is essential to this decision-making process. Variability in consent can lead to confusion among patients and can expose the surgeon to risk in an increasingly litigious environment. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a standardized consenting process and assess the pattern of information recall following provision of patient information sheets. One hundred orthopedic clinic patients were randomly selected to participate in this prospective audit. Mean age was 41 years. Each participant was consented to undergo wrist manipulation under anaesthesia and K-wiring using a standardized British Orthopaedic Association consent form. A 22-item questionnaire was completed based on the information provided. Half of the cohort received additional printed take-home material. Each questionnaire was repeated 1 day later to determine which aspects of consent were best retained. Baseline scores were low on initial questioning for each section. There was a significant decrease in information retained over 24-hour interval (mean, 8.94 versus 7.98, P ≤ 0.000). Where standardized forms were provided, individual baseline scores rose significantly 24 hours after initial questioning. In particular, arthritis, neurovascular injury, and infection were more likely to be remembered with provision of written information (P = 0.01). Significantly lower scores were seen in those who had not received written information (mean, 9.542 versus 6.449; P ≤ 0.00). Consent remains challenging even with a standardized process. Information retention improves significantly with the use of information sheets. We advocate the use of standard consent and provision of patient information sheets for commonly performed procedures.

  9. TROPHIC STATE OF SMALL RETENTION RESERVOIRS IN PODLASIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szczykowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out using water samples from two small retention reservoirs located in the communes: Czarna Białostocka and Turośń Kościelna in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The main tasks of both reservoirs are to improve the water balance by means of regulating the levels and water outflow. Three characteristic measurement and control points were selected on both reservoirs in accordance to the water flow in the longitudinal section. The first and third points were located near the inflow and outflow of water, while the second in the middle of the reservoirs. Samples of water for the study were collected from the surface layer of the shore zone of the reservoirs once a month from March 2015 to February 2017 (water from two hydrological years was analyzed. Water samples were subject to determination of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll “a” concentrations, as well as turbidity. Contamination of the water reservoirs with biogenic compounds is a common problem and at the same time difficult to eliminate due to the scattered nature of external sources of pollution, especially in the case of agricultural catchments, as well as the inflow of untreated sewage from areas directly adjacent to the reservoirs. Based on achieved results, high values of TSI (TN, TSI (TP, TSI (Chl, and overall TSI, clearly indicate the progressive degradation of water quality in analyzed reservoirs. Appearing water blooms due to the mass development of phytoplankton adversely affect the quality of water in the reservoirs and biochemical processes occurring both in water and bottom sediments, are conditioned by progressive eutrophication.

  10. Rheology of sludge in a complete retention membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, A; Giordano, C; Laera, G; Saturno, D; Mininni, G

    2006-07-01

    A rheological characterization of the sludge sampled from a complete retention membrane bioreactor was performed in order to correlate the apparent viscosity with the concentration of solids. The three most commonly adopted models were tested to select the one better fitting the experimental data. Ostwald model was choosen, and the relationship between the apparent viscosity and the shear rate was determined for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations ranging between 9 and 25 g l(-1). Ostwald model parameters k and n were correlated with MLSS concentration, comparing linear, power, and exponential-power (only for k) laws in terms of R2 and Mean Root Square Error (MRSE). Both power and exponential-power functions provided good and comparable correlations for parameter k, while the linear relationship was much less accurate, especially at the highest solid concentrations. The parameter n was better modelled by a power function than by a linear one. Therefore two simulation models were proposed, both based on Ostwald's equation, where the two parameters k and n were expressed as functions of MLSS. Evaluation of energy consumption for mixing showed that the increase of solid concentration from 3 to 30 g l(-1) resulted in a limited increase in energy requirement (25-30 %). In real systems, where Reynolds numbers shift towards the turbulent regime, the increase of energy requirements for increasing solids concentration is even less pronounced. The thixotropy of membrane bioreactor sludge was also evaluated by measuring the rHa (reduced hysteresis area) and relating this parameter to the characteristics of the sludge growing within the reactor.

  11. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable   influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their

  12. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamaheswari S, Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource) managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their likelihood of leaving the company

  13. Predicting Employee Retention through Preemployment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Ruth Z.; Raspiller, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century is seeing changes in the nature of work, the workforce, and employment practices. These changes, along with increased employer need to select employees who will have the best fit with particular jobs in order to increase return on investment, are leading employers toward greater use of preemployment assessments. The purpose of…

  14. Midwifery retention and coverage and impact on service utilisation in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, G Farooq; Hashemy, Pashtoon; Gohar, Fatima; Wood, Molly E; Ayoubi, Sadia F; Todd, Catherine S

    2013-10-01

    to measure the rate of and determine factors associated with community midwifery education (CME) graduate retention in public sector health care in Afghanistan. cross-sectional. performed in public health facilities of 11 Afghan provinces purposively selected by geographic location and security conditions, between October 2011 and April 2012. Facilities were selected by one of two criteria: either a registered deployment site for a CME graduate or randomly selected through population-proportionate sampling. facility managers and midwives employed in public facilities at the time of data collection. three quantitative instruments were used: a facility checklist assessed staffing and service volume, and two separate questionnaires for midwives and facility managers, which measured employment duration and perceived barriers to midwife retention. at 456 surveyed facilities, 570 midwives were interviewed. Overall, 61.3% (n=209/341) of CME graduates deployed in surveyed provinces were working in public sector facilities, whereas 36.8% were working at their assigned site. Facilities without midwife staff had lower average monthly volumes of antenatal care visits (14.6 (SD ± 22.7) versus 71.5 (SD ± 72.5)), family planning visits (10.4 (SD+13.9) versus 56.8 (SD+85.0)), or facility-based deliveries (0.55 (SD ± 2.2) versus 15.7 (SD ± 18.7)). Perceived reasons for leaving employment were insecurity (civil unrest/armed conflict) (46.4%), family disagreement (28.1%), increased workload without compensation (9.9%), and lack of appropriate housing (7.8%). CME graduate retention in public sector positions was relatively low and significantly impacted by insecurity and cultural issues related to women working outside the home. culturally appropriate measures are needed to attract and retain skilled female health care providers for rural public facilities in Afghanistan and similar settings. Advocacy to encourage family and community support for midwives working in rural

  15. Impact of distributed virtual reality on engineering knowledge retention and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbaran, Tulio Alberto

    Engineering Education is facing many problems, one of which is poor knowledge retention among engineering students. This problem affects the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (A/E/C) industry, because students are unprepared for many necessary job skills. This problem of poor knowledge retention is caused by many factors, one of which is the mismatch between student learning preferences and the media used to teach engineering. The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of Distributed Virtual Reality (DVR) as an engineering teaching tool. The implementation of DVR addresses the issue of poor knowledge retention by impacting the mismatch between learning and teaching style in the visual versus verbal spectrum. Using as a point of departure three knowledge domain areas (Learning and Instruction, Distributed Virtual Reality and Crane Selection as Part of Crane Lift Planning), a DVR engineering teaching tool is developed, deployed and assessed in engineering classrooms. The statistical analysis of the data indicates that: (1) most engineering students are visual learners; (2) most students would like more classes using DVR; (3) engineering students find DVR more engaging than traditional learning methods; (4) most students find the responsiveness of the DVR environments to be either good or very good; (5) all students are able to interact with DVR and most of the students found it easy or very easy to navigate (without previous formal training in how to use DVR); (6) students' knowledge regarding the subject (crane selection) is higher after the experiment; and, (7) students' using different instructional media do not demonstrate statistical difference in knowledge retained after the experiment. This inter-disciplinary research offers opportunities for direct and immediate application in education, research, and industry, due to the fact that the instructional module developed (on crane selection as part of construction crane lift planning) can be

  16. Retention of three endodontic post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Zyman, Gad; Kogan, Enrique; Kuttler, Sergio; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the retention of three post systems using one adhesive and one cement. The hypothesis tested was that there was no significant difference among the posts. 90 freshly extracted single rooted lower bicuspids were evaluated for similar root morphology. The teeth were decoronated using an Isomet saw leaving a 15 mm-long sample. Preoperative digital radiographs were taken of all samples from the buccal and mesial direction. A glide path was established with #15K type file. Roots were then instrumented to working length to a size #40 .04 using Profile nickel titanium files. 1cc of distilled water was used as an irrigant after each file to remove dentinal debris. The teeth were then obturated with custom fit #40 0.04 taper gutta percha points and AH Plus as a sealer, using a warm vertical compaction technique. Residual gutta percha of 5 mm was left. The samples were divided into three experimental groups to receive posts. Group 1: Fiber White Para-Post No. 2 red; Group 2: No. 1 DT Light Post; Group 3: PeerlessPost No. 3. Post spaces were created in Groups 1 and 2 with the appropriate drills supplied by the manufacturer using a slow speed handpiece. The post spaces from Group 3 required no further preparation after endodontic treatment. All posts were cemented with Nexus 2 Universal Luting System. A layer of excess cement was left in the most coronal portion of the tooth for visual confirmation of tensile strength failure. Using an Instron the teeth were mounted in a custom-made jig to prevent crushing of the post and to ensure extension perpendicular to the long axis of the post. Samples were then subjected to tensile stresses until failure occurred. Failure was defined as the maximum load produced under tensile load that corresponded to visual separation of the post from the tooth. The maximum load at failure in kilograms was recorded. The average of each group was compared for significant difference. Data was analyzed using ANOVA at a significance level of P

  17. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely

  18. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Qing-jie; Lin, Zhi-yan; Liu, Jian-zhong; Wu, Xian; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2008-06-15

    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermodynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Using Two Pedotransfer Functions to Estimate Soil Moisture Retention Curves From One Experimental Site of ​​South Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kameníčková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil moisture retention curves (SMRCs were measured in laboratory conditions. The sand table and pressure extractor method were used to obtain a 9-point SMRCs for undisturbed soil samples taken from 20 cm depth. The data points of the individual retention curves were parameterized using the RETC computer program. For the same soil, the SMRCs were estimated by two models of pedotransfer functions (PTFs. In the first part of the study the Rosetta program with the model of artificial neural network (Schaap et al., 1998 was used. The PTFs derived by Wösten et al. (1998 were used in the second part of the study. The reliability of selected PTFs models were tested on local soils from one site of the South Moravia. The quality of estimated retention curves was evaluated using the coefficient for correlation R between the measured and the estimated soil water content at several pF values and the root mean squared error RMSE. Of the two models of PTFs, which have been tested in the study, Wösten’s model showed better agreement with the measured retention curves (RMSESch = 0.0383 (cm3.cm−3, RMSEW = 0.0264 (cm3.cm−3.

  20. Evaluation of {sup 131}I retention in several adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: marcela.forli@gmail.co, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope {sup 131}I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by {beta}{sup -} and its {gamma}-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO{sub 2} targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the {sup 131}I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the {sup 131}I, volatile, is carried by an O{sub 2} gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of {sup 131}I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of {sup 131}I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  1. Updating metacognitive control in response to expected retention intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-04-01

    In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval. No effect of the expected retention interval was found for 1 min versus 4 min (Exp. 1), 30 s versus 3 min (Exp. 2), and 30 s versus 10 min (Exps. 3 and 4), even when subjects were given complete control over the pacing of study items (Exp. 4). However, when the difference between the expected retention intervals was increased massively (10 min vs. 24 h; Exp. 5), subjects remembered more items that they expected to be tested sooner, an effect consistent with the idea that they traded off efforts to remember items for the later test versus items that were about to be tested. Overall, this set of results accords with much of the test-expectancy literature, revealing that subjects are often reluctant to adjust encoding strategies on an item-by-item basis, and when they do, they usually make quantitative, rather than qualitative, adjustments.

  2. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakaa, David; Olango, Susan; Jarvis, Jordan

    2014-06-06

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect HCWs in the three regions. Findings and

  3. Appraisal of the retention of the knowledge for ophthalmology specialists of the Brazilian Ophthalmology Council

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    Limeira-Soares Paulo Henrique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the retention of knowledge along the years after certification of physicians as ophthalmology specialists. METHODS: The physicians, former ophthalmology residents, were selected at the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and randomly allocated to three groups of seven individuals, according to the time as specialists. Group 1 consisted of one-year specialists, group 2 of five-year specialists and group 3 of ten-year specialists. Each participant answered a test with twenty-five multiple choice randomly selected questions, based on the national certificate tests applied by the Brazilian Ophthalmology Council between 1994 and 2003. Each question scored four points. RESULTS: The mean age of groups 1, 2 and 3 was 27, 30 and 36 years, respectively. A preponderance of males was found in all groups. Group 1 achieved the highest score, average of 88, group 2 achieved 77, and group 3 achieved the lowest, average of 64 (p<0,05. CONCLUSION: Loss of knowledge retention amongst specialists of the Brazilian Ophthalmology Council, has been observed along the years after the certification.

  4. The role of sustained professional development in science teacher renewal and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Janice Dawn

    The Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science Teaching (TRC) is a sustained professional development program serving over 700 teachers in Texas. The teacher participants receive over 105 contact hours of professional development each year. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TRC professional development program in science teacher renewal and retention. Sixty current and former members of the TRC were intentionally selected and surveyed to determine the impact of the program on science teacher renewal. One-on-one interviews were also conducted with selected participants to verify and describe their respective TRC experiences. Study participants averaged 13.4 years of teaching experience and 3.3 years participating in the TRC program. Findings revealed teachers joined the TRC program to enhance the learning of their students, remained in the program for the classroom lessons and materials and left the program due to family reasons. Findings also revealed six factors impacting science teacher renewal: Building confidence in teaching ability; creating professional environments; providing classroom materials; providing current information on statewide issues; providing leadership opportunities; and providing networking opportunities. These factors impacting renewal are supported in literature on science teacher retention and renewal and are all important for science teacher renewal to occur.

  5. Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Supported Jigsaw II, STAD and TAI Cooperative Learning Strategies on Performance, Attitude, and Retention of Secondary School Students in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of computer-supported cooperative learning strategies on the performance, attitudes, and retention of secondary school students in physics. A purposive sampling technique was used to select four senior secondary schools from Minna, Nigeria. The students were allocated to one of four groups:…

  6. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Low Enrolment and Retention of Girls with Disabilities in Integrated Primary Schools in Embu County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni, Njeru Idah; Otube, Nelly; Ondigi, Samson Rosana

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influenced low enrolment and retention rates of girls with disabilities in integrated primary schools. It further explored possible intervention measures that may be employed to mitigate the situation. The study was conducted in selected schools in Runyenjes (Embu East) and Manyatta (Embu North)…

  7. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A new skeletal retention system for retaining anterior open bites

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    Bodore Albaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relapse of anterior open bite after treatment poses a challenge to orthodontists and warrants finding new methods. We aimed to compare the effect of a skeletal retention (SR system to the conventional retention (CR commonly used. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients participated in this study. SR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 16.2 years, CR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 17.1 years in pretreatment stage. The SR system is comprised of four self-drilling miniscrews and vacuum retainers with interarch elastics where the CR group is comprised of removable or fixed retainers. Pretreatment (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 1-year follow up (T3 lateral cephalograms were taken and analyzed to compare the stability of both retention modalities. Results: The overbite in the CR group showed more relapse in the form of significant reduction when compared to the SR group (P < 0.001. The overbite was reduced only by 0.1 mm (±0.3 in the SR group compared to 1.4 mm (±0.9 in the CR group. In the CR group, the upper incisors and first molar showed a more significant relapse compared to the SR group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal retention using miniscrews and vertical elastic is an effective method for retention of anterior open bite cases.

  9. Measuring faculty retention and success in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Andrew; Wingard, Deborah; Gamst, Anthony; Larsen, Catherine; Farrell, Elizabeth; Reznik, Vivian

    2012-08-01

    To develop and demonstrate the usefulness of quantitative methods for assessing retention and academic success of junior faculty in academic medicine. The authors created matched sets of participants and nonparticipants in a junior faculty development program based on hire date and academic series for newly hired assistant professors at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine between 1988 and 2005. They used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards survival analyses to characterize the influence of covariates, including gender, ethnicity, and program participation, on retention. They also developed a new method for quantifying academic success based on several measures including (1) leadership and professional activities, (2) honors and awards, (3) research grants, (4) teaching and mentoring/advising activities, and (5) publications. The authors then used these measures to compare matched pairs of participating and nonparticipating faculty who were subsequently promoted and remained at UCSD. Compared with matched nonparticipants, the retention of junior faculty who participated in the faculty development program was significantly higher. Among those who were promoted and remained at UCSD, the academic success of faculty development participants was consistently greater than that of matched nonparticipants. This difference reached statistical significance for leadership and professional activities. Using better quantitative methods for evaluating retention and academic success will improve understanding and research in these areas. In this study, use of such methods indicated that organized junior faculty development programs have positive effects on faculty retention and may facilitate success in academic medicine.

  10. Emotional intelligence, performance, and retention in clinical staff nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codier, Estelle; Kamikawa, Cindy; Kooker, Barbara M; Shoultz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been correlated with performance, retention, and organizational commitment in professions other than nursing. A 2006 pilot study provided the first evidence of a correlation between emotional intelligence and performance in clinical staff nurses. A follow-up study was completed, the purpose of which was to explore emotional intelligence, performance level, organizational commitment, and retention. A convenience sample of 350 nurses in a large medical center in urban Hawaii participated in this study. This article reports the findings pertaining to the subset of 193 clinical staff nurses who responded. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test instrument was used to measure emotional intelligence abilities. Performance was defined as ranking on a clinical ladder. Commitment was scored on a Likert scale. The following variables measured retention: total years in nursing, years in current job, total years anticipated in current job, and total anticipated career length. Emotional intelligence scores in clinical staff nurses correlated positively with both performance level and retention variables. Clinical staff nurses with higher emotional intelligence scores demonstrated higher performance, had longer careers, and greater job retention.

  11. Tritium retention in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Y.; Abe, S.; Matsuyama, M. [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Alimov, V.K. [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Spitsyn, A.V.; Bobyr, N.P.; Cherkez, D.I.; Khripunov, B.I.; Golubeva, A.V. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assciation, Garching (Germany); Klimov, N.S. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [JSC, A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are structural material candidates for breeding blankets of future fusion reactors. Therefore, tritium (T) retention in RAFM steels is an important problem in assessing the T inventory of blankets. In this study, specimens of RAFM steels were subjected to irradiation of 20 MeV W ions to 0.54 displacements per atom (dpa), exposure to high flux D plasmas at 400 and 600 K and that to pulsed heat loads. The specimens thus prepared were exposed to DT gas at 473 K. Despite severe modification in the surface morphology, heat loads had negligible effects on T retention. Significant increase in T retention at the surface and/or subsurface was observed after D plasma exposure. However, T trapped at the surface/subsurface layer was easily removed by maintaining the specimens in the air at about 300 K. Displacement damage led to increase in T retention in the bulk due to the trapping effects of defects, and T trapped was stable at 300 K. It was therefore concluded that displacement damages had the largest influence on T retention under the present conditions.

  12. Alcohol-related legal infractions and student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin M

    2007-09-01

    The present study employed municipal alcohol-related arrest reports to determine if being arrested/cited reduced the probability of academic retention. Alcohol-related legal infraction data implicating 1,310 college students was gathered during a 4-year period. First- through third-year students were identified in the database by cross-checking names in the campus directory. A random sample of nonarrested students functioned as the comparison group (n = 856). Students not appearing in the directory the following year were defined as nonretained students. Retention was not affected by the experience of one alcohol-related legal infraction. Retention odds were 31% lower for students experiencing multiple arrests, however, than for nonarrested or single-arrested students. Gender moderated the association between arrest and retention, with women who had been arrested more likely to return to school than those who had not been arrested. Retention odds were higher for arrested/cited students if they were in their second or third year of college, a fraternity/sorority member, or charged with an offense other than driving under the influence. Multi-arrested college students are at risk for attrition. Immersion in college life may reduce the odds of attrition among arrested college students.

  13. Annealing effects on deuterium retention behavior in damaged tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakurada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of annealing after/under iron (Fe ion irradiation on deuterium (D retention behavior in tungsten (W were studied. The D2 TDS spectra as a function of heating temperature for 0.1dpa damaged W showed that the D retention was clearly decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. In particular, the desorption of D trapped by voids was largely reduced by annealing at 1173K. The TEM observation indicated that the size of dislocation loops was clearly grown, and its density was decreased by the annealing above 573K. After annealing at 1173K, almost all the dislocation loops were recovered. The results of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggested that the density of vacancy-type defects such as voids, was decreased as the annealing temperature was increased, while its size was increased, indicating that the D retention was reduced by the recovery of the voids. Furthermore, it was found that the desorption temperature of D trapped by the voids for damaged W above 0.3dpa was shifted toward higher temperature side. These results lead to a conclusion that the D retention behavior is controlled by defect density. The D retention in the samples annealed during irradiation was less than that annealed after irradiation. This result shows that defects would be quickly annihilated before stabilization by annealing during irradiation.

  14. Demystifying the Effect of Narrow Reading on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall and Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of narrow reading on English as foreign language (EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, 60 senior high school students studying at Tarbiyat High School in Mahshahr, Iran, were selected from four intact classes. The participants were then divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Ten words which were unknown to the participants were selected as target words. The experimental group received thematically related passages while the control group was given reading passages of different topics. The immediate posttest was given to the participants two days after the treatment. Afterwards, two delayed posttests were administered with two week intervals. The scores were analyzed through two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni pairwise comparisons, and independent samples t-tests. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in all posttests. The implications arising from the findings and suggestions for future research were explained.

  15. Understanding and optimizing the floating body retention in FDSOI UTBOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoulaiche, M.; Simoen, E.; Caillat, C.; Witters, L.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Nguyen, B.-Y.; Martino, J.; Claeys, C.; Fazan, P.; Jurczak, M.

    2016-03-01

    The floating body retention time is investigated on fully depleted SOI devices with UTBOX. The retention is occurring through the junctions and strongly assisted by defects in the junction space charge region during the holding state at a negative gate voltage. For standard devices with a gate overlap, the junction field is high and the dominant mechanism in this case is the generation by band-to-band tunneling. For optimized extensionless devices with lower junction field, the Shockley-Read-Hall generation enhanced by the field and Poole-Frenkel mechanism takes over the band-to-band tunneling. Therefore, reducing the concentration of Si impurities closer to the junctions is the key to approach an ideal retention time only due to band-to-band tunneling with the Si bandgap as the energy barrier for tunneling.

  16. Addressing employee turnover and retention: keeping your valued performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee turnover and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control turnover is to enhance retention. Turnover is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in turnover is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.

  17. Safeguards Knowledge Management & Retention at U.S. National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Risa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Rebecca [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bersell, Bridget [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frazar, Sarah [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burbank, Roberta [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, Rebecca [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cain, Ron [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirk, Bernadette [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morell, Sean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In 2017, four U.S. National Laboratories collaborated on behalf of DOE/NNSA to explore the safeguards knowledge retention problem, identify possible approaches, and develop a strategy to address it. The one-year effort consisted of four primary tasks. First, the project sought to identify critical safeguards information at risk of loss. Second, a survey and workshop were conducted to assess nine U.S. National Laboratories' efforts to determine current safeguards knowledge retention practices and challenges, and identify best practices. Third, specific tools were developed to identify and predict critical safeguards knowledge gaps and how best to recruit in order to fill those gaps. Finally, based on findings from the first three tasks and research on other organizational approaches to address similar issues, a strategy was developed on potential knowledge retention methods, customized HR policies, and best practices that could be implemented across the National Laboratory Complex.

  18. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  19. Recruitment and retention of Latino immigrant families in prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Charles R; McClure, Heather H; Eddy, J Mark; Ruth, Betsy; Hyers, Melanie J

    2012-02-01

    The development and testing of culturally competent interventions relies on the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority populations. Minority immigrants are a population of keen interest given their widespread growth, needs, and contributions to communities in which they settle, and particularly recent immigrants from Mexico and Central and South American countries. However, recruitment and retention strategies for entirely immigrant samples are rarely discussed in the literature. The current article describes lessons learned from two family-focused longitudinal prevention research studies of Latino immigrants in Oregon-the Adolescent Latino Acculturation Study (ALAS) and the Latino Youth and Family Empowerment Project-II (LYFE-II). Social, legal, economic, and political contexts are considered that shape Latino immigrants' experiences in their home countries as well as in the United States. The implications of these contexts for effective recruitment and retention strategies are discussed.

  20. Psychogenic Urinary Retention in Children: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong-Sang Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic urinary retention occurs relatively infrequently in children and is less common than in adults. The influence of psychogenic factors on voiding generally results in an irritative syndrome, but rarely in urinary retention. A definitive diagnosis is established by excluding other pathological conditions. Evaluation includes urine culture, renal echography, spine magnetic resonance imaging, voiding cysto-urethrography, intravenous pyelography, and uroflowmetry. Here, we report on a 6-year-old girl with a 1-month history of voiding difficulty. Urology studies, including urine culture, revealed Escherichia coli, which was not present in preadmission urine cultures. Renal ultrasound and radiological images showed no gross abnormalities or vesicoureteral reflux, but uroflowmetry showed a low flow rate with residual urine. The results of imaging studies and pediatric psychiatric consultation led to a diagnosis of psychogenic urinary retention combined with urinary tract infection. Urinary rehabilitation included intermittent catheterization, bladder training, and supportive psychotherapy, after which the patient recovered and was discharged.

  1. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  2. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Estimating Soil Water Retention Curve Using The Particle Size Distribution Based on Fractal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Chari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water and soil retention curve is one of the most important properties of porous media to obtain in a laboratory retention curve and time associated with errors. For this reason, researchers have proposed techniques that help them to more easily acquired characteristic curve. One of these methods is the use of fractal geometry. Determining the relationship between particle size distribution fractal dimension (DPSD and fractal dimension retention curve (DSWRC can be useful. However, the full information of many soil data is not available from the grading curve and only three components (clay, silt and sand are measured.In recent decades, the use of fractal geometry as a useful tool and a bridge between the physical concept models and experimental parameters have been used.Due to the fact that both the solid phase of soil and soil pore space themselves are relatively similar, each of them can express different fractal characteristics of the soil . Materials and Methods: This study aims to determine DPSD using data soon found in the soil and creates a relationship between DPSD and DSWRC .To do this selection, 54 samples from Northern Iran and the six classes loam, clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay, silty loam and sandy loam were classified. To get the fractal dimension (DSWRC Tyler and Wheatcraft (27 retention curve equation was used.Alsothe fractal dimension particle size distribution (DPSD using equation Tyler and Wheatcraft (28 is obtained.To determine the grading curve in the range of 1 to 1000 micron particle radius of the percentage amounts of clay, silt and sand soil, the method by Skaggs et al (24 using the following equation was used. DPSD developed using gradation curves (Dm1 and three points (sand, silt and clay (Dm2, respectively. After determining the fractal dimension and fractal dimension retention curve gradation curve, regression relationship between fractal dimension is created. Results and Discussion: The results

  4. Treatment eligibility and retention in clinical HIV care: A regression discontinuity study in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Bor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Loss to follow-up is high among HIV patients not yet receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Clinical trials have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of early ART; however, these trials may miss an important real-world consequence of providing ART at diagnosis: its impact on retention in care.We examined the effect of immediate (versus deferred ART on retention in care using a regression discontinuity design. The analysis included all patients (N = 11,306 entering clinical HIV care with a first CD4 count between 12 August 2011 and 31 December 2012 in a public-sector HIV care and treatment program in rural South Africa. Patients were assigned to immediate versus deferred ART eligibility, as determined by a CD4 count < 350 cells/μl, per South African national guidelines. Patients referred to pre-ART care were instructed to return every 6 months for CD4 monitoring. Patients initiated on ART were instructed to return at 6 and 12 months post-initiation and annually thereafter for CD4 and viral load monitoring. We assessed retention in HIV care at 12 months, as measured by the presence of a clinic visit, lab test, or ART initiation 6 to 18 months after initial CD4 test. Differences in retention between patients presenting with CD4 counts just above versus just below the 350-cells/μl threshold were estimated using local linear regression models with a data-driven bandwidth and with the algorithm for selecting the bandwidth chosen ex ante. Among patients with CD4 counts close to the 350-cells/μl threshold, having an ART-eligible CD4 count (<350 cells/μl was associated with higher 12-month retention than not having an ART-eligible CD4 count (50% versus 32%, an intention-to-treat risk difference of 18 percentage points (95% CI 11 to 23; p < 0.001. The decision to start ART was determined by CD4 count for one in four patients (25% presenting close to the eligibility threshold (95% CI 20% to 31%; p < 0.001. In this subpopulation, having an ART-eligible CD

  5. Effectiveness of using pedo-transfer functions to quantify the spatial variability of soil water retention characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Santini, Alessandro

    1997-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of soil hydraulic properties is of crucial importance for reliable applications of recently developed distributed models to environmental studies and land-use planning. To provide such information in a cost-effective way, indirect estimation of water transport parameters from easily measurable or already available soil data using pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) is becoming increasingly popular. However, distributed hydrological modeling requires that soil hydraulic characterization also takes account of the description of spatial variability. The objective of this study was to evaluate some published PTFs in the light of their ability to quantify the spatial structure and variability of soil water retention adequately. Four PTFs were tested: two provided only values of water content at specific pressure potentials (PTF Group A), whereas the remaining two estimated the parameters of closed-form relations describing the water retention function (PTF Group B). Measured data for testing were obtained from undisturbed soil samples taken from the top layer of different soils along a 5 km transect with constant spacing of 50 m. Overall, summary statistics and sample distributions of the PTF-estimated retention characteristics at selected pressure potentials are close to those of the retention variables used as reference for comparisons. The largest discrepancies are related to the use of PTFs pertaining to Group A. Although the quality of kriged interpolations based on soil property data obtained by simplified methodologies still gives cause for concern, results show that the structure of spatial variability exhibited by the variables considered along the study transect is described well enough when using PTFs for determining soil water retention characteristics.

  6. Selective Fatalism.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R

    1998-01-01

    Human beings are selectively fatalistic. Some risks appear as "background noise," whereas other, quantitatively identical risks cause enormous concern. This essay explores the reasons for selective fatalism and possible legal responses. Sometimes selective fatalism is a product of distributional issues, as people focus especially on risks that face particular groups; sometimes people adapt their preferences and beliefs so as to reduce concern with risks that they perceive themselves unable to...

  7. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel...... coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel...

  8. A functional protein retention and release multilayer with high stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kun; An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-04-01

    Effective and robust interfacial protein retention lies at the heart of the fabrication of protein-based functional interfaces, which is potentially applicable in catalysis, medical therapy, antifouling, and smart devices, but remains challenging due to the sensitive nature of proteins. This study reports a general protein retention strategy to spatial-temporally confine various types of proteins at interfacial regions. The proteins were preserved in mesoporous silica nanoparticles embedded in covalently woven multilayers. It is worth noting that the protein retention strategy effectively preserves the catalytic capabilities of the proteins, and the multilayer structure is robust enough to withstand the bubbling catalytic reactions and could be repeatedly used due to conservation of proteins. The spatiotemporal retention of proteins could be adjusted by varying the number of capping layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the protein-loaded interfacial layers could not only be used to construct catalytic-active interfaces, but also be integrated as the power-generating unit to propel a macroscopic floating device.Effective and robust interfacial protein retention lies at the heart of the fabrication of protein-based functional interfaces, which is potentially applicable in catalysis, medical therapy, antifouling, and smart devices, but remains challenging due to the sensitive nature of proteins. This study reports a general protein retention strategy to spatial-temporally confine various types of proteins at interfacial regions. The proteins were preserved in mesoporous silica nanoparticles embedded in covalently woven multilayers. It is worth noting that the protein retention strategy effectively preserves the catalytic capabilities of the proteins, and the multilayer structure is robust enough to withstand the bubbling catalytic reactions and could be repeatedly used due to conservation of proteins. The spatiotemporal retention of proteins could be adjusted by

  9. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  10. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  11. Mercury Retention by Fly Ashes from Oxy-fuel Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Miranda, Nuria; Villamil Rumayor, Marta; López Antón, María Antonia; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ashes, the main solid waste from coal combustion power plants, and to evaluate the interactions between the type of mercury and fly ashes. The work was based on the results of mercury speciation in the gas and the solid fly ash before and after mercury retention. The identification of the mercury species in the gas was performed using previously validated methods, but the speciation of the mercury retained i...

  12. A modified technique for retention of orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera R Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An orbital defect (congenital or acquired causes severe facial asymmetry and disfigurement, which results in psychological and social disturbances to the patient. It becomes a challenging task for a maxillofacial prosthodontist to fabricate a prosthesis that replicates the healthy side of the face. Success of the prosthesis depends primarily on satisfactory retention of the same. This clinical report illustrates rehabilitation of a patient with an orbital defect by fabricating a hollow orbital prosthesis, utilizing anatomical undercuts for retention using an acrylic resin template relined by a resilient denture liner.

  13. Solving the nurse faculty shortage: exploring retention issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Georgine R; Anderko, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have explored reasons why nurse faculty leave academia, but few have focused on factors that encourage them to stay. Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, an online cross-sectional survey was completed by 1,171 tenured nurse faculty nationwide. Factor analysis revealed that the most significant factor influencing retention was professional satisfaction with faculty identity, including the ability to shape nursing practice. Academia may benefit by considering these factors to promote nurse faculty retention. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Relationship of Sensory Modality to Retention of Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants.

  15. Repeated Whole-Genome Duplication, Karyotype Reshuffling, and Biased Retention of Stress-Responding Genes in Buckler Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Céline; Mandáková, Terezie; Arrigo, Nils; Lysak, Martin A; Parisod, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is usually followed by gene loss and karyotype repatterning. Despite evidence of new adaptive traits associated with WGD, the underpinnings and evolutionary significance of such genome fractionation remain elusive. Here, we use Buckler mustard (Biscutella laevigata) to infer processes that have driven the retention of duplicated genes after recurrent WGDs. In addition to the β- and α-WGD events shared by all Brassicaceae, cytogenetic and transcriptome analyses revealed two younger WGD events that occurred at times of environmental changes in the clade of Buckler mustard (Biscutelleae): a mesopolyploidy event from the late Miocene that was followed by considerable karyotype reshuffling and chromosome number reduction and a neopolyploidy event during the Pleistocene. Although a considerable number of the older duplicates presented signatures of retention under positive selection, the majority of retained duplicates arising from the younger mesopolyploidy WGD event matched predictions of the gene balance hypothesis and showed evidence of strong purifying selection as well as enrichment in gene categories responding to abiotic stressors. Retention of large stretches of chromosomes for both genomic copies supported the hypothesis that cycles of WGD and biased fractionation shaped the genome of this stress-tolerant polypolyloid, promoting the adaptive recruitment of stress-responding genes in the face of environmental challenges. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorus Retention and Storage by Isolated Wetlands in the Lake Ocheechobee Basin, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, M.; Jawitz, J.

    2003-04-01

    Wetlands are one of the most promising technologies for use in controlling nutrients from agricultural operations. Their effectiveness, however, depends on the retention capacity of the wetland, contaminant load and the desired effluent quality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of isolated wetlands for attenuation of phosphorus (P) export from the basin. Small isolated wetlands comprise 16.6 % of the landscape in Lake Okeechobee basin, located in south-central Florida. The lake provides flood protection, water supply for agricultural and urban areas, and it is a critical habitat for wildlife. Excessive phosphorus loading causes algal blooms and detrimental changes in biological communities of Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades ecosystem. The land use in the Okeechobee basin is primarily dairy farms and cow-calf operations. Studies conducted within the past two decades have implicated these land uses as a prominent source of the P loading from manure, fertilizers and runoff. Due to poor retention by sandy soils, much of the P is ultimately exported downstream through the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough and Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee. Despite numerous efforts to reduce P loading from these watersheds, continued improvements are necessary to further reduce nutrients runoff. This research is a multi-year effort to optimize the P removal and assimilation capacity of on-farm treatment wetlands thorough hydrologic manipulation to describe long-term P retention by wetlands. Field data collection is ongoing at four ranch sites selected for this project. Initially, hypothetical case simulations will be evaluated using several modeling methodologies: one-dimensional mass balance based input-output analysis, two-dimensional variably saturated water flow and solute transport model, and three-dimensional analysis at the watershed scale.

  17. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  18. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  19. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  1. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jesus eOchoa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT versus infusions of saline (Sham on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the 1 retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair 2 discrimination of a novel pair and 3 reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning.

  2. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  3. Experimental designs for modeling retention patterns and separation efficiency in analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartland, Liv Kjersti; Mjøs, Svein A; Grung, Bjørn

    2011-09-23

    The retention behavior of components analyzed by chromatography varies with instrumental settings. Being able to predict how changes in these settings alter the elution pattern is useful, both with regards to component identification, as well as with regards to optimization of the chromatographic system. In this work, it is shown how experimental designs can be used for this purpose. Different experimental designs for response surface modeling of the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as function of chromatographic conditions in GC have been evaluated. Full factorial, central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were applied. A mixture of 38 FAMEs was separated on a polar cyanopropyl substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane phase capillary column. The temperature gradient, the start temperature of the gradient, and the carrier gas velocity were varied in the experiments. The modeled responses, as functions of chromatographic conditions, were retention time, retention indices, peak widths, separation efficiency and resolution between selected peak pairs. The designs that allowed inclusion of quadratic terms among the predictors performed significantly better than factorial design. Box-Behnken design provided the best results for prediction of retention, but the differences between the central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were small. Retention indices could be modeled with much better accuracy than retention times. However, because the errors of predicted tR of closely eluting peaks were highly correlated, models of resolution (Rs) that were based on retention time had errors in the same range as corresponding models based on ECL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Retention of granular sludge at high hydraulic loading rates in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor with immersed filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A E; Belalcazar, L C; Rodríguez, M S; Giraldo, E

    2002-01-01

    This study shows the results of an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with immersed filtration cartridges for granular biomass retention working at high hydraulic loading rates. Biomass retention capabilities, granular biomass structure and activity, filtration cartridges flux and organic material degradation performance were evaluated. Four reactors with a volume of 0.005 m3 were tested. Two different filtration cartridges were used (10 and 100 microm) with effective surface area of 0.05 m2. The filtration cartridges were submerged in the reactors for suction type filtration. Three organic loading rates were tested in the first two reactors and seven in the other two. Selective biomass washout and an increment in the biomass methanogenic activity was observed in the reactors at hydraulic loading rates between 1.2 and 4.5 m/h. Analyses of biomass granulometry showed an increase of larger size granular biomass. The immersed membrane anaerobic bioreactor maintain most of the advantages without biomass activity loss.

  5. Behavior of PAH/mineral associations during thermodesorption: impact for the determination of mineral retention properties towards PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saada, Alain; Faure, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with two minerals (silica sand and bentonite) presenting opposite retention properties were analyzed with a thermodesorption (Td)-GC-MS coupling in order to validate this technique as a new and rapid way to evaluate the solid sorption properties. Two analysis modes were used, evolved gas analysis (EGA) and Td with cryo-trap. EGA allowed a real-time monitoring of the compounds desorbed during a temperature program and gave a first screening of the samples while Td gave more precise indications on compound abundances for selected temperature ranges. When associated with silica sand, PAHs were released at relatively low temperatures (cracking at higher temperatures. The Td-GC-MS was proven to efficiently underline differences in retention properties of two minerals, and this study highlights the great potential of this technique to evaluate compound/matrix bond strength and interaction.

  6. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  7. Hydrochemical modelling of the retention and transport of metallic radionuclides in the soils of an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E

    1996-01-01

    The CHemistry of the Uplands Model (CHUM) describes the transport of chemicals through upland catchments with acid, organic-rich soils, by a combination of sub-models for equilibrium soil chemistry, hydrology, weathering, and nitrogen cycling. CHUM was used to simulate the retention and transport of metallic radionuclides (Co, Sr, Cs, UO(2), U(IV), Th, Am), in the soils of a small catchment in Cumbria, UK, for 2 years after their atmospheric deposition in a single hypothetical precipitation event. Export of radionuclides to streamwater is calculated to occur most readily following deposition of the dissolved elements at high water saturation of the catchment, when little incoming rainwater is required to make up the small moisture deficit of the organic surface horizon, and solutes can move to greater depths in the soil profile. Deposition when the catchment is drier, or of particulate radionuclides, leads to stronger retention. Radionuclide retention or transport depends on the strength of chemical interaction with the solid phases of the different soil horizons; this varies among the elements, and also with oxidation state, U(IV) species being more strongly retained than UO(2). For purely organic soils, the least strongly retained radionuclide is Cs, but the presence in the mineral soil horizon of small amounts of clay mineral with high selectivity towards Cs can markedly increase with high selectivity towards Cs can markedly increase its retention. For the actinides, binding by dissolved organic matter is important; for example, the rate of transport of Th to the stream is increased by more than two orders of magnitude by complexation with dissolved fulvic acid. The model assumptions suggest that, in the longer term, losses from the catchment of Co, Sr and Cs would take place on a time-scale of decades, whereas the actinides would be much more persistent.

  8. QSPR study of the retention/release property of odorant molecules in pectin gels using statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Belhassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ACD/ChemSketch, MarvinSketch, and ChemOffice programmes were used to calculate several molecular descriptors of 51 odorant molecules (15 alcohols, 11 aldehydes, 9 ketones and 16 esters. The best descriptors were selected to establish the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR of the retention/release property of odorant molecules in pectin gels using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Multiple Non-linear Regression (MNLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN methods We propose a quantitative model based on these analyses. PCA has been used to select descriptors that exhibit high correlation with the retention/release property. The MLR method yielded correlation coefficients of 0.960 and 0.958 for PG-0.4 (pectin concentration: 0.4% w/w and PG-0.8 (pectin concentration: 0.8% w/w media, respectively. Internal and external validations were used to determine the statistical quality of the QSPR of the two MLR models. The MNLR method, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, yielded correlation coefficients of 0.978 and 0.975 for PG-0.4 and PG-0.8 media, respectively. The applicability domain of MLR models was investigated using simple and leverage approaches to detect outliers and outside compounds. The effects of different descriptors on the retention/release property are described, and these descriptors were used to study and design new compounds with higher and lower values of the property than the existing ones. Keywords: Odorant Molecules, Retention/Release, Pectin Gels, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship, Multiple Linear Regression, Artificial Neural Network

  9. Selection for Career Course and Impact on Retention of Brazilian Air Force Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    willingness of employees belonging to Banco do Brasil to participate in a corporate volunteering program based on expectancy theory. His methodology...GSBPP-13-002). Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. De Oliveira, L. M. B., Madruga, E. L. P., & Pontes, R. E. (2013). Motivation of Banco do... Brasil employees to participate in programs of corporate volunteering: A review based on the theory of expectancy. International Management Review, 9(2

  10. Identifying and Validating Selection Tools for Predicting Officer Performance and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive Ability Temperament Physical/ Psychomotor Applied Cognitive Skills Social/ Leadership Orientation Communication Skills Interests...LKT: Characteristics (C-score) LKT: Skills (C-score) Work Values Profile Similarity Index (PSI) Self-Report GPA Virtual Leadership Judgment...0 2 LKT: Skills 0 1 0 2 Work Values Index 0 0 0 0 College GPA (self-reported) 1 0 0 0 Virtual Leadership Judgment Simulation 0 0 0 0 Finally

  11. Relative Retention Time Library for Selected Hydrocarbons via Glass Capillary Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Eicosane 343.8 12.7941 0.10 BPANCHED ALKANES 2,2-Dimethyl Butane 49.74 .2605 0.30 2,3-Dimethyl Butane 57.99 .3403 0.41 2-Methyl Pentane 60.27 .3529 0.06...Pentadecane 270.63 9.4342 9.3955 9.3746 N-Hexadecane 287.0 10.3445 10.3082 10.2994 N-Octadecane 316.1 12.0087 N-Nonadecane 329.7 12.4482 N- Eicosane ...Hexadecane 287.0 1.78 .26 N-Octadecane 316.1 .06 t t N-Nonadecane 329.7 t t N- Eicosane 343.8 BRANCHED ALKANES 2,2-Dimethyl Butane 49.74 .10 t t t 2,3

  12. Optimizing the U.S. Marine Corps’ Selective Reenlistment Bonus Program for Career Force Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the Marine’s pay, additional years of service that reenlistment obligates, and the “ strength ” of the bonus referred to as an SRB multiplier. More...j As Integer Dim dDev As Double Dim dHL As Double dTotalNum = rMOSData(i, 4) dEligible = rMOSData(i, 5...End If If (j > 1) Then dHL = (dDeviation(i - 1, 1) - dDeviation(i - 1, j)) / dCost(i - 1, j

  13. The visual standards for the selection and retention of astronauts, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. J.; Levene, J. R.; Heath, G. G.

    1972-01-01

    In preparation for the various studies planned for assessing visual capabilities and tasks in order to set vision standards for astronauts, the following pieces of equipment have been assembled and tested: a spectacle obstruction measuring device, a biometric glare susceptibility tester, a variable vergence amplitude testing device, an eye movement recorder, a lunar illumination simulation chamber, a night myopia testing apparatus, and retinal adaption measuring devices.

  14. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OPTIMIZATION: SELECTIVE PROTEIN SAMPLE ON-COLUMN RETENTION IN REVERSE-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why work was done? To be able to identify, on a proteomic level, cytochromes P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) in mouse liver microsomes for the conazole exposure study IRP # NHEERL-ECD-SCN-CZ-2002-01-R1_Addendum 1. The new enrichment method was necessary beca...

  15. Placenta retention in the cow: Report of three cases | Raheem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Episiotomy was done to deliver the dead calf and was associated with placenta retention. The case was successfully treated by applying gentle traction on the little stump of the placenta hanging out of the vulva. The third case was observed in a cattle market in which parturition was induced by stress of transporting the cow ...

  16. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Marvos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university′s Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI "a nontraditional intelligence measure" relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.

  17. Effect of solids retention time on Microthrix parvicella growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-31

    Jan 31, 2006 ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of solids retention time (SRT) on M. parvicella growth and to calculate growth kinetic parameters of this filamentous species. Bench-scale continuous-flow experiments showed that M. parvicella growth can be significantly suppressed at an SRT of lower ...

  18. 21 CFR 320.38 - Retention of bioavailability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... study comparing the test article to a marketed product (reference standard) that contains the same... the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.38 Retention of bioavailability samples... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or, if bioavailability testing was performed under contract, the...

  19. Career Goals and Retention-Related Factors among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull-Blanks, Elva; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Befort, Christie; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of four types of career goals (job related, school related, value related, and unknown) with factors of school retention, academic performance, self-esteem, educational self-efficacy, and school and career commitment are studied among 401 first-semester college freshmen. Differences in types of goals based on gender are also…

  20. The predictive ability of different customer feedback metrics for retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Evert; Verhoef, Peter C.; Wiesel, Thorsten

    This study systematically compares different customer feedback metrics (CFMs) - namely customer satisfaction, the Net Promoter Score, and the Customer Effort Score - to test their ability to predict retention across a wide range of industries. We classify the CFMs according to a time focus (past,

  1. Lucero: Shining a Light on Latino Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paula D.; Cardenas, Judith; Martinez, Raul; Mason, Mary Lou

    2006-01-01

    The retention rate of a growing Latino student population at Lansing Community College (LCC) in Lansing, Michigan, continues to be an institutional priority. The college has had many successful outcomes from programs designed to assist students pursing their education goals; but the challenges of Latino students in a community college…

  2. Retencion. Hoja de consejos de PEPNet (Retention. PEPNet Tipsheet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gerard, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This version of "Retention. PEPNet Tipsheet," written in Spanish, focuses on understanding the factors that research indicates are important for persistence to graduation and suggests some approaches to reducing attrition among students who are deaf/hard of hearing attending postsecondary institutions. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing and…

  3. Videocapsule retention: role of surgical treatment (a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 30 years old patient, followed for Crohn's disease. She received during the assessment reviewed by VCE that has been held for three months. The retention caused subocclusif symptoms of which had needed surgically procedure. Treatment consisted of remove the VCE and repair of stenosis of ...

  4. Homesickness at College: Its Impact on Academic Performance and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    For this study we identified factors exerting significant influence on homesickness and explored the impact of the homesick experience on students' academic performance and retention in the first year in college. The findings reveal 2 constructs underlying the homesickness scale: homesick separation and homesick distress. Demographic variables…

  5. Improving Student Retention: A University of Western Sydney Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Geoff; Shah, Mahsood; Grebennikov, Leonid; Singh, Harmanpreet

    2008-01-01

    Retention at university matters. It matters morally, as we know the life chances of people who complete a degree are dramatically improved. It matters financially, as students who leave a university before graduation take their fees with them. And it matters nationally, as the higher the education level of the population, the greater the nation's…

  6. Motivation Predictors of College Student Academic Performance and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2012-01-01

    College student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educational institutions, educators, and students. The purpose of this study was to determine if student needs for achievement, affiliation, autonomy, and dominance measured by the Needs Assessment Questionnaire (Heckert et al., 2000) could predict academic…

  7. Employee retention--what can the benefits professional do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C

    2000-12-01

    Employee retention, a primary concern for many firms in the current business environment, is most effectively viewed as a strategic problem, one that demands a team approach. The benefits professional should be a vital member of that team, helping to design an employment proposition that will allow an employer to attract and retain the most competitive workforce.

  8. Employee Retention. Building Organizational Commitment. Recommendations for Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula BEUDEAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides recommendations onbuilding commitment which can be used by thenonprofit agencies that experience high personnelturnover. The recommendations are based on thetheories and research concerning retention andorganizational commitment. The study focuseson the organizational actions needed to buildcommitment and to retain employees.

  9. Employee Retention and Performance Improvement in High-Tech Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, B. Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Considers the benefits of employee retention and performance improvement in high technology, new economy companies. Discusses attracting and retaining top talent in information technology companies; targeted recruiting and hiring; employee achievement; learning and professional growth; recognition; nurturing careers; team collaboration; the TALENT…

  10. A descriptive and factor analytical study of salient retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive and factor analytical study of salient retention strategies in commercial health and fitness centres. ... Targeting, acquiring and retaining the right customers are at the core of many successful service organizations. Research has been consistent within the business world where it has been shown that competitors ...

  11. Retention Behavior of Inorganic Anions in Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Nobuyuki; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2017-01-01

    The retention behavior of inorganic anions was studied in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). In this study, five kinds of HILIC stationary phases (amino, imidazole, amide, pyridine and zwitterionic) were investigated. It was found that only amino and imidazole columns exhibited the separation of inorganic anions under HILIC conditions. The retention mechanism was further investigated under both columns. A reversed elution order of inorganic anions was observed under the HILIC condition compared with those observed under the ion-exchange chromatography mode (IEC). The effect of salt species and their concentration in the eluent were investigated under constant acetonitrile (ACN) content. Sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate were chosen as the salt, and the salt (sodium perchlorate) concentration was varied from 10 to 40 mM to confirm the effect of the electrostatic interaction. The slope values of the plots of the log retention factor (k) versus the log eluent concentration were calculated to be between -0.43 and -0.45 for the amino column, while those obtained on the imidazole column were between -0.68 and -0.73. Various concentrations of ACN were also examined with 20 mM sodium perchlorate, and the typical HILIC retention behavior was observed on both amino and imidazole columns. Due to the obtained results, it is considered that the separation of inorganic anions under the HILIC condition was achieved by both electrostatic interaction and partition.

  12. 28 CFR 543.12 - Retention of attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention of attorneys. 543.12 Section 543.12 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL... has attained majority and is mentally competent. If the inmate is a mental incompetent or a minor, the...

  13. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvos, Chelsea; Hale, Frankie B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI a nontraditional intelligence measure relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well. PMID:27981096

  14. Prolonged Intrauterine Retention of Foetal Bones after Midtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged retention of foetal bones in the uterus is a rare complication of induced abortion. We present the case of a 37 year old nullipara with retained foetal bones following a second trimester induced abortion. Accurate diagnosis and removal of the bony fragments led to restoration of fertility and subsequent delivery of a ...

  15. Workforce Development: Employment Retention and Advancement Under TANF. Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha

    In this report, employment retention and advancement under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was examined by reviewing research findings regarding labor market development since 1996. According to the research, most of those moving from welfare to work have found employment in low-wage jobs and experienced frequent job losses and…

  16. The Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Teacher Satisfaction and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Melissa Rihm

    2016-01-01

    Teacher turnover is a costly problem. Since teacher working conditions influence teacher's satisfaction and career intentions, managers may theoretically increase teacher satisfaction and retention by fostering a school environment supportive of the highly-trained professional. Entrepreneurial Orientation is an organizational construct correlated…

  17. Influence of temperature on specific retention volumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature dependence of specific retention volumes Vog of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of environmental importance between the gas and liquid stationary phase (polydimethysiloxane, PDMS) are presented, determined by gas chromatographic method. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were calculated ...

  18. Improving Retention and Enrollment Forecasting in Part-Time Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joel; Bray, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model that can be used to analyze student enrollment data and can give insights for improving retention of part-time students and refining institutional budgeting and planning efforts. Adult higher-education programs are often challenged in that part-time students take courses less reliably than full-time students. For…

  19. Retention, Persistence, and Enrollment Management: An Exploration of Organizational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Low student retention and persistence continues to be a major problem within American higher education (Elkins, Braxton, & James, 2000; Kalsbeek & Hossler, 2010; Kezar, 2004; Tinto, 2006-2007). Less is known about the institutional organizational behavior influence on student persistence (Berger, 2001-2002); and while enrollment management…

  20. Employee retention and motivation as correlates of organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the correlation between employee retention, motivation and organization performance among bank employees in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted an expo facto research design. Three hypotheses were generated and tested in the study. Respondent were two hundred and fifty (250) bankers that ...