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Sample records for selective biaromatic 4-substituted

  1. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted ¿-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites...

  2. SELECTIVE C-2 AND C-4 DEACYLATION AND ACYLATION OF TAXOL - THE FIRST SYNTHESIS OF A C-4 SUBSTITUTED TAXOL ANALOG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GEORG, GI; ALI, SM; BOGE, TC

    1994-01-01

    Hydrolytic procedures for selective 2-debenzoylation and 2,4-dideacylation of 2'-0-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-7-0-(triethylsilyl)taxol are reported. The first synthesis and biological evaluation of a 4-substituted analogue, 4-deacetyl-4-isobutanoyltaxol, is presented. The chemistry described in this...... in this letter is suitable for the facile synthesis of taxol congeners modified at C-2 and/or C-4....

  3. Thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of tetraborates of 4-methyl-, 4-phenyl- and 4-dimethylaminobenzenediazonium at 95, 120 and 148 deg, correspondingly, causes their autocatalytic destruction, two moles of gas (nitrogen, boron fluoride) being liberated. The thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates increases with the increase of the electron-donor activity of the substituent at benzene ring

  4. 40 CFR 721.10043 - Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10043 Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (PMN P-02-697) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUREN HUSINEC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  6. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access...... to optically enriched dihydroxy 1,2-dioxanes 4. The synthesized 1,2-dioxanes were converted to other erythro sugar analogues and tetrahydrofurans through controlled cleavage of the endoperoxide linkage....

  7. 4-Substituted boro-proline dipeptides: synthesis, characterization, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, 8, and 9 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Milo, Lawrence J; Shu, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Youhua; Woznica, Iwona; Yu, Gengli; Sanford, David G; Zhou, Yuhong; Poplawski, Sarah E; Connolly, Beth A; Sudmeier, James L; Bachovchin, William W; Lai, Jack H

    2012-09-01

    The boroProline-based dipeptidyl boronic acids were among the first DPP-IV inhibitors identified, and remain the most potent known. We introduced various substitutions at the 4-position of the boroProline ring regioselectively and stereoselectively, and incorporated these aminoboronic acids into a series of 4-substituted boroPro-based dipeptides. Among these dipeptidyl boronic acids, Arg-(4S)-boroHyp (4q) was the most potent inhibitor of DPP-IV, DPP8 and DPP9, while (4S)-Hyp-(4R)-boroHyp (4o) exhibited the most selectivity for DPP-IV over DPP8 and DPP9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Synthesis of a Series of L-trans-4-Substituted Prolines as Selective Antagonists for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Including Functional and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of New Subtype Selective Kainic Acid Receptor Subtype 1 (GluK1) Antagonist (2S,4R)-4-(2-Carboxyphenoxy)pyrrolidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Delgar, Claudia; Koch, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists are valuable tool compounds for studies of neurological pathways in the central nervous system. On the basis of rational ligand design, a new class of selective antagonists, represented by (2S,4R)-4-(2-carboxy-phenoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1b...... to the structure with glutamate, consistent with 1b being an antagonist. A structure-activity relationship study showed that the chemical nature of the tethering atom (C,O, or S) linking the pyrrolidine ring and the phenyl ring plays a key role in the receptor selectivity profile and that substituents......), for cloned homomeric kainic acid receptor subtype 1 (GluK1) was attained (Ki = 4 µM). In a functional assay, 1b displayed full antagonist activity with IC50 = 6 ± 2 µM. A crystal structure was obtained of 1b when bound in the ligand binding domain of GluK1. A domain opening of 13-14° was seen compared...

  9. Synthesis of 4-substituted tetrahydropyridines by cross-coupling of enol phosphates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, U.S.; Martiny, L.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    Enol phosphates, synthesized from 4-piperidone, react by palladium catalyzed cross-coupling with arylboronic acids and by iron and palladium catalyzed cross-coupling with Grignard reagents to give 4-substituted tetrahydropyridines. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Novel 5-Fluorouracil Derivatives: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of 2-Butoxy-4-Substituted 5-Fluoropyrimidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Weixiao; Shan, Shang; Zhang, Shijie; Li, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Twenty two new 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derivatives, 2-butoxy-4-substituted 5-fluoropyrimidines, were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, MS, HRMS. All compounds were preliminarily evaluated by MTT assay on human liver BEL-7402 cancer cell line in vitro. Ten compounds were selected to test their cytotoxic activity against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. These compounds were more sensitive to BEL-7402 than other cell lines, particularly, cytotoxic activity of compounds 6b, 6d-f, 6p, 6s-u were in sub-micromolar scale. The highest cytotoxic potency against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 was shown by 2-butoxy-4-chloro-5-fluoropyrimidine (5) with IC 50 values of 0.10, 1.66 and 0.59 μM, respectively. Compounds 6d and 6e were effective against MCF-7 with IC 50 9.73 μM and HL-60 with IC 50 8.83 μM, respectively

  11. Reactivity and Regioselectivity in the Heck Reaction - A Hammett Study of 4-Substituted Styrenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Le Quement, Sebastian; Tanner, David Ackland

    2004-01-01

    The regioselectivity in the cationic Heck reaction of 4-substituted styrenes was addressed by a Hammett study. In this branching reaction, plots based on the substrate reactivity did not give meaningful data, whereas the product distribution was variable due to differing preferences for further...

  12. An improved synthesis of 2,2−-((4-substituted phenyl methylene difurans by Ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naween M. Yonis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2,2−((4-substituted phenyl methylene difuran was synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation of aldehyde with excess furan at room temperature using trifluoro acetic acid as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation in the absence of solvent. The products were compared with the classical condensation reactions. This method consistently enjoys the advantages of mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, easy work up and short time.

  13. Mössbauer spectral studies of Ti{sup 4+} substituted nickel ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, C.M., E-mail: cmk1973@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Indraraj Art, Commerce, and Science College, Sillod, Aurangabad (India); Bardapurkar, P.P. [S.N. Arts, D.J. Malpani Commerce and B.N. Sarda Science College, Sangamner (India); Shukla, S.J. [Department of Physics, P.G. Research Centre, Deogiri College, Aurangabad (India); Jadhav, K.M. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431001, M.S. (India)

    2013-04-15

    Polycrystalline ferrites with general formula Ni{sub 1+x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2−2x}O{sub 4}, where 0.0≤x≤0.7 were prepared through double sintering ceramic technique using A.R. grade oxides of respective ions. The phase purity of all the samples was checked by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows all reflections belonging to cubic spinel structure. No extra peak other than cubic spinel was observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern. Using XRD data, the lattice constant was calculated for all the compositions. The lattice constant decreases linearly with Ti{sup 4+} substitutions and obeys Vegard's law. The magnetic properties (saturation magnetization, magneton number, coercivity) were investigated using pulse field hysteresis loop technique at room temperature. The values of coercivity decreases with Ti{sup 4+} content increases. The saturation magnetization and magneton number both significantly decreases with increase in Ti{sup 4+} substitution. Mössbauer spectra of all the samples exhibit sextet. The Mössbauer parameters obtained from Mössbauer spectrum revealed the influence of titanium substitution. -- Highlights: ► XRD synthesis of Ti{sup 4+} substituted spinel structure. ► Non-magnetic Ti{sup 4+} substitution is much effective on magnetic properties. ► Mössbauer spectrum at room temperature influence on hyperfine field for both (A) and [B] sites. ► Zeeman pattern with small isomer shift exhibits small hyperfine field.

  14. 4-Substituted-2-Methoxyphenol: Suitable Building Block to Prepare New Bioactive Natural-like Hydroxylated Biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fabbri, Davide; Pisano, Marina; Rozzo, Carla; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Dess, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    A small collection of eugenol- and curcumin-analog hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods starting from natural 4-substituted-2-methoxyphenols and their antitumoral activity was evaluated in vitro . Two curcumin-biphenyl derivatives showed interesting growth inhibitory activities on different malignant melanoma cell lines with IC 50 ranging from 13 to 1 µM. Preliminary molecular modeling studies were carried out to evaluate conformations and dihedral angles suitable for antiproliferative activity in hydroxylated biphenyls bearing a side aliphatic chain.

  15. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  16. Synthesis and solid-state characterisation of 4-substituted methylidene oxindoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background 4-substituted methylidene oxindoles are pharmacologically important. Detailed analysis and comparison of all the interactions present in crystal structures is necessary to understand how these structures arise. The XPac procedure allows comparison of complete crystal structures of related families of compounds to identify assemblies that are mainly the result of close-packing as well as networks of directed interactions. Results Five 4-substituted methylidene oxindoles have been synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation of oxindole with para-substituted aromatic aldehydes and were characterized in the solid state by x-ray crystallography. Hence, the structures of (3E)-3-(4-Bromobenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, 3a, (3E)-3-(4-Chlorobenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, 3b, (3E)-3-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, 3c, (3E)-3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, 3d and (3E)-3-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, 3e, were elucidated using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Conclusions A hydrogen bonded dimer molecular assembly or supramolecular construct was identified in all the crystal structures examined along with a further four 1D supramolecular constructs which were common to at least two of the family of structures studied. The 1D supramolecular constructs indicate that once the obvious strong interaction is satisfied to form hydrogen bonded dimer it is the conventionally weaker interactions, such as steric bulk and edge-to-face interactions which compete to influence the final structure formation. PMID:24517531

  17. A tandem Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring-closing route toward 4-substituted-3(2H-furanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubi John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A facile route towards highly functionalized 3(2H-furanones via a sequential Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring closing has been elaborated. The reaction of 4-chloroacetoacetate esters with imines derived from aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes under palladium catalysis afforded 4-substituted furanones in good to excellent yields. 4-Hydrazino-3(2H-furanones could also be synthesized from diazo esters in excellent yields by utilising the developed strategy. We could also efficiently transform the substituted furanones to aza-prostaglandin analogues.

  18. Planar geometry of 4-substituted-2,2'-bipyridines synthesized by Sonogashira and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong Thi, T. T., E-mail: thuyltt@hnue.edu.vn; Nguyen Bich, N.; Nguyen, H. [Hanoi National University of Education, Chemistry Department (Viet Nam); Van Meervelt, L., E-mail: luc.vanmeervelt@chem.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Chemistry Department (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Two 4-substituted 2,2'-bipyridines, namely 4-(ferrocenylethynyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (I) and 4-ferrocenyl-2,2'-bipyridine (II) have been synthesized and fully characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The π-conjugated system designed from 2,2'-bipyridine modified with the ferrocenylethynyl and ferrocenyl groups shows the desired planarity. In the crystal packing of I and II, the molecules arrange themselves in head-to-tail and head-to-head motifs, respectively, resulting in consecutive layers of ferrocene and pyridine moieties.

  19. Molecular pharmacology of 4-substituted glutamic acid analogues at ionotropic and metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Stensbøl, T B

    1997-01-01

    (subtypes 1alpha and 2), respectively, whereas (S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid showed high but rather non-selective affinity for the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid, NMDA and mGlu receptors (subtypes 1alpha and 2). Although none of the compounds were specific......The pharmacology of (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid, (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid and (S)- and (R)-4-methyleneglutamic acids (obtained in high chemical and enantiomeric purity from racemic 4-methyleneglutamic acid by chiral HPLC using a Crownpak CR(+) column), was examined in binding experiments...... using rat brain ionotropic glutamate receptors, and in functional assays using cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. As a notable result of these studies, (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid and (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid were shown to be selective for kainic acid receptors and mGlu receptors...

  20. Syntheses of Novel 4-Substituted N-(5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylpyridine-3-sulfonamide Derivatives with Potential Antifungal Activity

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    Krzysztof Szafrański

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis represent a serious threat for patients with altered immune responses. Therefore, we have undertaken the synthesis of compounds comprising a pyridine-3-sulfonamide scaffold and known antifungally active 1,2,4-triazole substituents. Thus a series of novel 4-substituted N-(5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylpyridine-3-sulfonamides have been synthesized by multistep reactions starting from 4-chloropyridine-3-sulfonamide via N′-cyano-N-[(4-substitutedpyridin-3-ylsulfonyl]carbamimidothioates which were further converted with hydrazine hydrate to the corresponding 1,2,4-triazole derivatives 26–36. The final compounds were evaluated for antifungal activity against strains of the genera Candida, Geotrichum, Rhodotorula, and Saccharomycess isolated from patients with mycosis. Many of them show greater efficacy than fluconazole, mostly towards Candida albicans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa species, with MIC values ≤ 25 µg/mL. A docking study of the most active compounds 26, 34 and 35 was performed showing the potential mode of binding to Candida albicans lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Also in vitro cytotoxicity of selected compounds have been evaluated on the NCI-60 cell line panel.

  1. Electron-Rich 4-Substituted Spirobifluorenes: Toward a New Family of High Triplet Energy Host Materials for High-Efficiency Green and Sky Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Cassandre; Thiery, Sébastien; Jeannin, Olivier; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jacques, Emmanuel; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2017-02-22

    We report herein a detailed structure-properties relationship study of the first examples of electron-rich 4-substituted spirobifluorenes for organic electronic applications, namely, 4-phenyl-N-carbazole-spirobifluorene (4-PhCz-SBF) and 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-spirobifluorene (4-Ph(OMe) 3 -SBF). The incorporation of the electron-rich moieties in the ortho position of the biphenyl linkage (position C4) induces unique properties, very different from those previously described in the literature for this family of semiconductors. Both dyes can be readily synthesized, possess high triplet energies and excellent thermal stability, and their HOMO energy levels are highly increased compared to those of other 4-substituted SBFs. We also provide in this work the first rationalization of the peculiar fluorescence of 4-substituted SBFs. Finally, the present dyes have been successfully incorporated as host in green and blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high performance either for the green (EQE of 20.2%) or the blue color (EQE of 9.6%). These performances are, to the best of our knowledge, among the highest reported to date for 4-substituted SBF derivatives.

  2. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a series of 4-substituted glutamate analogues and pharmacological characterization at human glutamate transporters subtypes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaux, Sebastien; Kusk, Mie; Sagot, Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    A series of nine L-2,4-syn-4-alkylglutamic acid analogues (1a-i) were synthesized in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (>99% ee) from their corresponding 4-substituted ketoglutaric acids (2a-i), using the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) from pig heart or E. coli. The synthesized com...... subtypes EAAT1-3 while maintaining inhibitory activity....

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of 4-Substituted Isoxazolidin-5-ones: Straightforward Access to β2,2 -Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento de Oliveira, Marllon; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2018-04-03

    We report here an unprecedented and highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation applied to 4-substituted isoxazolidin-5-ones. Ultimately, the process provides a straightforward access to β 2,2 -amino acids bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center in great yields and a high degree of enantioselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of some new N4 substituted sulfa pyridine derivatives with studying the synergistic effect of γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaid Agha, H.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to synthesize a new class of N 4 substituted sulfa pyridine derivatives with anticipated cytotoxic activity. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their in-vitro cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) compared to the reference drug Doxorubicin. Also the synergism of the most potent synthesized compounds with γ- radiation was studied. Moreover, a molecular docking study was carried out by docking the most active synthesized compounds in the active site of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 receptor to assess their inhibitory effect upon this enzyme as this may have a role in their anticancer activity.

  5. Intrinsic Thermodynamics and Structures of 2,4- and 3,4-Substituted Fluorinated Benzenesulfonamides Binding to Carbonic Anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrienė, Asta; Smirnov, Alexey; Dudutienė, Virginija; Timm, David D; Matulienė, Jurgita; Michailovienė, Vilma; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas

    2017-01-20

    The goal of rational drug design is to understand structure-thermodynamics correlations in order to predict the chemical structure of a drug that would exhibit excellent affinity and selectivity for a target protein. In this study we explored the contribution of added functionalities of benzenesulfonamide inhibitors to the intrinsic binding affinity, enthalpy, and entropy for recombinant human carbonic anhydrases (CA) CA I, CA II, CA VII, CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIII. The binding enthalpies of compounds possessing similar chemical structures and affinities were found to be very different, spanning a range from -90 to +10 kJ mol -1 , and are compensated by a similar opposing entropy contribution. The intrinsic parameters of binding were determined by subtracting the linked protonation reactions. The sulfonamide group pK a values of the compounds were measured spectrophotometrically, and the protonation enthalpies were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Herein we describe the development of meta- or ortho-substituted fluorinated benzenesulfonamides toward the highly potent compound 10 h, which exhibits an observed dissociation constant value of 43 pm and an intrinsic dissociation constant value of 1.1 pm toward CA IX, an anticancer target that is highly overexpressed in various tumors. Fluorescence thermal shift assays, ITC, and X-ray crystallography were all applied in this work. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. DFT, FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR studies of 4-(substituted phenylazo)-3,5-diacetamido-1H-pyrazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kınalı, Selin; Demirci, Serkan; Çalışır, Zühre; Kurt, Mustafa; Ataç, Ahmet

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural and vibrational spectra of some novel azo dyes. 2-(Substituted phenylazo)malononitriles were synthesized by the coupling reaction of the diazonium salts, which were prepared with the use of various aniline derivatives with malononitrile, and then 4-(substituted phenylazo)-3,5-diamino-1H-pyrazole azo dyes were obtained via the ring closure of the azo compounds with hydrazine monohydrate. The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of azo dyes were studied. The structural and spectroscopic analysis of the molecules were carried out by using Becke's three-parameters hybrid functional (B3LYP) and density functional harmonic calculations. The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the azo dye molecules were calculated using the gauge-invariant-atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The calculated vibrational wavenumbers and chemical shifts were compared with the experimental data of the molecules.

  7. Direct Functionalization of an Acid-Terminated Nanodiamond with Azide: Enabling Access to 4-Substituted-1,2,3-Triazole-Functionalized Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-01-01

    Azides on the periphery of nanodiamond materials (ND) are of great utility because they have been shown to undergo Cu-catalyzed and Cu-free cycloaddition reactions with structurally diverse alkynes, affording particles tailored for applications in biology and materials science. However, current methods employed to access ND featuring azide groups typically require either harsh pretreatment procedures or multiple synthesis steps and use surface linking groups that may be susceptible to undesirable cleavage. Here in this paper we demonstrate an alternative single-step approach to producing linker-free, azide-functionalized ND. Our method was applied to low-cost, detonation-derived ND powders where surface carbonyl groups undergo silver-mediated decarboxylation and radical substitution with azide. ND with directly grafted azide groups were then treated with a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and fluorescent alkynes to afford 1-(ND)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole materials under standard copper-catalyzed cycloaddition conditions. Surface modification steps were verified by characteristic infrared absorptions and elemental analyses. High loadings of triazole surface groups (up to 0.85 mmol g –1 ) were obtained as determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The azidation procedure disclosed is envisioned to become a valuable initial transformation in numerous future applications of ND.

  8. Separation optimization of aniline and seven 4-substituted anilines in high-submicellar liquid chromatography using empirical retention modeling and Derringer's desirability function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; S J Nazari, S Saman

    2013-08-01

    The separation optimization of aniline and seven 4-substituted derivatives in high-submicellar LC was performed using an interpretive optimization strategy and Derringer's desirability function. Description of the retention of solutes was carried out through several hyperbolic and logarithmic retention models using the retention data of five mobile phases of SDS (0.06-0.12 M) and methanol (50-70% v/v) at pH 3. Among the investigated models, a logarithmic retention model logk=c0+c1φ+c2[S]+c12φ[S]+d12(φ[S])0.5 showed the best prediction capability and was used to predict the solute retention factors. A grid search program was used to calculate the retention times of each solute, based on the best retention model, for all combinations of SDS and methanol concentrations in the factor space. Two different chromatographic goals, analysis time and retention differences between adjacent peaks, were evaluated simultaneously using Derringer's desirability function for each mobile phase conditions in the grid search. Optimal mobile phase composition for separation of eight anilines was found to be 0.119 M SDS and 53% v/v methanol. Under these conditions, full resolutions with a reasonable analysis time (22 min) were obtained. At the optimal condition, a good agreement was observed between predicted and experimental values of the retention times. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols: Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding and cheminuclease activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Karthick, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Four new zinc(II) complexes [Zn(HL1-4)Cl2] (1-4), where HL1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, have been isolated and fully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 4 shows the distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry around zinc(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonding interaction. The complexes display no d-d electronic band in the visible region due to d10 electronic configuration of zinc(II) ion. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes exhibit similar voltammogram at reduction potential due to electrochemically innocent Zn(II) ion, which evidenced that the electron transfer is due to the nature of the ligand. Binding interaction of complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied by UV-Vis absorption titration, viscometric titration and cyclic voltammetry. All complexes bind with CT DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order of 2 > 1 ≫ 3 > 4. The prominent cheminuclease activity of complexes on plasmid DNA (pBR322 DNA) was observed in the absence and presence of H2O2. Oxidative pathway reveals that the underlying mechanism involves hydroxyl radical.

  10. Direct Functionalization of an Acid-Terminated Nanodiamond with Azide: Enabling Access to 4-Substituted-1,2,3-Triazole-Functionalized Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Zachary C; Barrett, Christopher A; Warner, Marvin G

    2017-03-21

    Azides on the periphery of nanodiamond materials (ND) are of great utility because they have been shown to undergo Cu-catalyzed and Cu-free cycloaddition reactions with structurally diverse alkynes, affording particles tailored for applications in biology and materials science. However, current methods employed to access ND featuring azide groups typically require either harsh pretreatment procedures or multiple synthesis steps and use surface linking groups that may be susceptible to undesirable cleavage. Here we demonstrate an alternative single-step approach to producing linker-free, azide-functionalized ND. Our method was applied to low-cost, detonation-derived ND powders where surface carbonyl groups undergo silver-mediated decarboxylation and radical substitution with azide. ND with directly grafted azide groups were then treated with a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and fluorescent alkynes to afford 1-(ND)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole materials under standard copper-catalyzed cycloaddition conditions. Surface modification steps were verified by characteristic infrared absorptions and elemental analyses. High loadings of triazole surface groups (up to 0.85 mmol g -1 ) were obtained as determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The azidation procedure disclosed is envisioned to become a valuable initial transformation in numerous future applications of ND.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive evaluation of newly synthesized 4-(substituted ethanoyl amino-3-mercapto-5-(4-methoxy phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Upmanyu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 1,2,4-triazoles and its derivatives have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumor, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, openers of Ca-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels, antiviral properties, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Therefore, 1,2,4-triazole seems to be an important pharmacophore. Materials and Methods: The synthesis of 4-(substituted ethanoyl amino-3-mercapto-5-(4-methoxy phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles (6a-o were prepared following six step starting 4-methoxy benzoic acid and using different secondary amines and were characterized with the help of FT-IR, 1 H, 13 C NMR, FAB Mass and nitrogen analysis. These synthesized compounds (6a-o were then evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema method.Out of these synthesized compounds, some (6f, i and k were evaluated for antinociceptive activity by Hot plate method and Tail immersion method. Results and Discussion: The synthesis of 4-(substituted amino-3-mercapto-5-(4-methoxy phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles (6a-o was accomplished. The IR spectra exhibited characteristic bands for C-N, C=N, SH and C=O at 1350-1360, 1511-1548, 2520-2594.3 and 1650-1719 cm -1 . The C-O-C asymmetric and symmetric str. was at 1250-1254 and 1027-1079.3 cm -1 respectively. In 1 H-NMR spectra, a singlet of CONH was found in the range of δ 9.92-10.18 ppm and another singlet of thiol group was observed in the range of δ 8.63-9.92 ppm. A singlet of Ar-OCH 3 was also found between δ 3.57-3.91 ppm. In 13 C- NMR spectra, C-3 and C-5 of the 1,2,4 - triazole nucleus were observed in the range of δ 147-166.9 ppm. Carbonyl carbon and methylene carbon of -NHCOCH 2 N< were found between δ 166.5-177.5 and δ 47.1-62 ppm respectively. Acute toxicity study was donr following OECD-423 and cut-off dose was found to be between 1000-1500 mg/kg body weight. At the dose level of 100 mg/kg, 6f, 6i and 6k exhibited appreciable inhibition

  12. Crystal structures of three 4-substituted-2,2′-bipyridines synthesized by Sonogashira and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Luong Thi Thu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facile synthetic routes for three 4-substituted 2,2′-bipyridine derivatives, 4-[2-(4-methylphenylethynyl]-2,2′-bipyridine, C19H14N2, (I, 4-[2-(pyridin-3-ylethynyl]-2,2′-bipyridine, C17H11N3, (II, and 4-(indol-4-yl-2,2′-bipyridine, C18H13N3, (III, via Sonogashira and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, respectively, are described. As indicated by X-ray analysis, the 2,2′-bipyridine core, the ethylene linkage and the substituents of (I and (II are almost planar [dihedral angles between the two ring systems: 8.98 (5 and 9.90 (6° for the two molecules of (I in the asymmetric unit and 2.66 (14° for (II], allowing π-conjugation. On the contrary, in (III, the indole substituent ring is rotated significantly out of the bipyridine plane [dihedral angle = 55.82 (3°], due to steric hindrance. The crystal packings of (I and (II are dominated by π–π interactions, resulting in layers of molecules parallel to (30-2 in (I and columns of molecules along the a axis in (II. The packing of (III exhibits zigzag chains of molecules along the c axis interacting through N—H...N hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions. The contributions of unknown disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities in (II were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] algorithm of PLATON. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent molecules.

  13. Crystal and molecular structure studies of (Z)-N-methyl-C-4-substituted phenyl nitrones by XRD, DFT, FTIR and NMR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Jamal; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Haukka, Matti; Alghamdi, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    (Z)-N-methyl-C-4-substituted phenyl nitrones -O+N(Me)=C(H)R (Z-2a R = 4-ClC6H4, Z-2b R = 4-NO2C6H4, Z-2c R = 4-CH3OC6H4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, 1H, 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy and also by single crystal X-ray diffraction (in the case of Z-2a and Z-2b). The geometries of the nitrone molecules Z-2a, Z-2b and Z-2c and their E-isomers; (E)-N-methyl-C-4-chlorophenyl nitrone E-2a, (E)-N-methyl-C-4-nitrophenyl nitrone E-2b and (E)-N-methyl-C-4-methoxyphenyl nitrone E-2c were optimized using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The theoretical vibrational frequencies obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronics structures were described in terms of the distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method was used to calculate the NMR spectra, the correlation between the calculated and experimental chemical shifts is mostly in the range of 0.94-0.97 for 1H, whereas, the correlation for 13C is 0.99. Thermodynamics study showed that the Z-isomer is favoured than E-isomer with energy barrier of 7.1, 7.2 and 7.1 kcal/mol for Z-2a, Z-2b and Z-2c, respectively. The abundance of the most stable species Z-isomers is equal to 99.99% for all three compounds at 298 K in gas phase.

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of novel 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl] acetic acids, 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl]propionic acids and related derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Omar A; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; El-Brollosy, Nasser R; Habib, Elsayed E; Ibrahim, Tarek M; El-Emam, Ali A

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thiones 3a-g with sodium chloroacetate, in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivatives 4a-g. The interaction of 3a-g with ethyl 2-bromopropionate in acetone, in the presence of potassium carbonate, yielded the corresponding N1-ethyl propionate derivatives 5a-g, which upon hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide afforded the corresponding propionic acid derivatives 6a-g. Similarly, the reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione 7 with sodium chloroacetate in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivative 8. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-5-thione 9 with sodium chloroacetate yielded the corresponding S-acetic acid derivative 10. Compounds 4a-g, 5b, 5c, 5g, 6a-g, 8 and 10 were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Several derivatives produced good or moderate activities particularly against Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were determined using the carrageenin-induced paw oedema method in rats. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4f, 6f, 6g and 10 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activities.

  15. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Janina; Kulka, Andrzej; Milewska, Anna; Zając, Wojciech; Świerczek, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV) application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni), solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level. PMID:28809235

  16. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Świerczek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV. In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of new 2-amino-4-(substituted phenyl-6-(7’’-methoxy, 3’’,4’’-dihydro, 2’’,2’’-dimethyl-2hbenzopyran pyrimidines and their bio evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Y.L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight novel 2-amino-4-(substituted phenyl-6-(7"- methoxy, 3",4"-dihydro, 2",2"-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran pyrimidines were designed and synthesized by utilizing benzene-1,3-diol as starting material. The structures of the isolated products (6a-h were established through 1HNMR, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were utilized for screening antimicrobial properties against gram positive (Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, gram negative bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Escheria coli, Proteus vulgaris and fungi (Pencillian expasom, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans using Ampicillin and Ketoconazole. Most of the compounds showed moderate to high antibacterial and antifungal activities against studied strains with inhibition zones between 8 and 30 mm.

  18. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  19. Preparation and Properties of Isomeric N-(4-substituted Benzylidene)-4-ethynylanilines and 4-substituted N-(4-ethynylbenzylidene) Anilines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; Čejka, Jiří; Kubišta, Jiří; Petrusová, Lidmila; Kubát, Pavel; Blechta, Vratislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2000), s. 203-215 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901; CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2000

  20. Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Gorana G.; Ćirković, Valentina S.; Šiljić, Marina M.; Blagojević, Jelena V.; Knežević, Aleksandra M.; Joksić, Ivana D.; Stanojević, Maja P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate substitution rate and imprints of natural selection on parvovirus B19 genotype 1. Studied datasets included 137 near complete coding B19 genomes (positions 665 to 4851) for phylogenetic and substitution rate analysis and 146 and 214 partial genomes for selection analyses in open reading frames ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, collected 1973–2012 and including 9 newly sequenced isolates from Serbia. Phylogenetic clustering assigned majority of studied isolates to G1A. Nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA was 1.03 (0.6–1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year, with higher values for analyzed genome partitions. In spite of the highest evolutionary rate, VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection with rare episodic positive selection, whereas codons under diversifying selection were found in the unique part of VP1, known to contain B19 immune epitopes important in persistent infection. Analyses of overlapping gene regions identified nucleotide positions under opposite selective pressure in different ORFs, suggesting complex evolutionary mechanisms of nucleotide changes in B19 viral genomes. PMID:27775080

  1. [Selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytzhak, A; Doron, Y; Lahat, E; Livne, A

    2012-10-01

    Selective mutism is an uncommon disorder in young children, in which they selectively don't speak in certain social situations, while being capable of speaking easily in other social situations. Many etiologies were proposed for selective mutism including psychodynamic, behavioral and familial etc. A developmental etiology that includes insights from all the above is gaining support. Accordingly, mild language impairment in a child with an anxiety trait may be at the root of developing selective mutism. The behavior will be reinforced by an avoidant pattern in the family. Early treatment and followup for children with selective mutism is important. The treatment includes non-pharmacological therapy (psychodynamic, behavioral and familial) and pharmacologic therapy--mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).

  2. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  3. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  4. Selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Alexandra; Major, Nili

    2016-02-01

    Selective mutism is a disorder in which an individual fails to speak in certain social situations though speaks normally in other settings. Most commonly, this disorder initially manifests when children fail to speak in school. Selective mutism results in significant social and academic impairment in those affected by it. This review will summarize the current understanding of selective mutism with regard to diagnosis, epidemiology, cause, prognosis, and treatment. Studies over the past 20 years have consistently demonstrated a strong relationship between selective mutism and anxiety, most notably social phobia. These findings have led to the recent reclassification of selective mutism as an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. In addition to anxiety, several other factors have been implicated in the development of selective mutism, including communication delays and immigration/bilingualism, adding to the complexity of the disorder. In the past few years, several randomized studies have supported the efficacy of psychosocial interventions based on a graduated exposure to situations requiring verbal communication. Less data are available regarding the use of pharmacologic treatment, though there are some studies that suggest a potential benefit. Selective mutism is a disorder that typically emerges in early childhood and is currently conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. The development of selective mutism appears to result from the interplay of a variety of genetic, temperamental, environmental, and developmental factors. Although little has been published about selective mutism in the general pediatric literature, pediatric clinicians are in a position to play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition.

  5. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  6. Selective gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstebay, D.; Castro, R.M.; Rabbat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in compression and distributed transform coding, we propose a new gossip algorithm called Selective Gossip to efficiently compute sparse approximations of network data. We consider running parallel gossip algorithms on the elements of a vector of transform coefficients.

  7. Ricardian selection

    OpenAIRE

    Finicelli, Andrea; Pagano, Patrizio; Sbracia, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the foundations of the relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the Ricardian model. Under general assumptions about the autarky distributions of industry productivities, trade openness raises TFP. This is due to the selection effect of international competition � driven by comparative advantages � which makes "some" high- and "many" low-productivity industries exit the market. We derive a model-based measure of this effect that requires only production...

  8. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  9. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  10. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  11. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  12. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  13. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  14. Study of Ti4+ substitution in ZrW2O8 negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buysser, Klaartje de; Driessche, Isabel van; Putte, Bart van de; Schaubroeck, Joseph; Hoste, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Powder XRD-analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis on sintered TiO 2 -WO 3 -ZrO 2 mixtures revealed the formation of Zr 1-x Ti x W 2 O 8 solid solutions. A noticeable decrease in unit cell parameter 'a' and in the order-disorder transition temperature could be seen in the case of Zr 1-x Ti x W 2 O 8 solid solutions. Studies performed on other ZrW 2 O 8 solid solutions have attributed an increase in phase transition temperature to a decrease in free lattice volume, whereas a decrease in phase transition temperature was suggested to be due to the presence of a more disordered state. Our studies indicate that the phase transition temperature in our materials is strongly influenced by the bond dissociation energy of the substituting ion-oxygen bond. A decrease in bond strength may compensate for the effect of a decrease in lattice free volume, lowering the phase transition temperature as the degree of substitution by Ti 4+ increases. This hypothesis is proved by differential scanning calorimetry. - Graphical abstract: This study indicates that the phase transition temperature in our materials Zr 1-x Ti x W 2 O 8 is strongly influenced by the bond dissociation energy of the substituting ion-oxygen bond. A decrease in bond strength may compensate for the effect of a decrease in lattice-free volume, lowering the phase transition temperature

  15. Synthesis of new 3-and 4-substituted analogues of acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing autoinducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Alsbæk; Severinsen, Rune Eg; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg

    2002-01-01

    The quorum sensing mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria uses small intercellular signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), to control transcription of specific genes in relation to population density. In this communication, we describe the parallel synthesis of new AHL analogues, in which...... substituents have been introduced into the 3- and 4-positions of the lactone ring. These analogues have been screened for their ability to activate and inhibit a Vibrio fischeri LuxI/LuxR-derived quorum sensing reporter system....

  16. Ugi-Smiles couplings of 4-substituted pyridine derivatives : a fast access to chloroquine analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Kaïm, Laurent; Grimaud, Laurence; Pravin, Patil; Patil, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    4-Hydroxy and mercapto pyridines were successfully tested in Ugi-Smiles couplings. Such multicomponent reactions applied to quinoline derivatives afford a very convenient and short synthesis of antimalarial analogues.

  17. Ugi-Smiles couplings of 4-substituted pyridine derivatives: a fast access to chloroquine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kaïm, Laurent; Grimaud, Laurence; Pravin, Patil

    2012-01-20

    4-Hydroxy and mercapto pyridines were successfully tested in Ugi-Smiles couplings. Such multicomponent reactions applied to quinoline derivatives afford a very convenient and short synthesis of antimalarial analogues. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Silica-Supported Polyphosphoric Acid in the Synthesis of 4-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Ivanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report herein an application of an α-amidoalkylation reaction, as an alternative efficient synthesis of 4-aryl- and 4-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives. The amides required for this purpose would result from reaction of aminoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal with different substituted benzenes in polyphosphoric acid, followed by acylation of the obtained amines with different acid chlorides or sulfochlorides. We compared the cyclisation step using conventional (milieu of acetic-trifluoracetic acid = 4:1 and solid supported reagents (SiO2/PPA, as recovered, regenerated and reused without loss of its activity catalyst. We found that in comparison to conventional methods, the yields of the reaction are greater and the reaction time is shorter.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of LiFePO4 substitution magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Kim, Min Ji; Hahn, Eun Joo; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung

    2017-06-01

    LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 sample was prepared by using a solid-state reaction method, and the temperature-dependent magnetic properties of the sample were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed an olivine-type orthorhombic structure with space group Pnma based on Rietveld refinement method. The effect of Mg substitution in antiferromagnetic LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 was investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The temperature-dependence of the magnetization curves of LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 shows abnormal antiferromagnetic behavior with ordering temperature. Sudden changes in both the magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf) and its slope below 15 K suggest that magnetic phase transition associated to the abrupt occurrence of spin-reorientation. The Néel temperature (TN) and spin-reorientation temperature (TS) of LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 are lower than those of pure LiFePO4 (TN = 51 K, TS = 23 K). This is due to the Fe-O-Fe superexchange interaction being larger than that of the Fe-O-Mg link. Also, we have confirmed a change in the electric quadrupole splitting (ΔEQ) by the spin-orbit coupling effect and the shape of Mössbauer spectrum has provided the evidence for TS and a strong crystalline field. We have found that Mg ions in LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 induce an asymmetric charge density due to the presence of Mg2+ ions at the FeO6 octahedral sites.

  20. /sup 13/C NMR spectra and electron conduction in 4-substituted diphenylamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, V.D.; Kogan, R.M.; Tverdokhlebova, N.E.; Shcherbakov, V.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-07-10

    The /sup 13/C NMR spectra were recorded for a series of 4-X-diphenylamines, and correlations equations relating the /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts of the C/sup 1/ and C/sup 4/ positions to the electronic characteristics of the substituent X were obtained. It was established that the conduction of the substituted ring in the 4-X-diphenylamines is practically the same as in 4-X-biphenyls. Joint analysis of the spectral characteristics of the diphenylamines, biphenyls, N-substituted anilines, and carbazoles made it possible to conclude that the increased transmission characteristics of the diphenylamines are determined by the conformational mobility of the two benzene rings and by the unidirectional effect of changes in the introduction and resonance factors with variation in the substituent X.

  1. Alternative Synthesis of 2,4-Substituted-1,3-thiazines and 2,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which phenacetamidines have been utilized as precursors for thiazine synthesis. The syntheses of novel cyclic fused 1,3-diazabutadienes 13 and 2-aza-1,3-butadiene 17, and iodocyclization of 17 leading to the formation of thiazole 16a are also reported. In this paper a ...

  2. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  3. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  4. Officer Selection (la Selection des officiers)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The theme of this workshop, officer selection, is an issue of central importance to the military forces of all countries, since it determines which individuals, with what characteristics, will...

  5. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  6. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  7. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project......-selection methods, and these findings point to new areas for developing new methodological support for IT project selection....

  8. Restaurant Selection in Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the selection process used by consumers when choosing a restaurant to dine. This study examined literature on consumer behaviour, restaurant selection, and decision-making, underpinning the contention that service quality is linked to the consumer’s selection of a restaurant. It supports the utility theories that consumers buy bundles of attributes that simultaneously combined represent a certain level of service quality at a certain p...

  9. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  10. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  11. Recruiter Selection Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halstead, John B

    2006-01-01

    .... The research uses a combination of statistical learning, feature selection methods, and multivariate statistics to determine the better prediction function approximation with features obtained...

  12. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  13. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  14. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals

  15. Selection and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgobba, T.; Landon, L.B.; Marciacq, J.B.; Groen, E.L.; Tikhonov, N.; Torchia, F.

    2018-01-01

    Selection and training represent two means of ensuring flight crew members are qualified and prepared to perform safely and effectively in space. The first part of the chapter looks at astronaut selection beginning with the evolutionary changes in the US and Russian programs. A discussion of the

  16. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  17. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  18. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  19. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  20. Simulation of selected genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, P F

    2000-02-01

    Algorithms for generating genealogies with selection conditional on the sample configuration of n genes in one-locus, two-allele haploid and diploid models are presented. Enhanced integro-recursions using the ancestral selection graph, introduced by S. M. Krone and C. Neuhauser (1997, Theor. Popul. Biol. 51, 210-237), which is the non-neutral analogue of the coalescent, enables accessible simulation of the embedded genealogy. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme based on that of R. C. Griffiths and S. Tavaré (1996, Math. Comput. Modelling 23, 141-158), is adopted to consider the estimation of ancestral times under selection. Simulations show that selection alters the expected depth of the conditional ancestral trees, depending on a mutation-selection balance. As a consequence, branch lengths are shown to be an ineffective criterion for detecting the presence of selection. Several examples are given which quantify the effects of selection on the conditional expected time to the most recent common ancestor. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  2. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Findings – Our research suggests that generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand...

  3. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Selective information sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. F. Fraser-Mackenzie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the amount and valence of information selected during single item evaluation. One hundred and thirty-five participants evaluated a cell phone by reading hypothetical customers reports. Some participants were first asked to provide a preliminary rating based on a picture of the phone and some technical specifications. The participants who were given the customer reports only after they made a preliminary rating exhibited valence bias in their selection of customers reports. In contrast, the participants that did not make an initial rating sought subsequent information in a more balanced, albeit still selective, manner. The preliminary raters used the least amount of information in their final decision, resulting in faster decision times. The study appears to support the notion that selective exposure is utilized in order to develop cognitive coherence.

  5. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  6. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  7. Selection in artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study envisages the analysis of the specific aspects of the selection process in artistic gymnastics, focusing particularly onthe selection of Romania’s recent years. In our opinion, the shift to a cone of darkness of the artistic gymnastics, an extremelypopular sport in our country 20 years ago, is also based on and the orientation of children to other fields – unfortunately manyof them outside sports and physical activities in general. In the present study, we shall present the stages of the artisticgymnastics, as its importance in the subsequent performances has been proven a long time ago. The plethora of qualities andskills which are necessary to select a child for gymnastics and those that this sport develops when performed as a spare timeactivity. The case studied in this endeavour is the one of the main centers for gymnast recruitment in Romania; the attentionpaid by the trainers to the selection for this sport makes the data regarding the number of children involved to increase oncemore. This is a satisfactory fact as it is a well-known fact that a wide range primary selection sets a serious basis for thesecondary selection, and the third, respectively, envisaging the future performance and concurrently ensures the involvementof more children in a physical activity that will prepare them, both physically and mentally for a healthy life.

  8. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  9. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  10. Synthesis of 4-substituted and 6-substituted 4-En-3-ketosteroids to be used in radioimmunoassays of testosterone and progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschuh, D.

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic antigens required for the development of a specific radioimmunoassay for steroids are obtained, if derivatives of steroid carboxylic acid are bound to the lysin residues of bovine serum albumin. In this study, the carboxyl groups were introduced into the steroid in positions C4 or C6. For this purpose the 4-en-3-ketosteroids, progesterone and testosterone, were functionalised in C6, which is an allylic C atom. One or two further steps were required for the formation of the carboxyl acid derivatives, which then replaced the above-mentioned atoms C4 and C6. Described are the synthesis of 4-S-mercaptopropionic acid derivatives of progesterone and testosterone using 2-step or 4-step reaction procedures as well as alternative methods of synthetising different derivatives of 6-methylidene carboxyl acid. In order to characterise the products obtained measurements were carried out on the basis of 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR spectra, CD and mass spectroscopy. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  12. Diastereodivergent Access to> Syn and Anti 3,4-Substituted β-Fluoropyrrolidines: Enhancing or Reversing Substrate Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2016-01-01

    A practical diastereodivergent access to β-fluoropyrrolidines with two adjacent stereocenters has been demonstrated, by either enhancing or completely reversing the substrate control, in the diastereoselective fluorination of a series of diverse pyrrolidinyl carbaldehydes using organocatalysis. F...

  13. Dielectric properties of Ti{sup 4+} substituted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoneim, A.I., E-mail: mona_ghoneim@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Amer, M.A.; Meaz, T.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Attalah, S.S. [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    Series of nanocrystalline BaTi{sub x}Fe{sub 12-(4/3)x}O{sub 19} hexagonal ferrites, 0≤x≤1, was prepared using the chemical co-precipitation method. As-prepared samples were heated at 1200 °C for 20 h and slowly cooled to room temperature (RT). XRD studies proved that the samples have single phase M-type hexagonal nanostructure, where their grain size lies in the range of 42.4 – 61.3 nm. Their dielectric properties were studied against temperature (T) and frequency (F). DC conductivity showed increase against T, whereas AC conductivity showed increase with increasing both T and F. This proved the semiconducting behavior of the samples. Activation energies were found to lie in the range of 0.054–0.169 eV for temperature range of RT ~373 K and of 0.114–0.274 eV for higher temperatures up to 473 K. Variation of the dielectric constant and AC conductivity against F revealed dispersion in all these hexagonal nanostructures, which was assigned to Maxwell–Wagner type of interfacial polarization. Variation of the dielectric loss tangent against F showed a relaxation spectrum for all samples, whereas the dielectric constant and loss tangent showed an increasing trend against T. The relative magnetic permeability μ{sub r} showed an increasing trend with temperature.

  14. A photolabile linker for the solid-phase synthesis of 4-substituted NH-1,2,3-triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2011-01-01

    A novel photolabile linker for solid-phase synthesis is presented. The linker displays an azido handle for copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reactions with a variety of alkynes, remains intact under typical solid-phase reaction conditions, and enables a mild photolytic release of 4...

  15. Substituent Effects on the Hydrogen Bonding between 4-Substituted Phenols and HF, H2O, NH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宇辉; 傅尧; 刘磊; 郭庆祥

    2003-01-01

    Density function theory UB3LYP/6-31+g(d) calculations were performed to study the hydrogen bonds between para-substituted phenols and HF, H2O, or NH3. It revealed that many properties of the non-covalent complexes, such as the interaction energies, donor-acceptor distances, bond lengths and vibration frequencies, showed well-defined substituent effects. Therefore, from the substituent effects not only the mechanism of a certain non-covalent interaction can be better understood, but also the interaction energies and structures of a certain non-covalent complex, which otherwise might be very hard or resource-consuming to estimate, can be easily predicted.

  16. Synthesis of some N4-substituted derivatives of 1-[(S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine (HPMPC, Cidofovir)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupová, Šárka; Holý, Antonín; Masojídková, Milena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 12 (2005), 2053-2065 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0508 Grant - others:NIH(US) 1UC1AiO62540-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HPMPC * ANP * antivirals Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2005

  17. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  18. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  19. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  20. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  1. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  2. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  3. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  4. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  5. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-isoxazolol amino acids as selective antagonists at group I metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Using ibotenic acid (2) as a lead, two series of 3-isoxazolol amino acid ligands for (S)-glutamic acid (Glu, 1) receptors have been developed. Whereas analogues of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [AMPA, (RS)-3] interact selectively with ionotropic Glu receptors (i......GluRs), the few analogues of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [HIBO, (RS)-4] so far known typically interact with iGluRs as well as metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). We here report the synthesis and pharmacology of a series of 4-substituted analogues of HIBO. The hexyl analogue 9 was shown...... to originate in (S)-11 (EC(50) = 395 microM, K(b) = 86 and 90 microM, respectively). Compound 9, administered icv, but not sc, was shown to protect mice against convulsions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). Compounds 9 and 11 were resolved using chiral HPLC, and the configurational assignments...

  6. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  7. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  8. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  9. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  10. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  11. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  12. Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary Ann; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Carlson, John; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    To explore factors related to selective mutism (SM), a survey of persons (N=153, including 135 children) with SM was undertaken. Three theoretical assumptions are supported: (1) variant talking behaviors prior to identification of SM; (2) link between SM and social anxiety; (3) potential link between temperament and SM. (EMK)

  13. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  14. Selecting Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djang, Philipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…

  15. Monitoring selected arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Chris Stanton; David J. Horn; Foster F. Purrington; John W. Peacock; Eric H. Metzler

    2003-01-01

    Arthropod populations were sampled in four study areas in southern Ohio in 1995 to document patterns of arthropod diversity and establish a baseline dataset for long-term monitoring in mixed-oak forests. Pitfall, Malaise, and blacklight traps were operated in 12 treatment units from May through September. Several insect groups were selected for detailed study due to...

  16. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  17. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...

  18. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  19. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  1. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  2. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  3. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  4. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  5. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  6. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  7. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  8. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  9. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  10. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  11. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  12. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  13. Selection, Training and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    most Neck training, Altitudetehamber, PBG, Gas nixtures, Trampoline , important in flying. In years to come we will have a Statoergometer, Raling...superagile world, are mentioned neck, more if X-tra head worn equipment is used put below. a lot of stress to this system. In addition stress will 6-6 be...acceleration Pilot selection criteria like body-type, heart-cerebral forces, mainly head to foot (Gz). The heart itself is distance, vagal and sympathetic nerve

  14. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  15. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  16. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  17. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  18. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  19. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  20. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  1. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  2. Fungicide selective for basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, L V; Walton, G S; Miller, P M

    1966-07-15

    Concentrations of 2,3-dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin lower than 8 parts per million prevented mycelial growth of a number of Basidiomycetes. By contrast, mycelial growth of various other fungi-Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Deuteromycetes-was 50 percent inhibited only by concentrations of 32 ppm or higher. Two exceptions to this pattern of selective fungitoxicity were found:an isolate of Rhizoctonia solani was not as sensitive as other Basidiomycetes, and the deuteromycete Verticillium alboatrum was inhibited by lower concentrations than affected other fungi in this group. Spore germination of two Basidiomycetes, Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda, was inhibited 95 percent or more at 10 ppm.

  3. Selective protection. Selektivschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    TC 2, ''Transmission and distribution of electrical energy'', held its meeting on selective protection on 16/17 March 1983 at Nuremberg. The main reason for the development of computerized protective systems is their ability to solve a wide range of tasks using only a few, high-integrated systems, i.e. on the software side instead of the hardware side. At the meeting, experts from industrial companies and public utilities reviewed the status and trends of protective systems engineering. Scientific studies and operating experience were presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 papers in this conference proceedings volume.

  4. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  5. Scope selection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.

    2011-01-01

    OPG is preparing for a 4-unit refurbishment program at Darlington later in this decade. Key efforts underway include the selection of the right refurbishment scope that will allow Darlington to achieve top-decile performance post-refurbishment. For this to be possible, it is imperative that (1) plant/equipment condition be well understood, (2) post-refurbishment performance objectives be clearly defined, and (3) regulatory and other risks be carefully assessed and mitigated. Significant engineering, operations and maintenance support is required to complete this phase of the project cycle.

  6. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...

  7. Selected cerium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Verkade, M.E.

    1974-09-01

    A compilation of cerium alloy phase equilibria data based on the most reliable information available is presented. The binary systems selected are those of cerium with each of the following twenty nine elements which might be commonly found in steels: Al, Sb, As, Bi, Ca, C, Cr, Co, Nb, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, N, O, P, Se, Si, Ag, S, Te, Sn, Ti, W, and Zn. A brief discussion, a summary of crystal lattice parameters where applicable, and a list of references is included for each element surveyed. (U.S.)

  8. Broadband network selection issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  9. Selective immunosuppression by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.; Joel, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The historical aspects of selective irradiation of lymphocytes are reviewed as well as the problems concerned with dosimetry and the radiosensitivity of circulating blood elements other than lymphocytes. The possibilities of perturbations in steady-state lymphocytopoiesis which might be triggered by products of radiation-induced cell death are presented; however, the parameters investigated thus far, such as the degree of lymphocytopenia, thoracic duct lymphocyte output, and cell-cycle times of thoracic duct lymphocytes, have failed to reveal any such perturbations. Studies in adrenalectomized calves have failed to confirm the notion that lymphocytopenia after extracorporeal irradiation of blood and lymph might primarily be accounted for by stress-induced corticosteroid hormonal activity. Of the various techniques, only local-graft irradiation and extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) have found clinical application. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a need for additional, well-controlled clinical trials, especially concerning the role of ECIB as an adjunct to standard immunosuppressive therapy. The experimental results with extracorporeal irradiation of lymph have also established the potential of this technique for clinical application. There is an urgent need for studying the influence of irradiation on various subpopulations of lymphocytes with regard to their functional capabilities and in particular with regard to their reproductive potential. Possible influence of selective blood irradiation on circulating stem cells in blood needs to be evaluated

  10. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  11. N-Hydroxypyrazolyl glycine derivatives as selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Christensen, Caspar; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2008-01-01

    A series of analogues based on N-hydroxypyrazole as a bioisostere for the distal carboxylate group of aspartate have been designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically characterized. Affinity studies on the major glutamate receptor subgroups show that these 4-substituted N-hydroxypyrazol-5-yl glyc...

  12. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  13. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  14. Selection of maintenance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, B; Rombos, P [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Rombos, P.

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references

  17. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  18. Antidepressant-selective gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Podolsky, Dina; Greenman, Danielle; Madraswala, Rehman

    2013-01-01

    To describe what we believe is the first reported case of synergistic gynecomastia during treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders when sertraline was added to a stable medication regimen including duloxetine, rosuvastatin, and amlodipine. A 67-year-old male with major depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia presented with new-onset gynecomastia and breast tenderness. Mammography revealed bilateral gynecomastia (fibroglandular tissue posterior to the nipples bilaterally) without suspicious mass, calcification, or other abnormalities. These new symptoms developed after sertraline was added to his stable medication regimen (duloxetine, alprazolam, rosuvastatin, metoprolol, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, metformin, and sitagliptin). These symptoms were dose-dependent, with gynecomastia and breast tenderness more severe as sertraline was titrated from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day and then to 75 mg/day. When sertraline was discontinued, gynecomastia and breast tenderness rapidly resolved. Mammoplasia and gynecomastia are associated with altered dopamine neurotransmission and/or perturbations in sexual hormones. These adverse effects may be medication induced. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine), rosuvastatin, and amlodipine have been reported to cause these adverse effects. This case was unique, since the patient had been on both sertraline and duloxetine previously as independent psychotropics without the development of gynecomastia. In the context of an additive drug adverse effect, the probability of sertraline as the precipitant drug was determined by both the Naranjo probability scale and the Horn drug interaction probability scale as probable. Gynecomastia is associated with antidepressants and other medications but is rarely addressed. Gynecomastia may be antidepressant selective or may be the result of

  19. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  20. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  1. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  2. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  3. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  4. Index Selection in Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Blanken, Henk; Chang, S.C.

    Intending to develop a tool which aims to support the physical design of relational databases can not be done without considering the problem of index selection. Generally the problem is split into a primary and secondary index selection problem and the selection is done per table. Whereas much

  5. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  6. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  7. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  8. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  9. Selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ming Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT provided a new choice for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT. SLT was demonstrated equally as effective as topical medical therapy and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT to lower IOP. It is a potentially repeatable procedure because of the lack of coagulation damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM and also effect in patients with previously failed ALT. SLT can be used to treat patients with OAG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, OHT, juvenile glaucoma, pseudophakic and aphakic glaucoma. Furthermore, SLT can be considered as a primary treatment option in patients who cannot tolerate or are noncompliant with medications, while not interfering with the success of future surgery. Its safety profiles include mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. SLT is a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with OAG and OHT.

  10. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  11. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  12. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  13. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  14. Opportunity structures for selective exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Shehata, Adam; Strömbäck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transition from low-choice to high-choice media environments has raised new concerns about selective exposure. In this context, two types of selective media exposure are relevant. One is selectivity based on political ideological preferences, the other selectivity based on political...... interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study...

  15. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  16. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  17. Selective noble gases monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecka, S; Jancik, O; Kapisovsky, V; Kubik, I; Sevecka, S [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: {sup 88}Kr(67; 22) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 85m}Kr(17; 7) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 135m}Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 138}Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m{sup 3}. (J.K.).

  18. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  19. Detecting selection needs comparative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive selection at the molecular level is usually indicated by an increase in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in comparative data. However, Plotkin et al. 1 describe a new method for detecting positive selection based on a single nucleotide sequence. We show here...... that this method is particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding the underlying mutational processes and does not provide a reliable way to identify positive selection....

  20. Recruitment and selection of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Čermochová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  1. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  2. From demand driven contractor selection towards value driven contractor selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, A.R.; Vries, de B.

    2009-01-01

    The procurement of a construction contractor should consider more aspects than only cost or price. Taking value and price into account to select the ‘best value for money’ bid results in adopting a structured multicriteria approach. An alternative contractor selection method is presented, which

  3. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  4. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  5. Conditional control in visual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Wieske; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye

  6. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  7. Exo selective enantioselective nitrone cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Jasperse, Craig P

    2004-01-28

    We have developed a novel method for accessing exo adducts with high enantioselectivity in nitrone cycloadditions to enoates. Pyrazolidinones proved to be effective achiral templates in the cycloadditions, providing exo adducts typically in >15:1 selectivity and 90-98% ee. The use of Lewis acids that form square planar complexes, such as copper triflate, was important for obtaining high exo selectivity.

  8. Selective Mutism in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jennifer Joy

    2008-01-01

    Selective mutism is defined as "the consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other settings" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 as cited in Zelenko & Shaw, 2000). For many years, selective mutism was considered to be a very rare disorder amongst individuals, and little attention…

  9. Interviews with Selectively Mute Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…

  10. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience

  11. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  12. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  14. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  15. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  16. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  17. Sexual selection in marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte

    Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...

  18. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  19. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  20. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  1. Lines of Descent Under Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We review recent progress on ancestral processes related to mutation-selection models, both in the deterministic and the stochastic setting. We mainly rely on two concepts, namely, the killed ancestral selection graph and the pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph. The killed ancestral selection graph gives a representation of the type of a random individual from a stationary population, based upon the individual's potential ancestry back until the mutations that define the individual's type. The pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph allows one to trace the ancestry of individuals from a stationary distribution back into the distant past, thus leading to the stationary distribution of ancestral types. We illustrate the results by applying them to a prototype model for the error threshold phenomenon.

  2. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  3. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Çöpür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors suggest that selective mutism should be considered as a variant of social phobia or a disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Recent studies indicate that pharmacological treatments may be effective in the treatment of selective mutism. In this article, four cases who were treated with citalopram and escitalopram are presented. The results indicate that the drugs were well tolerated, and the level of social and verbal interactions improved significantly. These findings have shown that citalopram and escitalopram can be considered in medication of selective mutism; nevertheless, it is essential that research be done with more cases than previous ones, in order to prove their accuracy

  5. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance: Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Romeijn, J.W.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  6. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  7. A checkerboard selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: optyang@zju.edu.cn [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Electrical, Computer, and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mo, Lei; Chen, Tuo [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Forsberg, Erik [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, JORCEP, Roy Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    A selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity is proposed and analyzed. The absorber is based on a germanium (Ge) checkerboard on top of a tantalum (Ta) substrate. At wavelengths shorter than the 1.2 μm cutoff, a very high absorption is achieved due to strong cavity resonances in the Ge nanosquares, and their interactions with adjacent nanocavities and the bottom Ta substrate. At longer wavelengths, absorption is greatly suppressed due to destructive interference between the transparent checkerboard layer and the highly reflective Ta substrate. To better describe the superior selectivity of our configuration, a new figure of merit (FOM) is introduced. We observe a FOM value of 0.88 compared to 0.69 for its planar counterpart. We also conduct a thermal analysis to verify the excellent selectivity of our absorber. A high temperature can be achieved and maintained, promising good potential for applications in solar thermophotovoltaic systems.

  8. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  9. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  10. Sexual selection protects against extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Alyson J; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Kitson, James J N; Spurgin, Lewis G; Morrison, Catriona A; Godwin, Joanne L; Dickinson, Matthew E; Martin, Oliver Y; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2015-06-25

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorized that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success under sexual selection is dependent on individual condition, which is contingent to mutation load, then sexually selected filtering through 'genic capture' could offset the costs of sex because it provides genetic benefits to populations. Here we test this theory experimentally by comparing whether populations with histories of strong versus weak sexual selection purge mutation load and resist extinction differently. After evolving replicate populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum for 6 to 7 years under conditions that differed solely in the strengths of sexual selection, we revealed mutation load using inbreeding. Lineages from populations that had previously experienced strong sexual selection were resilient to extinction and maintained fitness under inbreeding, with some families continuing to survive after 20 generations of sib × sib mating. By contrast, lineages derived from populations that experienced weak or non-existent sexual selection showed rapid fitness declines under inbreeding, and all were extinct after generation 10. Multiple mutations across the genome with individually small effects can be difficult to clear, yet sum to a significant fitness load; our findings reveal that sexual selection reduces this load, improving population viability in the face of genetic stress.

  11. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  12. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    provide important functional information. This review provides a nonmathematical description of the issues involved in detecting selection from DNA sequences and SNP data and is intended for readers who are not familiar with population genetic theory. Particular attention is placed on issues relating......There is an increasing interest in detecting genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by natural selection. The interest stems from a basic desire to learn more about evolutionary processes in humans and other organisms, and from the realization that inferences regarding selection may...

  14. Pedagogical basement of sport selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaev A.K.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of relevance, goals, objectives psychological selection of sports heroes. The analysis of the literature reveals the stages of the selection of fighters, revealed three interdependent parts of the selection of athletes as part of the wrestling coach. Established that the content and focus of initial training for wrestling must meet age, stage of training, the level of preparedness practitioners. So it is proved that the intellectual sphere of athletes is mediocre and the average level of development.

  15. Selecting practice management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, R; Ciotti, V

    1997-01-01

    Despite enormous advances in information systems, the process by which most medical practices select them has remained virtually unchanged for decades: the request for proposal (RFP). Unfortunately, vendors have learned ways to minimize the value of RFP checklists to where purchasers now learn little about the system functionality. The authors describe a selection methodology that replaces the RFP with scored demos, reviews of vendor user manuals and mathematically structured reference checking. In a recent selection process at a major medical center, these techniques yielded greater user buy-in and favorable contract terms as well.

  16. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  17. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...

  18. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  19. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  20. Selecting and Buying Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for selecting/buying educational software are discussed under the following headings: educational soundness; appropriateness; challenge and progress; motivation and reward; correctness; compatibility with systems; instructions and handlings. Includes several sources of software reviews. (JN)

  1. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  2. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  3. Structure-activity relationship analysis of cytotoxic cyanoguanidines: selection of CHS 828 as candidate drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullbo Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-(6-(4-chlorophenoxyhexyl-N'-cyano-N''-4-pyridyl guanidine (CHS 828 is the first candidate drug from a novel group of anti-tumour agents – the pyridyl cyanoguanidines, shown to be potent compounds interfering with cellular metabolism (inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase and NF-κB signalling. Substituted cyanoguanidines are also found in anti-hypertensive agents such as the potassium channel opener pinacidil (N-cyano-N'-(4-pyridyl-N''-(1,2,2-trimethylpropylguanidine and histamine-II receptor antagonists (e.g. cimetidine, N-cyano-N'-methyl-N''-[2-[[(5-methylimidazol-4-yl]methyl]thio]ethylguanidine. In animal studies, CHS 828 has shown very promising activity, and phase I and II studies resulted in further development of a with a water soluble prodrug. Findings To study the structural requirements for cyanoguanidine cytotoxicity a set of 19 analogues were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects were then studied in ten cell lines selected for different origins and mechanisms of resistance, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA. The compounds showed varying cytotoxic activity even though the dose-response curves for some analogues were very shallow. Pinacidil and cimetidine were found to be non-toxic in all ten cell lines. Starting with cyanoguanidine as the crucial core it was shown that 4-pyridyl substitution was more efficient than was 3-pyridyl substitution. The 4-pyridyl cyanoguanidine moiety should be linked by an alkyl chain, optimally a hexyl, heptyl or octyl chain, to a bulky end group. The exact composition of this end group did not seem to be of crucial importance; when the end group was a mono-substituted phenyl ring it was shown that the preferred position was 4-substitution, followed by 3- and, finally, 2-substitution as the least active. Whether the substituent was a chloro, nitro or methoxy substituent seemed to be of minor importance. Finally, the activity patterns in the

  4. Species selection for smallholder aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Systems for selection of species for smallholder aquaculture are presented. These are: food fits; management decisions; and economic criteria. Food fits suggests categorizing pond food resources into a few categories based loosely on the instrinsic traits of food which effect their selectivity by predators. Using management decision techniques, potential polycultures might also be compared with each other and with monoculture. Under economic criteria (and for species known in local markets), ...

  5. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  6. Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Bajaber; M. A. Taha

    2012-01-01

    Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few ...

  7. A Heckman Selection- t Model

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.

    2012-03-01

    Sample selection arises often in practice as a result of the partial observability of the outcome of interest in a study. In the presence of sample selection, the observed data do not represent a random sample from the population, even after controlling for explanatory variables. That is, data are missing not at random. Thus, standard analysis using only complete cases will lead to biased results. Heckman introduced a sample selection model to analyze such data and proposed a full maximum likelihood estimation method under the assumption of normality. The method was criticized in the literature because of its sensitivity to the normality assumption. In practice, data, such as income or expenditure data, often violate the normality assumption because of heavier tails. We first establish a new link between sample selection models and recently studied families of extended skew-elliptical distributions. Then, this allows us to introduce a selection-t (SLt) model, which models the error distribution using a Student\\'s t distribution. We study its properties and investigate the finite-sample performance of the maximum likelihood estimators for this model. We compare the performance of the SLt model to the conventional Heckman selection-normal (SLN) model and apply it to analyze ambulatory expenditures. Unlike the SLNmodel, our analysis using the SLt model provides statistical evidence for the existence of sample selection bias in these data. We also investigate the performance of the test for sample selection bias based on the SLt model and compare it with the performances of several tests used with the SLN model. Our findings indicate that the latter tests can be misleading in the presence of heavy-tailed data. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  8. Global Sourcing and Firm Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms.......We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms....

  9. Sexual selection protects against extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Alyson; Michalczyk, Lukasz; Kitson, James; Spurgin, Lewis; Morrison, Catriona; Godwin, Joanne; Dickinson, Matthew; Martin, Oliver; Emerson, Brent; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorised that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males, and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success ...

  10. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  11. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  12. The ancestral selection graph under strong directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokalyuk, Cornelia; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ancestral selection graph (ASG) was introduced by  Neuhauser and Krone (1997) in order to study populations of constant size which evolve under selection. Coalescence events, which occur at rate 1 for every pair of lines, lead to joint ancestry. In addition, splitting events in the ASG at rate α, the scaled selection coefficient, produce possible ancestors, such that the real ancestor depends on the ancestral alleles. Here, we use the ASG in the case without mutation in order to study fixation of a beneficial mutant. Using our main tool, a reversibility property of the ASG, we provide a new proof of the fact that a beneficial allele fixes roughly in time (2logα)/α if α is large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  14. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  15. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  16. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  17. Treatment of selective mutism: focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakeh, Yaman; Stumpf, Janice L

    2008-02-01

    Abstract Selective mutism is a pediatric psychiatric disorder that occurs when a child consistently fails to speak in specific situations in which speaking is expected, such as at school and social gatherings, but speaks appropriately in other settings. Selective mutism often is diagnosed when a child starts school and does not talk to teachers or peers, but talks to family members at home; the condition is frequently accompanied by anxiety and shyness. Although the underlying etiology of the condition remains unclear, psychotherapy is the preferred initial treatment, with the support of parents and teachers. If the child does not respond to psychotherapy, addition of pharmacologic treatment should be considered, depending on the severity of symptoms and presence of other illnesses. Although data are limited to case reports and trials with small patient populations and short follow-up periods, some patients with selective mutism respond to therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine is the most studied SSRI as treatment for the condition, although further investigation is required to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy.

  18. Directed evolution: selecting today's biocatalysts : selecting today's biocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Linda; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Directed evolution has become a full-grown tool in molecular biology nowadays. The methods that are involved in creating a mutant library are extensive and can be divided into several categories according to their basic ideas. Furthermore, both screening and selection can be used to target the

  19. Selective carnivory by Euphausia lucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M. J.; Pillar, S. C.; Stuart, V.

    1991-07-01

    Stomach contents of adult Euphausia lucens were analysed to determine what criteria this euphausiid uses to select copepod prey. The results indicate that although E. lucens of all sizes ingest a wide range of prey sizes at apparently ambient proportions, small copepods (e.g. Oithona) are consistently consumed in greater than ambient amounts. Small copepods (especially Oithona) are known to move slowly, and have been shown to be more susceptible to predation via negative pressure than larger copepods. In the presence of an abundant phytoplankton food supply and in an otherwise generally non-selective diet, we conclude that such copepod selection by E. lucens is passive. This is in line with the idea of a non-hunting, preferentially herbivorous zooplankter.

  20. Site selection: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilford, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Site selection has been going on since the earliest times. The process has evolved through the Industrial Revolution to the present period of exploding population and environmental awareness. Now the work must be done both with increasing sophistication and greater transparency. Modern techniques for site selection have been developed during the last two decades or so, utilizing a teachable body of knowledge and a growing literature. Many firms and individuals have contributed to this growing field. The driving force has been the need for such a process in siting and licensing of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. A list of crucial, documented steps for identifying social impacts and acceptability are provided. A recent innovation is the self-selection method developed by government. The Superconducting Supercollider serves as an example of this approach. Geological or geologically dependent factors often dominate the process. The role as engineering and environmental geoscientists is to provide responsible leadership, consultation, and communication to the effort

  1. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  2. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  3. E-recruitment and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Haahr, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies has revolutionized e-recruitment and selection function in many organizations, especially transforming it into a time- and space-independent process of sourcing and evaluating candidates. In the process, organizations rely on websites, social...... media and job portals for sourcing candidates and deploy computerized and online assessment tools when selecting the best-qualified applicants. Similarly, their communication with jobseekers has moved to cyberspace and is often performed through applicant tracking systems, where hiring managers use...... mobile technologies to track and evaluate candidates. In this chapter, we present an overview of e-recruitment and selection practices and discuss the use of technology throughout the hiring process....

  4. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  5. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  6. The physiology of follicle selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleznik Anthony J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the follicular phase of the primate menstrual cycle, a single follicle usually matures to the preovulatory stage and releases its oocyte for fertilization and the potential establishment of pregnancy. In assisted reproductive technology procedures, it is desirable to override the natural process of follicle selection to produce many oocytes that are capable of being fertilized and undergoing normal embryo development. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the current views regarding the natural process of follicle selection in primates and to discuss how this process may be amplified to produce a greater number of oocytes.

  7. Feature selection for portfolio optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Thomas Trier; Ross, Omri; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Most portfolio selection rules based on the sample mean and covariance matrix perform poorly out-of-sample. Moreover, there is a growing body of evidence that such optimization rules are not able to beat simple rules of thumb, such as 1/N. Parameter uncertainty has been identified as one major....... While most of the diversification benefits are preserved, the parameter estimation problem is alleviated. We conduct out-of-sample back-tests to show that in most cases different well-established portfolio selection rules applied on the reduced asset universe are able to improve alpha relative...

  8. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  9. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  11. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way...

  12. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  13. Guidelines for Effective Selective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Joel D.; Shields, Joyce L.

    Defining selective listening as an intelligence gathering technique that depends on an individual's ability to access, monitor, and report oral messages accurately and to give processing priority to messages of possible intelligence value, this report describes one important application of the technique: overhearing the conversations of others…

  14. Geodesy and Mapping (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-16

    August 1979 MICROFICHE NR. C-0/O GEODESY AND MAPPING (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 53 Source: Geodezja i Kartograflia, Vol. 27, Nr. 2, 1978, pp. 83...Hausbrandt S., Wyrdwnanie sieci trygonemetryernych z odrzuceniem zalolenia bezbIfdneil pwo- ktdw dowiqzania, Geodezja i Kartografia. T III, z. 1, 1954. [2

  15. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  16. Select Papyri from Danish Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas

    The thesis, Select Papyri from Danish Collections: Philological and Archaeometric Studies, consists of an introduction, a book, four articles and a rapport on a scientific experiment at EuropeanRadiation Synchrotron Facility(ESRF), Grenoble, France, together with an application for another...

  17. Development, Awareness and Inductive Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Lim, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined whether adults and children could learn to make context-dependent inferences about novel stimuli and the role of awareness of context cues in such learning. Participants were trained to match probes to targets on the basis of shape or color with the relevant dimension shifting according to item context. A selective induction…

  18. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  19. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  20. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  1. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  2. Selected papers on classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication, the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers here are in the general area of mathematical analysis as it pertains to free probability theory.

  3. Selectivity in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Honoré Hansen, S

    2000-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a most promising separation technique providing good selectivity and high separation efficiency of anionic, cationic as well as neutral solutes. In MEEKC lipophilic organic solvents dispersed as tiny droplets in an aqueous buffer by the use...

  4. Efficient data selection for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, NT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available the deployment of ASR systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. One approach to assist with resource-scarce ASR system development, is to select ‘‘useful’’ training samples which could reduce the resources needed to collect new corpora. In this work...

  5. Selecting Copulas for Risk Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCopulas offer financial risk managers a powerful tool to model the dependence between the different elements of a portfolio and are preferable to the traditional, correlation-based approach. In this paper we show the importance of selecting an accurate copula for risk management. We

  6. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  7. density-dependent selection revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    is a more useful way of looking at density-dependent selection, and then go on ... these models was that the condition for maintenance of ... In a way, their formulation may be viewed as ... different than competition among species, and typical.

  8. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  9. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the

  10. Teacher Candidate Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Lynn; And Others

    Summaries are presented of three papers presented at a summer workshop on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education conducted by the Association of Teacher Educators. The general topic covered by these presentations was teacher candidate selection and evaluation. Papers focused upon the following questions: (1) What entry level criteria should be…

  11. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplies (pet bowls, pet bed, leash, etc.) as gifts, then selecting the pet as a family. That way, everyone has time to really think about whether your family is ready for a pet. Key Questions Before adopting or purchasing any pet, talk to all family members, discuss ...

  12. Feature selection toolbox software package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2002), s. 487-492 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * loating search algorithms Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2002

  13. A Selection Method That Succeeds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitman, Catheryn J.

    Provided a structural selection method is carried out, it is possible to find quality early childhood personnel. The hiring process involves five definite steps, each of which establishes a base for the next. A needs assessment formulating basic minimal qualifications is the first step. The second step involves review of current job descriptions…

  14. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachura, Z.

    1984-09-01

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  15. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  16. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  17. Binaural frequency selectivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; van de Par, Steven

    2018-01-23

    Several behavioural studies in humans have shown that listening to sounds with two ears that is binaural hearing, provides the human auditory system with extra information on the sound source that is not available when sounds are only perceived through one ear that is monaurally. Binaural processing involves the analysis of phase and level differences between the two ear signals. As monaural cochlea processing (in each ear) precedes the neural stages responsible for binaural processing properties it is reasonable to assume that properties of the cochlea may also be observed in binaural processing. A main characteristic of cochlea processing is its frequency selectivity. In psychoacoustics, there is an ongoing discussion on the frequency selectivity of the binaural auditory system. While some psychoacoustic experiments seem to indicate poorer frequency selectivity of the binaural system than that of the monaural processing others seem to indicate the same frequency selectivity for monaural and binaural processing. This study provides an overview of these seemingly controversial results and the different explanations that were provided to account for the different results. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Portfolio selection with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyung, N.; Vries, de C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Consider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore often select corner

  19. A Heckman Selection- t Model

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    for sample selection bias based on the SLt model and compare it with the performances of several tests used with the SLN model. Our findings indicate that the latter tests can be misleading in the presence of heavy-tailed data. © 2012 American Statistical

  20. Special Warfare: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Strategy. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. (U162 .A78) 8. Atlantic Research Corporation. Georgetown Research Project. A Histori- cal Survey of...Corps Gazette. The Guerrillp. and How to Fight Him: Selections, ed. by T.N. Greene . Nev ’ork: Praeger, 1962. (U240 K33) 108. Martic, Milos. Insurrection

  1. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: μ = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time.

  2. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  3. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  4. Inspection methods and their selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First those nondestructive testing methods, which are used in quality assurance, are to be treated, e.g. - ultrasonics - radiography - magnetic particle testing - dye penetrant testing - eddy currents, and their capabilities and limitations are shown. Second the selection of optimal testing methods under the aspect of defect recognition in different materials and components are shown. (orig./RW)

  5. Persuasion: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Steven T.

    Designed to reflect the diversity of approaches to persuasion, this annotated bibliography cites materials selected for their contribution to that diversity as well as for being relatively current and/or especially significant representatives of particular approaches. The bibliography starts with a list of 17 general textbooks on approaches to…

  6. Repetition priming in selective attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure...

  7. Sales Tax Compliance and Audit Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1995-01-01

    Uses sample selection estimation techniques to identify systematic audit selection rules and determinants of sales tax underreporting. Though based on data from only one state (Tennessee), outcomes are useful in developing and evaluating audit selection results.

  8. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Bahrami, Hamid Reza; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision

  9. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection

    KAUST Repository

    Siepielski, Adam M.; Gotanda, Kiyoko M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Diamond, Sarah E.; DiBattista, Joseph; Carlson, Stephanie Marie

    2013-01-01

    the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data

  10. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  11. Statistical learning and selective inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J

    2015-06-23

    We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.

  12. Selective arterial thrombolysis with urokinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Kil Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Sang Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young [Choong Buk University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    Seven patients with thrombotic occlusions of the peripheral arteries or grafts were treated with urokinase by direct intraarterial selective infusion. During the infusion, simultaneous heparin infusion was used to reduce the frequency of thrombus formation on the infusion catheter or recurrent thrombosis. In 4 patients in whom a complete thrombolysis occurred, urokinase was infused by a high-dose transthrombus bolus technique followed by continuous infusion. There other patients, in whom thrombolysis was partially accomplished and then surgical thrombectomy was performed, were treated only by continuous urokinase infusion. Small hematomas developed at the infusion catheter entry site in 2 patients, but transfusion or operation was not required. Other significant complications were not found. Our results suggest that selective arterial infusion of urokinase with a transthrombus bolus technique can accomplish a complete arterial thrombolysis without any significant complications.

  13. Selective arterial thrombolysis with urokinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Kil Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Dae Young

    1991-01-01

    Seven patients with thrombotic occlusions of the peripheral arteries or grafts were treated with urokinase by direct intraarterial selective infusion. During the infusion, simultaneous heparin infusion was used to reduce the frequency of thrombus formation on the infusion catheter or recurrent thrombosis. In 4 patients in whom a complete thrombolysis occurred, urokinase was infused by a high-dose transthrombus bolus technique followed by continuous infusion. There other patients, in whom thrombolysis was partially accomplished and then surgical thrombectomy was performed, were treated only by continuous urokinase infusion. Small hematomas developed at the infusion catheter entry site in 2 patients, but transfusion or operation was not required. Other significant complications were not found. Our results suggest that selective arterial infusion of urokinase with a transthrombus bolus technique can accomplish a complete arterial thrombolysis without any significant complications

  14. Selective inhibition of distracting input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Crittenden, Ben M; Jensen, Ole; Stokes, Mark G

    2017-10-16

    We review a series of studies exploring distractor suppression. It is often assumed that preparatory distractor suppression is controlled via top-down mechanisms of attention akin to those that prepare brain areas for target enhancement. Here, we consider two alternative mechanisms: secondary inhibition and expectation suppression within a predictive coding framework. We draw on behavioural studies, evidence from neuroimaging and some animal studies. We conclude that there is very limited evidence for selective top-down control of preparatory inhibition. By contrast, we argue that distractor suppression often relies secondary inhibition of non-target items (relatively non-selective inhibition) and on statistical regularities of the environment, learned through direct experience. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rabi N. Bhattacharya selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Waymire, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents some of the most influential papers published by Rabi N. Bhattacharya, along with commentaries from international experts, demonstrating his knowledge, insight, and influence in the field of probability and its applications. For more than three decades, Bhattacharya has made significant contributions in areas ranging from theoretical statistics via analytical probability theory, Markov processes, and random dynamics to applied topics in statistics, economics, and geophysics. Selected reprints of Bhattacharya’s papers are divided into three sections: Modes of Approximation, Large Times for Markov Processes, and Stochastic Foundations in Applied Sciences. The accompanying articles by the contributing authors not only help to position his work in the context of other achievements, but also provide a unique assessment of the state of their individual fields, both historically and for the next generation of researchers. Rabi N. Bhattacharya: Selected Papers will be a valuable resource for yo...

  16. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  17. EBTR design-point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to select the design point for the ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study is described. The models used in each phase of the selection process are described, with an emphasis placed on the parametric design curves produced by each model. The tradeoffs related to burn physics, stability/equilibrium, electron-ring physics, and magnetics design are discussed. The resulting design point indicates a plasma with a 35-m major radius and a 1-m minor radium operating at an average core-plasma beta of 0.17, which at approx. 30 keV produces an average neutron wall loading of 1.4 MW/m 2 while maintaining key magnet (< 10 T) and total power (less than or equal to 4000 MWt) constraints

  18. Geodesy and Cartography (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-10

    C-OO/b73 GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 40 Source: GeodezJa i Kartografia, Vol. 27, Nr. 1, 1978, PP. 3-27 Country of...1976. 14) kledzixski, J., Zibek, Z., Czarnecki, K., Rogowski, J.B., Problems in Using Satellite Surveys in an Astronomical-Geodesic Network, Geodezja i...Based on Observations of Low-Low Satellites Using Collocation Methods, Geodezja i Kartografia, Vol. XXVI, No. 4, 1977. [-7. Krynski, J., Schwarz, K.P

  19. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  20. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Bálint; Szabó, Gyula; Benczúr, András

    2013-01-01

    Background: The application and introduction of ERP systems have become a central issue for management and operation of enterprises. The competition on market enforces the improvement and optimization of business processes of enterprises to increase their efficiency, effectiveness, and to manage better the resources outside the company. The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. Objective: The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on th...

  1. Selective shielding device for scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.W.; Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A selective shielding device to be used in combination with a scintillation camera is described. The shielding device is a substantially oval-shaped configuration removably secured to the scintillation camera. As a result of this combination scanning of preselected areas of a patient can be rapidly and accurately performed without the requirement of mounting any type of shielding paraphernalia on the patient. 1 claim, 2 drawing figures

  2. The selection of occupancy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An estimate of the proportion of time that an area is occupied by radiation workers is often used in radiological protection to permit relaxation of exposure rate limits above those for continuous occupation. This proportion is known as an occupancy factor and is used most frequently in X-ray facilities. The strategy for controlling the external exposure of radiation workers must be decided before occupancy factors are selected for the design of the radiation protection facilities. When shielding has to be designed the occupancy factor effects the design objectives and permits increased exposure rates at the shield surface. It is useful to note that the selection of occupancy factors with due regard to the expected spatial variation of the exposure rate can help to reduce the range of the worker's radiation exposure because field gradients are usually steeper close to the shield. When other hazards, such as internal exposure, and other constraints, such as cost of the space consumed, are added, the selection of the optimum set of occupancy factors is more difficult. Two zone occupancy factors are discussed in this paper and proposals are made for a strategy to be used when there is more than one hazard and the designer has to meet constraints imposed by limitations of the facilities available. An important feature of the strategy is the avoidance of high radiation exposure to small groups of workers. The errors involved in assessment of the actual dose received by the radiation worker must be taken into account and in particular the selection of the higher exposure rate limits must be made with attention to the accident potential

  3. Brand management of selected brand

    OpenAIRE

    Honzíková, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the subject of brand management. My main objective was to summarize the issue of brand management and apply the acquired knowledge on the selected brand of food products on the Czech market, i.e. to assess its current management and the current situation and where appropriate, propose recommendations for the future. I use the case study method, the method of survey and analysis of primary and secondary data. The theoretical part deals with the concept of brand, its featu...

  4. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  5. Selective Functionalization of Arbitrary Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-02

    3-mercaptopropyl)- trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The wires were grown electrochemically in anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) templates. Selective deposition...In the past, templates composed of polycarbonate track-etched membranes or anodic aluminum oxide materials have been used for the construction of...modifier MPTMS was used to function- alize the AAO template because it can form covalent bonds with silanes and metal oxide surfaces21 and because of

  6. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  7. Republic of Lithuania; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews public expenditure in Lithuania with a view to identify areas for which deeper reforms may be warranted to improve spending efficiency and contain future spending pressures. The paper benchmarks spending levels and spending composition in Lithuania against those in other European countries. The 31 European countries covered in the benchmarking exercise include the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Reflecting the tendency for public spending to inc...

  8. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  9. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  10. Natural Selection in Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolutionary dynamics and population genetics of natural selection in large populations. In these populations, many mutations are often present simultaneously, and because recombination is limited, selection cannot act on them all independently. Rather, it can only affect whole combinations of mutations linked together on the same chromosome. Methods common in theoretical population genetics have been of limited utility in analyzing this coupling between the fates of different mutations. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that this is a crucial gap in our understanding, as sequence data has begun to show that selection appears to act pervasively on many linked sites in a wide range of populations, including viruses, microbes, Drosophila, and humans. I will describe approaches that combine analytical tools drawn from statistical physics and dynamical systems with traditional methods in theoretical population genetics to address this problem, and describe how experiments in budding yeast can help us directly observe these evolutionary dynamics.

  11. Dysprosium selective potentiometric membrane sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A novel Dy(III) ion-selective PVC membrane sensor was made using a new synthesized organic compound, 3,4-diamino-N Prime -((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (L) as an excellent sensing element. The electrode showed a Nernstian slope of 19.8 {+-} 0.6 mV per decade in a wide concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}-1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1}, a detection limit of 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, a short conditioning time, a fast response time (< 10 s), and high selectivity towards Dy(III) ion in contrast to other cations. The proposed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Dy(III) ions with EDTA. The membrane sensor was also applied to the F{sup -} ion indirect determination of some mouth washing solutions and to the Dy{sup 3+} determination in binary mixtures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novelty of this work is based on the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Dy{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique is very simple, fast and inexpensive and it is not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The newly developed sensor is superior to the formerly reported Dy{sup 3+} sensors in terms of selectivity.

  12. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  13. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  14. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  15. QSAR of adenosine receptor antagonists. Part 3: Exploring physicochemical requirements for selective binding of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives with human adenosine A3 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Leonard, J Thomas; Sengupta, Chandana

    2004-07-16

    Considering potential of selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonists in the development of prospective therapeutic agents, an attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives for binding with cloned human adenosine A3 receptor subtype. In this study, partition coefficient (logP) values of the molecules (calculated by Crippen's fragmentation method) and Wang-Ford charges of the common atoms of the triazolopurine nucleus (calculated from molecular electrostatic potential surface of energy minimized geometry using AM1 technique) were used as independent variables along with suitable dummy parameters. The best equation describing A3 binding affinity [n=29, Q2=0.796, Ra2=0.853, R2=0.874, R=0.935, s=0.342, F=41.5 (df 4,24), SDEP=0.396] showed parabolic relation with logP (optimum value being 4.134). Further, it was found that an aromatic substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus should be present at R2 position for A3 binding affinity. Again, high negative charges on N2 and N4 are conducive to the binding affinity. While exploring selectivity requirements of the compounds for binding with A3 receptor over that with A2A receptor, the selectivity relation [n=23, Q2=0.909, Ra2=0.918, R2=0.933, R=0.966, s=0.401, F=62.4 (df 4,18), SDEP=0.412] showed that an aromatic R2 substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus contributes significantly to the selectivity. Again, presence of a 4-substituted-phenyl ring (except 4-OH-phenyl and 4-CH3-phenyl) at R2 position also increases selectivity. Further, charge difference between N2 and N11 (negative charge on the former should be higher and that on the latter should be less) contributes significantly to the selectivity. In addition, negative charge on N7 is conducive while presence of substituents like propyl, butyl, pentyl or phenyl at R1 position is detrimental for the A3 selectivity.

  16. Statistical selection : a way of thinking !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Eikelder, ten H.M.M.; Hemerik, C.; Rem, M.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical selection of the best population is discussed in general terms and the principles of statistical selection procedures are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of Subset Selection, one of the main approaches, are indicated. The selection of an almost best population is considered and

  17. Statistical selection : a way of thinking!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical selection of the best population is discussed in general terms and the principles of statistical selection procedures are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of Subset Selection, one of the main approaches, are indicated. The selection of an almost best population is considered and

  18. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public... PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.6 Selection process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria and...

  19. The Art of Selection: Command Selection Failures, and a Better Way to Select Army Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    and Effects ( MFE ), Force Sustainment (FS), and Operations Support (OS). Board members review board files in accordance with the instructions given to...Fires, and Effects ( MFE ), Operations Support (OS), and Force Sustainment (FS). The exact composition of a command selection board is governed by a...policy updated annually by the Military Personnel Management Directorate. For example, the MFE lieutenant colonel command board will be made up of one

  20. Synthesis, structure and solvatochromic properties of 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-5-(3- and 4-substituted phenylazo-2-pyridones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINA TODOROVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of some new pyridone arylazo dyes was synthesized from the corresponding diazonium salts and 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-2-pyridone using the classical reaction for the synthesis of the azo compounds. The structures of these dyes were confirmed by UV–Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromism of the dyes was evaluated with respect to visible absorption properties in various solvents. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent/solute hydrogen bonding interactions were analyzed by means of the linear solvation energy relationship concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The 2-pyridone/2-hydroxypiridine tautomeric equilibration was found to depend on the substituents as well as on the solvents.

  1. Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediaries Obtained by Reduction of 2-Halo-1-(4-substituted phenyl-ethanones Mediated by Geotrichum candidum CCT 1205 and Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucídio C. Fardelone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective reductions of p-R1-C6H4C(OCH2R2 (R1 = Cl, Br, CH3, OCH3, NO2 and R2 = Br, Cl mediated by Geotrichum candidum CCT 1205 and Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182 afforded the corresponding halohydrins with complementary R and S configurations, respectively, in excellent yield and enantiomeric excesses. The obtained (R- or (S-halohydrins are important building blocks in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Synthesis of NH4-Substituted Muscovite at 6.3 GPa and 1000°C: Implications for Nitrogen Transport to the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, A. G.; Sokol, E. V.; Kupriyanov, I. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis of NH4-bearing muscovite at P = 6.3 GPa and T = 1000°C in equilibrium with NH3-H2O fluid is performed. It is determined that the newly formed muscovite is enriched in celadonite minal and contains 370 ppm of NH4. The obtained data make it possible to conclude that ammonium-bearing micas have sufficient thermal stability and can transport crustal nitrogen to the mantle in the presence of a reduced water-ammonia fluid at fO2 less than the values of IW + 2 log units even in the regime of "hot" subduction. The key parameter that determines the efficiency of this mechanism for the deep nitrogen cycle is redox stability of NH4-bearing muscovite at the mantle PT-parameters.

  3. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  4. [Genomic selection and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-De; Bao, Zhen-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2011-12-01

    Selective breeding is very important in agricultural production and breeding value estimation is the core of selective breeding. With the development of genetic markers, especially high throughput genotyping technology, it becomes available to estimate breeding value at genome level, i.e. genomic selection (GS). In this review, the methods of GS was categorized into two groups: one is to predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) based on the allele effect, such as least squares, random regression - best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP), Bayes and principle component analysis, etc; the other is to predict GEBV with genetic relationship matrix, which constructs genetic relationship matrix via high throughput genetic markers and then predicts GEBV through linear mixed model, i.e. GBLUP. The basic principles of these methods were also introduced according to the above two classifications. Factors affecting GS accuracy include markers of type and density, length of haplotype, the size of reference population, the extent between marker-QTL and so on. Among the methods of GS, Bayes and GBLUP are usually more accurate than the others and least squares is the worst. GBLUP is time-efficient and can combine pedigree with genotypic information, hence it is superior to other methods. Although progress was made in GS, there are still some challenges, for examples, united breeding, long-term genetic gain with GS, and disentangling markers with and without contribution to the traits. GS has been applied in animal and plant breeding practice and also has the potential to predict genetic predisposition in humans and study evolutionary dynamics. GS, which is more precise than the traditional method, is a breakthrough at measuring genetic relationship. Therefore, GS will be a revolutionary event in the history of animal and plant breeding.

  5. Surgical patient selection and counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelmann, Matt; Köhler, Tobias S; Bailey, George C; Miest, Tanner; Alom, Manaf; Trost, Landon

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures. The process of appropriate patient selection is determined by the integration of patient and surgeon factors, including psychological capacity to handle unsatisfactory results, baseline expectations, complexity of case, and surgeon volume and experience. Using this model, a high-risk scenario includes one in which a low-volume surgeon performs a complex case in a patient with limited psychological capacity and high expectations. In contrast, a high-volume surgeon performing a routine case in a male with low expectations and abundant psychiatric reserve is more likely to achieve a successful outcome. To further help identify patients who are at high risk for dissatisfaction, a previously published mnemonic is recommended: CURSED Patient (compulsive/obsessive, unrealistic, revision, surgeon shopping, entitled, denial, and psychiatric). Appropriate patient counseling includes setting appropriate expectations, reviewing the potential and anticipated risks of surgery, post-operative instruction to limit complications, and long-term follow-up. As thorough counseling is often a time-consuming endeavor, busy practices may elect to utilize various resources including educational materials, advanced practice providers, or group visits, among others. The consequences for poor patient selection and counseling may range from poor surgical outcomes and patient dissatisfaction to lawsuits, loss of

  6. Commodity profiles for selected metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, O.; Wilson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the basic characteristics of 35 metals and gives the prices and production of these metals for the period 1979 to 1983/4. The description of each metal includes the ore grades and reserves, the major minerals in which the metal occurs, and the discovery, selected physical properties, sources, uses, substitutes, and effects on the environment of the metal. Graphs showing price and production cover the period 1950 to 1984, and possible future developments in these areas are forecast for each metal until the year 2000

  7. Selected readings in chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Back, Margaret H

    2013-01-01

    Selected Readings in Chemical Kinetics covers excerpts from 12 papers in the field of general and gas-phase kinetics. The book discusses papers on the laws of connexion between the conditions of a chemical change and its amount; on the reaction velocity of the inversion of the cane sugar by acids; and the calculation in absolute measure of velocity constants and equilibrium constants in gaseous systems. The text then tackles papers on simple gas reactions; on the absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases; on the radiation theory of chemical action; and on the theory of unimolecular reacti

  8. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  9. Social phobia and selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Courtney P; Crosby Budinger, Meghan

    2012-07-01

    Social phobia (SOP) and selective mutism (SM) are related anxiety disorders characterized by distress and dysfunction in social situations. SOP typically onsets in adolescence and affects about 8% of the general population, whereas SM onsets before age 5 and is prevalent in up to 2% of youth. Prognosis includes a chronic course that confers risk for other disorders or ongoing social disability, but more favorable outcomes may be associated with young age and low symptom severity. SOP treatments are relatively more established, whereas dissemination of promising and innovative SM-treatment strategies is needed.

  10. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malov, L.A.; Shilov, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  11. Socioemotional selectivity in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2006-06-01

    This study analyzed the contact preferences of newly diagnosed cancer patients and healthy control group participants. In line with the theory of socioemotional selectivity, patients were more likely than control participants to prefer contact with familiar social partners, but this difference was stronger in younger and middle-aged patients than in older patients. Across a 6-month interval, patients' contact preferences changed according to the perceived success of therapy. For example, if therapy was perceived to be successful, patients showed an increasing interest in contacts with unfamiliar social partners. Results indicate that contact preferences are adapted to the perception of limited versus extended future lifetime. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov` ev, V G; Gromov, K Ya; Malov, L A; Shilov, V M

    1994-12-31

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles). heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and {beta}-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei.

  13. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  14. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  15. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  16. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.

    1975-01-01

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  17. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Diverse cost-estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM 1.0) is interactive accounting software tool providing means for combining several independent cost-estimating programs into fully-integrated mathematical model capable of assessing costs, analyzing benefits, providing file-handling utilities, and putting out information in text and graphical forms to screen, printer, or plotter. Program based on Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.0. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system.

  18. Novel selective and non-selective optical detection of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L A; Firstenberg-Eden, R

    1997-09-01

    A new instrument, capable of detecting metabolic changes due to microbiological activity, is described. Optical changes in growth media are monitored in a semi-fluid zone that separates the liquid medium containing the sample. Data demonstrate that common media can be utilized in conjunction with this rapid automated technology. Nutrient broth with the pH dye indicator. bromocresol purple was suitable for total counts. Selective media containing dyes were utilized to assess the presence or absence of specific groups of organisms. Biochemical reactions, such as lysine decarboxylase activity, were identified by the unique generated patterns, and specific enzymatic cleavage reactions with chromogenic substrates, such as 5-bromo-4 chloro-3 indolyl-beta-D-glucuronic acid (X-GLUC), were monitored.

  19. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  20. Finding Direction in the Search for Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiltgen, Grant; Dos Reis, Mario; Goldstein, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV drug resistance data as models of directional selection, we compare two such methods with each other, as well as against a standard method for detecting diversifying selection. We find that the method to detect diversifying selection also detects directional selection under certain conditions. One method developed for detecting directional selection is powerful and accurate for a wide range of conditions, while the other can generate an excessive number of false positives.

  1. [Sexual offences--selected cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabecka, Marzena; Jarzabek-Bielecka, Grazyna; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota

    2013-04-01

    Expert testimony on violence victims also includes victims of sexual assault. The role of an expert is to classify the injuries by their severity as defined in art. 157 156 or 217 of the Criminal Code pertaining to crimes against health and life. Also, the role of an expert opinion is to determine whether the injuries identified during the exam occurred at the time and under the circumstances stated in medical history. The examination of sexual assault victims is conducted by two experts: a gynecologist and a forensic physician. Most examinations are performed at different times and various medical centers. The conclusions are presented in an official report. Regardless of victim age, all sexual crimes are investigated ex officio by the Police Department and the Prosecutor's Office. Further legal classification of criminal offenses is the task of an appropriate legal body and the offenses are codified in accordance with the provisions of chapter XXV of the Criminal Code, articles 197 - 205. In controversial cases, i.e. when two different expert opinions appear on the same case, or if, according to the law enforcement, a medical opinion is insufficient for some reason, an appropriate expert or team of experts is appointed to resolve the problem. To present selected cases of sexual violence victims treated at the Department of Gynecology and assessed at the Department of Forensic Medicine with reference to the challenges regarding qualification of the sustained injuries and clinical diagnoses. Research material included selected forensic opinions developed for law enforcement offices that involved victims of sexual violence. The expert opinions were prepared either on the basis of submitted evidence, or both, submitted evidence and examination of the victim at the Department of Forensic Medicine. Moreover the article presents a case of a patient examined and treated at the Department of Gynecology in Poznan. Based on the selected cases, the authors conclude that a

  2. An improved selective sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Iida, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1986-01-01

    The coincidence methods which are currently used for the accurate activity standardisation of radio-nuclides, require dead time and resolving time corrections which tend to become increasingly uncertain as countrates exceed about 10 K. To reduce the dependence on such corrections, Muller, in 1981, proposed the selective sampling method using a fast multichannel analyser (50 ns ch -1 ) for measuring the countrates. It is, in many ways, more convenient and possibly potentially more reliable to replace the MCA with scalers and a circuit is described employing five scalers; two of them serving to measure the background correction. Results of comparisons using our new method and the coincidence method for measuring the activity of 60 Co sources yielded agree-ment within statistical uncertainties. (author)

  3. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  4. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  5. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  6. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities.

  7. Disfluency effects on lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Young, Torin P; Risko, Evan F

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  9. Selected aspects of fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture, we present selected aspects of nuclear fusion. The importance of the initial geometry of the reaction and its relation to fusion barrier are first discussed. The effect of deformation leading to the notion of barrier distribution is then illustrated. After a brief overview of the advantages of macroscopic theories, the dynamics of nuclear system under large amplitude motion is reviewed. The di-nuclear concept is presented to understand the competition between fusion and quasi-fission. This concept is then generalized to account for the dissipative dynamics in multidimensional collective space. The last part of this lecture is devoted to new aspects encountered with radioactive beams specific properties of very extended neutron rich system, influence of pygmy or soft dipole resonances and charge exchange far from stability are discussed. (author)

  10. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J; Koljonen, T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  11. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  12. Selected recent results from AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, E; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becker, K H; Bergström, L; Bertrand, D; Bierenbaum, D; Biron, A; Booth, J; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G S; Cowen, D F; Dailing, J; Dalberg, E; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekstrom, P; Erlandsson, B; Feser, T; Gaug, M; Goldschmidt, A; Goobar, A; Gray, L; Haase, H; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; He, Y D; Hellwig, M; Heukenkamp, H; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kandhadai, V; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Loaiza, P; Lowder, D M; Ludvig, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Mihályi, A; Mikolajski, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhoffer, T; Newcomer, F M; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Heros, C P D L; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Richards, A; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Rubinstein, H; Sander, H G; Scheider, T; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schneider, E; Schwarzl, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Streicher, O; Sun, A; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Thon, T; Tilav, S; Usechak, N; Donckt, M V; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S

    2001-01-01

    We present a selection of results based on data taken in 1997 with the 302-PMT Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array-B10 ("AMANDA-B10") array. Atmospheric neutrinos created in the northern hemisphere are observed indirectly through their charged current interactions which produce relativistic, Cherenkov-light-emitting upgoing muons in the South Pole ice cap. The reconstructed angular distribution of these events is in good agreement with expectation and demonstrates the viability of this ice-based device as a neutrino telescope. Studies of nearly vertical upgoing muons limit the available parameter space for WIMP dark matter under the assumption that WIMPS are trapped in the earth's gravitational potential well and annihilate with one another near the earth's center.

  13. Selective cervical myelography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical ways of subarachnoid puncture - lumbal and suboccipital - require a considerable quantity of air in performing segmental cervical pneumomyelography. An examination technique is described, based on the recently suggested lateral subarachnoid puncture within the interarcus space at C 1 -C 2 level. Emphasis is laid on the possibilities of carrying out various neuro-roentgenological studies through contrast medium introduction in the fashion described, namely: pontocerebellar cistemography and cervical myelography with AMIPAQUE - a water soluble contrast medium. On the basis of literature data and personal experience it is stated that the risk in lateral subarachnoid puncture is by no means higher than in suboccipital puncture. The main advantages of selective cervical myelography effected by contrast medium injection through lateral subarachnoid puncture include the possibility to perform investigation with a minimum amount of air (4-8 cm 3 ) and to study patients with fixed, direct skull fraction after Crutchfield under maximum sparing conditions. (author)

  14. Selective attention within the foveola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Martina; Rucci, Michele; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola. These findings reveal a surprisingly precise control of attention and its involvement in fine spatial vision. They show that the commonly studied covert shifts of attention away from the fovea are the expression of a global mechanism that exerts its action across the entire visual field.

  15. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  16. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  17. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  18. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  19. State-selective electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from a new atomic physics program using the Argonne PII ECR ion source which is being built as part of the upgrade of the Argonne Tandem-Linear Accelerator (ATLAS). Our initial experiments have been aimed at studying state-selective electron capture in ion-atom collisions using the technique of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. We are extending existing cross section measurements at low energy ( 6+ and O 7+ on He and H 2 targets in the energy range from 1-105 keV/amu. We also present uv spectra obtained in collisions of O 6+ , O 5+ and N 5+ on a sodium target. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Unstable decay and state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Alan; Tarlie, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The decay of unstable states when several metastable states are available for occupation is investigated using path-integral techniques. Specifically, a method is described that enables the probabilities with which the metastable states are occupied to be calculated by finding optimal paths, and fluctuations about them, in the weak-noise limit. The method is illustrated on a system described by two coupled Langevin equations, which are found in the study of instabilities in fluid dynamics and superconductivity. The problem involves a subtle interplay between nonlinearities and noise, and a naive approximation scheme that does not take this into account is shown to be unsatisfactory. The use of optimal paths is briefly reviewed and then applied to finding the conditional probability of ending up in one of the metastable states, having begun in the unstable state. There are several aspects of the calculation that distinguish it from most others involving optimal paths: (i) the paths do not begin and end on an attractor, and moreover, the final point is to a large extent arbitrary, (ii) the interplay between the fluctuations and the leading-order contribution are at the heart of the method, and (iii) the final result involves quantities that are not exponentially small in the noise strength. This final result, which gives the probability of a particular state being selected in terms of the parameters of the dynamics, is remarkably simple and agrees well with the results of numerical simulations. The method should be applicable to similar problems in a number of other areas, such as state selection in lasers, activationless chemical reactions, and population dynamics in fluctuating environments

  1. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  2. Film selection in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, Dogan

    1988-01-01

    Importing of medical imaging films is the responsibility of Turkish Red Croscend, but some institutions have currently started to import their own films. Because of the different resources in individual departments throughout Turkey, a general purpose medical film is imported by Turkish Red Croscend. This kind of film has the advantage to tolerate some technical faults related to the exposure, dark room and processing conditions and still reveals the necessary image quality. In addition to general purpose film, many companies produce special used films which improve some film characteristics in order to have a better image. The initial results of a project already started by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority showed that some other technical reasons prevent obtaining films with optimum quality. The film is the last step of diagnostic procedure and not only gives necessary clinical information, but also visualizes all the problems related to the lock of the calibration of X-ray system and dark room processing conditions. Because of these reasons, many people hold the film responsible for every technical problem. During the selection of the best film among the different companies, institutions have to fulfill some prerequisites at the beginning and than evaluate the quantitative results obtained from measurements according to their clinical purposes. It is the subject of this paper to show how to use film parameter as a comparison to different types of films measured with light sensitometry method. The dark room and processing problems which adversely effect the results are also given. The requirements for the best film selection both for general and special purposes are also evaluated. The extent of this paper is limited only to films using radiology and does not cover the types used in other imaging areas

  3. Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B lessons learnt from the KwaZulu-Natal pilot projects. ... 2001 in KwaZulu-Natal, with specific reference to the recruitment and selection of learners. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Sex selection: treating different cases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z

    2005-08-01

    This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.

  5. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs. ...

  6. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs. ...

  7. 48 CFR 231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 231.205... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205 Selected costs. ...

  8. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs. ...

  9. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs. ...

  10. 48 CFR 631.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 631.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts with Commercial Organizations 631.205 Selected costs. ...

  11. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  12. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  13. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent Fellow... outstanding applicants from each state for James Madison Fellowships. (b) From among candidates recommended...

  14. Relay Selection with Limited and Noisy Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Elkhalil, Khalil; Mas'ud, Abdullahi Abubakar; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Nonetheless, relay selection algorithms generally require error-free channel state information (CSI) from all cooperating relays. Practically, CSI

  15. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  16. On subset selection from Logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1990-01-01

    Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.

  17. The Case for Quality Book Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Murray C.

    1982-01-01

    This essay on library book selection critiques Nora Rawlinson's article on practices at the Baltimore County Public Library which appeared in Library Journal, November 15, 1981, p. 2188, and discusses library circulation statistics in relation to book selection. (EJS)

  18. 40 CFR 89.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 89.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location...). However, once the manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests...

  19. 40 CFR 90.507 - Sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 90.507 Sample selection. (a) Engines comprising a test sample will be selected at the location... manufacturer ships any test engine, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests as provided in § 90.508...

  20. Theory of Alike Selectivity in Biological Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Gibby, Will A. T.; Kaufman, Igor Kh.; Eisenberg, Robert S.; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a statistical mechanical model of the selectivity filter that accounts for the interaction between ions within the channel and derive Eisenman equation of the filter selectivity directly from the condition of barrier-less conduction.

  1. Selection - factors and influences on training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.J.; Mascitti, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel performance is certainly the goal of training programs and the impact of personnel performance on plant performance indicators is well known. This presentation discusses the selection of personnel prior to training and emphasizes the need for selection criteria to include aptitude intelligence, mechanical ability, work ethic, and emotional stability. Selected data is presented from Point Beach that support a rigorous selection and screening program to ensure training successfully prepared these personnel for job assignments

  2. Automatic Algorithm Selection for Complex Simulation Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ewald, Roland

    2012-01-01

    To select the most suitable simulation algorithm for a given task is often difficult. This is due to intricate interactions between model features, implementation details, and runtime environment, which may strongly affect the overall performance. An automated selection of simulation algorithms supports users in setting up simulation experiments without demanding expert knowledge on simulation. Roland Ewald analyzes and discusses existing approaches to solve the algorithm selection problem in the context of simulation. He introduces a framework for automatic simulation algorithm selection and

  3. Finding Direction in the Search for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Thiltgen, G.; Dos Reis, M.; Goldstein, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV...

  4. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  5. Fuzzy target selection using RFM variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymak, U.

    2001-01-01

    An important data mining problem from the world of direct marketing is target selection. The main task in target selection is the determination of potential customers for a product from a client database. Target selection algorithms identify the profiles of customer groups for a particular product,

  6. Location selection in the visual domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Woestenburg, Jaap C.

    2000-01-01

    According to A.H.C. Van der Heijden (1992), attentional selection of visual stimuli can be considered as location selection. Depending on the type of task, location selection can be considered to be automatic )e.g., in case of abrupt onsets), directly controlled (e.g., in case of symbolic precues),

  7. Intervention with the Selectively Mute Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porjes, Michelle D.

    1992-01-01

    Defines selective mutism as describing children who actively choose to speak to few people in selected environments, noting it is most commonly used to describe nonverbal behavior in school setting. Reviews literature from psychoanalytic and learning theory approaches. Presents intervention strategies used with two selectively mute first graders.…

  8. 5 CFR 720.206 - Selection guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection guidelines. 720.206 Section 720... guidelines. This subpart sets forth requirements for a recruitment program, not a selection program... procedures and criteria must be consistent with the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (43...

  9. Maximizing Crossbred Performance through Purebred Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Pieter

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebreds for crossbred performance (CP). As dominance is the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly including dominance in the GS model may be beneficial for selection of purebreds for CP, when estimating allelic effects from pure line data. Th...

  10. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  11. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, Adam M; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Morrissey, Michael B; Diamond, Sarah E; DiBattista, Joseph D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2013-11-01

    Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data set includes 60 studies, consisting of 3937 estimates of selection across an average of five populations. We performed meta-analyses to explore features characterising spatial variation in directional selection. We found that selection tends to vary mainly in strength and less in direction among populations. Although differences in the direction of selection occur among populations they do so where selection is often weakest, which may limit the potential for ongoing adaptive population divergence. Overall, we also found that spatial variation in selection appears comparable to temporal (annual) variation in selection within populations; however, several deficiencies in available data currently complicate this comparison. We discuss future research needs to further advance our understanding of spatial variation in selection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. 5 CFR 330.1204 - Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Employees § 330.1204 Selection. (a) If two or more individuals apply for a vacancy and the hiring agency... agency (under appropriate selection procedures, then: (3) Current or former Federal employees displaced... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection. 330.1204 Section 330.1204...

  13. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection

    KAUST Repository

    Siepielski, Adam M.

    2013-09-12

    Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data set includes 60 studies, consisting of 3937 estimates of selection across an average of five populations. We performed meta-analyses to explore features characterising spatial variation in directional selection. We found that selection tends to vary mainly in strength and less in direction among populations. Although differences in the direction of selection occur among populations they do so where selection is often weakest, which may limit the potential for ongoing adaptive population divergence. Overall, we also found that spatial variation in selection appears comparable to temporal (annual) variation in selection within populations; however, several deficiencies in available data currently complicate this comparison. We discuss future research needs to further advance our understanding of spatial variation in selection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,; Dongmei, [Boulder, CO; Medlin, J William [Boulder, CO; McDaniel, Anthony H [Livermore, CA; Bastasz, Robert J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  15. Selection criteria for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Faculty of General Dental Practitioners (UK) has a declared commitment to 'improving the standards of patient care'. By the provision of standards and guidelines it aims to help the profession to achieve this goal. Standards and guidelines are simply tools a dentist may use to improve treatment planning and care outcomes. The Self-Assessment Manual and Standards, SAMS, first published in 1991, is now well known to the profession and has become a frequently quoted source in clinical audit and quality assurance initiatives. Since its publication the scientific methodology of systematic reviews of the literature has progressed dramatically and this book is based on these developments. Evidence-based care is well established in medicine and dentistry and these selection criteria and guidelines follow these established protocols by basing advice on the available scientific evidence wherever possible. This book's purpose is a practical one, it is not intended to be limiting or restrictive but to be useful in the decision-making process. This is the first in a series of standards documents from the FGDP(UK) which are based on reviews of the scientific literature and employ the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) methodology for guideline production. They are not constraints but an aid to effective treatment planning and patient care

  16. Genomic selection in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Ng, Yvonne; Pant, Himani; Li, Jia; Meoli, Christopher C.; Coster, Adelle C. F.; Stöckli, Jacqueline; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes. Defective regulation of glucose uptake was observed in all models of insulin resistance, whereas other major actions of insulin such as protein synthesis and anti-lipolysis were normal. This defect corresponded to a reduction in the maximum response to insulin. The pattern of change observed for phosphorylation in the Akt pathway was inconsistent with a simple defect at the level of Akt. The only Akt substrate that showed consistently reduced phosphorylation was the RabGAP AS160 that regulates GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that insulin resistance in adipose tissue is highly selective for glucose metabolism and likely involves a defect in one of the components regulating GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin. PMID:25720492

  18. Line selection in celestial masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, M.S.

    1978-09-01

    The primary themes of this work concern the applicability of the Cook (1975) filter mechanism to line selection in hydroxyl masers, and the question of whether interstellar hydroxyl, water, and silicon monoxide masers are saturated. Whether the Cook filter is operative in celestial masers has not thus far been decided, even though it has been shown that such an effect might be occurring. The theory in its present form does not account for line broadening, nor have its consequences with regard to microwave maser emission from excited states of hydroxyl been explored. Both these topics are discussed and the findings are compared with the observations of NGC 6334A, a source which is interesting because of the strong evidence for Zeeman splitting which can be seen in some of its observed spectra. The question of whether interstellar masers are saturated has been much discussed, but a simple method for determining the state of saturation of observed masers does not exist. In particular, the importance of background radiation and of different cloud geometries on the state of saturation of interstellar masers up to now has not been fully appreciated. Both these topics are discussed. (author)

  19. Junction detection and pathway selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alex N.; Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.

    1992-02-01

    The ability to detect junctions and make choices among the possible pathways is important for autonomous navigation. In our script-based navigation approach where a journey is specified as a script of high-level instructions, actions are frequently referenced to junctions, e.g., `turn left at the intersection.' In order for the robot to carry out these kind of instructions, it must be able (1) to detect an intersection (i.e., an intersection of pathways), (2) know that there are several possible pathways it can take, and (3) pick the pathway consistent with the high level instruction. In this paper we describe our implementation of the ability to detect junctions in an indoor environment, such as corners, T-junctions and intersections, using sonar. Our approach uses a combination of partial scan of the local environment and recognition of sonar signatures of certain features of the junctions. In the case where the environment is known, we use additional sensor information (such as compass bearings) to help recognize the specific junction. In general, once a junction is detected and its type known, the number of possible pathways can be deduced and the correct pathway selected. Then the appropriate behavior for negotiating the junction is activated.

  20. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  1. Europa Lander Material Selection Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heller, Mellisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Energetic materials (EMs, explosives, pyrotechnics, propellants) provide high-power output of high temperature reaction products. These products can be solid, liquid, or gaseous during reaction or after the products have equilibrated with the surroundings. For example, high explosives typically consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen bonded within a single molecule, and produce almost exclusively gaseous products. Conversely, intermetallics consist of physical mixtures of metals and metalloids, and produce almost exclusively condensed products. Other materials such as pyrotechnics and propellants have intermediate behavior. All energetic materials react in a self-propagating manner that after ignition, does not necessarily require energy input from the surroundings. The range of reaction velocities can range from mm/s for intermetallics, to km/s for high explosives. Energetic material selection depends on numerous requirements specific to the needs of a system. High explosives are used for applications where high pressure gases are necessary for pushing or fracturing materials (e.g., rock, metal) or creating shock waves or air blast. Propellants are used to produce moderate-pressure, high-temperature products without a shock wave. Pyrotechnics are used to produce numerous effects including: high-temperature products, gases, light, smoke, sound, and others. Thermites are used to produce heat, high-temperature products, materials, and other effects that require condensed products. Intermetallics are used to produce high-temperature condensed products and materials, with very little gas production. Numerous categories of energetic materials exist with overlapping definitions, effects, and properties.

  2. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit

  4. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  5. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  6. Population avoidance in aimpoint selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints

  7. Quotas for the select few

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide quotas are no longer a topic only for politicians or Nobel prize winners or a subject of ambitious EU energetic strategies. For the third year they have also been a factor European companies have to take into account when calculating their plans for the forthcoming period. It is a fact that during the first trading period of the emission trading scheme that ends this year, the emission permits represented a big profit making opportunity for Slovak companies. Or compliance with the new rules at least did not cost them anything. But this pleasant position may change in the upcoming 5-year period starting in January. The new emission quota for the 2008 - 2012 period which Brussels has approved for Slovakia will have an impact on individual companies. And so many companies that had a reserve hidden in the original requirement will have to calculate with a certain limitation as far as their free space for ecological manoeuvres is concerned. However, there is still a group of select companies that will get more: power generating companies controlled by the state. (authors)

  8. Characteristics of Acupoint Selection in Treating Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chao-rong; ZHANG Yan; GU Hong; ZHOU Yun; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of acupoint selection in the treatment of apoplexy. Method:This paper reviews and analyzes the ancient and current medical literature, and then summarizes the characteris -tics of acupoint selection in treating apoplexy. Results:Four characteristics are presented: the acupoints on the head are mostly used; the acupoints are principally selected according to the course of nerves; the acupoints of the yang meridians are usually selected; the special acupoints and empirical acupoints are often combined.Conclusion: Above principles may be adopted in the selection of acupoints to treat apoplexy.

  9. Selective, electrochemical etching of a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Bhat, Ishwara B.; Chow, Tat-Sing

    2018-03-20

    Methods for facilitating fabricating semiconductor structures are provided which include: providing a multilayer structure including a semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer including a dopant and having an increased conductivity; selectively increasing, using electrochemical processing, porosity of the semiconductor layer, at least in part, the selectively increasing porosity utilizing the increased conductivity of the semiconductor layer; and removing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer with the selectively increased porosity from the multilayer structure. By way of example, the selectively increasing porosity may include selectively, anodically oxidizing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer of the multilayer structure.

  10. Innovation During the Supplier Selection Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Pedraza, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Established ideas on supplier selection have not moved much from the original premise of how to choose between bidders. Whilst we have added many different tools and refinements to choose between alternative suppliers, its nature has not evolved. We move the original selection process approach...... observed through an ethnographic embedded researcher study has refined the selection process and has two selection stages one for first supply covering tool/process developed and another later for resupply of mature parts. We report the details of the process, those involved, the criteria employed...... and identify benefits and weaknesses of this enhanced selection process....

  11. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  13. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  14. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  15. The mechanisms of determiner selection and its relation to lexical selection : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, Elisah; De Baene, W.; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The language production literature has given only little attention to the dynamics of closed class word selection, such as determiner selection, and its temporal relation to the selection of open class words. The goal of this paper was to investigate whether determiner selection follows serially

  16. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION OF SIX SIGMA PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhkeim FA. Flifel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a well-structured and proven methodology for improving organizational performance. It helps achieving the goals of the organization through the use of project-driven approach. The implementation of Six sigma approach depends on proper identification and selection of projects, moreover, the selection of right Six sigma projects is one of the critical success factors of six sigma efforts. The paper provides the sources for the identification of potential projects, top down and bottom up approaches, the process of selection of projects, guidelines that assist the selection of appropriate projects, selection criteria which must be precisely chosen in accordance with the objectives, needs and capabilities of the organization as well as sophisticated techniques and tools recommended in the literature for the selection of projects.

  18. Parental selection of children's sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M

    2001-08-01

    As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.

  19. Supplier selection using different metric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosigho S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important component of supply chain management in today’s global competitive environment. Hence, the evaluation and selection of suppliers have received considerable attention in the literature. Many attributes of suppliers, other than cost, are considered in the evaluation and selection process. Therefore, the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making process. The methodology adopted to solve the supplier selection problem is intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution. Generally, TOPSIS is based on the concept of minimum distance from the positive ideal solution and maximum distance from the negative ideal solution. We examine the deficiencies of using only one metric function in TOPSIS and propose the use of spherical metric function in addition to the commonly used metric functions. For empirical supplier selection problems, more than one metric function should be used.

  20. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  1. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  2. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  3. Requirements Specification for Open Source Software Selection

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, YING

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has been widely used. The software world is enjoying the advantages of collaboration and cooperation in software development and use with the advent of open source movement. However, little research is concerned about the practical guidelines of OSS selection. It is hard for an organization to make a decision whether they should use the OSS or not, and to select an appropriate one from a number of OSS candidates. This thesis studies how to select an open source software f...

  4. Performance of Genomic Selection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Legarra, Andrés; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Manfredi, Eduardo; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Selection plans in plant and animal breeding are driven by genetic evaluation. Recent developments suggest using massive genetic marker information, known as “genomic selection.” There is little evidence of its performance, though. We empirically compared three strategies for selection: (1) use of pedigree and phenotypic information, (2) use of genomewide markers and phenotypic information, and (3) the combination of both. We analyzed four traits from a heterogeneous mouse population (http://...

  5. (Z)-Selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, Stephen M; Hagerman, Caroline E; Galloway, Warren R J D; Sore, Hannah F; Goodman, Jonathan M; Spring, David R

    2017-01-01

    The Takai olefination (or Takai reaction) is a method for the conversion of aldehydes to vinyl iodides, and has seen widespread implementation in organic synthesis. The reaction is usually noted for its high ( E )-selectivity; however, herein we report the highly ( Z )-selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehyde derivatives. Systematic screening of related substrates led to the identification of key factors responsible for this surprising inversion of selectivity, and enabled the development of a modified mechanistic model to rationalise these observations.

  6. Sexual Selection and Adaptation to Novel Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain

    2017-01-01

    The work included in this thesis aims at exploring the environmental sensitivity of benefits and costs of sexual selection through a combined empirical and theoretical effort, to increase our understanding of the impact of environmental change on sexually reproducing populations.Can sexual selection promote adaptation to novel environments? Sexual selection for good genes should accelerate adaptation by granting higher reproductive success to individuals of high genetic quality. However, sexu...

  7. A Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas

    new skills and methods supporting the process of evaluating and selecting information systems. This paper presents a method for selecting COTS systems. The method includes the following phases: problem framing, requirements and appraisal, and selection of systems. The idea and distinguishing feature...... behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational' ends' or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends' (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means' (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way of approaching...

  8. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  9. Procreative altruism: beyond individualism in reproductive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas; Devolder, Katrien

    2013-08-01

    Existing debate on procreative selection focuses on the well-being of the future child. However, selection decisions can also have significant effects on the well-being of others. Moreover, these effects may run in opposing directions; some traits conducive to the well-being of the selected child may be harmful to others, whereas other traits that limit the child's well-being may preserve or increase that of others. Prominent selection principles defended to date instruct parents to select a child, of the possible children they could have, likely to have a good (or nonbad) life, but they do not instruct parents to independently take the well-being of others into account. We refer to these principles as individualistic selection principles. We propose a new selection principle-Procreative Altruism-according to which parents have significant moral reason to select a child whose existence can be expected to contribute more to (or detract less from) the well-being of others than any alternative child they could have. We present the case for adopting Procreative Altruism alongside any of the major individualistic selection principles proposed to date and defend this two-principle model against a range of objections.

  10. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  11. Familial versus mass selection in small populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couvet Denis

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used diffusion approximations and a Markov-chain approach to investigate the consequences of familial selection on the viability of small populations both in the short and in the long term. The outcome of familial selection was compared to the case of a random mating population under mass selection. In small populations, the higher effective size, associated with familial selection, resulted in higher fitness for slightly deleterious and/or highly recessive alleles. Conversely, because familial selection leads to a lower rate of directional selection, a lower fitness was observed for more detrimental genes that are not highly recessive, and with high population sizes. However, in the long term, genetic load was almost identical for both mass and familial selection for populations of up to 200 individuals. In terms of mean time to extinction, familial selection did not have any negative effect at least for small populations (N ≤ 50. Overall, familial selection could be proposed for use in management programs of small populations since it increases genetic variability and short-term viability without impairing the overall persistence times.

  12. Estimating uncertainty in multivariate responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Simonsen, Anna K; Blows, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Predicting the responses to natural selection is one of the key goals of evolutionary biology. Two of the challenges in fulfilling this goal have been the realization that many estimates of natural selection might be highly biased by environmentally induced covariances between traits and fitness, and that many estimated responses to selection do not incorporate or report uncertainty in the estimates. Here we describe the application of a framework that blends the merits of the Robertson-Price Identity approach and the multivariate breeder's equation to address these challenges. The approach allows genetic covariance matrices, selection differentials, selection gradients, and responses to selection to be estimated without environmentally induced bias, direct and indirect selection and responses to selection to be distinguished, and if implemented in a Bayesian-MCMC framework, statistically robust estimates of uncertainty on all of these parameters to be made. We illustrate our approach with a worked example of previously published data. More generally, we suggest that applying both the Robertson-Price Identity and the multivariate breeder's equation will facilitate hypothesis testing about natural selection, genetic constraints, and evolutionary responses. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Social selection is a powerful explanation for prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-01-01

    Cultural group selection helps explain human cooperation, but social selection offers a complementary, more powerful explanation. Just as sexual selection shapes extreme traits that increase matings, social selection shapes extreme traits that make individuals preferred social partners. Self-interested partner choices create strong and possibly runaway selection for prosocial traits, without requiring group selection, kin selection, or reciprocity.

  14. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria...

  15. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  16. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  17. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  18. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  19. Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.

  20. Criteria for the selection of ERP software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of an ERP software package is an important investment for an organization, which is characterized also by a high degree of risk. Selecting the most appropriate software is a necessary condition for a successful implementation. This paper is describing the major aspects of software selection in general and the relevant criteria in the case of ERP software.

  1. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each request...

  2. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed, and...

  3. Home Environment of Selected Filipino Gifted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawilen, Greg Tabios

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the home environment of selected Filipino gifted individuals. It aims to answer two research questions: (1) what is the giftedness profile of the selected Filipino gifted?; (2) what types of home environments do Filipino gifted have? This study uses qualitative methods, specifically narrative research strategy, to provide a…

  4. Selected Bibliography of the Nephrourology standard techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In the mark of the first meeting of project coordinators ARCAL XXXVI a selected Bibliography is presented about standardization of technical of Nuclear Nephrourology .In this selection it found: radiopharmaceuticals used, quality control,dosimetry, obstruction, clearance and renal function paediatric aspects pielonephritis,Renovascular hypertension and renal transplant [es

  5. Distributional and efficiency results for subset selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    Assume k (??k \\geq 2) populations are given. The associated independent random variables have continuous distribution functions with an unknown location parameter. The statistical selec??tion goal is to select a non??empty subset which contains the best population,?? that is the pop??ulation with

  6. A Computational Model of Selection by Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Darwinian selection by consequences was instantiated in a computational model that consisted of a repertoire of behaviors undergoing selection, reproduction, and mutation over many generations. The model in effect created a digital organism that emitted behavior continuously. The behavior of this digital organism was studied in three series of…

  7. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  8. Analysis of swaps in Radix selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Mahmoud, Hosam

    2011-01-01

    Radix Sort is a sorting algorithm based on analyzing digital data. We study the number of swaps made by Radix Select (a one-sided version of Radix Sort) to find an element with a randomly selected rank. This kind of grand average provides a smoothing over all individual distributions for specific...

  9. Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.

  10. Selective Mutism in Elementary School: Multidisciplinary Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddan, Jane J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents the symptoms of selective mutism and historical background for treatment. It provides a case study which illustrates successful multidisciplinary treatment outcomes for a child who was selectively mute. Issues relevant to speech-language pathologists working with elementary school children are discussed and treatment guidelines provided.…

  11. OPAL: selection and acquisition of LEP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OPAL project (Omni Purpose aparatus for LEP) is presented. It will be a frame and an example to explain the main problems and limitations concerning the mode of event selection, acquisition and information transfer to the final registering system. A quick review of the different problems related to data selection and acquisition is made [fr

  12. Sickle Cell: A Selected Resource Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This annotated, selective bibliography lists the following types of educational and informational material on both sickle cell disease and trait: (1) professional education materials; (2) fact sheets, pamphlets, and brochures; and (3) audiovisual material. A selected list of references is provided for the following topic areas: (1) genetic…

  13. Dietary selection by steers grazing kikuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being grazeA for a period of 3,5 days in a four-week rotation, at ... Cattle improve the quality of their diet by actively seeking ... of stem in their diet. This would explain why the stem fraction mad~ no significant contribution to the equation predicting diet~ry selection. A:1unusual fact which emerged is that the animals selected.

  14. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  15. Selection and characterization of DNA aptamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the selection and characterisation of DNA aptamers and the various aspects related to their selection from large pools of randomized oligonucleotides. Aptamers are affinity tools that can specifically recognize and bind predefined target molecules; this ability, however,

  16. Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...

  17. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  18. A Dynamic Model for Limb Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.F.A; Smitsman, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments and a model on limb selection are reported. In Experiment 1 left-handed and right-handed participants (N = 36) repeatedly used one hand for grasping a small cube. After a clear switch in the cube’s location, perseverative limb selection was revealed in both handedness groups. In

  19. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  20. Quality improvement in Vignoles through clonal selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to select an improved, loose-clustered clone of Vignoles that will contribute to an integrated approach to disease control. Clonal selection has historically proven useful in reducing cluster compactness through a variety of mechanisms, including decreased berry size, lengthening of the ...

  1. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.

  2. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  3. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  4. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  5. Academic Talent Selection in Grant Review Panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arensbergen, P. van; Weijden, I. van der; Besselaar, P van den; Prpic, K.; Weijden, I. van der; Aseulova, N.

    2014-01-01

    Career grants are an important instrument for selecting and stimulating the next generation of leading researchers. Earlier research has mainly focused on the relation between past performance and success. In this study we investigate the evidence of talent and how the selection process takes place.

  6. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  7. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  8. Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasali, H. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Analysis of Pesticides, Ekalis (Greece)

    2009-07-15

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

  9. Apparent directional selection by biased pleiotropic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-07-01

    Pleiotropic effects of deleterious mutations are considered to be among the factors responsible for genetic constraints on evolution by long-term directional selection acting on a quantitative trait. If pleiotropic phenotypic effects are biased in a particular direction, mutations generate apparent directional selection, which refers to the covariance between fitness and the trait owing to a linear association between the number of mutations possessed by individuals and the genotypic values of the trait. The present analysis has shown how the equilibrium mean value of the trait is determined by a balance between directional selection and biased pleiotropic mutations. Assuming that genes act additively both on the trait and on fitness, the total variance-standardized directional selection gradient was decomposed into apparent and true components. Experimental data on mutation bias from the bristle traits of Drosophila and life history traits of Daphnia suggest that apparent selection explains a small but significant fraction of directional selection pressure that is observed in nature; the data suggest that changes induced in a trait by biased pleiotropic mutation (i.e., by apparent directional selection) are easily compensated for by (true) directional selection.

  10. 5 CFR 330.1105 - Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection. 330.1105 Section 330.1105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of the...

  11. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  12. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  13. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  14. A practical alternative to single tree selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    When landowners want to develop and maintain an uneven-aged tree structure in eastern hardwood stands, single-tree selection often is suggested as the only advisable, long-term partial regeneration harvest method. Single-tree selection is preferred because it provides a means for improving quality and controlling stocking of the residual stand necessary for sustained...

  15. Improving the Bandwidth Selection in Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the current bandwidth selection methods in kernel equating and propose a method based on Silverman's rule of thumb for selecting the bandwidth parameters. In kernel equating, the bandwidth parameters have previously been obtained by minimizing a penalty function. This minimization process has been criticized by practitioners…

  16. 29 CFR 99.305 - Auditor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Auditor selection. 99.305 Section 99.305 Labor Office of the... Auditor selection. (a) Auditor procurement. In procuring audit services, auditees shall follow the... reviews, and price. (b) Restriction on auditor preparing indirect cost proposals. An auditor who prepares...

  17. 38 CFR 41.305 - Auditor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auditor selection. 41.305... OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 41.305 Auditor selection. (a) Auditor procurement. In procuring audit services, auditees shall follow the procurement standards...

  18. 7 CFR 3052.305 - Auditor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auditor selection. 3052.305 Section 3052.305....305 Auditor selection. (a) Auditor procurement. In procuring audit services, auditees shall follow the... control reviews, and price. (b) Restriction on auditor preparing indirect cost proposals. An auditor who...

  19. A new Russell model for selecting suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Majid; Shabani, Amir; Farzipoor Saen, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Recently, supply chain management (SCM) has been considered by many researchers. Supplier evaluation and selection plays a significant role in establishing an effective SCM. One of the techniques that can be used for selecting suppliers is data envelopment analysis (DEA). In some situations, to

  20. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  1. Band Subset Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new approach to band subset selection (BSS for hyperspectral image classification (HSIC which selects multiple bands simultaneously as a band subset, referred to as simultaneous multiple band selection (SMMBS, rather than one band at a time sequentially, referred to as sequential multiple band selection (SQMBS, as most traditional band selection methods do. In doing so, a criterion is particularly developed for BSS that can be used for HSIC. It is a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV derived from adaptive beamforming in array signal processing which can be used to model misclassification errors as the minimum variance. To avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subsets, two numerical algorithms, referred to as sequential (SQ and successive (SC algorithms are also developed for LCMV-based SMMBS, called SQ LCMV-BSS and SC LCMV-BSS. Experimental results demonstrate that LCMV-based BSS has advantages over SQMBS.

  2. Phenomenology and treatment of selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Selective mutism is a multidimensional childhood disorder in which, according to the most recent studies, biologically mediated temperament and anxiety components seem to play a major role. Several psychotherapy methods have been reported in case studies to be useful, but the disorder is commonly seen to be resistant to change, particularly in cases of long duration. Currently, behaviour modification and other cognitive methods, together with cooperation with the family and the school personnel, are recommended in the treatment of selective mutism. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors have also been reported to be helpful when treating children with selective mutism. At the moment, pharmacotherapy cannot be recommended as the treatment of first choice but if other methods of treatment are not helpful, medication can be included in the treatment scheme. Comprehensive evaluation and treatment of possible primary and comorbid problems that require treatment are also essential.

  3. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  4. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  5. An Approximate Approach to Automatic Kernel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lizhong; Liao, Shizhong

    2016-02-02

    Kernel selection is a fundamental problem of kernel-based learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose an approximate approach to automatic kernel selection for regression from the perspective of kernel matrix approximation. We first introduce multilevel circulant matrices into automatic kernel selection, and develop two approximate kernel selection algorithms by exploiting the computational virtues of multilevel circulant matrices. The complexity of the proposed algorithms is quasi-linear in the number of data points. Then, we prove an approximation error bound to measure the effect of the approximation in kernel matrices by multilevel circulant matrices on the hypothesis and further show that the approximate hypothesis produced with multilevel circulant matrices converges to the accurate hypothesis produced with kernel matrices. Experimental evaluations on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of approximate kernel selection.

  6. Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mark; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2013-08-13

    We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level. SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively. Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes. There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.

  7. [Silvicultural treatments and their selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    1973-01-01

    Selection can be defined in terms of its observable consequences as the non random differential reproduction of genotypes (Lerner 1958). In the forest stands we are selecting during the improvements-fellings and reproduction treatments the individuals surpassing in growth or in production of first-class timber. However the silvicultural treatments taken in forest stands guarantee a permanent increase of forest production only in such cases, if they have been taken with respect to the principles of directional (dynamic) selection. These principles require that the trees determined for further growing and for forest regeneration are selected by their hereditary properties, i.e. by their genotypes.For making this selection feasible, our study deals with the genetic parameters and gives some examples of the application of the response, the selection differential, the heritability in the narrow and in the broad sense, as well as of the genetic and genotypic gain. On the strength of this parameter we have the possibility to estimate the economic success of several silvicultural treatments in forest stands.The mentioned examples demonstrate that the selection measures of a higher intensity will be manifested in a higher selection differential, in a higher genetic and genotypic gain and that the mentioned measures show more distinct effects in the variable populations - in natural forest - than in the population characteristic by a smaller variability, e.g. in many uniform artificially established stands.The examples of influences of different selection on the genotypes composition of population prove that genetics instructs us to differentiate the different genotypes of the same species and gives us at the same time a new criterions for evaluating selectional treatments. These criterions from economic point of view is necessary to consider in silviculture as advantageous even for the reason that we can judge from these criterions the genetical composition of forest stands

  8. SELECTING QUASARS BY THEIR INTRINSIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jester, Sebastian; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Marshall, Philip J.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We present a new and simple technique for selecting extensive, complete, and pure quasar samples, based on their intrinsic variability. We parameterize the single-band variability by a power-law model for the light-curve structure function, with amplitude A and power-law index γ. We show that quasars can be efficiently separated from other non-variable and variable sources by the location of the individual sources in the A-γ plane. We use ∼60 epochs of imaging data, taken over ∼5 years, from the SDSS stripe 82 (S82) survey, where extensive spectroscopy provides a reference sample of quasars, to demonstrate the power of variability as a quasar classifier in multi-epoch surveys. For UV-excess selected objects, variability performs just as well as the standard SDSS color selection, identifying quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 95%. In the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3, where color selection is known to be problematic, variability can select quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 96%. This is a factor of 5-10 times more pure than existing color selection of quasars in this redshift range. Selecting objects from a broad griz color box without u-band information, variability selection in S82 can afford completeness and purity of 92%, despite a factor of 30 more contaminants than quasars in the color-selected feeder sample. This confirms that the fraction of quasars hidden in the 'stellar locus' of color space is small. To test variability selection in the context of Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) we created mock PS1 data by down-sampling the S82 data to just six epochs over 3 years. Even with this much sparser time sampling, variability is an encouragingly efficient classifier. For instance, a 92% pure and 44% complete quasar candidate sample is attainable from the above griz-selected catalog. Finally, we show that the presented A-γ technique, besides selecting clean and pure samples of quasars (which are stochastically varying objects), is also

  9. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  10. Sex selection: the systematic elimination of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomman, Nandini; Ganatra, Bela R

    2002-05-01

    In strongly patriarchal societies, where the cultural and economic value of sons is at a premium, son preference manifests itself in many ways, ranging from differential allocation of household resources, medical care and neglect of girl children to female infanticide. With the increasing availability of ultrasound in the mid-1980s sex determination followed by sex-selective abortion began to become widespread as well. The following paper introduces this Roundtable and discusses the following questions: Is sex selection a part of women's right to free choice and control over their reproduction? What is the role of the medical profession? Are all manifestations of sex selection equally unethical? Are there solutions? Do the solutions themselves pose new ethical dilemmas? Following this paper, four respondents put different points of view on sex selection as a gender-based preference for a pregnancy; progress in getting the Supreme Court of India to implement a 1994 law regulating the use of antenatal diagnostic technology; why sex selection should be available as a form of reproductive choice; and why sex selection may be empowering for women and justify their actions in the short run, given the demands on them. All agree that only improved status for women and girls will reduce the demand for sex selection.

  11. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  12. Opportunistic Relay Selection With Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2015-08-01

    Relay selection is a simple technique that achieves spatial diversity in cooperative relay networks. Generally, relay selection algorithms require channel state information (CSI) feedback from all cooperating relays to make a selection decision. This requirement poses two important challenges, which are often neglected in the literature. Firstly, the fed back channel information is usually corrupted by additive noise. Secondly, CSI feedback generates a great deal of feedback overhead (air-time) that could result in significant performance hits. In this paper, we propose a compressive sensing (CS) based relay selection algorithm that reduces the feedback overhead of relay networks under the assumption of noisy feedback channels. The proposed algorithm exploits CS to first obtain the identity of a set of relays with favorable channel conditions. Following that, the CSI of the identified relays is estimated using least squares estimation without any additional feedback. Both single and multiple relay selection cases are considered. After deriving closed-form expressions for the asymptotic end-to-end SNR at the destination and the feedback load for different relaying protocols, we show that CS-based selection drastically reduces the feedback load and achieves a rate close to that obtained by selection algorithms with dedicated error-free feedback. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  13. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  15. Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Selection History Modulates Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Cheng Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that past selection history affects the allocation of attention on target selection. However, it is unclear whether context-driven selection history can modulate the efficacy of attention allocation on working memory (WM representations. This study tests the influences of selection history on WM capacity. A display of one item (low load or three/four items (high load was shown for the participants to hold in WM in a delayed response task. Participants then judged whether a probe item was in the memory display or not. Selection history was defined as the number of items attended across trials in the task context within a block, manipulated by the stimulus set-size in the contexts with fewer possible stimuli (4-item or 5-item context or more possible stimuli (8-item or 9-item context from which the memorized content was selected. The capacity measure (i.e. the K parameter was estimated to reflect the number of items that can be held in WM. Across four behavioral experiments, the results revealed that the capacity was significantly reduced in the context with more possible stimuli relative to the context with fewer possible stimuli. Moreover, the reduction in capacity was significant for high WM load and not observed when the focus was on only a single item. Together, these findings indicate that context-driven selection history and focused attention influence WM capacity.

  17. Sexual Selection of Protamine 1 in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Lena; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-01-01

    Protamines have a crucial role in male fertility. They are involved in sperm chromatin packaging and influence the shape of the sperm head and, hence, are important for sperm performance. Protamine structure is basic with numerous arginine-rich DNA-binding domains. Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to play an important role in protamine sequence evolution and expression. Here, we analyze patterns of evolution and sexual selection (in the form of sperm competition) acting on protamine 1 gene sequence in 237 mammalian species. We assessed common patterns as well as differences between the major mammalian subclasses (Eutheria, Metatheria) and clades. We found that a high arginine content in protamine 1 associates with a lower sperm head width, which may have an impact on sperm swimming velocity. Increase in arginine content in protamine 1 across mammals appears to take place in a way consistent with sexual selection. In metatherians, increase in sequence length correlates with sexual selection. Differences in selective pressures on sequences and codon sites were observed between mammalian clades. Our study revealed a complex evolutionary pattern of protamine 1, with different selective constraints, and effects of sexual selection, between mammalian groups. In contrast, the effect of arginine content on head shape, and the possible involvement of sperm competition, was identified across all mammals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Diversity of selective and non-selective fishing gear and their impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was conducted in Al-Kalakla Fishery (KF) and Jabel Awlia Dam Fishery (JADF) in the White Nile River, Khartoum state to identify the selective and non-selective fishing gear. The results showed the selective fishing gear represented by gill-nets and seine nets (beach nets) in both fisheries with clear variation in ...

  19. Selection gradients, the opportunity for selection, and the coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Wade, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We derive the relationship between R(2) (the coefficient of determination), selection gradients, and the opportunity for selection for univariate and multivariate cases. Our main result is to show that the portion of the opportunity for selection that is caused by variation for any trait is equal to the product of its selection gradient and its selection differential. This relationship is a corollary of the first and second fundamental theorems of natural selection, and it permits one to investigate the portions of the total opportunity for selection that are involved in directional selection, stabilizing (and diversifying) selection, and correlational selection, which is important to morphological integration. It also allows one to determine the fraction of fitness variation not explained by variation in measured phenotypes and therefore attributable to random (or, at least, unknown) influences. We apply our methods to a human data set to show how sex-specific mating success as a component of fitness variance can be decoupled from that owing to prereproductive mortality. By quantifying linear sources of sexual selection and quadratic sources of sexual selection, we illustrate that the former is stronger in males, while the latter is stronger in females.

  20. Color selection and location selection in ERPs : differences, similarities and 'neural specificity'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Mulder, G.

    It was hypothesized that color selection consists of two stages. The first stage represents a feature specific selection in neural populations specialized in processing color. The second stage constitutes feature non-specific selections, related to executive attentional processes and/or motor