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Sample records for selective area atomic

  1. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Sharma, A.; Jiao, Y.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a

  2. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuurt, René H J; Sharma, Akhil; Jiao, Yuqing; Kessels, Wilhelmus Erwin M M; Bol, Ageeth A

    2016-10-07

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a reference. The results show that polyimide has excellent selectivity towards the Pt deposition, after 1000 ALD cycles less than a monolayer of Pt is deposited on the polyimide surface. The polyimide film could easily be removed after ALD using a hydrogen plasma, due to a combination of weakening of the polyimide resist during Pt ALD and the catalytic activity of Pt traces on the polyimide surface. Compared to PMMA for AS-ALD of Pt, polyimide has better temperature stability. This resulted in an improved uniformity of the Pt deposits and superior definition of the Pt patterns. In addition, due to the absence of reflow contamination using polyimide the nucleation phase during Pt ALD is drastically shortened. Pt patterns down to 3.5 μm were created with polyimide, a factor of ten smaller than what is possible using PMMA, at the typical Pt ALD processing temperature of 300 °C. Initial experiments indicate that after further optimization of the polyimide process Pt features down to 100 nm should be possible, which makes AS-ALD of Pt using photosensitive polyimide a promising candidate for patterning at the nanoscale.

  3. State-selective imaging of cold atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheludko, D.V.; Bell, S.C.; Anderson, R.; Hofmann, C.S.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Scholten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic coherence phenomena are usually investigated using single beam techniques without spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate state-selective imaging of cold 85Rb atoms in a three-level ladder system, where the atomic refractive index is sensitive to the quantum coherence state of the atoms. We

  4. Determination of water quality of ground water in selected Payatas residential areas using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (determination of NO3, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Samsudin A.; Roque, Willie P.; Arididon, Bonifacio D. Jr.; Gardon, Ruel W.

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to determine the water-soluble ions using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and trace metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Seven water samples were chosen from the thirteen sites, which were gathered from the selected Payatas residential areas in Quezon City. For the trace metals the lowest detection of AAS in lead was obtained in La Brea site and was found to be -0.5 ppm. Lead content has a value of -0.04 ppm and was found to be below the detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The remaining sites obtained high value of lead concentrations in AAS reading. The range of concentration for lead was from 0.5 ppm for La Brea site to 1.4 ppm for Velasco site. The cadmium as trace metal in groundwater samples from Payatas residential area was found to be below the lowest limit of detection ( 3 which is 15.6 ppm and it was obtained by the used of ion selective electrodes (ISE) Horiba model type. Second to it was the La Brea site, which is 10.04 ppm All the other samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration of nitrate (50.0 ppm), and it ranged from 4.10 ppm for open-well site to 15.6 ppm for Lopez site. In chloride determination, Lagro High School obtained a reading of 57.6 ppm using ISE and it was the highest concentration amount present in seven samples. Next to it was the Ungrin site (36.8 ppm), samples ranged from 6.7 ppm for La Brea site to 57.6 ppm for Lagro high school site. All the samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration for chloride, which is 250 ppm. (Authors)

  5. Selectivity and coherence for photoexcitation of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Changjian

    1995-01-01

    The results of both analytic and numerical treatments of the four-level Schroedinger equation are displayed. Transition Probabilities to various states for the cases of on-resonance and off-resonance are calculated. Dependences of probability on time and on characteristics of laser fields are investigated. Selectivity and coherence of the interaction between monochromatic laser fields and isotopic atom are examined. The conditions under which the population inversion takes place derived from the analytic solutions are confirmed

  6. Effects of atomic hydrogen on the selective area growth of Si and Si1-xGex thin films on Si and SiO2 surfaces: Inhibition, nucleation, and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.W.; Lam, A.M.; Ma, P.F.; Engstrom, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam techniques have been used to study the nucleation of Si and Si 1-x Ge x thin films on Si and SiO 2 surfaces, where Si 2 H 6 and GeH 4 have been used as sources. A particular emphasis of this study has been an examination of the effects of a coincident flux of atomic hydrogen. The time associated with formation of stable islands of Si or Si 1-x Ge x on SiO 2 surfaces--the incubation time--has been found to depend strongly on the kinetic energy of the incident molecular precursors (Si 2 H 6 and GeH 4 ) and the substrate temperature. After coalescence, thin film morphology has been found to depend primarily on substrate temperature, with smoother films being grown at substrate temperatures below 600 deg. C. Introduction of a coincident flux of atomic hydrogen has a large effect on the nucleation and growth process. First, the incubation time in the presence of atomic hydrogen has been found to increase, especially at substrate temperatures below 630 deg. C, suggesting that hydrogen atoms adsorbed on Si-like sites on SiO 2 can effectively block nucleation of Si. Unfortunately, in terms of promoting selective area growth, coincident atomic hydrogen also decreases the rate of epitaxial growth rate, essentially offsetting any increase in the incubation time for growth on SiO 2 . Concerning Si 1-x Ge x growth, the introduction of GeH 4 produces substantial changes in both thin film morphology and the rate nucleation of poly-Si 1-x Ge x on SiO 2 . Briefly, the addition of Ge increases the incubation time, while it lessens the effect of coincident hydrogen on the incubation time. Finally, a comparison of the maximum island density, the time to reach this density, and the steady-state polycrystalline growth rate strongly suggests that all thin films [Si, Si 1-x Ge x , both with and without H(g)] nucleate at special sites on the SiO 2 surface, and grow primarily via direct deposition of adatoms on pre-existing islands

  7. Calibration of atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Si-Bin; Li, Run-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a method for calibrating atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope. The atom trajectories are monitored by modulating and delaying the Raman transition, and they are precisely calibrated by controlling the laser orientation and the bias magnetic field. To improve the immunity to the gravity effect and the common phase noise, the symmetry and the overlap of two large-area atomic interference loops are optimized by calibrating the atomic trajectories and by aligning the Raman-laser orientations. The dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope is applied in the measurement of the Earth's rotation. The sensitivity is 1.2 ×10-6 rad s -1 Hz-1/2, and the long-term stability is 6.2 ×10-8 rad/s at 2000 s.

  8. The site selection law and the anti-atom movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The anti atom movement has reached many of their political claims with the German nuclear power phaseout. At the same time the government has regained the interpretive dominance with the in radioactive waste management with the new search for possible final repository sites. He anti-atom movement refuses most parts of the actual law but cannot abdicate from the responsibility of the process of site selection. The contribution shows using three actual research approaches that such a convergence is probable to occur in the future. A cooperation of anti-atom movement and the government is of high probability in the long term, but is not necessarily identical to a political acceptance.

  9. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Selective hydrogen atom abstraction by hydrogen atoms in photolysis and radiolysis of alkane mixtures at 770 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Kinugawa, K.; Eguchi, M.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Selective hydrogen atom abstraction reaction by H atoms, has been found in Isobutane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane(TMB), cyclopropane matrices besides neopentane matrix. The selective hydrogen atom abstraction reaction in neopentane-isobutane mixture is affected by the difference of kinetic energies of H atoms. The reaction occurs more favorably with decreasing the kinetic energy of H atoms. Competitive reaction between c-C 6 H 12 and Hi for H atoms has been studied in the radiolysis and photolysis of neo-C 5 H 12 HI mixture at 77 K. The rate constants of these reactions in neopentane matrix are quite different from these of thermal H atom reaction, but similar to those of hot H atom reaction. Importance of the selective hydrogen atom abstraction reaction by H atoms is pointed out in the radical formation in the radiolysis of pure TMB at 77 K [pt

  11. Selective photoionization of isotopic atoms with pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Changjian

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of isotopically selective interactions between the radiation of three pulsed lasers and atoms with a four-levels scheme has been studied. Starting from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with the rotating-wave approximation, authors applied Sylvester theorem to the dynamic equations associated with near-and off-resonant excitations, respectively. Authors obtained the explicit expressions for the four-levels occupation probabilities. The analytic treatment explored the properties of coherent oscillations occurred in the atomic excitation processes with intense monochromatic lasers. The conditions under which the population inversion takes place are derived from near-resonant excitations. The criteria to select the basic parameters of pulsed lasers involved in the process are also provided

  12. Atomic layer deposition overcoating: tuning catalyst selectivity for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Gu, Xiang-Kui; Canlas, Christian; Kropf, A Jeremy; Aich, Payoli; Greeley, Jeffrey P; Elam, Jeffrey W; Meyers, Randall J; Dumesic, James A; Stair, Peter C; Marshall, Christopher L

    2014-11-03

    The terraces, edges, and facets of nanoparticles are all active sites for heterogeneous catalysis. These different active sites may cause the formation of various products during the catalytic reaction. Here we report that the step sites of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) can be covered precisely by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, whereas the terrace sites remain as active component for the hydrogenation of furfural. Increasing the thickness of the ALD-generated overcoats restricts the adsorption of furfural onto the step sites of Pd NPs and increases the selectivity to furan. Furan selectivities and furfural conversions are linearly correlated for samples with or without an overcoating, though the slopes differ. The ALD technique can tune the selectivity of furfural hydrogenation over Pd NPs and has improved our understanding of the reaction mechanism. The above conclusions are further supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Theory of many-electron atoms. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jucys, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    Selected papers of the founder of contemporary theoretical physics in Lithuania Adolfas Jucys on the theory of many-electron atoms and their spectra are presented, as well as a complete bibliography of his scientific works, a brief biographical essay and description of his scientific and social activities, reminiscences of other scientists about him. In these papers such questions are considered: Fock's self-consistent field in different approximations, various problems of the many-configurational approximation, incomplete separation of variables, expanded calculation method, application of nonorthogonal radial orbitals, method of irreducible tensor operators, graphical representation of the matrix elements and a number of other problems

  14. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  15. A protected area at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Miriam S.; Furnari, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing concern among the populations regarding environmental pollution that can affects our quality of life, the biodiversity and the entire planet. This concern has led to the signing of international legal conventions in the framework of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This paper considers the relevance of establishing a space for the protection of nature and for academic studies related to the environment at the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The Center is located in the outskirt s of the urban most populous region of the country and it is one of the few green spaces in the area that contributes to the quality of urban environment. It is also a refuge of natural wildlife to the Pampean eco region. (author) [es

  16. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  17. Aerosol size characteristics in selected working areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the work done to study the aerosol activity size distributions and their respirable fractions in some selected areas of the Juelich Nuclear Research Center. Anderson cascade impactors were used to find the aerodynamic size ranges of the airborne particles for subsequent analysis of activity associated with each size group. The aerosols were found to follow in general log-normal distributions in the hot cells with values of AMAD between 5 and 10 μm. Measurements in the AVR containment and decontamination laboratory in Uranit GmbH showed deviations from log-normal distribution. In the waste press area the distribution is sometimes log-normal and sometimes not, depending upon the origin of waste. The values of AMAD are in the range of 2 to 4 μm in these areas. The respirable fractions were calculated using ACGIH definition for respirable dust to be < 25% in hot cells and < 60% in other areas. Pulmonary depositions according to ICRP model were < 10% and < 15% respectively. (orig./HP)

  18. Classical and quantum analysis of one-dimensional velocity selection for ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J K; Kim, H A; Mishra, S R; Myrskog, S H; Jofre, A M; Segal, L R; Kim, J B; Steinberg, A M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a velocity selection technique for obtaining cold atoms, in which all atoms below a certain energy are spatially selected from the surrounding atom cloud. Velocity selection can in some cases be more efficient than other cooling techniques for the preparation of ultracold atom clouds in one dimension. With quantum mechanical and classical simulations and theory we present a scheme using a dipole force barrier to select the coldest atoms from a magnetically trapped atom cloud. The dipole and magnetic potentials create a local minimum which traps the coldest atoms. A unique advantage of this technique is the sharp cut-off in the velocity distribution of the sample of selected atoms. Such a non-thermal distribution should prove useful for a variety of experiments, including proposed studies of atomic tunnelling and scattering from quantum potentials. We show that when the rms size of the atom cloud is smaller than the local minimum in which the selected atoms are trapped, the velocity selection technique can be more efficient in one dimension than some common techniques such as evaporative cooling. For example, one simulation shows nearly 6% of the atoms retained at a temperature 100 times lower than the starting condition

  19. Laser stabilisation for velocity-selective atomic absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. van der; Ditewig, F.; Wisman, C.J.; Morgenstern, R.

    1987-01-01

    A relatively simple method is described for stabilising a dye laser at a frequency ν = ν0 + νc in the vicinity of an atomic resonance frequency ν0. The Doppler effect is exploited by looking for atomic fluorescence when a laser beam is crossed with an atomic beam at certain angles αi. Absolute

  20. Deposition of size-selected atomic clusters on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    This dissertation presents technical developments and experimental and computational investigations concerned with the deposition of atomic clusters onto surfaces. It consists of a collection of papers, in which the main body of results are contained, and four chapters presenting a subject review, computational and experimental techniques and a summary of the results presented in full within the papers. Technical work includes the optimization of an existing gas condensation cluster source based on evaporation, and the design, construction and optimization of a new gas condensation cluster source based on RF magnetron sputtering (detailed in Paper 1). The result of cluster deposition onto surfaces is found to depend on the cluster deposition energy; three impact energy regimes are explored in this work. (1) Low energy: n clusters create a defect in the surface, which pins the cluster in place, inhibiting cluster diffusion at room temperature (Paper V). (3) High energy: > 50 eV/atom. The clusters implant into the surface. For Ag 20 -Ag 200 clusters, the implantation depth is found to scale linearly with the impact energy and inversely with the cross-sectional area of the cluster, with an offset due to energy lost to the elastic compression of the surface (Paper VI). For smaller (Ag 3 ) clusters the orientation of the cluster with respect to the surface and the precise impact site play an important role; the impact energy has to be 'focused' in order for cluster implantation to occur (Paper VII). The application of deposited clusters for the creation of Si nanostructures by plasma etching is explored in Paper VIII. (author)

  1. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in selected areas of NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Sajjad, M.I.; Sheikh, M.R.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical composition of ground water in selected area of NWFP (Pakistan) was investigated. Water samples were collected from existing open well, tube wells, springs and the river Indus. Important physico-chemical parameter like temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured in situ. All the collected samples were analysed for their dissolved chemical constituents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO/sub 3/, NO/sub 3, SO/sub 4///0 in the laboratory. Different standard technique likes atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ion selective electrodes and titrimetry were used for sample analyses. Data was used to study the recent trends of ground water chemistry in these areas. Chemical quality of groundwater was evaluated to determine its suitability for drinking purposes by comparing with WHO standards. It was found that groundwater in these areas meets the norms of good quality drinking water except in very few locations. Different compositional types of water were also identified. It was observed that Ca is the dominant cation at most of the locations which is balanced by HCO/sub 3/ giving rise to calcium bicarbonate type groundwater. At few locations groundwater of sodium sodium bicarbonate or mixed type was also encountered. (author)

  2. 102(ℎ/2π)k Large Area Atom Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Kovachy, Tim; Chien, Hui-Chun; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate atom interferometers utilizing a novel beam splitter based on sequential multiphoton Bragg diffractions. With this sequential Bragg large momentum transfer (SB-LMT) beam splitter, we achieve high contrast atom interferometers with momentum splittings of up to 102 photon recoil momenta (102(ℎ/2π)k). To our knowledge, this is the highest momentum splitting achieved in any atom interferometer, advancing the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate strong noise correlation between two simultaneous SB-LMT interferometers, which alleviates the need for ultralow noise lasers and ultrastable inertial environments in some future applications. Our method is intrinsically scalable and can be used to dramatically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers in a wide range of applications, including inertial sensing, measuring the fine structure constant, and detecting gravitational waves.

  3. The site selection law and the anti-atom movement; Das Standortauswahlgesetz und die Anti-Atom-Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The anti atom movement has reached many of their political claims with the German nuclear power phaseout. At the same time the government has regained the interpretive dominance with the in radioactive waste management with the new search for possible final repository sites. He anti-atom movement refuses most parts of the actual law but cannot abdicate from the responsibility of the process of site selection. The contribution shows using three actual research approaches that such a convergence is probable to occur in the future. A cooperation of anti-atom movement and the government is of high probability in the long term, but is not necessarily identical to a political acceptance.

  4. Radio frequency selective addressing of localized atoms in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, H.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlaino, F.; Roati, G.; Tuerck, V.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization and addressability of ultracold atoms in a combined parabolic and periodic potential. Such a potential supports the existence of localized stationary states and we show that applying a radio frequency field allows us to selectively address atoms in these states. This method is used to measure the energy and momentum distribution of the atoms in the localized states. We also discuss possible extensions of this scheme to address and manipulate atoms in single lattice sites

  5. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  6. Materials selection for long life in LEO: a critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, S.L.; Kuminecz, J.; Leger, L.; Nordine, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined to be in thermal atom environments are compared to those observed in LEO and in high quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-hundredth to one-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of 8 in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain specific thermal test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools. Using thermal atom methods to predict material lifetime in LEO requires direct calibration of the method against LEO data or high quality simulation data for each material

  7. Development of selective photoionization spectroscopy technology - Development of a computer program to calculate selective ionization of atoms with multistep processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soon; Nam, Baek Il [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    We have developed computer programs to calculate 2-and 3-step selective resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms. Autoionization resonances in the final continuum can be put into account via B-Spline basis set method. 8 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper appl...

  9. Self-alignment of a compact large-area atomic Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, G; Berg, P; Schubert, C; Abend, S; Gilowski, M; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the realization of a compact atomic Mach-Zehnder-type Sagnac interferometer of 13.7 cm length, which covers an area of 19 mm 2 previously reported only for large thermal beam interferometers. According to Sagnac's formula, which holds for both light and atoms, the sensitivity for rotation rates increases linearly with the area enclosed by the interferometer. The use of cold atoms instead of thermal atoms enables miniaturization of Sagnac interferometers without sacrificing large areas. In comparison with thermal beams, slow atoms offer better matching of the initial beam velocity and the velocity with which the matter waves separate. In our case, the area is spanned by a cold atomic beam of 2.79 m s -1 , which is split, deflected and combined by driving a Raman transition between the two hyperfine ground states of 87 Rb in three spatially separated light zones. The use of cold atoms requires a precise angular alignment and high wave front quality of the three independent light zones over the cloud envelope. We present a procedure for mutually aligning the beam splitters at the microradian level by making use of the atom interferometer itself in different configurations. With this method, we currently achieve a sensitivity of 6.1×10 -7 rad s -1 Hz -1/2 . (paper)

  10. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  11. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  12. Single-Atom Catalyst of Platinum Supported on Titanium Nitride for Selective Electrochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Jiwhan; Tak, Young Joo; Soon, Aloysius; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-02-05

    As a catalyst, single-atom platinum may provide an ideal structure for platinum minimization. Herein, a single-atom catalyst of platinum supported on titanium nitride nanoparticles were successfully prepared with the aid of chlorine ligands. Unlike platinum nanoparticles, the single-atom active sites predominantly produced hydrogen peroxide in the electrochemical oxygen reduction with the highest mass activity reported so far. The electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules, such as formic acid and methanol, also exhibited unique selectivity on the single-atom platinum catalyst. A lack of platinum ensemble sites changed the reaction pathway for the oxygen-reduction reaction toward a two-electron pathway and formic acid oxidation toward direct dehydrogenation, and also induced no activity for the methanol oxidation. This work demonstrates that single-atom platinum can be an efficient electrocatalyst with high mass activity and unique selectivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  14. Velocity selection for ultra-cold atoms using bimodal mazer cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, A.; Qamar, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultra-cold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a micromazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al., for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We have shown that significantly narrowed velocity distribution of ultra-cold atoms can be obtained in this system due to the presence of dark states. (author)

  15. Selection of City Distribution Locations in Urbanized Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a

  16. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  17. Experiments on state selection and Penning ionisation with fast metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments with metastable He/Ne atoms. The experiments are performed in a crossed beam machine. Two different sources are used for the production of metastable atoms: a source for the production of metastable atoms in the thermal energy range and a hollow cathode arc for the production of metastable atoms in the superthermal energy range (1-7 eV). The progress made in the use of the hollow cathode arc is described as well as the experimental set-up. The rare gas energy-level diagram is characterized by two metastable levels. By optical pumping it is possible to select a single metastable level, both for He and Ne. For the case of He this is done by a recently built He quenchlamp which selectively quenches the metastable 2 1 S level population. In the thermal energy range the quenching is complete; in the superthermal energy range the 2 1 S level population is only partly quenched. For the optical pumping of Ne* atoms a cw dye laser is used. New experiments have been started on the measurement, in a crossed beam machine, of the fluorescence caused by inelastic collisions where metastable atoms are involved. The He* + Ne system is used as a pilot study for these experiments. The He-Ne laser is based on this collision system. (Auth.)

  18. Exponential Improvement in Photon Storage Fidelities Using Subradiance and “Selective Radiance” in Atomic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asenjo-Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A central goal within quantum optics is to realize efficient, controlled interactions between photons and atomic media. A fundamental limit in nearly all applications based on such systems arises from spontaneous emission, in which photons are absorbed by atoms and then rescattered into undesired channels. In typical theoretical treatments of atomic ensembles, it is assumed that this rescattering occurs independently, and at a rate given by a single isolated atom, which in turn gives rise to standard limits of fidelity in applications such as quantum memories for light or photonic quantum gates. However, this assumption can in fact be dramatically violated. In particular, it has long been known that spontaneous emission of a collective atomic excitation can be significantly suppressed through strong interference in emission between atoms. While this concept of “subradiance” is not new, thus far the techniques to exploit the effect have not been well understood. In this work, we provide a comprehensive treatment of this problem. First, we show that in ordered atomic arrays in free space, subradiant states acquire an elegant interpretation in terms of optical modes that are guided by the array, which only emit due to scattering from the ends of the finite system. We also go beyond the typically studied regime of a single atomic excitation and elucidate the properties of subradiant states in the many-excitation limit. Finally, we introduce the new concept of “selective radiance.” Whereas subradiant states experience a reduced coupling to all optical modes, selectively radiant states are tailored to simultaneously radiate efficiently into a desired channel while scattering into undesired channels is suppressed, thus enabling an enhanced atom-light interface. We show that these states naturally appear in chains of atoms coupled to nanophotonic structures, and we analyze the performance of photon storage exploiting such states. We find

  19. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha

    2016-01-01

    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7GF0RN2, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  20. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  1. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS BY PH-SELECTIVE HYDRIDE GENERATION-ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method based on pH-selective generation and separation of arsines is commonly used for analysis of inorganic, methylated, and dimethylated trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). We have optimized this method to pe...

  2. Uncondensed atoms in the regime of velocity-selective coherent population trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il’ichov, L. V.; Tomilin, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the model of a Bose condensate in the regime of velocity-selective coherent population trapping. As a result of interaction between particles, some fraction of atoms is outside the condensate, remaining in the coherent trapping state. These atoms are involved in brief events of intense interaction with external resonant electromagnetic fields. Intense induced and spontaneous transitions are accompanied by the exchange of momenta between atoms and radiation, which is manifested as migration of atoms in the velocity space. The rate of such migration is calculated. A nonlinear kinetic equation for the many-particle statistical operator for uncondensed atoms is derived under the assumption that correlations of atoms with different momenta are insignificant. The structure of its steady-state solution leads to certain conclusions about the above-mentioned migration pattern taking the Bose statistics into consideration. With allowance for statistical effects, we derive nonlinear integral equations for frequencies controlling the migration. The results of numerical solution of these equations are represented in the weak interatomic interaction approximation.

  3. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D. R. [University of North Texas; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens; Havener, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  4. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  5. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombaba, Jackson M.

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The device exhibits a stable signal because the plasma is self-seeding and reignites itself every half cycle. A tesla coil is not required to commence generation of the plasma if the ac voltage applied is greater than the breakdown voltage of the plasma-supporting gas. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (Mvutilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienyl manganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer (common room humidifier) was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were also considered. Figures of merits of selected elements both in absorption and emission modes are reported. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using

  6. Selection criteria for forested natural areas in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Marie-Louise Smith; David T. Funk

    1994-01-01

    The selection of forested natural areas for research and educational purposes is discussed. Five factors are important: sufficient size; representation of typical communities and sites; documented disturbance histories; acceptable current condition in terms of age, tree size, and successional stage; and administrative feasibility.

  7. 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Collection of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.Yu.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    The materials of the 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 2-6 October, 2000. A wide range of items connected with uranium enrichment, selection of atoms and molecules by isotopic composition: laser methods, ion cyclotron-resonance method, are discussed. The selection of molecules and atoms by rectification and chemical isotopic exchange methods, the selection in the field of centrifugal forces are treated. The questions of search for the new advanced methods for selection of atoms and molecules were discussed at the conference, the problems of radioisotope production were represented. The subject matter of the use of stable isotopes and radionuclides is demonstrated widely. The subjects connected with experimental and engineering equipment for selection of atoms and molecules are embodied in the paper [ru

  8. Selection of industrial robots using the Polygons area method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Honarmande Azimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection of robots from the several proposed alternatives is a very important and tedious task. Decision makers are not limited to one method and several methods have been proposed for solving this problem. This study presents Polygons Area Method (PAM as a multi attribute decision making method for robot selection problem. In this method, the maximum polygons area obtained from the attributes of an alternative robot on the radar chart is introduced as a decision-making criterion. The results of this method are compared with other typical multiple attribute decision-making methods (SAW, WPM, TOPSIS, and VIKOR by giving two examples. To find similarity in ranking given by different methods, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients are obtained for different pairs of MADM methods. It was observed that the introduced method is in good agreement with other well-known MADM methods in the robot selection problem.

  9. Selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qieqie; Zhao, Long

    2017-10-01

    The performance of terrain aided navigation is closely related to the selection of terrain matching area. The different matching algorithms have different adaptability to terrain. This paper mainly studies the adaptability to terrain of TERCOM algorithm, analyze the relation between terrain feature and terrain characteristic parameters by qualitative and quantitative methods, and then research the relation between matching probability and terrain characteristic parameters by the Monte Carlo method. After that, we propose a selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm, and verify the method correctness with real terrain data by simulation experiment. Experimental results show that the matching area obtained by the method in this paper has the good navigation performance and the matching probability of TERCOM algorithm is great than 90%

  10. Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruidi; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Li; Liu, Jinhui; Jiang, Wei

    2010-04-01

    The densification during selective laser melting (SLM) process is an important factor determining the final application of SLM-part. In the present work, the densifications under different processing conditions were investigated and the densification mechanisms were elucidated. It was found that the higher laser power, lower scan speed, narrower hatch spacing and thinner layer thickness could enable a much smoother melting surface and consequently a higher densification. The gas atomized powder possessed better densification than water atomized powder, due to the lower oxygen content and higher packing density of gas atomized powder. A large number of regular-shaped pores can be generated at a wider hatch spacing, even if the scanning track is continuous and wetted very well. The densification mechanisms were addressed and the methods for building dense metal parts were also proposed as follows: inhibiting the balling phenomenon, increasing the overlap ratio of scanning tracks and reducing the micro-cracks.

  11. Quantum trajectories in elastic atom-surface scattering: threshold and selective adsorption resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, A S; Miret-Artés, S

    2005-01-01

    The elastic resonant scattering of He atoms off the Cu(117) surface is fully described with the formalism of quantum trajectories provided by Bohmian mechanics. Within this theory of quantum motion, the concept of trapping is widely studied and discussed. Classically, atoms undergo impulsive collisions with the surface, and then the trapped motion takes place covering at least two consecutive unit cells. However, from a Bohmian viewpoint, atom trajectories can smoothly adjust to the equipotential energy surface profile in a sort of sliding motion; thus the trapping process could eventually occur within one single unit cell. In particular, both threshold and selective adsorption resonances are explained by means of this quantum trapping considering different space and time scales. Furthermore, a mapping between each region of the (initial) incoming plane wave and the different parts of the diffraction and resonance patterns can be easily established, an important issue only provided by a quantum trajectory formalism. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Accelerating atomic orbital-based electronic structure calculation via pole expansion and selected inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Chen, Mohan; He, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion and selected inversion (PEXSI) technique to Kohn–Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating the charge density, the total energy, the Helmholtz free energy and the atomic forces (including both the Hellmann–Feynman force and the Pulay force) without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn–Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEXSI is that it has a computational complexity much lower than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEXSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEXSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEXSI are modest. This even makes it possible to perform Kohn–Sham DFT calculations for 10 000-atom nanotubes with a sequential implementation of the selected inversion algorithm. We also perform an accurate geometry optimization calculation on a truncated (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube system containing 1024 atoms. Numerical results indicate that the use of PEXSI does not lead to loss of the accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation. (paper)

  13. Melting of size-selected gallium clusters with 60-183 atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Katheryne L; Kafader, Jared O; Yalamanchali, Anirudh; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-07-10

    Heat capacities have been measured as a function of temperature for size-selected gallium cluster cations with between 60 and 183 atoms. Almost all clusters studied show a single peak in the heat capacity that is attributed to a melting transition. The peaks can be fit by a two-state model incorporating only fully solid-like and fully liquid-like species, and hence no partially melted intermediates. The exceptions are Ga90(+), which does not show a peak, and Ga80(+) and Ga81(+), which show two peaks. For the clusters with two peaks, the lower temperature peak is attributed to a structural transition. The melting temperatures for clusters with less than 50 atoms have previously been shown to be hundreds of degrees above the bulk melting point. For clusters with more than 60 atoms the melting temperatures decrease, approaching the bulk value (303 K) at around 95 atoms, and then show several small upward excursions with increasing cluster size. A plot of the latent heat against the entropy change for melting reveals two groups of clusters: the latent heats and entropy changes for clusters with less than 94 atoms are distinct from those for clusters with more than 93 atoms. This observation suggests that a significant change in the nature of the bonding or the structure of the clusters occurs at 93-94 atoms. Even though the melting temperatures are close to the bulk value for the larger clusters studied here, the latent heats and entropies of melting are still far from the bulk values.

  14. Automatic selection of atomic fingerprints and reference configurations for machine-learning potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Giulio; Anelli, Andrea; Giofré, Daniele; Klees, Sinja; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-06-01

    Machine learning of atomic-scale properties is revolutionizing molecular modeling, making it possible to evaluate inter-atomic potentials with first-principles accuracy, at a fraction of the costs. The accuracy, speed, and reliability of machine learning potentials, however, depend strongly on the way atomic configurations are represented, i.e., the choice of descriptors used as input for the machine learning method. The raw Cartesian coordinates are typically transformed in "fingerprints," or "symmetry functions," that are designed to encode, in addition to the structure, important properties of the potential energy surface like its invariances with respect to rotation, translation, and permutation of like atoms. Here we discuss automatic protocols to select a number of fingerprints out of a large pool of candidates, based on the correlations that are intrinsic to the training data. This procedure can greatly simplify the construction of neural network potentials that strike the best balance between accuracy and computational efficiency and has the potential to accelerate by orders of magnitude the evaluation of Gaussian approximation potentials based on the smooth overlap of atomic positions kernel. We present applications to the construction of neural network potentials for water and for an Al-Mg-Si alloy and to the prediction of the formation energies of small organic molecules using Gaussian process regression.

  15. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. The energy dependence of selective hydrogen atom abstraction by H(D) atoms in the photolysis of neopentane - ethane mixtures at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Fueki, K.

    1980-01-01

    Selective hydrogen - atom - abstraction reaction by H or D atom has been studied in a neo C 5 H 12 - C 2 H 6 (less than 1 mol %) mixture at 77 K by ESR spectroscopy. The H (or D) atom produced by the photolysis of HI (or DI) reacts with neo - C 2 H 12 and C 2 H 6 to form neo - C 5 H 11 and C 2 H 5 radicals. In order to obtain H atoms with different kinetic energies, the photolysis was performed with different lights of 313, 254 and 229 nm. The selective formation of the C 2 H 5 radical by the reaction of the H (or D) atom with C 2 H 6 becomes more effective with the decrease in the energy of the H (or D) atom. The formation of the neo - C 5 H 11 radical by the reaction of the H (or D) atom with neo - C 2 H 12 becomes more effective with the increase in the energy of the H (or D) atom. (A.R.H.) [pt

  17. Momentum distributions of selected rare-gas atoms probed by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We provide a direct comparison between numerical and experimental (Rudenko et al 2004 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 L407) photoelectron momentum distributions in strong-field ionization of selected rare-gas atoms (He, Ne and Ar), probed by femtosecond linearly polarized laser pulses. The cal......We provide a direct comparison between numerical and experimental (Rudenko et al 2004 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 L407) photoelectron momentum distributions in strong-field ionization of selected rare-gas atoms (He, Ne and Ar), probed by femtosecond linearly polarized laser pulses....... The calculations are performed by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation within the single-active-electron approximation, and focal-volume effects are taken into account by appropriately averaging the results. The resulting momentum distributions are in quantitative agreement with the experimental...

  18. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  19. Selected-area diffraction and spectroscopy in LEEM and PEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of spherical and chromatic aberration of the objective lens, as well as chromatic dispersion of magnetic prism arrays, on the ability to perform selected area Low Energy Electron Diffraction, as well as (Angle Resolved) Photo Electron Spectroscopy experiments in today's advanced cathode lens microscopy instruments. -- Highlights: ► Aberrations of the cathode lens affect SA diffraction and spectroscopy experiments in LEEM/PEEM. ► In LEEM the problem can be overcome by inserting the SA aperture in the illuminating path. ► In PEEM for selected areas smaller than 2–4 μm aberration correction becomes a necessity. ► Chromatic dispersion in the magnetic prism array commonly can be neglected in most cases.

  20. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  1. Evolution of the Contact Area with Normal Load for Rough Surfaces: from Atomic to Macroscopic Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping

    2017-11-13

    The evolution of the contact area with normal load for rough surfaces has great fundamental and practical importance, ranging from earthquake dynamics to machine wear. This work bridges the gap between the atomic scale and the macroscopic scale for normal contact behavior. The real contact area, which is formed by a large ensemble of discrete contacts (clusters), is proven to be much smaller than the apparent surface area. The distribution of the discrete contact clusters and the interaction between them are key to revealing the mechanism of the contacting solids. To this end, Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is used to study both how the contact cluster evolves from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale and the interaction between clusters. It is found that the interaction between clusters has a strong effect on their formation. The formation and distribution of the contact clusters is far more complicated than that predicted by the asperity model. Ignorance of the interaction between them leads to overestimating the contacting force. In real contact, contacting clusters are smaller and more discrete due to the interaction between the asperities. Understanding the exact nature of the contact area with the normal load is essential to the following research on friction.

  2. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  3. Speciation analysis of arsenic by selective hydride generation- cryotrapping-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with flame-in-gas- shield atomizer: Achieving extremely low detection limits with inexpensive instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, J. M.; Stýblo, M.; Dědina, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 20 (2014), s. 10422-10428 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23532S; GA MŠk LH12040 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : speciation analysis of arsenic * selective hydride generation * flame-in-gas-shield atomizer * cryotrapping-atomic fluorescence spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2014

  4. Cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons by atoms: selected topics related to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.; Manson, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    We begin with a resume of the Bethe theory, which provides a general framework for discussing the inelastic scattering of fast electrons and leads to powerful criteria for judging the reliability of cross-section data. The central notion of the theory is the generalized oscillator strength as a function of both the energy transfer and the momentum transfer, and is the only non-trivial factor in the inelastic-scattering cross section. Although the Bethe theory was initially conceived for free atoms, its basic ideas apply to solids, with suitable generalizations; in this respect, the notion of the dielectric response function is the most fundamental. Topics selected for discussion include the generalized oscillator strengths for the K-shell and L-shell ionization for all atoms with Z less than or equal to 30, evaluated by use of the Hartree-Slater potential. As a function of the energy transfer, the generalized oscillator strength most often shows a non-monotonic structure near the K-shell and L-shell thresholds, which has been interpreted as manifestations of electron-wave propagation through atomic fields. For molecules and solids, there are additional structures due to the scattering of ejected electrons by the fields of other atoms

  5. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikov, V P; Khemchyan, L L; Ivanova, Yu V; Dilman, A D; Levin, V V; Bukhtiyarov, V I; Sorokin, A M; Prosvirin, I P; Romanenko, A V; Simonov, P A; Vatsadze, S Z; Medved'ko, A V; Nuriev, V N; Nenajdenko, V G; Shmatova, O I; Muzalevskiy, V M; Koptyug, I V; Kovtunov, K V; Zhivonitko, V V; Likholobov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references

  6. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  7. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  8. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  9. 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Collection of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.Yu.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The reports of the 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 4-8 October, 1999. Contents of the reports are the following: laser isotope separation of molecules and atoms; isotopic selection of molecules and atoms in the field of centrifugal forces; selection of molecules by means of rectification and isotopic exchange methods; separation of isotopes by ion cyclotron-resonance method, in electric discharge and electromagnetic field; change in physical properties of substances which variation of their natural isotopic composition; use of isotopes in pharmacy preparation; status of experimental and diagnostic technique; certain promising methods of selection of atoms and molecules. The problems of laser separation of uranium isotopes, separation of carbon isotopes by multi-photon selective dissociation are discussed. The procedures permitting production of isotopes with high concentration and efficiency are developed [ru

  10. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jung, Yousung

    2017-02-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO 2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO 2 reduction reaction over a competitive H 2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = -0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (-0.27 V) for CH 3 OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) for CH 4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH 3 OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals.

  11. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  12. Selective hydrogen atom abstraction by hydrogen atoms in photolysis of cyclohexane-normal pentane mixtures at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaky, T.; Guedes, S.M.L.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de; Fernandes, L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of H atoms, produced by the photolysis of HI, has been studied in c-C 6 H 12 -n-C 5 H 12 mixtures at 77K. H atoms in c-C 6 H 12 matrix react more effectively with solute n-C 5 H 12 than solvent c-C 6 H 12 , while H atoms in n-C 5 H 12 matrix react more effectively with solute c-C 6 H 12 than solvent n-C 5 H 12 [pt

  13. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  14. Atomic density effects on temperature characteristics and thermal transport at grain boundaries through a proper bin size selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Truong Quoc; Kim, BoHung, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Namgu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Barisik, Murat, E-mail: muratbarisik@iyte.edu.tr, E-mail: bohungk@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2016-05-21

    This study focuses on the proper characterization of temperature profiles across grain boundaries (GBs) in order to calculate the correct interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) and reveal the influence of GB geometries onto thermal transport. The solid-solid interfaces resulting from the orientation difference between the (001), (011), and (111) copper surfaces were investigated. Temperature discontinuities were observed at the boundary of grains due to the phonon mismatch, phonon backscattering, and atomic forces between dissimilar structures at the GBs. We observed that the temperature decreases gradually in the GB area rather than a sharp drop at the interface. As a result, three distinct temperature gradients developed at the GB which were different than the one observed in the bulk solid. This behavior extends a couple molecular diameters into both sides of the interface where we defined a thickness at GB based on the measured temperature profiles for characterization. Results showed dependence on the selection of the bin size used to average the temperature data from the molecular dynamics system. The bin size on the order of the crystal layer spacing was found to present an accurate temperature profile through the GB. We further calculated the GB thickness of various cases by using potential energy (PE) distributions which showed agreement with direct measurements from the temperature profile and validated the proper binning. The variation of grain crystal orientation developed different molecular densities which were characterized by the average atomic surface density (ASD) definition. Our results revealed that the ASD is the primary factor affecting the structural disorders and heat transfer at the solid-solid interfaces. Using a system in which the planes are highly close-packed can enhance the probability of interactions and the degree of overlap between vibrational density of states (VDOS) of atoms forming at interfaces, leading to a reduced ITR. Thus, an

  15. The International Atomic Energy Agency - Organization, Work and Services in Selected Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köteles, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    In an address to the 8th General Assembly of the United Nations (1953) the President of the United States suggested that Governments should begin to make joint contributions from their stockpiles of fissile materials to an international atomic energy agency which would be set up under the aegis of the United Nations. The fissile material so collected would be used to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind. Experts would be mobilized to apply atomic energy to the needs of agriculture, medicine and other peaceful purposes and a special effort would be made to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world. This suggestion was taken up. A Statute which defines the structure and purpose of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was prepared by a group of nations and approved by a conference at the United Nations Headquarters in 1956. The Statute entered into force on 29 July 1957. The Agency's objectives, as defined in its Statute, are that it ''shall seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, as far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose''. To attain these objectives, the IAEA is authorized ''to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the performance of services or the supplying of materials, equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for another''; to ''... assemble and make available in an accessible form the [scientific] information made available to it...'' and furthermore ''to make provision, ... for materials, services, equipment, and facilities to meet the

  16. A Molecular Dynamics of Cold Neutral Atoms Captured by Carbon Nanotube Under Electric Field and Thermal Effect as a Selective Atoms Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elson C; Neto, Abel F G; Maneschy, Carlos E; Chen, James; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Neto, A M J C

    2015-05-01

    Here we analyzed several physical behaviors through computational simulation of systems consisting of a zig-zag type carbon nanotube and relaxed cold atoms (Rb, Au, Si and Ar). These atoms were chosen due to their different chemical properties. The atoms individually were relaxed on the outside of the nanotube during the simulations. Each system was found under the influence of a uniform electric field parallel to the carbon nanotube and under the thermal effect of the initial temperature at the simulations. Because of the electric field, the cold atoms orbited the carbon nanotube while increasing the initial temperature allowed the variation of the radius of the orbiting atoms. We calculated the following quantities: kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy and in situ temperature, molar entropy variation and average radius of the orbit of the atoms. Our data suggest that only the action of electric field is enough to generate the attractive potential and this system could be used as a selected atoms sensor.

  17. Theory of many-electron atoms. Selected papers. Teoriya mnogoehlektronnykh atomov. Izbrannye trudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jucys, A P

    1978-01-01

    Selected papers of the founder of contemporary theoretical physics in Lithuania Adolfas Jucys on the theory of many-electron atoms and their spectra are presented, as well as a complete bibliography of his scientific works, a brief biographical essay and description of his scientific and social activities, reminiscences of other scientists about him. In these papers such questions are considered: Fock's self-consistent field in different approximations, various problems of the many-configurational approximation, incomplete separation of variables, expanded calculation method, application of nonorthogonal radial orbitals, method of irreducible tensor operators, graphical representation of the matrix elements and a number of other problems.

  18. Methods of selection and training of personnel for the Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, M.S.R.; Wagadarikar, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Personnel selected to work in a nuclear electric generating station rarely have the necessary knowledge and experience in all the related fields. A station can be operated and maintained and at the same time radiation doses absorbed by station personnel can be kept to a minimum only if the operating personnel are familiar with, and can be used for, all phases of station operation and the maintainers have more than one skill or trade. More technical knowledge and more diversified skills, in addition to those required in other industries, are needed because of the nature of the nuclear reactor and the associated radiation environment and high automation. A training programme has been developed at the Nuclear Training Centre (NTC) near the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Kota, India, to cater to the needs of the operation and maintenance personnel for nuclear power stations including the Madras Atomic Power Station. This programme has been in operation for the last five years. The paper describes the method of recruitment/selection of various categories of personnel and the method of training them to meet the job requirements. (author)

  19. Selection rule engineering of forbidden transitions of a hydrogen atom near a nanogap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunyoung Y.; Kim, Daisik S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform an analytical study on the allowance of forbidden transitions for a hydrogen atom placed near line dipole sources, mimicking light emanating from a one-dimensional metallic nanogap. It is shown that the rapid variation of the electric field vector, inevitable in the near zone, completely breaks the selection rule of Δl=±1. While the forbidden transitions between spherically symmetric S states, such as 2S to 1S or 3S to 1S (Δl=0), are rather robust against selection rule breakage, Δl=±2 transitions such as between 3D and 1S or 3D and 2S states are very vulnerable to the spatial variation of the perturbing electric field. Transitions between 2S and 3D states are enhanced by many orders of magnitude, aided by the quadratic nature of both the perturbing Hamiltonian and D wavefunctions. The forbidden dipole moment, which approaches one Bohr radius times the electric charge in the vicinity of the gap, can be written in a simple closed form owing to the one-dimensional nature of our gap. With large enough effective volume together with the symmetric nature of the excited state wavefunctions, our work paves way towards atomic physics application of infinitely long nanogaps.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant and surrounding area, Newport, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant during the period 27 to 30 May 1986. The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area around the plant. The deteted radiation was due to the presence of varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. Radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied between 10 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these ground-based measurements were in good agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. No evidence was found of any radioactive contamination which might have occurred as a result of plant operations. This conclusion was supported by the results of the soil samples analyses and the comparison of the current survey data with those obtained in September 1970. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhin, E.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Vasiliyev, Y.; Kolodeshnikov, A.; Vurim, A.

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  2. Radon gas exposure levels in some selected areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    During a summer season of 2003, the atmospheric concentrations of radon gas were measured indoor every one-hour for twenty-four hour measurements in some selected areas, using Pylon-AB4. Two hundreds and forty samples were monitored to determine the concentration of radon gas at each location using high-efficiency Lucas type continuous passive cell. The average values of radon gas concentration were taken in three time intervals 6.00:18.00, 18.00:6.00 and whole day. The average values of indoor radon gas of two locations using three time intervals were 4.82±0.63, 9±0.71 and 6.9±0.33 and 9.6±0.23, 11.82±0.42 and 9.37±0.7 Bq/m /h. respectively. The exposure levels were within the ICRP and EPA recommendations

  3. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  4. Atomic Layer Etching of Silicon to Solve ARDE-Selectivity-Profile-Uniformity Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingmei; Ranjan, Alok; Ventzek, Peter; Koshiishi, Akira

    2014-10-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, dry etch faces more and more challenges. Minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer are met by trading off one requirement against another. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Self-limiting processes like atomic layer etching (ALE) promise a way to escape the problem of balancing trade-offs. ALE was realized in the mid-1990s but the industrial implementation has been slow. In recent years interest in ALE has revived. We present how ARDE, bowing/selectivity trade-offs may be overcome by varying radical/ion ratio, byproduct re-deposition. We overcome many of the practical implementation issues associated with ALE by precise passivation process control. The Monte Carlo Feature Profile Model (MCFPM) is used to illustrate realistic scenarios built around an Ar/Cl2 chemistry driven etch of Si masked by SiO2. We demonstrate that ALE can achieve zero ARDE and infinite selectivity. Profile control depends on careful management of the ion energies and angles. For ALE to be realized in production environment, tight control of IAD is a necessary. Experimental results are compared with simulation results to provide context to the work.

  5. Selective Production of Renewable para-Xylene by Tungsten Carbide Catalyzed Atom-Economic Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Li, Changzhi; Li, Lin; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Zhang, Bo; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin

    2018-02-12

    Tungsten carbide was employed as the catalyst in an atom-economic and renewable synthesis of para-xylene with excellent selectivity and yield from 4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carbonylaldehyde (4-MCHCA). This intermediate is the product of the Diels-Alder reaction between the two readily available bio-based building blocks acrolein and isoprene. Our results suggest that 4-MCHCA undergoes a novel dehydroaromatization-hydrodeoxygenation cascade process by intramolecular hydrogen transfer that does not involve an external hydrogen source, and that the hydrodeoxygenation occurs through the direct dissociation of the C=O bond on the W 2 C surface. Notably, this process is readily applicable to the synthesis of various (multi)methylated arenes from bio-based building blocks, thus potentially providing a petroleum-independent solution to valuable aromatic compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Gyllingnaes investigation - a survey of altitudes in the Gylling postal area towards atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldsen, N.; Buelow, W.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the altitudes of the local population towards the possible construction of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes in Denmark. It is primarily based on questionnaries, secondarily on interviews. To put the results in better perspective, similar investigations from 1974-1976 are also dealt with. It is concluded that the majority of the population are against atomic power; not only do they oppose the erection of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes but they oppose the building of atomic power stations in general. An attempt is made to characterize the ''typical'' opponent and the ''typical'' supporter of atomic power. (B.P.)

  7. Lidar mapping of atmospheric atomic mercury in the Wanshan area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ming; Shang, Lihai; Duan, Zheng; Li, Yiyun; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Shiming; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Svanberg, Sune

    2018-05-08

    A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg 0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m 3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C. A flux measurement of Hg 0 over a vertical cross section of 0.12 km 2 resulted in about 29 g/h. Vertical lidar sounding at night revealed quickly falling Hg 0 concentrations with height. This is the first lidar mapping demonstration in a heavily mercury-polluted area in China, illustrating the lidar potential in complementing point monitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sources of transportation expertise by selected technical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has assigned components of its Waste Transportation Program to three of the DOE Operations offices. The DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) is responsible for the transportation operations design, development, acquisition, testing, implementation, and program management, including the equipment, facilities, and services of the transportation system. Within ORO, the OCRWM transportation component is assigned to the Transportation Operations Project Office (TOPO). The specific activities involved in the ORO/TOPO include procurement, operational testing, inspection, logistics, interfaces, maintenance, management and improvements, and system operation. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) has developed (and will maintain and enhance) a data base of sources of transportation expertise in selected technical areas for ORO. The data base includes individuals and organizations who have indicated that they have capabilities and interest in assisting ORO in the design, development, implementation, and management of the OCRWM transportation system. This assistance might be in the form of consulting or subcontract work and/or participation in peer review panels, technical evaluation committees, workshops, advisory groups, etc. This initial project was completed in the four month period of January 30, 1987 through May 31, 1987

  9. Sub-micron resolution selected area electron channeling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, J; Mansour, H; Gey, N; Crimp, M A; Chalal, S; Maloufi, N

    2015-02-01

    Collection of selected area channeling patterns (SACPs) on a high resolution FEG-SEM is essential to carry out quantitative electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) studies, as it facilitates accurate determination of the crystal plane normal with respect to the incident beam direction and thus allows control the electron channeling conditions. Unfortunately commercial SACP modes developed in the past were limited in spatial resolution and are often no longer offered. In this contribution we present a novel approach for collecting high resolution SACPs (HR-SACPs) developed on a Gemini column. This HR-SACP technique combines the first demonstrated sub-micron spatial resolution with high angular accuracy of about 0.1°, at a convenient working distance of 10mm. This innovative approach integrates the use of aperture alignment coils to rock the beam with a digitally calibrated beam shift procedure to ensure the rocking beam is maintained on a point of interest. Moreover a new methodology to accurately measure SACP spatial resolution is proposed. While column considerations limit the rocking angle to 4°, this range is adequate to index the HR-SACP in conjunction with the pattern simulated from the approximate orientation deduced by EBSD. This new technique facilitates Accurate ECCI (A-ECCI) studies from very fine grained and/or highly strained materials. It offers also new insights for developing HR-SACP modes on new generation high-resolution electron columns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase analysis of nano-phase materials using selected area electron diffraction in the TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labar, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    In analogy to X-ray power diffraction (XRD), we are developing a method to help phase identification when examining a large number of grains simultaneously by electron diffraction. Although XRD is well established, it can not be used for small quantities of materials (volumes below 1 mm 3 ). Examining a usual TEM sample with thickness of 100 nm and using a selected area of 1 mm in diameter, the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) carries information about several thousands of grains from a material with an average grain size of about 10 nm. The accuracy of XRD can not be attained by electron diffraction (ED). However, simultaneous visual observation of the nanostructure is an additional benefit of TEM (beside the small amount of needed material). The first step of the development project was the development of a computer program ('ProcessDiffraction') that processes digital versions of SAED patterns and presents them in an XRD-like form (intensity vs. scattering vector). In the present version (V2.0.3) phase identification is carried out by comparing the measured distribution to 'Markers', i.e. data of known phases. XRD data cards are used if the detailed structure of a phase is not known. Kinematic electron diffraction intensities are calculated for phases with known atomic positions (Author)

  11. Area selection for a geological repository of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Zhao Honggang; Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    China started research on HLW disposal in 1985 and 6 areas, including Northwest, Southwest, East China, South China, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang area, are selected. The results show that the Northwest area has obvious comprehensive advantages, which can be considered as the first area for site selection, while site characterization and comparison research in the area should be continued. (authors)

  12. Selection and Interview Forms for Nomination Area Committees. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    The selection and interview forms for use in selecting students for the Georgia Governor's Honors Program are provided. These forms are: Science Interview Summary Sheet; Interview Form for Candidates in Music; State College Musicality Test; Mathematics Interview Sheet; Criteria for Selection of Students for Mathematics, 1972; Visual Arts…

  13. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2009-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  14. Research briefing on selected opportunities in atomic, molecular, and optical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: The Laser-Atom Revolution; Controlling Dynamical Pathways; Nonclassical States of Light; Transient States of Atomic Systems; New Light Generation and Handling; Clusters; Atomic Physics at User Facilities; and Impacts of AMO Sciences on Modern Technologies

  15. Element selective detection of molecular species applying chromatographic techniques and diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, K; Zybin, A; Koch, J; Franzke, J; Miclea, M; Niemax, K

    2004-12-01

    Tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (DLAAS) combined with separation techniques and atomization in plasmas and flames is presented as a powerful method for analysis of molecular species. The analytical figures of merit of the technique are demonstrated by the measurement of Cr(VI) and Mn compounds, as well as molecular species including halogen atoms, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur.

  16. Geochronological studies on some rocks and minerals from selected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J N [Department of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India). Atomic Minerals Div.

    1979-01-01

    Ages obtained at the Atomic Minerals Division laboratory, Hyderabad on a number of rock and mineAal samples are presented. Rb-Sr mineral ages from Pungurthy (Tamil Nadu), Sarguja (Madhya Pradesh), Hazaribagh (Bihar) and whole rock isochron age of the granitic bodies surrounding the Kolar schist belt are reported. Discordant U-Pb ages obtained on the uraninites from Kulu (H.P.) and its interpretation in terms of episodic loss has been discussed. Further facilities that are being set up for undertaking other isotopic analysis work for various geoscientific investigations are outtined.

  17. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system’s map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°, Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6° and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  18. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  19. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  20. Atomic substitution in selected high-temperature superconductors: Elucidating the nature of Raman spectra excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2000-10-01

    In this thesis, the effects of atomic substitution on the vibrational and electronic excitations found in the Raman spectra of selected high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are studied. In particular, atomic and isotopic substitution methods have been used to determine the character of features observed in the Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2Ca n-1CunO2 n+4+delta (n = 1 - Bi2201, n = 2 - Bi2212) and YBa2Cu3O7-delta (Y123). In Bi2201, Pb substitution for Bi (and Sr) has led to the reduction and eventual removal of the structural modulation, characteristic of all members of the Bi-family of HTS. The high quality single crystals and our sensitive triple spectrometer enabled identification of a pair of low frequency modes. The modes are determined to arise from shear and compressional rigid-layer vibrations. The normal state of underdoped cuprates is characterized by a pseudogap of unknown origin. In crystals of underdoped Bi2212 a spectral peak found at 590 cm-1, previously attributed to the pairing of quasiparticles (above Tc) and hence to the formation of a normal state pseudogap, has been found to soften by 3.8% with oxygen isotope exchange. In addition, the feature is absent in fully oxygenated and yttrium underdoped crystals. In this study, the first of its kind on underdoped and isotope substituted Bi2212, the feature has been assigned to stretching vibrations of oxygen in the a-b plane. Bi2212 crystals with varying hole concentrations (0.07 Raman scattering experiments that sample the diagonal (B 2g) and principal axes (B1 g) of the BZ have led us to conclude that the superconducting gap possesses dx2-y2 symmetry, in the underdoped and overdoped regimes. It is found that the magnitude of the superconducting gap (Delta(k)) is sensitive to changes in p. Studies of the pair-breaking peak found in the B1g spectra allow us to conclude that the magnitude of the maximum gap (Deltamax) decreases monotonically with increasing hole doping, for p > 0.13. The pair

  1. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas

  3. Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ - and σ + polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  5. Supply Selection and Supply Chain Maturity - important areas of the quality production assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Koblen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper pays attention to selected information focused on the key requirements and criteria used in both the conventional supplier selection and sustainable supplier selection processes. The authors introduce the supply chain maturity levels, which, together with the supplier selection and assessment issue, is the essential area for the assurance of the high quality, safety and dependability of the products.

  6. Atomic Energy Commission reports. Volume 6. Opinions and decisions of the Atomic Energy Commission with selected orders, January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and the Board of Contract Appeals including the Contract Adjustment Board are presented. (U.S.)

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the selected area of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia is country which has a difficult geological structure. This fact is reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. A chosen area includes various types rocks which have diverse values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these values were shown by maps which present localities with values of a radioactivity. This research was a first step which will be used like a base for a valorization and assessment of the potential radiation exposure of residents of SR where we can suppose health damage. (authors)

  8. A hybrid polarization-selective atomic sensor for radio-frequency field detection with a passive resonant-cavity field amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David A.; Paradis, Eric G.; Raithel, Georg

    2018-01-01

    We present a hybrid atomic sensor that realizes radio-frequency electric field detection with intrinsic field amplification and polarization selectivity for robust high-sensitivity field measurement. The hybrid sensor incorporates a passive resonator element integrated with an atomic vapor cell that provides amplification and polarization selectivity for detection of incident radio-frequency fields. The amplified intra-cavity radio-frequency field is measured by atoms using a quantum-optical ...

  9. Thermally stable single atom Pt/m-Al2O3 for selective hydrogenation and CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zailei

    2017-07-27

    Single-atom metal catalysts offer a promising way to utilize precious noble metal elements more effectively, provided that they are catalytically active and sufficiently stable. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy for Pt single-atom catalysts with outstanding stability in several reactions under demanding conditions. The Pt atoms are firmly anchored in the internal surface of mesoporous Al2O3, likely stabilized by coordinatively unsaturated pentahedral Al3+ centres. The catalyst keeps its structural integrity and excellent performance for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene after exposure to a reductive atmosphere at 200 °C for 24 h. Compared to commercial Pt nanoparticle catalyst on Al2O3 and control samples, this system exhibits significantly enhanced stability and performance for n-hexane hydro-reforming at 550 °C for 48 h, although agglomeration of Pt single-atoms into clusters is observed after reaction. In CO oxidation, the Pt single-atom identity was fully maintained after 60 cycles between 100 and 400 °C over a one-month period.

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  12. Radon in dwellings in selected areas of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, J.S.; Duffy, J.T.; Mackin, G.A.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents and interprets the results of surveys of domestic radon concentrations carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland between 1989 and 1992. Data from low-density monitoring surveys in counties Mayo, Galway (including the Aran Island of Inis Mor) and Clare and in north Kerry, in addition to more detailed surveys in Moycullen and Salthill in Co. Galway and south Cork city are presented. The highest seasonally-corrected radon level found in any of the 1755 dwellings surveyed was 2399 Bq/m 3 . This is twelve times the national Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 , and corresponds to an annual radiation dose to occupants of the house of 60 mSv, three times the maximum dose which radiation workers are allowed to receive under internationally-accepted standards. Statistical evaluation of the data has allowed classification of 10 km grid square areas on the basis of the predicted proportion of houses in each grid square with radon levels in excess of the national Reference Level, 200 Bq/m 3 . The most affected areas occur in counties Mayo and Galway, and to a lesser extent in south-east Cork city. In county Galway six grid squares are predicted to have more than 20% of houses with radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m 3 . In the most affected grid square 30% of houses are predicted to have radon concentrations in excess of this level. It is important that householders in these areas be strongly encouraged to have the radon levels in their houses measured in order to identify the individual houses in which remedial measures are required. The risk associated with longterm exposure to radon has been calculated using the latest risk factor recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For average residents exposed to indoor radon concentrations of 200 Bq/m 3 the estimated lifetime risk of premature death from lung cancer, due to radon, is about 2%. This risk is a significant addition to the prevailing lifetime

  13. Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... regarding their origin and distribution in soils. Five sampling ... elements that originate in the phosphate rock. ... these areas to improve rice productivity and control pests. ... acid digest were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry ..... paddy soil using X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction.

  14. Planned amendment to the Atomic Energy Act in the area of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the present lack of agreement on nuclear energy utilization the lecturer would rather abide by the present legal status of the Atomic Energy Act and thus prefer no amendment. However he considers a jurisprudential discussion expedient and debates the main points of the Rengeling expertise from his point of view: privatization, licensing competence, plan approval, proof of having made provisions for waste disposal, European cooperation, direct ultimate waste disposal, financing. (HSCH) [de

  15. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  16. Selective Area Modification of Silicon Surface Wettability by Pulsed UV Laser Irradiation in Liquid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Moumanis, Khalid; Dubowski, Jan J

    2015-11-09

    The wettability of silicon (Si) is one of the important parameters in the technology of surface functionalization of this material and fabrication of biosensing devices. We report on a protocol of using KrF and ArF lasers irradiating Si (001) samples immersed in a liquid environment with low number of pulses and operating at moderately low pulse fluences to induce Si wettability modification. Wafers immersed for up to 4 hr in a 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution did not show measurable change in their initial contact angle (CA) ~75°. However, the 500-pulse KrF and ArF lasers irradiation of such wafers in a microchamber filled with 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution at 250 and 65 mJ/cm(2), respectively, has decreased the CA to near 15°, indicating the formation of a superhydrophilic surface. The formation of OH-terminated Si (001), with no measurable change of the wafer's surface morphology, has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. The selective area irradiated samples were then immersed in a biotin-conjugated fluorescein-stained nanospheres solution for 2 hr, resulting in a successful immobilization of the nanospheres in the non-irradiated area. This illustrates the potential of the method for selective area biofunctionalization and fabrication of advanced Si-based biosensing architectures. We also describe a similar protocol of irradiation of wafers immersed in methanol (CH3OH) using ArF laser operating at pulse fluence of 65 mJ/cm(2) and in situ formation of a strongly hydrophobic surface of Si (001) with the CA of 103°. The XPS results indicate ArF laser induced formation of Si-(OCH3)x compounds responsible for the observed hydrophobicity. However, no such compounds were found by XPS on the Si surface irradiated by KrF laser in methanol, demonstrating the inability of the KrF laser to photodissociate methanol and create -OCH3 radicals.

  17. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  18. Beam experiments with state selected Ne (3P0, 3P2) metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable rare gas atoms play an important role in all types of plasmas and gas discharges, e.g. in fluorescent lamps and in laser discharges (helium-neon laser or excimer lasers). In this thesis, the metastable states of NeI are studied. First, the theory of excited neon atoms and diatomic molecules is introduced, as well as Penning ionisation. Next, some experimental facilities are described (e.g. the dye laser system). With these instruments, natural lifetime measurements of the 2p fine structure states of NeI are carried out. Results are reported. Finally, total Penning ionisation cross sections are calculated using the optical potential model. (Auth.)

  19. Selected specific rates of reactions of transients from water in aqueous solution. II. Hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbar, M.; Farhataziz; Ross, A.B.

    1975-05-01

    Rates of reactions of hydrogen atoms (from radiolysis of water and other sources) with organic and inorganic molecules, ions, and transients in aqueous solution were tabulated. Directly measured rates obtained by kinetic spectroscopy or conductimetric methods, and relative rates determined by competition kinetics are included. (U.S.)

  20. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Koenig-Robert

    Full Text Available Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging, a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  1. Selection of areas for testing in the Eleana formation: Paleozoic geology of western Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J

    1984-07-01

    The Paleozoic geology of NTS is reviewed to select an area for underground nuclear testing in shale. Constraints on possible areas, dictated by test program requirements and economics, are areas with topographic slope less than 5/sup 0/, depths to working point less than 3000 ft., and working points above the water table. The rock formation selected is Unit J (argillite) of the Mississippian age Eleana Formation. Within NTS, Western Yucca Flat is selected as the best area to meet the requirements. Details of the Paleozoic structure of western Yucca Flat are presented. The interpretation is based on published maps, cross-sections, and reports as well as borehole, refraction seismic, and gravity data. In terms of subsurface structure and areas where Eleana Formation Unit J occurs at depths between 500 ft to 3000 ft, four possible testing areas are identified. The areas are designated here as A, B, C and the Gravity High. Available data on the water table (static water level) is reviewed for western Yucca Flat area. Depth to the water table increases from 500 to 600 ft in Area A to 1500 ft or more in the Gravity High area. Review of the water table data rules out area A and B for testing in argillite above the water table. Area C is relatively unexplored and water conditions are unknown there. Thus, the Gravity High is selected as the most promising area for selecting testing sites. There is a dolomite thrust sheet of unknown thickness overlying the argillite in the Gravity High area. An exploration program is proposed to better characterize this structure. Finally, recommendations are made for procedures to follow for eventual site characterization of a testing site in argillite. 22 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  2. Preliminary area selection considerations for radioactive waste repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    This guide describes an approach to selection of areas of bedded salt which contain potentially suitable sites for the storage of radioactive waste. To evaluate a site selected by a license applicant, it is necessary to understand the technical site characteristics which should be considered in the preliminary phase of site selection. These site characteristics are presented here in checklist form, and each item is accompanied by a discussion which explains its significance. These qualitative considerations are used first to select an area of interest within a broad geologic or geomorphic region. Once an area has been selected, more quantitative information must be acquired to determine whether the proposed site meets the resultations for storage of nuclear waste

  3. Sero-epidemiological study on Maedi-Visna in selected areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovine Progressive Pneumonia- OPP) in exotic sheep breed in selected areas of Ethiopia. ELISA and Hematoxylin & Eosin (HE) staining techniques were employed to examine the serum and tissue samples respectively. ELISA test of serum ...

  4. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  8. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1985-01-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification

  9. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  10. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  11. Selective vibrational pumping of molecular hydrogen via gas phase atomic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Capitelli, Mario

    2009-12-31

    Formation of rovibrational excited molecular hydrogen from atomic recombination has been computationally studied using three body dynamics and orbiting resonance theory. Each of the two methods in the frame of classical mechanics, that has been used for all of the calculations, appear complementary rather than complete, with similar values in the low temperature region, and predominance of three body dynamics for temperatures higher than about 1000 K. The sum of the two contributions appears in fairly good agreement with available data from the literature. Dependence of total recombination on the temperature over pressure ratio is stressed. Detailed recombination toward rovibrational states is presented, with large evidence of importance of rotation in final products. Comparison with gas-surface recombination implying only physiadsorbed molecules shows approximate similarities at T = 5000 K, being on the contrary different at lower temperature.

  12. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotopic separation of 235U and 238U in an atomic beam with selective two-step photo-ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The present work gives a report on investigations on isotope separation of 235 U and 238 U by means of selective two-stage photo-ionization on atomic uranium. An atomic beam of sufficient particle density was produced by dissociation of URe 2 in an electron beam heated tungsten furnace at a temperature of 2.500 k. A continuously operated rhodamin-69 dye laser with a maximum output of 120 mW and about 50 mHz band width in one-made operation was used for selective excitation from the ground state. From this state of excitation, ionization resulted achieving a light power of 1.8 W below 3030 A in the reaction volume. The measured separation factors show that the laser method enables the enrichment of uranium to the required valve of three or more percent 235 U for light water reactors in a single separation step. The hyperfine structure could be considerably better resolved compared to earlier investigations, so that it was possible for the first time to identify and measure hitherto unobserved weak components. (orig.) [de

  14. Reference Guide for Teaching Selected Duty Areas from Business, Marketing and Management Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John H.

    This reference guide was designed to assist business, marketing, and management educators in locating textbook/instructional materials for use in teaching duty areas and task lists for grades 11-14. Duty areas and task lists are matched with selected textbook/instructional publications for the secretarial, general office clerk, and information…

  15. Opinions and decisions of the Atomic Energy Commission with selected orders. Progress report, July 1, 1972--December 31, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and the Board of Contract Appeals during the period July through December 1972 are presented

  16. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  17. Selection of Possible Candidate Area for Nuclear Power Plant in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to simulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  18. Selection of possible candidate area for nuclear energy facility in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to stimulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  19. Assessment of productivity and water use efficiency in three maize (zea mays L.) varieties in Kwabenya-Atomic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    The production of rain-fed maize in the Kwabenya-Atomic area of the coastal savannah environment of Ghana is limited by low and erratic rainfall. Enhancing maize production in the area will require the use of maize varieties efficient in the use of soil moisture. The study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate three recently released maize varieties (Obatanpa, Mamaba, and Golden Crystal) for their efficiency in the use of soil moisture for total dry matter and grain production and consequently identify the maize varieties suitable for rain-fed production in the Kwabenya-Atomic area. Field experiments were conducted m 2008 during the major and minor cropping seasons at Kwabenya-Atomic area in Ghana using three maize varieties grown at a planting distance of 0.4 m within rows and 0.8 m between rows. The experimental design used was the randomised complete block design in four replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the maize growing seasons. Access tubes installed in each sub-plot facilitated simultaneous moisture monitoring with the aid of a neutron probe (CPN (R) 503 Hydroprobe) in a 120 cm soil profile. The moisture content values were used for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration of the maize crop using the water balance approach. Grain yield (GY) and its associated water use efficiency (WUE GY ) were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) among the maize varieties during the major cropping season with Mamaba producing the highest grain yield of 7250.0 kg ha -1 and WUE GY of 13.2 kg ha -1 mm -1 . For the minor cropping season, no significant difference was observed in grain yield, which ranged between 5800.0 and 7200.0 kg ha -1 , with Obatanpa producing the highest grain yield. No significant difference was observed in WUE GY during the minor cropping season which ranged between 14.6 and 19.1 kg ha -1 mm -1 with Obatanpa having the highest WUE GY . The maize genotype produced similar total dry matter (TDM) during each of the cropping

  20. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  1. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  2. Selection rules for electron transfer to the continuum in ion-atom collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Bernardi, G.C.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1985-10-01

    We consider the process of electron transfer to the in first order Born approximation. We analyse the expansion of the double-differential cross section in series of electron velocity and ejection angle. We found that the coefficients obey precise selection rules. We discuss the relation of these rules, which predict an asymmetric shape for the electron loss to the continuum cusp, with the interpretation of recent experimental results.

  3. 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Program of the conference and summary of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The materials of the 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 2-6 October, 2000. A wide range of items connected with uranium enrichment, selection of atoms and molecules by isotopic composition: laser methods, ion cyclotron-resonance method, are discussed. The paper contains the reports about harnessing radionuclides and stable isotopes in medicine and as a means of diagnostics. The results of investigation into modern and advanced technology for isotope separation are outlined. The selection of molecules by means of rectification methods and chemical isotope exchange are discussed [ru

  4. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  5. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of (1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, (2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  6. Selective Hydrogen Atom Abstraction through Induced Bond Polarization: Direct α-Arylation of Alcohols through Photoredox, HAT, and Nickel Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilton, Jack; Christensen, Melodie; DiRocco, Daniel A; Ruck, Rebecca T; Davies, Ian W; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-05-04

    The combination of nickel metallaphotoredox catalysis, hydrogen atom transfer catalysis, and a Lewis acid activation mode, has led to the development of an arylation method for the selective functionalization of alcohol α-hydroxy C-H bonds. This approach employs zinc-mediated alcohol deprotonation to activate α-hydroxy C-H bonds while simultaneously suppressing C-O bond formation by inhibiting the formation of nickel alkoxide species. The use of Zn-based Lewis acids also deactivates other hydridic bonds such as α-amino and α-oxy C-H bonds. This approach facilitates rapid access to benzylic alcohols, an important motif in drug discovery. A 3-step synthesis of the drug Prozac exemplifies the utility of this new method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Scalable Route to Nanoporous Large-Area Atomically Thin Graphene Membranes by Roll-to-Roll Chemical Vapor Deposition and Polymer Support Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Piran R; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi D; Dee, Nicholas T; Vyatskikh, Andrey; Zhang, Sui; Karnik, Rohit; Hart, A John

    2018-03-28

    Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones. The configurational flexibility of the reactor design allows for a detailed evaluation of key parameters affecting graphene quality and trade-offs to be considered for high-rate roll-to-roll graphene manufacturing. With this system, we achieve synthesis of uniform high-quality monolayer graphene ( I D / I G casting and postprocessing, show size-selective molecular transport with performance comparable to that of membranes made from conventionally synthesized graphene. Therefore, this work establishes the feasibility of a scalable manufacturing process of NATMs, for applications including protein desalting and small-molecule separations.

  8. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  9. Atomic scale characterization of white etching area and its adjacent matrix in a martensitic 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J., E-mail: y.li@mpie.de [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany); Center for Interface-Dominated High Performance Materials, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Herbig, M.; Goto, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany); Raabe, D., E-mail: d.raabe@mpie.de [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Atom probe tomography was employed to characterize the microstructure and C distribution in the white etching area (WEA) of a martensitic 100Cr6 bearing steel subjected to rolling contact fatigue. Different from its surrounding matrix where a plate-like martensitic structure prevails, the WEA exhibits equiaxed grains with a uniform grain size of about 10 nm. Significant C grain boundary enrichment (>7.5at.%) and an overall higher C concentration than the nominal value are observed in the WEA. These results suggest that the formation of WEA results from severe local plastic deformation that causes dissolution of carbides and the redistribution of C. - Highlights: •APT has been applied to characterize the microstructure of white etching area (WEA). •Quantitative analyses of C distribution indicate that carbides are dissolved on the WEA. •WEA contains equiaxed grains with a uniform grain size of 10 nm. •C segregation at grain boundaries stabilizes the nanosized grain structure. •Formation of WEA is explained by severe local plastic deformation introduced by cyclic contact loading.

  10. Spin-selective depopulation of triplet sublevels in rapidly rotating triplet exciplexes detected by a heavy-atom-induced magnetic field effect

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Ulrich

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism is presented explaining a reported heavy-atom-induced magnetic field effect as a consequence of non-equilibrium triplet sublevel population in an intermediate exciplex. The triplet exciplex spin polarization is induced by sub-level-selective intersystem crossing from the exciplex triplet to its singlet ground state and is decreased by an external magnetic field. The theory accounts almost quantitatively for the observed influence of magnetic field strength and heavy-atom substitue...

  11. Calculation of the factor of the time's relativity in quantum area for different atoms based on the `Substantial motion' theory of Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.

  12. Decoding facial expressions based on face-selective and motion-sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Xu, Junhai; Zhang, Gaoyan; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. In a block design experiment, participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise) in images, videos, and eyes-obscured videos. Due to the use of multiple stimulus types, the impacts of facial motion and eye-related information on facial expression decoding were also examined. It was found that motion-sensitive areas showed significant responses to emotional expressions and that dynamic expressions could be successfully decoded in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. Compared with static stimuli, dynamic expressions elicited consistently higher neural responses and decoding performance in all regions. A significant decrease in both activation and decoding accuracy due to the absence of eye-related information was also observed. Overall, the findings showed that emotional expressions are represented in motion-sensitive areas in addition to conventional face-selective areas, suggesting that motion-sensitive regions may also effectively contribute to facial expression recognition. The results also suggested that facial motion and eye-related information played important roles by carrying considerable expression information that could facilitate facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3113-3125, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  14. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  15. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Helene

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people's non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas.

  16. Automated training site selection for large-area remote-sensing image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Thomas M.; Franklin, Steven E.

    1993-11-01

    A computer program is presented to select training sites automatically from remotely sensed digital imagery. The basic ideas are to guide the image analyst through the process of selecting typical and representative areas for large-area image classifications by minimizing bias, and to provide an initial list of potential classes for which training sites are required to develop a classification scheme or to verify classification accuracy. Reducing subjectivity in training site selection is achieved by using a purely statistical selection of homogeneous sites which then can be compared to field knowledge, aerial photography, or other remote-sensing imagery and ancillary data to arrive at a final selection of sites to be used to train the classification decision rules. The selection of the homogeneous sites uses simple tests based on the coefficient of variance, the F-statistic, and the Student's i-statistic. Comparisons of site means are conducted with a linear growing list of previously located homogeneous pixels. The program supports a common pixel-interleaved digital image format and has been tested on aerial and satellite optical imagery. The program is coded efficiently in the C programming language and was developed under AIX-Unix on an IBM RISC 6000 24-bit color workstation.

  17. MULTI-FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR SELECTING LUNAR EXPLORATION SOFT LANDING AREA AND THE BEST CRUISE ROUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the right soft landing area and planning a reasonable cruise route are the basic tasks of lunar exploration. In this paper, the Von Karman crater in the Antarctic Aitken basin on the back of the moon is used as the study area, and multi-factor analysis is used to evaluate the landing area and cruise route of lunar exploration. The evaluation system mainly includes the factors such as the density of craters, the impact area of craters, the formation of the whole area and the formation of some areas, such as the vertical structure, rock properties and the content of (FeO + TiO2, which can reflect the significance of scientific exploration factor. And the evaluation of scientific exploration is carried out on the basis of safety and feasibility. On the basis of multi-factor superposition analysis, three landing zones A, B and C are selected, and the appropriate cruising route is analyzed through scientific research factors. This study provides a scientific basis for the lunar probe landing and cruise route planning, and it provides technical support for the subsequent lunar exploration.

  18. Multi-Factor Analysis for Selecting Lunar Exploration Soft Landing Area and the best Cruise Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, N.; Li, J.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Liu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Selecting the right soft landing area and planning a reasonable cruise route are the basic tasks of lunar exploration. In this paper, the Von Karman crater in the Antarctic Aitken basin on the back of the moon is used as the study area, and multi-factor analysis is used to evaluate the landing area and cruise route of lunar exploration. The evaluation system mainly includes the factors such as the density of craters, the impact area of craters, the formation of the whole area and the formation of some areas, such as the vertical structure, rock properties and the content of (FeO + TiO2), which can reflect the significance of scientific exploration factor. And the evaluation of scientific exploration is carried out on the basis of safety and feasibility. On the basis of multi-factor superposition analysis, three landing zones A, B and C are selected, and the appropriate cruising route is analyzed through scientific research factors. This study provides a scientific basis for the lunar probe landing and cruise route planning, and it provides technical support for the subsequent lunar exploration.

  19. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO 2 mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO 2 mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  20. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J, E-mail: dan.dalacu@nrc-cnrc.gc.c [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-09-30

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO{sub 2} mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO{sub 2} mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  1. Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Gilmer, David S.; Jarvis, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

  2. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D; Thellesen, Peder V; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  3. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Heldbjerg

    Full Text Available The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed to the least selected (Winter Crops which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  4. Selective Mobile Communication within a Coverage Area Bounded by Radiating Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Behairy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often desirable to control mobile phone services in areas where complete silence is either expected or mandatory, including schools, places of worship, hospitals, and prisons. In contrast to conventional techniques, such as jammers or Faraday cages, we present a novel technique to selectively control mobile phone services within a desired area. Our solution enables the area’s keeper to allow mobile phones on a whitelist to freely use mobile services without disruption while denying services to all other mobile phones that are within the boundaries of the desired area to be controlled. Our solution uses a base station controller to identify all mobile devices located within the area to be controlled, while an antenna is placed inside the area to attract all mobile devices in the area to connect to the base station controller. In previous work, we proposed a system that uses directional antennas for the attraction technique. In this work, we show that replacement of the directional antennas with a leaky feeder antenna enables more accurate control of mobile phone services in and around the area to be controlled. Simulations and experiments of the leaky feeder technique confirm its precise control of mobile phone services within the desired areas.

  5. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallova, G.

    2010-01-01

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg -1 for 238 U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  6. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  7. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  8. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  9. Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Georg, E-mail: georg.hartmann@tum.de [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schuster, Michael, E-mail: michael.schuster@tum.de [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We optimized cloud point extraction and ET-AAS parameters for Au-NPs measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A selective ligand (sodium thiosulphate) is introduced for species separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A limit of detection of 5 ng Au-NP per L is achieved for aqueous samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement of samples with high natural organic mater content is possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Real water samples including wastewater treatment plant effluent were analyzed. - Abstract: The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 {+-} 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 {+-} 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L{sup -1} is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L{sup -1}. The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L{sup -1} is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples.

  10. Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Georg; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We optimized cloud point extraction and ET-AAS parameters for Au-NPs measurement. ► A selective ligand (sodium thiosulphate) is introduced for species separation. ► A limit of detection of 5 ng Au-NP per L is achieved for aqueous samples. ► Measurement of samples with high natural organic mater content is possible. ► Real water samples including wastewater treatment plant effluent were analyzed. - Abstract: The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 ± 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 ± 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L −1 is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L −1 . The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L −1 is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples.

  11. Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-25

    The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 ± 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 ± 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L(-1) is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L(-1) is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical response of electron selective atomic layer deposited TiO2‑x heterocontacts on crystalline silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiboz, Doğuşcan; Nasser, Hisham; Aygün, Ezgi; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit

    2018-04-01

    Integration of oxygen deficient sub-stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2‑x) thin films as the electron transporting-hole blocking layer in solar cell designs are expected to reduce fabrication costs by eliminating high temperature processes while maintaining high conversion efficiencies. In this paper, we conducted a study to reveal the electrical properties of TiO2‑x thin films grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Effect of ALD substrate temperature, post deposition annealing, and doping type of the c-Si substrate on the interface states and TiO2‑x bulk properties were extracted by performing admittance (C-V, G-V) and current-voltage (J-V) measurements. Moreover, the asymmetry in C-V and J-V measurements between the p-n type and n-n TiO2‑x-c-Si heterojunction types were examined and the electron transport selectivity of TiO2‑x was revealed.

  13. Experimental Study on Fabrication of AZO Transparent Electrode for Organic Solar Cell Using Selective Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kicheol; Song, Gensoo; Kim, Hyungtae; Yoo, Kyunghoon; Kang, Jeongjin; Hwang, Junyoung; Lee, Sangho; Kang, Kyungtae; Kang, Heuiseok; Cho, Youngjune

    2013-01-01

    AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is one of the best candidate materials to replace Into (indium tin oxide) for TKOs (transparent conductive oxides) used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes (OLDS), and organic solar cells (OCSS). In the present study, to apply an AZO thin film to the transparent electrode of an organic solar cell, a low temperature selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process was adopted to deposit an AZO thin film on a flexible polyethylene-naphthanate (Pen) substrate. The reactive gases for the ALD process were di-ethyl-zinc (De) and tri-methylaluminum (Tma) as precursors and H 2 O as an oxidant. The structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of the AZO thin film were evaluated. From the measured results of the electrical and optical characteristics of the AZO thin films deposited on the Pen substrates by Ald, it was shown that the Azo thin film appeared to be comparable to a commercially used Into thin film, which confirmed the feasibility of AZO as a TCO for flexible organic solar cells in the near future

  14. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  15. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  16. Selective area deposition of diamond films on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Jirásek, Vít; Vanko, G.; Vallo, M.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 12 (2014), 2574-2580 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16549P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : circular high electron mobility transistors * diamond films * GaN substrates * microwave chemical vapor deposition * selective area deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  17. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Bin; Zhou Daibing; Zhang Can; Liang Song; Lu Dan; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei; Qiu Jifang; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Residual strain in the Nb-H system measured by selected area diffraction (SAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulhoes, I.A.M.; Akune, K.; Pinatti, Dyonisio G.

    1981-07-01

    Various specimens of Nb were annealed in vacuum of 10 -3 torr for four hours at 1770 0 K. These speciments were doped with hydrogen up to 1000 ppm by weight and then were analyzed selected area diffraction. The line resolution of the electron channelling pattern was meassured for the specimens with different hydrogen content. These measurements, combined with the measurement of density, permitted one to estimate the residual strain caused by hydrogen. (Author) [pt

  19. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  20. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  1. Study of the selective abstration reaction of the hydrogen atom in the radiolysis and photolysis of alkane mixture at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The occurence of the selective abstraction reaction of the solute hydrogen atom by hydrogen atom produced during radiolysis or photolysis of the systems such as neopentane/cyclo-hexane/HI, neopentane/2,3 dimethylbutane, n-pentane/HI/cyclo-hexane and cyclo-hexane/HI/n-pentane, at 77 K is studied. Experiments have been undertaken on the kinetics nature of the active species, the H atom, during radiolysis and photolysis of the neopentane/cyclo-hexane/HI system at 77 K, presenting competitive reactions. Studies have also been made on the occurrence of the selective abstraction reaction in inverted systems, in which the concentrations of the components of a system are so much altered that the solute becomes the solvent and vice-versa, in the other system. By means of photolysis at 77 K, it has been observed that for the two systems constitued by the cyclo-hexane and n-pentane the selective abstraction reaction occurs. However, for radiolysis of that same two systems it has been observed that only the hydrogen atom abstraction reaction corresponding to the solvent occurs. (Author) [pt

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  4. Decentralized Hierarchical Controller Design for Selective Damping of Inter Area Oscillations Using PMU Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Hashmani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the decentralized hierarchical PSS (Power System Stabilizer controller design to achieve a better damping of specific inter-area oscillations. The two-level decentralized hierarchical structure consists of two PSS controllers. The first level controller is a local PSS controller for each generator to damp local mode in the area where controller is located. This controller uses only local signals as input signals. The local signal comes from the generator at which the controller is located. The secondary level controller is a multivariable decentralized global PSS controller to damp inter-area modes. This controller uses selected suitable wide area PMU (Phasor Measurement Units signals as inputs. The PMU or global signals are taken from network locations where the oscillations are well observable. The global controller uses only those global input signals in which the assigned single inter-area mode is most observable and is located at a generator that is most effective in controlling the assigned mode. The global controller works mainly in a frequency band given by the natural frequency of the assigned mode. The effectiveness of the resulting hierarchical controller is demonstrated through simulation studies conducted on a test power system.

  5. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  6. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  7. DETERMINATION OF DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION LEVEL FROM SELECTED AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pervez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries and residential heating and mobile sources (road traffic can harm ambient air quality in urban areas. Depending upon their physical state, these pollutants are classified as liquid and vapor phases and are subsequently transported to the Earth’s surface through dry and wet deposition. After the deposition of these pollutants onto the surface of earth various health effects caused by these pollutants occurred like cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. In this study four different locations/sites were selected from the Rawalpindi city depending upon the population, traffic rush and industries to examine the noise level, concentration of carbon dioxide and heavy metals. Air sampler was used for the collection of air sample to analyze the heavy metal concentration, Quest electronic sound meter for measuring sound level and SIBATA for CO2 measurement. The study findings revealed that noise level was higher at all selected locations as described by WHO limit (70 dB being highest at Industrial area due to heavy machinery and lowest at green area. Concentration of all four heavy metals were high as compared with the prescribed limits. CO2 level reaches up to 300 ppm because of coal consumption during the winter season. The threshold values of all these selected parameters well above the prescribed limits defined by the authorities so to combat with this situation we should move towards more energy efficient fuels, proper maintenance of vehicles and machineries, traffic management and installation of noise barriers in industries as well as installation of catalytic convertors in vehicles to stop further air pollution.

  8. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  9. The Importance of a Proper Selection Area to be Biopsied in Nodular Leukoplakia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  10. On year Study of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Selected Area of Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    Monthly ambient air and surface soil samples were taken for analysis in the outskirts of Madrid in an open urban area from November 1998 to October 1999. Thirty-one congeners were selected according to their abundance in environmental samples. A comparison of the data so produced with concentration levels obtained in urban centre samples and compiled data was performed. Temperatures higher than 10 degree centigree resulted in increasing ambient air levis and a peak concentration was also observed when wind velocity ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 m.s''-1. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. One Year Study of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Selected Area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano CastaNo, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Monthly ambient air and surface soil samples were taken for analysis in the outskirts of Madrid in an open urban area from November 1998 to October 1999. Thirty-one congeners were selected according to their abundance in environmental samples. A comparison of the data so produced with concentration levels obtained in urban centre samples and compiled data was performed. Temperatures higher than 10 degree centigree resulted in increasing ambient air levels and a peak concentration was also observed when wind velocity ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 m.s 1 . (Author) 27 refs

  12. Automated selection of areas of interest in dynamic studies and camera-cinematograpy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, F.; Adam, W.E.; Kampmann, H.; Meyer, G.; Weller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in heart investigations using the first transit principle and the steady-state procedure for radionuclide scanning. Progress in the first transit principle relies on automated selection of areas of interest. A procedure has been developed which automatically performs the evaluation of the areas corresponding to the right heart, the lungs, and the left heart. A different procedure has been built up for dynamic lung studies with Xe-133 (Radiospirometry), which principally can be applied to any other organ investigation. R-wave time averaged procedures of the heart in steady state can be performed in direct or indirect manner. A direct procedure is described that leads eventually to a cinematographic presentation of the heart kinetics on the computer display. The analysis yields an exact outline of heart ventricles and auricles as prerequisite for determination of ejection fractions and clinically relevant data of the heart function

  13. Optimal selection of LQR parameter using AIS for LFC in a multi-area power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdillah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to optimize the parameter of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR using artificial immune system (AIS via clonal selection. The parameters of LQR utilized in this paper are the weighting matrices Q and R. The optimal LQR control for load frequency control (LFC is installed on each area as a decentralized control scheme. The aim of this control design is to improve the dynamic performance of LFC automatically when unexpected load change occurred on power system network. The change of load demands 0.01 p.u used as a disturbance is applied to LFC in Area 1. The proposed method guarantees the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The simulation result shows that the proposed method can reduce the overshoot of the system and compress the time response to steady-state which is better compared to trial error method (TEM and without optimal LQR control.

  14. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, A; Aidil Azahary, A R; Malinda, M; Zurainee, M N; Rozilawati, H; Wan Najdah, W M A; Lee, H L

    2014-12-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVESI: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type), canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%). Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3%) pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors.

  15. Thermally stable single atom Pt/m-Al2O3 for selective hydrogenation and CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zailei; Zhu, Yihan; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jiaguang; Zhou, Maoxiang; Han, Yu; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    with outstanding stability in several reactions under demanding conditions. The Pt atoms are firmly anchored in the internal surface of mesoporous Al2O3, likely stabilized by coordinatively unsaturated pentahedral Al3+ centres. The catalyst keeps its structural

  16. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  17. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  18. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  19. Demonstrating the utility of boron based precursor molecules for selective area deposition in a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.K.; Onellion, M.; Lee, S.; Bowben, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) can be used to selectively deposit material from a gaseous precursor compound. Ultrasmall (less than a 100 nm across) spatial dimensions for selective area deposition may be achieved by this means. In this paper the authors outline a scheme foreselecting and designing main group cluster compounds and organometallics for this type of selective area deposition using nido-decaborane(14) as an example

  20. A decision support system for selecting IT audit areas using a capital budgeting approach / Dewald Philip Pieters

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Dewald Philip

    2015-01-01

    Internal audit departments strive to control risk within an organization. To do this they choose specific audit areas to include in an audit plan. In order to select areas, they usually focus on those areas with the highest risk. Even though high risk areas are considered, there are various other restrictions such as resource constraints (in terms of funds, manpower and hours) that must also be considered. In some cases, management might also have special requirements. Traditionally this area...

  1. Enhancement of collective immunity in Tokyo metropolitan area by selective vaccination against an emerging influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya M Saito

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a preventive measure against influenza that does not require placing restrictions on social activities. However, since the stockpile of vaccine that can be prepared before the arrival of an emerging pandemic strain is generally quite limited, one has to select priority target groups to which the first stockpile is distributed. In this paper, we study a simulation-based priority target selection method with the goal of enhancing the collective immunity of the whole population. To model the region in which the disease spreads, we consider an urban area composed of suburbs and central areas connected by a single commuter train line. Human activity is modelled following an agent-based approach. The degree to which collective immunity is enhanced is judged by the attack rate in unvaccinated people. The simulation results show that if students and office workers are given exclusive priority in the first three months, the attack rate can be reduced from [Formula: see text] in the baseline case down to 1-2%. In contrast, random vaccination only slightly reduces the attack rate. It should be noted that giving preference to active social groups does not mean sacrificing those at high risk, which corresponds to the elderly in our simulation model. Compared with the random administration of vaccine to all social groups, this design successfully reduces the attack rate across all age groups.

  2. Selective area growth of GaN rod structures by MOVPE: Dependence on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Wang, Xue; Erenburg, Milena; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Selective area growth of GaN nanorods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is highly demanding for novel applications in nano-optoelectronic and nanophotonics. Recently, we report the successful selective area growth of GaN nanorods in a continuous-flow mode. In this work, as examples, we show the morphology dependence of GaN rods with {mu}m or sub-{mu}m in diameters on growth conditions. Firstly, we found that the nitridation time is critical for the growth, with an optimum from 90 to 180 seconds. This leads to more homogeneous N-polar GaN rods growth. A higher temperature during GaN rod growth tends to increase the aspect ratio of the GaN rods. This is due to the enhanced surface diffusion of growth species. The V/III ratio is also an important parameter for the GaN rod growth. Its increase causes reduction of the aspect ratio of GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface than it on {l_brace}1-100{r_brace} m-planes by supplying more NH{sub 3} (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence; Yeh, Ting-Wei; Dapkus, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    InP nanowires are a unique material phase because this normally zincblende material forms in the wurtzite crystal structure below a critical diameter owing to the contribution of sidewalls to the total formation energy. This may allow control of the carrier transport and optical properties of InP nanowires for applications such as nano scale transistors, lasers and detectors. In this work, we describe the fabrication of InP nanowire arrays by selective area growth using MOCVD in the diameter range where the wurtzite structure is formed. The spatial growth rate in selective area growth is modeled by a diffusion model for the precursors. The proposed model achieves an average error of 9%. Electron microscopy shows that the grown InP nanowires are in the wurtzite crystal phase with many stacking faults. The threshold diameter of the crystal phase transition of InP nanowires is larger than the thermodynamic estimation. In order to explain this tendency, we propose a surface kinetics model based on a 2 x 2 reconstruction. This model can explain the increased tendency for wurtzite nanowire formation on InP (111)A substrates and the preferred growth direction of binary III-V compound semiconductor nanowires. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  5. Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC 2013 : 20th International Conference, Burnaby BC, Canada, August 14-16, 2013 : Revised Selected Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Lauter, K.; Lisonek, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2013, held in Burnaby, Canada, in August 2013. The 26 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. They are organized in topical sections

  6. Determination of the radon Concentration in underground water in selected areas in and around Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Seth Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Radon (Rn-222) is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and different types of water: surface, borehole, well and spring. It is worth to carry out surveys for the radon in water for radiation protection as well as for geological considerations. The research presenters here was carried out in selected towns in and around Kumasi for the determination of radon concentration in groundwater. The major towns from which samples were taken are , Mowire, Kronum, Aburaso, Medoma, Kenyase, Buokrom, Bomfa, Ayeduase, Kotei, Tikrom. All the samples are used for domestic purposes such as cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. Waters from boreholes and wells in the selected towns were sampled and the radon concentration level measured. The Roll’s method was used for the radon concentration analysis on all the 100 samples. The results shows that, the minimum radon concentration in groundwater was 13015.934 Bq/m3 and it was found at Bomfa, and the highest was found to be 964628.480 Bq/m3, recorded at Mowire. It is believed that this variation of levels is mainly due to the difference in rock type, soil type and geology of the area as well as the depth of the water samples. This information can be used to estimate the possible health hazards from radon in the selected towns in the future from environmental point of view. The data would promote public awareness related to risk of radon exposure. (au)

  7. Spatial attention enhances the selective integration of activity from area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Nicolas Y; Herrington, Todd M; Cook, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    Distinguishing which of the many proposed neural mechanisms of spatial attention actually underlies behavioral improvements in visually guided tasks has been difficult. One attractive hypothesis is that attention allows downstream neural circuits to selectively integrate responses from the most informative sensory neurons. This would allow behavioral performance to be based on the highest-quality signals available in visual cortex. We examined this hypothesis by asking how spatial attention affects both the stimulus sensitivity of middle temporal (MT) neurons and their corresponding correlation with behavior. Analyzing a data set pooled from two experiments involving four monkeys, we found that spatial attention did not appreciably affect either the stimulus sensitivity of the neurons or the correlation between their activity and behavior. However, for those sessions in which there was a robust behavioral effect of attention, focusing attention inside the neuron's receptive field significantly increased the correlation between these two metrics, an indication of selective integration. These results suggest that, similar to mechanisms proposed for the neural basis of perceptual learning, the behavioral benefits of focusing spatial attention are attributable to selective integration of neural activity from visual cortical areas by their downstream targets.

  8. Determination of selected metals in urban runoff and related estuarine sediments by neutron activation and atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.R.; Guinn, V.P.; Scherfig, J.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution sources for Newport Bay, California are of a nonpoint nature. To assess the heavy metals loading of the runoff into the Bay, 18 water samples, taken during dry and rainy periods, have been analyzed for Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In addition, 7 sediment cores from the Upper Bay and 5 sediment grab samples from the Lower Bay were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for Cr, Fe, and Co, whereas Mn, Cu, and Pb were determined by AAS. Zinc was determined by both of these techniques. Three major streams pass into Newport Bay carrying: (1) agricultural and to some extent urban and residential runoff (70-90%), (2) urban runoff (10-30%), and (3) residential runoff (<5%). The levels of Zn and Pb are much higher under storm conditions, e.g., 338 μg/l Zn and 425 μg/l Pb, than during dry weather, where typical concentrations are 20 μg/l Zn and 9 μg/l Pb. For Cu there is a moderate increase from about 10 μg/l in dry weather to a maximum of 54 μg/l under storm conditions. Soil erosion appears to be responsible for high Mn values (max. 1230 μg/l) in agricultural storm runoff. The cleansing action of a storm is evidenced by high concentrations in the beginning, and much lower levels towards the end of the storm.Vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment cores indicate that Zn and Pb are the only metals of those investigated that show clearly increased levels in the uppermost layers. Typical enrichment ratios are 2.0 for Zn and 5.5 for Pb. Maximum concentrations of Zn and Pb in sediments from the Upper Bay were 300 ppm and 132 ppm, respectively. The highest Pb value was found close to the mouth of the urban drainage channel. Dating of selected cores was carried out by the Pb-210 method. Mass injection rates into Upper Newport Bay for Zn and Pb of anthropogenic origin were estimated to be 6.0 and 6.5 tons/yr, respectively

  9. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel.

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2

  10. Ionization of small molecules by state-selected neon (3P0, 3P2) metastable atoms in the 0.06

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.T.M.; Schonenberg, J.H.M.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The velocity dependence and absolute values of the total ionisation cross section for the molecules H2, N2, O2, NO, CO, N2O, CO2, and CH4 by metastable Ne* (3P0) and Ne* (3P2) atoms at collision energies ranging from 0.06 to 6.0 eV have been measured in a crossed beam experiment. State selection of

  11. A comparison of small-area estimation techniques to estimate selected stand attributes using LiDAR-derived auxiliary variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Vicente J. Monleon; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges often faced in forestry is the estimation of forest attributes for smaller areas of interest within a larger population. Small-area estimation (SAE) is a set of techniques well suited to estimation of forest attributes for small areas in which the existing sample size is small and auxiliary information is available. Selected SAE methods were...

  12. Monitoring of elemental composition of honey from selected regions of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, R.

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a sweet, thick and viscid fluid collected from beehives and usually found in cells of the honey comb. It is produced from nectar collected from various flowers by honeybees and processed. Among the important uses, pure and undiluted honey serves as natural sweetener and contains a broad variety of vitamins for human consumption. Due to its global demand, monitoring of the quality of honey is of great significance. In this study, honey samples were collected systematically from farmers and retailers in the Brong Ahafo, Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. The sampling was done along the farmer-to-trader channels, to assess the quality of honey produced from various regions and to trace the sources of elemental contamination. Physicochemical studies; pH, electrical conductivity and specific gravity were done. The levels of selected toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, V, Cr, As) and essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co) in the honey samples were analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was also employed to determine elements such as Pb, Co, Cr and Fe. All the honey samples were found to be acidic, with pH ranging from 3.60 to 6.10. The acidity of honey is significant as it inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The values agrees favourably with the permitted pH limits of 3.40 to 3.60 for good quality honey, set by the National Honey Board of United States. The electrical conductivities measured ranged from 11.9 μS/cm to 44.4 μS/cm. The values were within the acceptable limits set by Ghana Standards Authority and other organizations (<800 μS/cm). The specific gravity of the honey samples analysed ranged from 1.297 to 2.031. These values were higher than the values (1.2081 to 1.2270) reported in Libyan Honey. However, these values were closer to the average specific gravity (1.425) value reported in other studies. These variations in the specific gravity may be related to

  13. Antimatter atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In january 1996, CERN broadcasted the information of the creation of nine anti-hydrogen atoms, observed through disintegration products. The experimental facility was CERN LEAR ring. An antiproton beam scattered a xenon jet, and the resulting antimatter was first selected by its insensitivity to beam bending magnets. Their disintegration was detected in thin NaI detectors, in which the anti-atoms are at once deprived from their positron. Then, magnetic and time-of-flight spectrometers are used. (D.L.)

  14. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  15. Fabrication of 32Gb/s Electroabsorption Modulated Distributed Feedback Lasers by Selective Area Growth Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dai-Bing; Wang Hui-Tao; Zhang Rui-Kang; Wang Bao-Jun; Bian Jing; An Xin; Lu Dan; Zhao Ling-Juan; Zhu Hong-Liang; Ji Chen; Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    A 32 Gb/s monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulated laser is fabricated by selective area growth technology. The threshold current of the device is below 13 mA. The output power exceeds 10 mW at 0 V bias when the injection current of the distributed feedback laser is 100 mA at 25°C. The side mode suppression ratio is over 50 dB. A 32Gb/s eye diagram is measured with a 3.5V pp nonreturn-to-zero pseudorandom modulation signal at −2.3 V bias. A clearly opening eyediagram with a dynamic extinction ratio of 8.01 dB is obtained. (paper)

  16. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  17. Faint H-alpha emission objects near the equatorial selected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, T.H.; Jordan, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    An objective-prism survey of fields centered on the 24 Kapteyn Selected Areas along the celestial equator has resulted in the detection of 120 faint H-alpha emission-line objects. Diffuse objects and stars having molecular bands in their spectra are not included. Only 18 of these stars were identified in previous lists of emission-line objects. Identifications were found for an additional three stars. Images of these objects appear to be stellar on direct plates. The magnitude range for these stars is V = 10.1-19.00. Positions and V magnitudes of these objects are provided, as are identifications of objects which have been reported in other lists. Frequency distributions of the apparent magnitudes and Galactic latitudes of these emission-line objects are discussed, and finding charts are provided. 14 refs

  18. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  19. CVD synthesis of large-area, highly crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on diverse substrates and application to photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Huang, Xing; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Meng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Ben; Zhu, Dan-Dan; Li, Jun-Jie; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of large-area, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on diverse substrates is of central importance for the large-scale fabrication of flexible devices and heterojunction-based devices. In this work, we successfully synthesized a large area of highly-crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on SiO2/Si, mica and Si substrates using a simple chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method at atmospheric pressure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the as-grown ultrathin MoSe2 layers change from a single layer to a few layers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy demonstrates that while the multi-layer MoSe2 shows weak emission peaks, the monolayer has a much stronger emission peak at ∼ 1.56 eV, indicating the transition from an indirect to a direct bandgap. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the single-crystallinity of MoSe2 layers with a hexagonal structure. In addition, the photoresponse performance of photodetectors based on MoSe2 monolayer was studied for the first time. The devices exhibit a rapid response of ∼ 60 ms and a good photoresponsivity of ∼ 13 mA/W (using a 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1 mW mm(-2) and a bias of 10 V), suggesting that MoSe2 monolayer is a promising material for photodetection applications.

  20. Geological Consideration for the Site Selection of Radioactive Waste at the PPTN Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    2002-01-01

    Geological consideration is a main aspect in the exploration or selection of site for radioactive waste repository, because, really that repository site must be surrounded by geological system (geosphere). The objective of the site selection is to obtain a site which geologically capable to prevent the escape of waste pollution from repository to biosphere. Beside that the site must be free from geological processes which harmfull to longterm stability of the site. Descriptive analysis method was applied in this research and combined with evaluation by scoring methods. From the analysis result could be identified that PPTN Serpong morphologically consist of undulatory plains (elevation 80-100 m above msl), the lithology are alluvial deposits. Quarternary tuffs, pumiceous tuffs, clayey tuffs. sandy tuffs and limestone. The geological structure was supposed a horst and graben which buried more than 15 m since Pleistocene. Hydrological condition are moderately run-off, and the distance to the river is about 160 m. The depth of groundwater is 8.3 m, with parallel drainage system. Geological resources found in the site are land and groundwater. The most potential of geological hazard is supposed a rock mass movement. By the land evaluation could be concluded that PPTN Serpong area have moderate suitability for NSD site. (author)

  1. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the calculations it was determined that the designed average boiler output in the group of buildings subject to analysis is 15.7 kW, whereas the mean rated output capacity of boilers installed therein is 25.4 kW. On average, the output capacity of the installed boilers exceeds the use requirements for the buildings by 60%. To calculate the energy efficiency of boilers, the mean annual boiler output capacity use coefficient was determined. For boilers selected on the basis of standard calculations, the mean coefficient is 0.47. For boilers currently in use it is 0.31, less than the above figure. The above calculations show that if boilers were correctly selected in compliance to the building needs, then the average estimated seasonal efficiency of 65% would be feasible. However, in the current state the achievable efficiency is approx. 55%.

  2. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Selective-area growth and controlled substrate coupling of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Brian M.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Kehao; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R.; Piasecki, Aleksander F.; Labella, Michael, III; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-06-01

    Developing a means for true bottom-up, selective-area growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials on device-ready substrates will enable synthesis in regions only where they are needed. Here, we demonstrate seed-free, site-specific nucleation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with precise control over lateral growth by utilizing an ultra-thin polymeric surface functionalization capable of precluding nucleation and growth. This polymer functional layer (PFL) is derived from conventional photoresists and lithographic processing, and is compatible with multiple growth techniques, precursors (metal organics, solid-source) and TMDs. Additionally, we demonstrate that the substrate can play a major role in TMD transport properties. With proper TMD/substrate decoupling, top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with selectively-grown monolayer MoS2 channels are competitive with current reported MoS2 FETs. The work presented here demonstrates that substrate surface engineering is key to realizing precisely located and geometrically-defined 2D layers via unseeded chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  4. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  5. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  7. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  8. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  9. Composition of Anopheles Species Collected from Selected Malarious Areas of Afghanistan and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hoosh-Deghati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chaba­har County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anophe­les composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Ba­dakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifa­cies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in col­lected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vec­tor intervention strategies.

  10. Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier area (Western Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pelfini, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Glacial environments are considered geomorphosites because they exhibit all of the features that characterise sites of geomorphological interest. The Miage Glacier, in particular, is the most important debris-covered glacier of the Italian Alps, and it has been extensively studied since the 18th century because of its scientific features. In this area, the geomorphological and geological attributes are evaluated at 11 sites that have been individuated along the three main touristic trails, which allow an exploration of the surroundings of the glacial tongue and its two main lobes. Using a methodology previously tested in a fluvial environment, single sites and trails are quantitatively assessed to determine the most suitable trail for educational purposes. Hazards that could potentially affect the trails are considered in terms of both risk education and final selection of the most suitable trails for the various possible user groups. The richness of scientific data in this area should increase its importance as a geomorphosite by increasing the educational value of the Miage Glacier and the Veny Valley.

  11. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  12. Effects of basal area on survival and growth of longleaf pine when practicing selection silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, F.; Loewenstein, E.F.; Brockway, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Uneven-aged (UEA) management systems can achieve multiple-use objectives, however, use of UEA techniques to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are still open to question, because of the species’ intolerance of competition. It was our aim to examine the influence of different levels (9.2, 13.8 and 18.4 m2 ha-1) of residual basal area (RBA) on longleaf pine seedling survival and growth following three growing seasons. Area of study: This study was conducted at the Escambia Experimental Forest, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, in the southeastern United States. Material and Methods: Selection silviculture was implemented with the Proportional-Basal Area (Pro-B) method. Prescribed burning was conducted before seed dispersal and in the second year after germination. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under the canopy in the study plots. Survival and growth of longleaf pine seedlings were observed for three growing seasons. Main results: An inverse relationship was found between the number of germinants and RBA, but the mortality of germinants and planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. At age three, an inverse relationship was observed between root-collar diameter (RCD) growth of the germinants and RBA, but RCD growth of planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. Most of the study plots contained more than the projected number of seedlings needed to sustain the target diameter structure. Research highlights: Long-term continuous monitoring of seedling development and recruitment into canopy is required to determine the efficacy of UEA management. However, current data suggest that UEA methods may be a viable alternative to the use of even-aged (EA) methods in longleaf ecosystems.

  13. Effects of basal area on survival and growth of longleaf pine when practicing selection silviculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, F.; Loewenstein, E.F.; Brockway, D.G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Uneven-aged (UEA) management systems can achieve multiple-use objectives, however, use of UEA techniques to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are still open to question, because of the species’ intolerance of competition. It was our aim to examine the influence of different levels (9.2, 13.8 and 18.4 m2 ha-1) of residual basal area (RBA) on longleaf pine seedling survival and growth following three growing seasons. Area of study: This study was conducted at the Escambia Experimental Forest, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, in the southeastern United States. Material and Methods: Selection silviculture was implemented with the Proportional-Basal Area (Pro-B) method. Prescribed burning was conducted before seed dispersal and in the second year after germination. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under the canopy in the study plots. Survival and growth of longleaf pine seedlings were observed for three growing seasons. Main results: An inverse relationship was found between the number of germinants and RBA, but the mortality of germinants and planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. At age three, an inverse relationship was observed between root-collar diameter (RCD) growth of the germinants and RBA, but RCD growth of planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. Most of the study plots contained more than the projected number of seedlings needed to sustain the target diameter structure. Research highlights: Long-term continuous monitoring of seedling development and recruitment into canopy is required to determine the efficacy of UEA management. However, current data suggest that UEA methods may be a viable alternative to the use of even-aged (EA) methods in longleaf ecosystems.

  14. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  15. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  16. Effective Connectivity from Early Visual Cortex to Posterior Occipitotemporal Face Areas Supports Face Selectivity and Predicts Developmental Prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Garrido, Lucia; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J; Duchaine, Bradley C; Furl, Nicholas

    2016-03-30

    Face processing is mediated by interactions between functional areas in the occipital and temporal lobe, and the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior temporal lobe play key roles in the recognition of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a lifelong face recognition impairment, have been shown to have structural and functional neuronal alterations in these areas. The present study investigated how face selectivity is generated in participants with normal face processing, and how functional abnormalities associated with DP, arise as a function of network connectivity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling, we examined effective connectivity in normal participants by assessing network models that include early visual cortex (EVC) and face-selective areas and then investigated the integrity of this connectivity in participants with DP. Results showed that a feedforward architecture from EVC to the occipital face area, EVC to FFA, and EVC to posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) best explained how face selectivity arises in both controls and participants with DP. In this architecture, the DP group showed reduced connection strengths on feedforward connections carrying face information from EVC to FFA and EVC to pSTS. These altered network dynamics in DP contribute to the diminished face selectivity in the posterior occipitotemporal areas affected in DP. These findings suggest a novel view on the relevance of feedforward projection from EVC to posterior occipitotemporal face areas in generating cortical face selectivity and differences in face recognition ability. Areas of the human brain showing enhanced activation to faces compared to other objects or places have been extensively studied. However, the factors leading to this face selectively have remained mostly unknown. We show that effective connectivity from early visual cortex to posterior occipitotemporal face areas gives rise to face

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Gas-Phase Reaction of Selected Carbonyls with Cl Atoms between 250 and 340 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, A. S.; Algrim, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyls are important products from the gas phase degradation of most volatile organic compounds. Their atmospheric reactions therefore have a significant impact on atmospheric composition, particularly in aged air masses. While the reactions of short-chain linear carbonyls are well understood, the chemistry of larger (> C6) and branched carbonyl is more uncertain. To provide insight into these reactions, the reactions of three carbonyls (methyl isopropyl ketone, MIK; di-isopropyl ketone, DIK; and diethyl ketone, DEK) with chlorine atoms were investigated between 250 and 340 K and 1 atm in the presence and absence of NOx and an HO2 source (methanol). Experiments were performed in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The kinetics were studied using the relative rate technique with butanone and isopropanol as the reference compounds. The Arrhenius expression for the three rate coefficients was determined to be k(DEK+Cl) = 3.87 x 10-11e(2 × 7 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , k(MIPK+Cl) = 7.20 x 10-11e(0.2× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , and k(DIPK+Cl) = 3.33 x 10-10e(-3× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 . Measured reaction products accounted for 38-72 % of the reacted carbon and were consistent with strong deactivation of the carbon atom adjacent to the carbonyl group with respect to H-atom abstraction by Cl atoms. The product distributions also provide insight into radical recycling from the organic peroxy + HO2 reaction, and the relative rates of isomerization, fragmentation and reaction with O2 for carbonyl-containing alkoxy radicals. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on a high surface area electrode backbone for electrochemical promotion of catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajar, Y.; di Palma, V.; Kyriakou, V.; Verheijen, M. A.; Baranova, E. A.; Vernoux, P.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    A novel catalyst design for electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) is proposed which overcomes the main bottlenecks that limit EPOC commercialization, i.e., the low dispersion and small surface area of metal catalysts. We have increased the surface area by using a porous composite electrode

  19. Environmental risk factors and health outcomes in selected communities of the Niger delta area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, Godson; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Bamgboye, Elijah A

    2009-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of various health outcomes associated with exposure to environmental risk factors including industrial pollution in selected communities of Nigeria's oil-rich Niger delta area (NDA). The study involved both laboratory experiments and community health surveys using questionnaires and hospital records. A total of 14 air samples, 16 grab soil samples and 18 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using standard methods. A 77-item questionnaire was administered on randomly selected 349 subjects. A five-year record was collected from health facilities located in the two communities. The laboratory results indicated that the median PAH level at Eleme as compared to Ahoada East was higher than the guideline limit 50 ng/l for surface waters. The mean TSP level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit 100 microg/m3. The median PAH level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit problem (p = 0.044). At Ahoada East commonly consumed aquatic food was highly significantly associated with painful body outgrowth (p fuel types was also highly significantly associated with child deformities (p < 0.0001). Hospital records showed high proportions of respiratory disorder among males (3.85%) and females (4.39%) at Eleme as compared to the proportion of respiratory disorder among males (3.68%) and females (4.18%) at Ahoada East. The study shows that industrial communities such as Eleme, which are exposed to higher levels of air pollution, are more predisposed to respiratory morbidities, skin disorders and other related health risks.

  20. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The 228 Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for 226 Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested the

  1. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  2. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  3. Region-specificity of GABAA receptor mediated effects on orientation and direction selectivity in cat visual cortical area 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirmann, Kay-Uwe; Pernberg, Joachim; Eysel, Ulf T

    2009-01-01

    The role of GABAergic inhibition in orientation and direction selectivity has been investigated with the GABA(A)-Blocker bicuculline in the cat visual cortex, and results indicated a region specific difference of functional contributions of GABAergic inhibition in areas 17 and 18. In area 17 inhibition appeared mainly involved in sculpturing orientation and direction tuning, while in area 18 inhibition seemed more closely associated with temporal receptive field properties. However, different types of stimuli were used to test areas 17 and 18 and further studies performed in area 17 suggested an important influence of the stimulus type (single light bars vs. moving gratings) on the evoked responses (transient vs. sustained) and inhibitory mechanisms (GABA(A) vs. GABA(B)) which in turn might be more decisive for the specific results than the cortical region. To insert the missing link in this chain of arguments it was necessary to study GABAergic inhibition in area 18 with moving light bars, which has not been done so far. Therefore, in the present study we investigated area 18 cells responding to oriented moving light bars with extracellular recordings and reversible microiontophoretic blockade of GABAergig inhibition with bicuculline methiodide. The majority of neurons was characterized by a pronounced orientation specificity and variable degrees of direction selectivity. GABA(A)ergic inhibition significantly influenced preferred orientation and preferred direction in area 18. During the action of bicuculline orientation tuning width increased and orientation and direction selectivity indices decreased. Our results obtained in area 18 with moving bar stimuli, although in the proportion of affected cells similar to those described in area 17, quantitatively matched the findings for direction and orientation specificity obtained with moving gratings in area 18. Accordingly, stimulus type is not decisive in area 18 and the GABA(A) dependent, inhibitory intracortical

  4. Selection of hybrid vehicle for green environment using multi-attributive border approximation area comparison method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobility sector including all kinds of transportation systems are facing global challenges in re-spect of green environmental issues. There has been a paradigm shift in the concept of design and manufacturing of automotive vehicles keeping in mind the scarcity of fossil fuel and the impact of emission on environment due to burning of it. The addition of hybrid and electric vehicles in pas-senger car segment has got significant momentum to address the global challenges. This research investigates the performance of a group of hybrid vehicles from customers’ perspective. Among the different brands that are available in the hybrid vehicle market, smart customers have given pri-ority to vehicle cost, mileage, tail pipe emission, comfortness and high tank size volume for long drive. Considering these attributes, selection strategy for hybrid vehicles has been developed using entropy based multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method. This research highlights the best hybrid vehicle which reduces air pollution in cities with other significant environmental benefits, reduces dependence on foreign energy imports and minimizes the annual fuel cost.

  5. Spiders (Araneae of selected sinkholes of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present faunistic data about spiders in selected sinkholes of northern part of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area. Time of collection was established in the following terms: 24 March 2010 – 22 September 2010. We collected altogether 5742 adult specimens which were determined to 59 species of 14 families. We found two very rare spiders (critically endangered Porrhomma errans and endangered Walckenaeria monoceros and several interesting, rarely collected bioindicator species (Alopecosa trabalis, Mecopisthes silus, Zelotes longipes. From the bioindicative evaluation point of view, 44% of found species belong to species with connection to natural habitats, 37% belong to species preferring semi-natural habitats, and 19% belong to species of disturbed habitats. From the relictness point of view, majority of species was of the expansive category (53%, 40% of class II relicts, and only 7% of class I relicts. Sink holes did not increase total biodiversity of agricultural land too much because of their relative small size.

  6. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  7. Performance Improvements of Selective Emitters by Laser Openings on Large-Area Multicrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Shih Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the laser opening technique used to form a selective emitter (SE structure on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si. This technique can be used in the large-area (156 × 156 mm2 solar cells. SE process of this investigation was performed using 3 samples SE1–SE3. Laser fluences can vary in range of 2–5 J/cm2. The optimal conversion efficiency of 15.95% is obtained with the SE3 (2 J/cm2 fluence after laser opening with optimization of heavy and light dopant, which yields a gain of 0.48%abs compared with that of a reference cell (without fluence. In addition, this optimal SE3 cell displays improved characteristics compared with other cells with a higher average value of external quantum efficiency (EQEavg = 68.6% and a lower average value of power loss (Ploss = 2.33 mW/cm2. For the fabrication of solar cells, the laser opening process comprises fewer steps than traditional photolithography does. Furthermore, the laser opening process decreases consumption of chemical materials; therefore, the laser opening process decreases both time and cost. Therefore, SE process is simple, cheap, and suitable for commercialization. Moreover, the prominent features of the process render it effective means to promote overall performance in the photovoltaic industry.

  8. Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Yao, Maoqing; Chi, Chunyung; Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Li, Ruijuan; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-06-13

    Vertically aligned, catalyst-free semiconducting nanowires hold great potential for photovoltaic applications, in which achieving scalable synthesis and optimized optical absorption simultaneously is critical. Here, we report combining nanosphere lithography (NSL) and selected area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) for the first time for scalable synthesis of vertically aligned gallium arsenide nanowire arrays, and surprisingly, we show that such nanowire arrays with patterning defects due to NSL can be as good as highly ordered nanowire arrays in terms of optical absorption and reflection. Wafer-scale patterning for nanowire synthesis was done using a polystyrene nanosphere template as a mask. Nanowires grown from substrates patterned by NSL show similar structural features to those patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL). Reflection of photons from the NSL-patterned nanowire array was used as a measure of the effect of defects present in the structure. Experimentally, we show that GaAs nanowires as short as 130 nm show reflection of <10% over the visible range of the solar spectrum. Our results indicate that a highly ordered nanowire structure is not necessary: despite the "defects" present in NSL-patterned nanowire arrays, their optical performance is similar to "defect-free" structures patterned by more costly, time-consuming EBL methods. Our scalable approach for synthesis of vertical semiconducting nanowires can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cells.

  9. Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Seawater and Sediment at Klang Coastal Area Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aziatul Aini Hamzan; Farah Fardiana Mohamad Zaini; Mohd Ismail Ibrahim; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are capable of transporting loads of adsorbed nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals, and other toxins. In this study, the samples of sediment were collected from four sampling points (Kapar, Sungai Puloh, Sementa and North Port) using sediment core sampler. The cores then was sub-sampled by slicing into 1 cm slices and dried at 60 degree Celsius until mass become constant and the weight recorded. The samples were pulverized and sieved through 220 μm stainless steel sieves. Each sub-sample digested using aqua regia acids. For seawater, the samples were evaporated using the hotplate at 60 degree Celsius. The concentration of heavy metals was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest concentration of copper, zinc, iron and lead was observed from seawater samples obtained from Sementa while highest concentration of cadmium was found from Kapar samples). Most of the bottom seawater gives high concentration of the heavy metal compare to the surface. For sediment, the overall concentration of heavy metal in each layer was fluctuated. From the analysis, there is a significant correlation for overall selected heavy metals and the samples (seawater and sediment) that study in this area. (author)

  10. Decree of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission No. 191/1989 on procedures, terms and conditions for examining special professional qualification and competence of selected nuclear facility personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The procedures, terms and conditions for examining special professional competence of selected nuclear facility personnel are specified, including conditions for professional training and for issuing licenses qualifying the personnel for their work. Nuclear safety-related jobs at nuclear facilities are listed. Professional licenses with a two-year term of validity are granted by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Agency (CSAEC) to candidates who have passed examination before the State Examination Commission. Personnel training may only be performed by bodies authorized for that by the CSAEC. The Decree entered into force on 1 January 1990. (J.B.)

  11. Preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles with superparamagnetic susceptibility through atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization for the selective recognition of tetracycline from aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiangdong; Pan, Jianming; Xu, Longcheng; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Zhiping; Zhang, Rongxian; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization is a “living” and green technique. ► Nanoparticles can overcome mass transfer limitations and improve accessibility. ► Molecular imprinted nanoparticles with magnetic property for fast separation. ► The performance of imprinted nanoparticles was investigated in detail. ► Nanoparticles were used to selective recognize Tetracycline from water medium. - Abstract: In the work, we reported an effective method for the preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles with superparamagnetic susceptibility through atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization (ATREP), and then as-prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MMINs) were evaluated as adsorbents for selective recognition of tetracycline (TC) molecules from aqueous medium. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, VSM, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated MMINs with a narrow diameter distribution were cross-linked with modified Fe 3 O 4 particles, composed of imprinted layer and exhibited good magnetic sensitivity, magnetic and thermal stability. Batch rebinding studies were carried out to determine the specific adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and selective recognition. The estimated adsorption capacity of MMINs towards TC by the Langmuir isotherm model was 12.10 mg g −1 at 298 K, which was 6.33 times higher than that of magnetic non-molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MNINs). The kinetic property of MMINs was well-described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The results of selective recognition experiments demonstrated outstanding affinity and selectivity towards TC over competitive antibiotics. The reusability of MMINs showed no obviously deterioration at least five repeated cycles in performance. In addition, the MMINs prepared were successfully applied to the extraction of TC from the spiked pork sample.

  12. Preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles with superparamagnetic susceptibility through atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization for the selective recognition of tetracycline from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiangdong; Pan, Jianming; Xu, Longcheng; Li, Xiuxiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhiping [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Rongxian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng, E-mail: djdxxx123@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization is a 'living' and green technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles can overcome mass transfer limitations and improve accessibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular imprinted nanoparticles with magnetic property for fast separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of imprinted nanoparticles was investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were used to selective recognize Tetracycline from water medium. - Abstract: In the work, we reported an effective method for the preparation of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles with superparamagnetic susceptibility through atom transfer radical emulsion polymerization (ATREP), and then as-prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MMINs) were evaluated as adsorbents for selective recognition of tetracycline (TC) molecules from aqueous medium. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, VSM, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated MMINs with a narrow diameter distribution were cross-linked with modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles, composed of imprinted layer and exhibited good magnetic sensitivity, magnetic and thermal stability. Batch rebinding studies were carried out to determine the specific adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and selective recognition. The estimated adsorption capacity of MMINs towards TC by the Langmuir isotherm model was 12.10 mg g{sup -1} at 298 K, which was 6.33 times higher than that of magnetic non-molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MNINs). The kinetic property of MMINs was well-described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The results of selective recognition experiments demonstrated outstanding affinity and selectivity towards TC over competitive antibiotics. The reusability of MMINs showed no obviously deterioration at least five repeated cycles in performance. In addition, the MMINs prepared were successfully

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultqvist, Adam; Aitola, Kerttu; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Saki, Zahra; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias; Johansson, Erik; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edoff, Marika

    2017-09-06

    The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH 2 ) 2 , CH 3 NH 3 )Pb(I,Br) 3 (FAPbI 3 :MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnO x . Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H 2 O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 either by itself or in combination with H 2 O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI 2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 4 does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnO x films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnO x film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C 70 -butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnO x show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnO x films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnO x interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnO x growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

  14. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  15. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  16. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  18. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  19. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset current as of 2008. Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the...

  20. Genetic structure and genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla in areas subjected to selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl Ernesto; Cruz, Silvia De la; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that selective logging has a negative effect by altering the genetic parameters of tropical tree species was evaluated. The genetic diversity and genetic structure between adult trees (N = 47) and saplings (N = 50) of Swietenia macrophylla were contrasted within an area subjected to selective logging in the Mayan zone. Although differences in the number of alleles and in their frequencies were detected between both groups, the observed and expected heterozygosity and the coeffi...

  1. Expertise Effects in Face-Selective Areas are Robust to Clutter and Diverted Attention, but not to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Van Gulick, Ana E; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Expertise effects for nonface objects in face-selective brain areas may reflect stable aspects of neuronal selectivity that determine how observers perceive objects. However, bottom-up (e.g., clutter from irrelevant objects) and top-down manipulations (e.g., attentional selection) can influence activity, affecting the link between category selectivity and individual performance. We test the prediction that individual differences expressed as neural expertise effects for cars in face-selective areas are sufficiently stable to survive clutter and manipulations of attention. Additionally, behavioral work and work using event related potentials suggest that expertise effects may not survive competition; we investigate this using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects varying in expertise with cars made 1-back decisions about cars, faces, and objects in displays containing one or 2 objects, with only one category attended. Univariate analyses suggest car expertise effects are robust to clutter, dampened by reducing attention to cars, but nonetheless more robust to manipulations of attention than competition. While univariate expertise effects are severely abolished by competition between cars and faces, multivariate analyses reveal new information related to car expertise. These results demonstrate that signals in face-selective areas predict expertise effects for nonface objects in a variety of conditions, although individual differences may be expressed in different dependent measures depending on task and instructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  3. Hydrogen atom scrambling in selectively labeled anionic peptides upon collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Nicolai; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Roepstorff, Peter

    2008-01-01

    have now measured the level of hydrogen scrambling in a deprotonated, selectively labeled peptide using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results conclusively show that hydrogen scrambling is prevalent in the deprotonated peptide upon collisional activation. The amide hydrogens ((1)H....../(2)H) have migrated extensively in the anionic peptide, thereby erasing the original regioselective deuteration pattern obtained in solution....

  4. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  5. Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Cavicchi, Richard; Semancik, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the microhotplates using a self-aligned chemical vapour deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed control of SnO2 nanostructures in the range of 20-121 nm. Gas sensing in seven different hydrocarbons revealed that metal nanoparticles that helped in producing faster nucleation of SnO2 resulted in smaller grain size and higher sensitivity. Sensitivity as a function of concentration and grain size is addressed for tin oxide nanostructures. Smaller grain sizes resulted in higher sensitivity of tin oxide nanostructures. Temperature programmed sensing of the devices yielded shape differences in the response between air and methanol, illustrating selectivity. Spiderweb plots were used to monitor the materials programmed selectivity. The shape differences between different gases in spiderweb plots illustrate materials selectivity as a powerful mapping approach for monitoring selectivity in various gases. Continuous monitoring in 80 ppm methanol yielded stable sensor response for more than 200 h. This comprehensive study illustrates the use of a nanoparticle engineering approach for sensitive, selective and stable gas sensing applications.

  6. Trace isotope analysis using resonance ionization mass spectrometry based on isotope selection with doppler shift of laser ablated atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    We have proposed a novel isotope selective Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) concept, which can avoid the Doppler broadening on solid sample direct measurement based on laser ablation technique. We have succeeded in experimentally demonstrating the principle of our RIMS concept. Through comparison between the simulated and experimental results, we have validated the simulation model. It would be concluded from these results that we could achieve the isotope selectivity defined as the ratio of 41 Ca to 40 Ca sensitivity to be 4.5x10 10 by adopting the multi-step excitation scheme in the present method. As future works, we will try to experimentally perform the multi-step excitation scheme and improve the detection efficiency by modifying the ion extraction configuration. (author)

  7. Selection of test and reference areas for the Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.

    50 3 50 cm and Okean grabs with camera and a sampling area of 0.25m2were used at 12–13 locations,for collecting nodule and sediment samples (Figure 1). Nod-ule abundance was estimated by dividing the weight of nodules in the sampler by its area...,and number of peaks (. 10 m) between the digitized points (Table 2).Results Nodule Distribution in Different AreasArea T1. Of the 13 sampled locations,nodule abundance at two locations was nil,and rangedbetwen 0.25 and 7.42 kg/m 2in the remaining 11 locations...

  8. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  9. Solid-phase partitioning of mercury in artisanal gold mine tailings from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines, and its implications for mercury detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiso, Einstine M; Aseneiro, John Paul J; Banda, Marybeth Hope T; Tabelin, Carlito B

    2018-03-01

    The solid-phase partitioning of mercury could provide necessary data in the identification of remediation techniques in contaminated artisanal gold mine tailings. This study was conducted to determine the total mercury content of mine wastes and identify its solid-phase partitioning through selective sequential extraction coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples from mine tailings and the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process were obtained from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines. The results showed that mercury use is still prevalent among small-scale gold miners in the Philippines. Tailings after ball mill-gravity concentration (W-BM and Li-BM samples) from Mt Diwata and Libona contained high levels of mercury amounting to 25.024 and 6.5 mg kg -1 , respectively. The most prevalent form of mercury in the mine tailings was elemental/amalgamated mercury, followed by water soluble, exchangeable, organic and strongly bound phases, respectively. In contrast, mercury content of carbon-in-pulp residues were significantly lower at only 0.3 and 0.06 mg kg -1 for P-CIP (Del Pilar) and W-CIP (Mt Diwata), respectively. The bulk of mercury in P-CIP samples was partitioned in residual fraction while in W-CIP samples, water soluble mercury predominated. Overall, this study has several important implications with regards to mercury detoxification of contaminated mine tailings from Mindanao, Philippines.

  10. Determinants of child malnutrition during the 1999 economic crisis in selected poor areas of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosono, Saptawati; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah; Lukito, Widjaja

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence at the national level that suggests the 1999 Indonesian economic crisis impact was very heterogeneous both between urban and rural areas and across regions. A cross sectional study of the nutritional status of children and its determinants was performed in urban poor areas of Jakarta, and rural areas of Banggai in Central Sulawesi, and Alor-Rote in East Nusa Tenggara. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to obtain 1078 households with under-five children in the urban poor area of Jakarta, and 262 and 631 households with under-five children each for the rural areas of Banggai and Alor-Rote, respectively. Data collection for both studies was performed from January 1999 to June 2001. The study shows that wasting affected more children in the urban poor areas of Jakarta than in the other study areas. On the other hand, stunting and anemia were significantly more severe among children 6-59 months of age in the rural area of Alor-Rote compared to the other study areas. The high prevalence of infectious diseases was significantly related to the higher prevalence of wasting in the study areas of Jakarta and Banggai, and also significantly related to the higher prevalence of stunting and anemia in the study area of Alor-Rote. To avert this kind of health impact of a economic downturn, there is a need to improve the nutritional and health status of under-five children and their mothers through the existing health care system, provide basic health services and improve the capacity of health staff across Indonesia as part of the decentralization process.

  11. Independent Verification Survey Of The SPRU Lower Level Hillside Area At The Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Niskayuna, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpenau, Evan M.; Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    During August 10, 2011 through August 19, 2011, and October 23, 2011 through November 4, 2011, ORAU/ORISE conducted verification survey activities at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) site that included in-process inspections, surface scans, and soil sampling of the Lower Level Hillside Area. According to the Type-B Investigation Report, Sr-90 was the primary contributor to the majority of the activity (60 times greater than the Cs-137 activity). The evaluation of the scan data and sample results obtained during verification activities determined that the primary radionuclide of concern, Sr-90, was well below the agreed upon soil cleanup objective (SCO) of 30 pCi/g for the site. However, the concentration of Cs-137 in the four judgmental samples collected in final status survey (FSS) Units A and B was greater than the SCO. Both ORAU and aRc surveys identified higher Cs-137 concentrations in FSS Units A and B; the greatest concentrations were indentified in FSS Unit A

  12. Assessing the applicability of Pb-210 dating technique in selected mangrove areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta Maria, E.J.; Lim, A.B.U.; Ebreo, C.M.H.; Ramirez, J.D.; Castro, K.M.I.; Garcia, M.C.C.; Navarette, I.A.; Salmo, S.G. III

    2015-01-01

    The Pb-210 dating technique has been widely used in many areas as a tool for historical reconstruction of pollution, eutrophication and the many impacts of man on the environment. In the Philippines, the technique has been used in bays (Manila Bay, Sorsogon Bay), in a sound, in a lagoon, in a lake and in a dam. To assess the technique’s applicability in a different environmental setting, sediment cores were collected from mangrove areas in Subic and Pangasinan for Pb-210 analysis. Initial Pb-210 results from these two mangrove areas reveals that Pb-210 is a promising tool for such a new setting. Using the Pb-210 profiles of the sediment cores indicated that Pangasinan mangrove area has a much lower sedimentation rate compared to the Subic mangrove area. The difference in the sediment rates of the two areas could be due to the existing topographic, geographic, hydrodynamic and environment conditions of the area. The age-control information provided by the Pb-210 data could be correlated with other existing data (Chemical and elemental data) for retrospective assessment of the study areas. (author)

  13. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One of the goals is to protect high quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNA...

  14. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena; Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  15. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and selected wildlife species at selected livestock/wildlife interface areas of the Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengu, Masimba; Matope, Gift; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Tivapasi, Musavengana; Scacchia, Massimo; Bonfini, Barbara; Pfukenyi, Davis Mubika

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella species infection in cattle and some wildlife species in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in south eastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Sera were collected from cattle aged≥2years representing both female and intact male animals. Sera were also collected from selected wild ungulates from Mabalauta (porous interface) and Chipinda (non-interface) areas of the Gonarezhou National Park. Samples were screened for Brucellaantibodies using the Rose Bengal plate test and confirmed by the complement fixation test. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. In cattle, brucellosis seroprevalence from all areas was 16.7% (169/1011; 95% CI: 14.5-19.2%). The porous interface recorded a significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence (19.5%; 95% CI: 16.1-23.4%) compared to the non-interface area (13.0%; 95% CI: 9.2-19.9%).The odds of Brucellaseropositivity increased progressively with parity of animals and were also three times higher (OR=3.0, 2.0wildlife and livestock. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Application effect of TEM sounding survey on prospecting and target area selection of sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianguo; Liang Shanming; Zhao Cuiping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding survey during recent years regional geological reconnaissance with drilling (1:250000), the application effect of TEM sounding survey during regional reconnaissance is summarized in this paper. It is suggested that the data of TEM sounding are useful in judging hydrodynamic conditions of groundwater and determining favorable areas for uranium ore-formation; TEM sounding in large areas may be proper for prospecting in gobi-desert areas and be beneficial for regional reconnaissance and target area selection, and may reduce the target area and provide basis for further drilling program. It is of popularized significance in the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits. (authors)

  17. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter

    2015-09-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  18. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  19. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  20. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  1. Resonance absorption spectroscopy for laser-ablated lanthanide atom. (1) Optimized experimental conditions for isotope-selective absorption of gadolinium (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Iimura, Hideki; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2008-06-01

    For remote isotope analysis of low-decontaminated TRU fuel, we are developing an analytical technique on the basis of the resonance absorption spectroscopy for the laser-ablation plume. To improve isotopic selectivity and detection sensitivity of this technique, we measured absorption spectra of Gd atom with various plume production conditions (ablation laser intensity, ambient gas and its pressure) and observation conditions (transition, probe height from sample, observation timing). As a result, high resolution spectrum was obtained from the observation of slow component of the plume produced under low-pressure rare-gas ambient. The observed narrowest linewidth of about 0.85GHz was found to be close to the Doppler width estimated for Gd atom of room temperature. Furthermore, relaxation rate of higher meta-stable state was found to be higher than that of ground state, suggesting that use of the transition arising from ground state or lower meta-stable state is preferable for highly sensitive isotope analysis. (author)

  2. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  3. Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback is studied experimentally. Different dynamics are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the feedback mirror is aligned perfectly and high-order modes are selected, in most....... When the feedback mirror is aligned non-perfectly, pulse-package oscillation is observed, for the first time to our knowledge, in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback....... of the cases, the output of the laser shows a periodic oscillation corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop, but the dynamic behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order lateral-mode is selected, periodic oscillation corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed...

  4. Selective reduction of arsenic species by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry. Part 2 - sample storage and arsenic determination in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quináia Sueli P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Total arsenic, arsenite, arsinate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were selectively determined in natural waters by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry, using sodium tetrahydroborate(III as reductant but in different reduction media. River water samples from the north region of Paraná State, Brazil, were analysed and showed arsenate as the principal arsenical form. Detection limits found for As(III (citrate buffer, As(III + DMA (acetic acid and As(III + As(V (hydrochloric acid were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.5 mg As L-1, respectively. Sample storage on the proper reaction media revealed to be a useful way to preserve the water sample.

  5. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Oppo, Carla Ivana; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated. (paper)

  6. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Ivana Oppo, Carla; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-08-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated.

  7. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...... that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.......The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed...... conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed...

  8. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  9. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, E; Tulloch, A I T; Possingham, H P; Strange, N; Wilson, K A

    2016-03-30

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.

  10. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  11. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.E.; Damuth, J.E.; Jacobi, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 20 0 to 50 0 N; 145 0 to 180 0 E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 1 0 x 1 0 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 1 0 x 1 0 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 1 0 x 1 0 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  12. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge....

  13. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si_3N_4 and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions

  14. Atomic physics made clear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, H.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a popular introduction into the foundations of atomic physics und quantum mechanics. Starting from some phenomenological concepts Bohr's model and the construction of the periodic system regarding the shell structure of atoms are introduced. In this framework the selection rules and magnetic moments of atomic electrons are considered. Finally the wave-particle dualism is considered. In the appendix some mathematical methods are described which are useful for a deeper penetration into the considered ideas. (HSI)

  15. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  16. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children from selected urban areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... Blood and urine levels are markers of recent ... The selected teeth were stored in plastic bags at _7° C. Before analysis remnants of roots (if ... varied from sample to sample, so that aqueous standards could not be used for ...

  17. Large-area selective CVD epitaxial growth of Ge on Si substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Nanver, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Selective epitaxial growth of crystalline Ge on Si in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 CVD reactor is investigated for the fabrication of Ge p+n diodes. At the deposition temperature of 700?C, most of the lattice mismatch-defects are trapped within first 300nm of Ge growth and good quality single crystal

  18. Changes in spatiotemporal land use patterns in selected hydrogeomorphic areas of China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences exist in land use/cover pattern and its change between the P. R. China and the USA. In order to describe those differences, land use changes in representative regions were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Xiamen City, Changzhutan region and Liupan Mountains regions were selected to ...

  19. Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) Upper Yellowstone River, Montana: Environmental Assessment, FONSI, and Selected Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    slopes must be flatter than the angle of repose for the selected revetment material. For example, rock riprap normally needs to be placed on a slope...plan that responds effectively to physical, social , and legal changes. The need for future modifications to the SAMP will be evaluated periodically

  20. Self-organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm for Local Area LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm in order to minimize the mutual intercell interference among Home Node Bs (HeNBs), aiming to improve the system throughput performance compared to the existing frequency reuse one scheme. The proposed algorithm is useful...

  1. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  2. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  4. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  5. Study on the path selection of sustainable development in the mountainous area of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Malin; Zhou, Zhujun; Zhang, Huizhi; Chen, Ci; Chen, Junhong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2018-02-01

    The mountainous area of Beijing is the broad region with weak economic features, ecologically fragile and special ecological functions. The ecological conditions, sustainability and regional economic development are intercorrelated in the region. It is arduous to enhance the regional competitive advantage and improve the economic development level through the environmental protection and ecological conservation. This study elaborates the relationship between ecology and economic development from the perspectives of ecology, productivity and life style in mountainous areas of Beijing. Then this paper discusses how to increase sustainable development of mountain areas from several aspects, including key regional developments, industrial development, and ecological compensation mechanism, considering the strategic goals of accelerating economic transformation, coordinating urban and rural development, and promoting new-type urbanization.

  6. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  7. Photon-induced formation of CdS nanocrystals in selected areas of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto; Tsiranidou, Elsa; Fotakis, Costas; Laera, Anna Maria; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate light-induced formation of semiconductor quantum dots in TOPAS registered polymer matrix with very high control of their size and their spatial localization. Irradiation with UV laser pulses of polymer films embedding Cd thiolate precursors results in the formation of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals well confined in the irradiation area, through a macroscopically nondestructive procedure for the host matrix. With increasing number of laser pulses, we accomplish the formation of nanoparticles with gradually increasing dimensions, resulting in the dynamic change of the spectra emitted by the formed nanocomposite areas. The findings are supported by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements

  8. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-05-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L{sup −1} for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L{sup −1}, n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix.

  9. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L −1 for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L −1 , n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix

  10. Composting of selected organic wastes from peri-urban areas of Harare, Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhindu, RL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of selected o e a se f pi d degradation, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil bio- waste and rely on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Mhindu et al. International Journal Of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 2013, : http... is an important source of organic matter. Soil organic matter improves physico-chemical and biological properties and Composting as a waste management strategy has multiple benefits for peri-urban agriculture considering the scarcity of animal manures among small...

  11. Butt rot defect and potential hazard in lodgepole pine on selected California recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1966-01-01

    Within the area sampled, potentially hazardous lodgepole pine were common on recreational sites. The incidence of decayed and mechanically weak trees was correlated with fire damage. Two-thirds of fire-scarred trees were decayed; one-third were rated potentially hazardous. Fire scars occurred roughly in proportion to level of plot recreational use.

  12. Sero-epidemiological study on Maedi-Visna in select- ed areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey in other areas is also required to have broad picture of the disease in the ... one of the most important diseases of respiratory system of sheep in the cen- .... observed were greatly enlarged weighing up to 4.5kg (two-three folds the nor-.

  13. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  14. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  15. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  17. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  18. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  19. An Evaluation of Selected Economic Areas according to Similarity of Supply and Demand Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappel Stanislav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro Area remains a well-known monetary union in the World. But the possibilities of creation of new monetary unions are discussed. It is spoken about NAFTA (Canada, Mexico and the United States or MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this paper is to assess the similarity of demand and supply shocks in the countries of NAFTA and MERCOSUR, and to compare it with the countries of the Euro Area. For these aims, correlation and structural vector autoregression methods are used. Methods are based on Blanchard and Quah (1989 and Bayoumi and Eichengreen (1993. We confirm the existence of core states and periphery states in the Euro Area with some exceptions. If we compare supply and demand shocks, we find more similarity in the case of supply shocks in the countries of the Euro Area. According to the results, the countries of NAFTA are more appropriate for the creation of monetary union than the countries of MERCOSUR. The countries of NAFTA achieve high correlation coefficients of supply and demand shocks (except Mexico for supply shocks.

  20. Research for Preseismic Phenomena on the Underground Water Level and Temperature in Selected Areas of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Asteriadis, G.

    1997-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the tectonic activity require the contribution of a variety of methods, geological, seismic, geodetic, satellite etc., being currently available in our days. On the other hand, the risk evaluation in areas of high seismicity, like this one of the South Balkan Peninsula, is of vital importance. To this purpose an interdisciplinary following up of the tectonic activity in the area may provide the best provision to the administration for an effective confrontation and intervention for the elimination of the possible disastrous effects in human life cost, financial and social cost of the communities, to which may result a strong earthquake. Among the various methods of indirect monitoring of the tectonic activity in an area, which in addition is of a low cost, is that of the following up of the underground water level and temperature changes in the area of interest. This method is based on the fact that tectonic activity is expected to result to tectonic stresses producing alterations to the local water table which in its turn is expected is expected to be observed as variation of the underground water level and temperature. The method of the following up of the underground water and temperature changes has been applied, among others by the Department of Geodesy and Surveying of the University of Thessaloniki in two areas of high seismicity in Greece: (a) The seismic zone of the lake Volvi in North Greece (40.5 deg N and 23.5 deg E) for ten years (1983-1992) and (b) the area of South Thessaly (39.2 deg N and 21 deg E) for three years (1994-1996). The statistical analysis of the observations, shows that the low frequency constituent (Sa,Ssa,Mf,Mm) of the earth tides and the barometric pressure have a small influence on the water level measurements. The shallow underground water network of South Thessaly is more sensitive to the non tectonic factors than the network of Volvi. Tentative correlation of the underground wat! er and temperature

  1. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry applied to dealloying phenomena II. Selective dissolution of iron and chromium during active-passive cycles of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, K.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry was used to investigate selective dissolution of a 304 austenitic stainless steel sample in 2 M H 2 SO 4 . The partial dissolution rates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, and Cu were measured as function of time during a series of potentiostatic triggered activation/passivation cycles. When first exposed to sulfuric acid solution, the steel sample was in a passive state with a total steady state ionic dissolution rate expressed as an equivalent current density of 10 μA cm -2 . A transition into the active and passive state could be triggered by cathodic (-700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and anodic (+400 to +700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) potentiostatic pulses respectively of variable time. Excess Cr dissolution was observed during the activation cycle as compared to Fe and a depletion of Cr dissolution was observed during the passivation cycle. These results are interpreted in terms of the dissolution of a Cr rich passive layer during activation and selective dissolution of Fe, Mn, Ni and other elements to form a Cr rich passive layer during passivation. Quantitative analysis of the excess Cr showed that the residual film contained approximately 0.38 μg Cr/cm 2 . Fe does not appear to be incorporated into the film at this early stage of passive film growth. Residual films of metallic nickel and copper were formed on the surface during the active period that subsequently dissolved during passivation.

  2. The use of environmental isotopes on groundwater hydrology in the selected areas in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buapeng, S.

    1990-11-01

    A detailed environmental isotope investigation (using 0-18, H-2, H-3, C-14 and C-13 isotopes) has been carried out in a multi-layer aquifer system of the Chao-Phraya basin in Thailand. The main emphasis of the applied field research has been placed on the delineation of genesis of water and on studying the regional replenishment and flow characteristics of the groundwater in the lower Chao-Phraya basin (Bangkok Metropolitan Area). The results of isotope data gathered have been evaluated along with hydrochemical and basic hydrogeological data, to provide quantitative information on the replenishment characteristics of the groundwater and on the cause and processes involved in the increase of salinity being observed in the groundwater system of the Bangkok area. The report provides all the isotopic results and other relevant data together with interpretation and evaluation of the results. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  4. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  5. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  6. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  7. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  8. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  9. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  10. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  11. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  12. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, N.P.; Natera, E.S.; Pasay, C.J.; Tiu, W.U.

    1995-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  13. Changes On the Housing Market of the Downtown Area in Selected Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rącka Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square. The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.

  14. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Qingyuan [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhong, Chongli [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: jrli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.

  15. A Method for the Selection of Exploration Areas for Unconformity Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, DeVerle P.; Zaluski, Gerard; Marlatt, James

    2009-01-01

    The method we propose employs two analyses: (1) exploration simulation and risk valuation and (2) portfolio optimization. The first analysis, implemented by the investment worth system (IWS), uses Monte Carlo simulation to integrate a wide spectrum of uncertain and varied components to a relative frequency histogram for net present value of the exploration investment, which is converted to a risk-adjusted value (RAV). Iterative rerunning of the IWS enables the mapping of the relationship of RAV to magnitude of exploration expenditure, X. The second major analysis uses RAV vs. X maps to identify that subset (portfolio) of areas that maximizes the RAV of the firm's multiyear exploration budget. The IWS, which is demonstrated numerically, consists of six components based on the geologic description of a hypothetical basin and project area (PA) and a mix of hypothetical and actual conditions of an unidentified area. The geology is quantified and processed by Bayesian belief networks to produce the geology-based inputs required by the IWS. An exploration investment of $60 M produced a highly skewed distribution of net present value (NPV), having mean and median values of $4,160 M and $139 M, respectively. For hypothetical mining firm Minex, the RAV of the exploration investment of $60 M is only $110.7 M. An RAV that is less than 3% of mean NPV reflects the aversion by Minex to risk as well as the magnitude of risk implicit to the highly skewed NPV distribution and the probability of 0.45 for capital loss. Potential benefits of initiating exploration of a portfolio of areas, as contrasted with one area, include increased marginal productivity of exploration as well as reduced probability for nondiscovery. For an exogenously determined multiyear exploration budget, a conceptual framework for portfolio optimization is developed based on marginal RAV exploration products for candidate PAs. PORTFOLIO, a software developed to implement optimization, allocates exploration to

  16. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be

  17. Brief communication "Fast-track earthquake risk assessment for selected urban areas in Turkey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kepekci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is presented as a contribution to earthquake disaster mitigation studies for selected cities in Turkey. The risk evaluations must be based on earthquake hazard analysis and city information. To estimate the ground motion level, data for earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4.5 and an epicenter location within a 100-km radius of each city were used for the period from 1900 to 2006, as recorded at the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for each city was carried out using Poisson probabilistic approaches. Ground motion level was estimated as the probability of a given degree of acceleration with a 10% exceedence rate during a 50-year time period for each city. The risk level of each city was evaluated using the number of houses, the per-capita income of city residents, population, and ground motion levels. The maximum risk level obtained for the cities was taken as a reference value for relative risk assessment, and other risk values were estimated relative to the maximum risk level. When the selected cities were classified according to their relative risk levels, the five most risky cities were found to be, in descending order of risk, Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, and Kocaeli.

  18. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  19. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  20. Selective determination of four arsenic species in rice and water samples by modified graphite electrode-based electrolytic hydride generation coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-An; Lu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Lin; Chi, Miao-Bin; Hu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wang-Bing

    2016-10-01

    This work describes a novel non-chromatographic approach for the accurate and selective determining As species by modified graphite electrode-based electrolytic hydride generation (EHG) for sample introduction coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) detection. Two kinds of sulfydryl-containing modifiers, l-cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), are used to modify cathode. The EHG performance of As has been changed greatly at the modified cathode, which has never been reported. Arsenite [As(III)] on the GSH modified graphite electrode (GSH/GE)-based EHG can be selectively and quantitatively converted to AsH3 at applied current of 0.4A. As(III) and arsenate [As(V)] on the Cys modified graphite electrode (Cys/GE) EHG can be selectively and efficiently converted to arsine at applied current of 0.6A, whereas monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) do not form any or only less volatile hydrides under this condition. By changing the analytical conditions, we also have achieved the analysis of total As (tAs) and DMA. Under the optimal condition, the detection limits (3s) of As(III), iAs and tAs in aqueous solutions are 0.25μgL(-1), 0.22μgL(-1) and 0.10μgL(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method is verified through the analysis of standard reference materials (SRM 1568a). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at high magnetic fields has made it possible to investigate the columnar organization of the human brain in vivo with high degrees of accuracy and sensitivity. Until now, these results have been limited to the organization principles of early visual cortex (V1. While the middle temporal area (MT has been the first identified extra-striate visual area shown to exhibit a columnar organization in monkeys, evidence of MT's columnar response properties and topographic layout in humans has remained elusive. Research using various approaches suggests similar response properties as in monkeys but failed to provide direct evidence for direction or axis of motion selectivity in human area MT. By combining state of the art pulse sequence design, high spatial resolution in all three dimensions (0.8 mm isotropic, optimized coil design, ultrahigh field magnets (7 Tesla and novel high resolution cortical grid sampling analysis tools, we provide the first direct evidence for large-scale axis of motion selective feature organization in human area MT closely matching predictions from topographic columnar-level simulations.

  2. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia

    2014-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma

    2015-05-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data

  4. Synchrotron radiation stimulated etching of SiO sub 2 thin films with a Co contact mask for the area-selective deposition of self-assembled monolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    2003-01-01

    The area-selective deposition of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was demonstrated on a pattern structure fabricated by synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated etching of a SiO sub 2 thin film on the Si substrate. The etching was conducted by irradiating the SiO sub 2 thin film with SR through a Co contact mask and using a mixture of SF sub 6 + O sub 2 as the reaction gas. The SR etching stopped completely at the SiO sub 2 /Si interface. After the SR etching, the Si surface and the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask were evaluated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A dodecene SAM was deposited on the Si surface, and trichlorosilane-derived SAMs (octadecyltrichlorosilane, and octenyltrichlorosilane) were deposited on the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask. The structure of the deposited SAMs showed a densely packed and well-ordered molecular architecture, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. (author)

  5. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroy, J [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Safronova, M S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Clark, Charles W, E-mail: jxm107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a, E-mail: msafrono@udel.ed, E-mail: charles.clark@nist.go [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8410 (United States)

    2010-10-28

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  6. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J; Safronova, M S; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  7. Consumer preferences for selection of solar home system in urban areas, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan); applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters. (author)

  8. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  9. Status of selected ion flow tube MS: accomplishments and challenges in breath analysis and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    This article reflects our observations of recent accomplishments made using selected ion flow tube MS (SIFT-MS). Only brief descriptions are given of SIFT-MS as an analytical method and of the recent extensions to the underpinning analytical ion chemistry required to realize more robust analyses. The challenge of breath analysis is given special attention because, when achieved, it renders analysis of other air media relatively straightforward. Brief overviews are given of recent SIFT-MS breath analyses by leading research groups, noting the desirability of detection and quantification of single volatile biomarkers rather than reliance on statistical analyses, if breath analysis is to be accepted into clinical practice. A 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' analysis of SIFT-MS is made, which should help to increase its utility for trace gas analysis.

  10. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  11. Stream Sediment Geochemical Survey of Selected Element In Catchment Area Of Saguling Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Eka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saguling Lake is one of the largest lakes in West Java Province that accommodates domestic and non-domestic wastes via the Citarum River as its main water source. This study aims to determine the geochemical background concentration (Cbg in water catchment area of Saguling Lake. The knowledge of the Cbg of heavy metals is essential for defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for sediments. The value of Cbg will be used for assessment of the sediment quality in Saguling Lake. Assessment of sediment quality is very important to determine the actual condition of water in the lake and as the basis for management of waters environment in the future. The search was taken at 22 sampling points in the unpolluted water catchment area. Samples were collected and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. Each sample was digested in agua regia and analyzed by ICP-EOS. Results showed Cbg which are: Cd 0.34 ± 0.10 mg/kg, Cr 110.57 ± 28.61 mg/kg, Cu 49.93 ± 9.28 mg/kg, and Pb 18.62 ± 9.83 mg/kg. Based on the assessment result, it is concluded that the sediment quality in Saguling Lake is categorized as polluted by Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb metals.

  12. Appraisal of venomous metals in selected crops and vegetables from industrial areas of the Punjab Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn, millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony (0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  13. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  14. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  15. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main

  16. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  17. Selected elements and organic chemicals in streambed sediment in the Salem area, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.

    2002-09-13

    Analysis of streambed sediments in the Salem, Oregon, area showed anomalously large concentrations of some elements and organic chemicals, indicating contamination from anthropogenic and/or geologic sources. The streambed sediment sample from Clark Creek, an urban basin, had large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hyrdocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines, cadmium, lead, and zinc. The sample from the East Fork of Pringle Creek, which is a mostly urban basin, had the highest concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDT compounds. Aldrin was detected in streambed sediment at only one site, the East Fork of Pringle Creek. Ten of the 14 sites sampled had exceedances of the sediment quality guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and 8 sites had exceedances of guidelines from the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Program.

  18. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  19. Methodology for Selection of Economic Performance Factors in the Area of Information and Communication Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hornungová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents one part of the research work of the author that is focused on the business performance. The aim of this paper is to find and introduce economic factors of corporate performance system that are important part of the performance, because can help to organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals. The aim also included the determination of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs. The first step for the evaluation of performance is the projective access. This approach is meant, that the performance in terms of the future development of the company it is possible to conclude on the basis of, and ongoing activities. In relation to this idea are as fundamental the economic indicators of the performance scale. To find these factors were used the theoretical information from the area of KPIs and data from primary research. This data were tested through mathematical-statistical analysis, in this case, directly on the basis of factor analysis.

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  2. Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Azadeh; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Brown, Greg; Hockings, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Conservation success is contingent on assessing social and environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially explicit social values and land-use preferences collected using a public participation geographic information system and biological data. We used Zonation to integrate the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial-prioritization scenarios to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization compared with biological data alone. The type of social data (i.e., conservation opportunities or constraints) significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations 1.2-51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively few new areas to conservation priorities, whereas including noncompatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas (48.2% and 47.4%, respectively). Based on our results, a multifaceted conservation prioritization approach that combines spatially explicit social data with biological data can help conservation planners identify the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Optimization Techniques for Design Problems in Selected Areas in WSNs: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Alfa, Attahiru

    2017-08-01

    This paper is intended to serve as an overview of, and mostly a tutorial to illustrate, the optimization techniques used in several different key design aspects that have been considered in the literature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets the researchers who are new to the mathematical optimization tool, and wish to apply it to WSN design problems. We hence divide the paper into two main parts. One part is dedicated to introduce optimization theory and an overview on some of its techniques that could be helpful in design problem in WSNs. In the second part, we present a number of design aspects that we came across in the WSN literature in which mathematical optimization methods have been used in the design. For each design aspect, a key paper is selected, and for each we explain the formulation techniques and the solution methods implemented. We also provide in-depth analyses and assessments of the problem formulations, the corresponding solution techniques and experimental procedures in some of these papers. The analyses and assessments, which are provided in the form of comments, are meant to reflect the points that we believe should be taken into account when using optimization as a tool for design purposes.

  4. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  5. Atom-by-atom assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hla, Saw Wai

    2014-01-01

    Atomic manipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip enables the construction of quantum structures on an atom-by-atom basis, as well as the investigation of the electronic and dynamical properties of individual atoms on a one-atom-at-a-time basis. An STM is not only an instrument that is used to ‘see’ individual atoms by means of imaging, but is also a tool that is used to ‘touch’ and ‘take’ the atoms, or to ‘hear’ their movements. Therefore, the STM can be considered as the ‘eyes’, ‘hands’ and ‘ears’ of the scientists, connecting our macroscopic world to the exciting atomic world. In this article, various STM atom manipulation schemes and their example applications are described. The future directions of atomic level assembly on surfaces using scanning probe tips are also discussed. (review article)

  6. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  7. Numerical climate modeling and verification of selected areas for heat waves of Pakistan using ensemble prediction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, S; Samreen, N; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Depending upon the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. Heat waves are the Weather-related events, having significant impact on the humans, including all socioeconomic activities and health issues as well which changes according to the climatic conditions of the area. The forecasting climate is of prime importance for being aware of future climatic changes, in order to mitigate them. The study used the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) for the purpose of modeling seasonal weather hind-cast of three selected areas i.e., Islamabad, Jhelum and Muzaffarabad. This research was purposely carried out in order to suggest the most suitable climate model for Pakistan. Real time and simulated data of five General Circulation Models i.e., ECMWF, ERA-40, MPI, Meteo France and UKMO for selected areas was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Data incorporated constituted the statistical temperature records of 32 years for the months of June, July and August. This study was based on EPS to calculate probabilistic forecasts produced by single ensembles. Verification was done out to assess the quality of the forecast t by using standard probabilistic measures of Brier Score, Brier Skill Score, Cross Validation and Relative Operating Characteristic curve. The results showed ECMWF the most suitable model for Islamabad and Jhelum; and Meteo France for Muzaffarabad. Other models have significant results by omitting particular initial conditions.

  8. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  9. Determination of different contaminants in selective drinking water samples collected from Peshawar valley area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; Khan, M.; Khattak, T.N.; Sattar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the pollutants carried through sewage, industrial effluents, fertilizers, pesticides; heavy metals and various pathogenic bacteria are directly related to human/animal diseases. Samples of drinking water were collected from different locations, in the Peshawar area. Cadmium, lead and copper levels in these samples were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals. Variation in results is discussed on the basis of some possible sources of contamination. The concentration of cadmium and lead in all the samples was higher compared to the values given in the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Copper was below the detection limit in majority of the samples. The values of Cd, Pb and Cu were in the range of 0.023-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0-0.67 mg/1 respectively. Various physical quality indices (ph, electrical conductivity and total solids) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and total coliforms) were also determined in water samples. Most of the drinking waters was found contaminated with higher levels of Cd and Pb and pathogenic bacteria and hence, considered unfit for drinking purposes. (author)

  10. Determination of selected toxic elements in leaves of White Hawthorn grown in a remote area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiner M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One important plant of the Rosaceae family which is commonly used as phytopharmaceutical in Europe and North America is Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna. The fruits, the leaves together with their extracts are applied in patients suffering mild cardiac disorders or nervosity. Since the leaves as well as the berries act as diuretics a sufficient micronutrient supply has to be guaranteed. On the other the quantities of toxic elements present in the plant parts should be at levels without harmful effects on human health. For this purpose Hawthorn leaves and flowers were collected in a remote area in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their elemental composition. The metals uptaken from the soil were supposed to be in a similar range, thus the impact of airborne contamination by heavy metal translocation could be studied. The elements investigated were Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn. After harvesting the samples were dried, homogenized, digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. The contents of all elements are in the μg/g range. In the samples of 2012 higher concentrations were found for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, lower concentrations were registered for Ba, Pb, and Sr. The amounts of Cd and Cr were statistically insignificantly lower in 2012 than 2011.

  11. Modelling Distribution Function of Surface Ozone Concentration for Selected Suburban Areas in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Izwan Zariq Mokhtar; Nurul Adyani Ghazali; Muhammad Yazid Nasir; Norhazlina Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is known as an important secondary pollutant in the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to find the best fit distribution for calculating exceedance and return period of ozone based on suburban areas; Perak (AMS1) and Pulau Pinang (AMS2). Three distributions namely Gamma, Rayleigh and Laplace were used to fit 2 years ozone data (2010 and 2011). The parameters were estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) in order to plot probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). Four performance indicators were used to find the best distribution namely, normalized absolute error (NAE), prediction accuracy (PA), coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best distribution to represent ozone concentration at both sites in 2010 and 2011 is Gamma distribution with the smallest error measure (NAE and RMSE) and the highest adequacy measure (PA and R 2 ). For the 2010 data, AMS1 was predicted to exceed 0.1 ppm for 2 days in 2011 with a return period of one occurrence. (author)

  12. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefanía M.; Martinez, Luis D.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. ► Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. ► Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. ► Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C 6 mim][PF 6 ] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L −1 , while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 μg L −1 Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  13. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefania M. [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 6}mim][PF{sub 6}] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L{sup -1}, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  14. Modern atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  15. One-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the selective determination of methylmercury in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Mo, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for the selective determination of methylmercury (MeHg) was developed by one-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (D-DLLME) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In the proposed method, Cu(II) reacted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which was used as the chelating agent instead of DDTC for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of MeHg. Because the stability of MeHg-DDTC is higher than that of Cu-DDTC, MeHg can displace Cu from the Cu-DDTC complex and be preconcentrated in a single DLLME procedure. MeHg could be extracted into the extraction solvent phase at pH 6 while Hg(II) remained in the sample solution. Potential interference from co-existing metal ions with lower DDTC complex stability was largely eliminated without the need of any masking reagent. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of this method was 13.6ngL(-1) (as Hg), and an enhancement factor of 81 was achieved with a sample volume of 5.0mL. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace MeHg in some environmental samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  17. Radiological Conditions in Selected Areas of Southern Iraq with Residues of Depleted Uranium. Report by an International Group of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.

  18. New Inversion and Interpretation of Public-Domain Electromagnetic Survey Data from Selected Areas in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Kass, A.; Saltus, R. W.; Minsley, B. J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bloss, B. R.; Burns, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Public-domain airborne geophysical surveys (combined electromagnetics and magnetics), mostly collected for and released by the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), are a unique and valuable resource for both geologic interpretation and geophysical methods development. A new joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the DGGS aims to add value to these data through the application of novel advanced inversion methods and through innovative and intuitive display of data: maps, profiles, voxel-based models, and displays of estimated inversion quality and confidence. Our goal is to make these data even more valuable for interpretation of geologic frameworks, geotechnical studies, and cryosphere studies, by producing robust estimates of subsurface resistivity that can be used by non-geophysicists. The available datasets, which are available in the public domain, include 39 frequency-domain electromagnetic datasets collected since 1993, and continue to grow with 5 more data releases pending in 2013. The majority of these datasets were flown for mineral resource purposes, with one survey designed for infrastructure analysis. In addition, several USGS datasets are included in this study. The USGS has recently developed new inversion methodologies for airborne EM data and have begun to apply these and other new techniques to the available datasets. These include a trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, laterally-constrained regularized inversions, and deterministic inversions which include calibration factors as a free parameter. Incorporation of the magnetic data as an additional constraining dataset has also improved the inversion results. Processing has been completed in several areas, including Fortymile and the Alaska Highway surveys, and continues in others such as the Styx River and Nome surveys. Utilizing these new techniques, we provide models beyond the apparent resistivity maps supplied by the original

  19. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  20. Atomic collisions related to atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    Atomic collisions are important in various places in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). At a vaporization zone, many atomic collisions due to high density have influence on the atomic beam characteristics such as velocity distribution and metastable states' populations at a separation zone. In the separation zone, a symmetric charge transfer between the produced ions and the neutral atoms may degrade selectivity. We have measured atomic excitation temperatures of atomic beams and symmetric charge transfer cross sections for gadolinium and neodymium. Gadolinium and neodymium are both lanthanides. Nevertheless, results for gadolinium and neodymium are very different. The gadolinium atom has one 5d electron and neodymium atom has no 5d electron. It is considered that the differences are due to existence of 5d electron. (author)

  1. Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Select Priority Areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Yungas, Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method to select forest restoration priority areas consistently with the key principles of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) and the Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) framework. The methodology is based on the principles shared by the two approaches: acting at ecosystem scale, involving stakeholders, and evaluating alternatives. It proposes the involvement of social actors which have a stake in forest management through multicriteria analysis sessions aimed at identifying the most suitable forest restoration intervention. The method was applied to a study area in the native forests of Northern Argentina (the Yungas). Stakeholders were asked to identify alternative restoration actions, i.e. potential areas implementing FLR. Ten alternative fincas—estates derived from the Spanish land tenure system—differing in relation to ownership, management, land use, land tenure, and size were evaluated. Twenty criteria were selected and classified into four groups: biophysical, social, economic and political. Finca Ledesma was the closest to the economic, social, environmental and political goals, according to the values and views of the actors involved in the decision. This study represented the first attempt to apply EA principles to forest restoration at landscape scale in the Yungas region. The benefits obtained by the application of the method were twofold: on one hand, researchers and local actors were forced to conceive the Yungas as a complex net of rights rather than as a sum of personal interests. On the other hand, the participatory multicriteria approach provided a structured process for collective decision-making in an area where it has never been implemented.

  2. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and histopathological and hematobiochemical alterations in backyard chickens reared in an industrial area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrajit; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Patra, Amlan Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada

    2018-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p  kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were greater in older chickens (> 1 year) than in young chickens (heavy metal exposure. Histological changes revealed necrotic lesions and tubulitis in the kidney, degeneration and necrosis in liver parenchyma, and periarteriolitis, peribronchiolitis, and presence of hemosiderin pigment in the lung of chickens in the exposed site. Results indicated that backyard chickens in heavy metal-exposed site may show pathological lesions in different tissues due to accumulation of heavy metals, and thus, the consumption of chicken meat from the industrially exposed site may pose a potential health risk to local residents of polluted sites.

  3. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  4. Decay of long-lived autoionization atomic states in atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakov, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    Radiationless decay of long-lived autoionization states of helium atoms in atom collisions is investigated. It is shown that the states may decay in atom collisions due to softening of the selection rules

  5. Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    1998-01-01

    The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by particle-antiparticle pa...

  6. Growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of GaN columns by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Hartmann, Jana; Mandl, Martin; Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Strassburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional GaN columns recently have attracted a lot of attention as the potential basis for core-shell light emitting diodes for future solid state lighting. In this study, the fundamental insights into growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of N-polar GaN columns during selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned SiOx/sapphire templates are systematically investigated using various pitch of apertures, growth time, and silane flow. Species impingement fluxes on the top surface of columns Jtop and on their sidewall Jsw, as well as, the diffusion flux from the substrate Jsub contribute to the growth of the GaN columns. The vertical and lateral growth rates devoted by Jtop, Jsw and Jsub are estimated quantitatively. The diffusion length of species on the SiOx mask surface λsub as well as on the sidewall surfaces of the 3D columns λsw are determined. The influences of silane on the growth kinetics are discussed. A growth model is developed for this selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy processing.

  7. ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Konieczny

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.

  8. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  9. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  10. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  11. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Beyer, H.; Bosch, F.; Dohmann, H.D.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator UNILAC is well suited to experiments in the field of atomic physics because, with the aid of high-energy heavy ions atoms can be produced in exotic states - that is, heavy atoms with only a few electrons. Also, in close collisions of heavy ions (atomic number Z 1 ) and heavy target atoms (Z 2 ) short-lived quasi-atomic 'superheavy' systems will be formed - huge 'atoms', where the inner electrons are bound in the field of the combined charge Z 1 + Z 2 , which exceeds by far the charge of the known elements (Z <= 109). Those exotic or transient superheavy atoms delivered from the heavy ion accelerator make it possible to study for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory exotic, but fundamental, processes, which occur only inside stars. Some of the basic research carried out with the UNILAC is discussed. This includes investigation of highly charged heavy atoms with the beam-foil method, the spectroscopy of highly charged slow-recoil ions, atomic collision studies with highly ionised, decelerated ions and investigations of super-heavy quasi-atoms. (U.K.)

  12. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  13. Theoretical atomic physics for fusion: 1988 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in atomic physics in the following areas: Electron-impact ionization of atomic ions; electron-impact excitation of atomic ions; Dielectronic recombination of atomic ions; and relativistic effects on electron-ion scattering

  14. Progress of highly charged atomic physics at IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X; Zhu, X L; Liu, H P; Li, B; Wei, B R; Sha, S; Cao, S P; Chen, L F; Zhang, S F; Feng, W T; Zhang, D C; Qian, D B

    2007-01-01

    The progress of atomic physics researches at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) is reviewed, covering the studies on ion-atom/molecule collisions, ion-cluster interaction, negative ion formation, state-selective electron capture studied by COLTRIMS, as well as the progress of a new experimental area dedicated for atomic researches at moderate energies, and the advances of the cooler storage rings at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). New opportunities to study collision dynamics from femto-second to atto-second regime are opened based on the present facilities and the on-going projects

  15. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  16. A novel lead imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase for extraction and trace detection of lead ions by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Synthesis, characterization and analytical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel ion imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS was applied for preconcentration and determination of lead in real samples. In the first step, Pb(II-IIP was synthesized by copolymerization of 2-vinyl pyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator that imprinted with Pb(II as the template ion, 2-amino pyridine as the ligand. Subsequently, the imprinted Pb(II was completely removed by leaching the dried and powdered imprinted polymer with HCl (2 mol L−1. This polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer. The effect of different variables on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of eluent for extraction, solution’s pH for adsorption, sorption and desorption times was evaluated. Under the optimum conditions: type of eluent, HCl (2 mol L−1; volume of eluent, 5 mL; solution’s pH for sorption, 5; sorption time, 90 min; desorption time, 125 min and breakthrough volume of 750 mL were obtained. Preconcentration factor of the method was about 150. The limit of detection was obtained 0.75 μg L−1 and a dynamic linear range (DLR of 3–150 μg L−1 was found. The maximum sorption retention capacity of Pb(II ions on the imprinted polymer was 85.6 mg g−1. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. Performance of the present method was evaluated for extraction and determination of Pb(II in water samples at microgram per liter concentration and satisfactory results were obtained (RSD = 2.7%.

  17. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  18. Localized atomic segregation in the spalled area of a Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glasses induced by laser-shock experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, B.; Loison, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Lescoute, E.; Nivard, M.; Berthe, L.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-shock experiments were performed on a ternary {Zr50{Cu}40{Al}10} bulk metallic glass. A spalling process was studied through post-mortem analyses conducted on a recovered sample and spall. Scanning electron microscopy magnification of fracture surfaces revealed the presence of a peculiar feature known as cup-cone. Cups are found on sample fracture surface while cones are observed on spall. Two distinct regions can be observed on cups and cones: a smooth viscous-like region in the center and a flat one with large vein-pattern in the periphery. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements conducted on these features emphasized atomic distribution discrepancies both on the sample and spall. We propose a mechanism for the initiation and the growth of these features but also a process for atomic segregation during spallation. Cup and cones would originate from cracks arising from shear bands formation (softened paths). These shear bands result from a quadrupolar-shaped atomic disorder engendered around an initiation site by shock wave propagation. This disorder turns into a shear band when tensile front reaches spallation plane. During the separation process, temperature gain induced by shock waves and shear bands generation decreases material viscosity leading to higher atomic mobility. Once in a liquid-like form, atomic clusters migrate and segregate due to inertial effects originating from particle velocity variation (interaction of release waves). As a result, a high rate of copper is found in sample cups and high zirconium concentration is found on spall cones.

  19. Integrated analysis of present and future responses of precipitation over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The assessment of future precipitation variations prevailing in an area is essential for the research regarding climate and climate change. The current paper focuses on 3 selected areas in Greece that present different climatic characteristics due to their location and aims to assess and compare the future variation of annual and seasonal precipitation. Future precipitation data from the ENSEMBLES anthropogenic climate-change (ACC) global simulations and the Climate version of the Local Model (CLM) were obtained and analyzed. The climate simulations were performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under the A1B and B1 scenarios. Mann-Kendall test was applied to investigate possible trends. Spatial distribution of precipitation was performed using a combination of dynamic and statistical downscaling techniques and Kriging method within ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for both scenarios, reference periods and study areas, precipitation is expected to be critically decreased. Additionally, Mann-Kendall test application showed a strong downward trend for every study area. Furthermore, the decrease in precipitation for the Ardas River basin characterized by the continental climate will be tempered, while in the Sperchios River basin it will be smoother due to the influence of some minor climatic variations in the basins' springs in the highlands where milder conditions occur. Precipitation decrease in the Geropotamos River basin which is characterized by Mediterranean climate will be more vigorous. B1 scenario appeared more optimistic for the Ardas and Sperchios River basins, while in the Geropotamos River basin, both applied scenarios brought similar results, in terms of future precipitation response.

  20. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Selected Boreholes in Ohaozara and Ivo Council Areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omaka, O.N.; Offor, I.F.; Igwe, D. O.; Ugochukwu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater quality in study areas was evaluated by measuring the physicochemical parameters including selected ions in water samples collected from 12 boreholes in Akaeze, Okposi and Uburu towns of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in April, 2013 and analysed using standard methods. Results obtained showed that, except for AS/sup 5+/ content, all other parameters investigated fall within WHO standards for potable water. Regression analysis showed that conductivity, SO/sub 4/ /sup 2-/ and As/sup 5+/ levels are important variables in predicting the TDS values of the samples while NO/sub 3/ /sup -/, Cl/sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 3-/ and TDS are important in predicting the As/sup 5+/ content of the water samples. One-way ANOVA at P < 0.05 showed Fcal (1.862) > Ftab (0.619), implying a significant difference between the parameters for all locations. (author)

  1. Control of morphology and crystal purity of InP nanowires by variation of phosphine flux during selective area MOMBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelrich, A.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; Calahorra, Y.; Cohen, S.; Ritter, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental results showing how the growth rate, morphology and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed InP nanowires (NWs) fabricated by selective area metal organic molecular beam epitaxy can be tuned by the growth parameters: temperature and phosphine flux. The InP NWs with 20-65 nm diameters are grown at temperatures of 420 and 480 °C with the PH3 flow varying from 1 to 9 sccm. The NW tapering is suppressed at a higher temperature, while pure wurtzite crystal structure is preferred at higher phosphine flows. Therefore, by combining high temperature and high phosphine flux, we are able to fabricate non-tapered and stacking fault-free InP NWs with the quality that other methods rarely achieve. We also develop a model for NW growth and crystal structure which explains fairly well the observed experimental tendencies.

  2. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Prevalence of leptospiral DNA among wild rodents from a selected area in Beguk Dam Labis, Segamat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, I; Rahmat, M S; Hayarti, K B; Paramasvaran, S; Azizah, M R; Imran, F; Normaznah, Y

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease. The differential diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult due to the varied and often "flu like" symptoms which may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonosis with worldwide distribution. There are over 230 known serovars in the genus Leptospira. The true prevalence of leptospirosis in Malaysia is unknown or underestimated. Our goal was to determine the prevalence for Leptospira infection in rodents in a selected area in Beguk Dam Labis, Segamat, Johor. A study was carried out on 69 serum samples of trapped wild rodents. DNA was extracted from the sera using Leptospira PCR kit (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech Co., Ltd). Of 69 rodent serum samples tested by PCR, 9 (13%) showed positive results. In this study we found that (13%) of wild rodents caught in Beguk Dam Labis were infected by Leptospira.

  4. Fabrication of GaAs nanowire devices with self-aligning W-gate electrodes using selective-area MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooike, N.; Motohisa, J.; Fukui, T.

    2004-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel self-aligning process for fabricating the tungsten (W) gate electrode of GaAs nanowire FETs by using selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) where SiO 2 /W composite films are used to mask the substrates. First, to study the growth process and its dependence on mask materials, GaAs wire structures were grown on masked substrates partially covered with a single W layer or SiO 2 /W composite films. We found that lateral growth over the masked regions could be suppressed when a wire along the [110] direction and a SiO 2 /W composite mask were used. Using this composite mask, we fabricated GaAs narrow channel FETs using W as a Schottky gate electrode, and we were able to observe FET characteristics at room temperature

  5. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  6. Ubiquitous atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruch, G.M.; Spruch, L.

    1974-01-01

    The fundamentals of modern physics, including the basic physics and chemistry of the atom, elementary particles, cosmology, periodicity, and recent advances, are surveyed. The biology and chemistry of the life process is discussed to provide a background for considering the effects of atomic particles on living things. The uses of atomic power in space travel, merchant shipping, food preservation, desalination, and nuclear clocks are explored. (Pollut. Abstr.)

  7. Behavior-Dependent Activity and Synaptic Organization of Septo-hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Selectively Targeting the Hippocampal CA3 Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhilasha; Salib, Minas; Viney, Tim James; Dupret, David; Somogyi, Peter

    2017-12-20

    Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability. Teevra cells synaptically target GABAergic axo-axonic and some CCK interneurons in restricted septo-temporal CA3 segments. The rhythmicity of their firing decreases from septal to temporal termination of individual axons. We hypothesize that Teevra neurons coordinate oscillatory activity across the septo-temporal axis, phasing the firing of specific CA3 interneurons, thereby contributing to the selection of pyramidal cell assemblies at the theta trough via disinhibition. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  9. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  10. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 2 3 Po, 2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 2 3 Po level of helium-like krypton

  11. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  12. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  13. Low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of 2-D MoS2 : Large area, thickness control and tuneable morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wu, L.; Karwal, S.; Vandalon, V.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Sundaram, R.S.; Hofmann, J.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature controllable synthesis of monolayer-to-multilayer thick MoS2 with tuneable morphology is demonstrated by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The characteristic self-limiting ALD growth with a growth-per-cycle of 0.1 nm per cycle and digital thickness control down

  14. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  15. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mkama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of this research study was to determine FMDV infection status among buffalo and cattle herds in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas. The sampled areas included Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha national parks, where a total of 330 buffalo and bovine sera samples were collected. Laboratory analysis of the samples was done through the NSP ELISA technique using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS Kit for detection of antibodies directed against 3ABC non-structural proteins and confirming natural infections. Results showed that 76.3% of tested sera samples were positive for FMDV. However, serotyping of NSP ELISA seroreactors with LPBE is yet to be done. This information is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective FMD control strategies.

  17. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. US-Japan Workshop on atomic-collision data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.; Hafford, P.M.; Itikawa, Y.

    1981-04-01

    This report, containing abstracts of each of the presentations and discussions, includes: brief talks on the applications of atomic data in tokamaks and in inertial confinement; reviews of the specific atomic collisions projects for fusion in Japan and the United States; discussions of how the data centers operate and manner of exchanging data; brief reviews of the status of electron-ion scattering and ion-atom scattering; discussions of criteria to be used in evaluating and selecting both experimental and theoretical data in these two areas; comparisons of data selected for each of six specific collision reactions which were evaluated by both groups prior to the workshop; brief reviews of activities in the related areas of atomic structure and plasma wall interactions; and a decision to pursue a joint or collaborative compilation of recommended cross sections for oxygen ions for electron impact excitation and electron capture from atomic hydrogen

  19. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1969-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  20. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0905-0925. Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  1. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  2. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography on exotic atoms covers the years 1939 till 1982. The annual entries are headed by an introduction describing the state of affairs of the branch of science and listing the main applications in quantum electrodynamics, particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics, chemical physics and biological sciences. The bibliography includes an author index and a subject index. (Auth.)

  3. Areas of Hospitality Management and Stakeholders in Recruitment and Selection Multiple Case Study: Estanplaza, Travel in and Transamérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sbarai Santos Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the relationships between recruitment and selection and its stakeholders, considering the areas of hospitality and its characteristics as influential factors to recruit and select new employees. The research approach was qualitative methodologies for the study of multiple cases, which contributed to the form of empirical research. For this investigation were selected by three chains together features that enabled a comparative analysis of the study, which were used for data collection, three sources of evidence: interviews, direct observations and documentation. The selected networks, Estanplaza Hotels, Hotels Transamerica and Travel Inn Hotels The overall goal was to understand the processes used in recruitment and selection set features the fields of hospitality. From this issue were established specific objectives: to observe the dynamics of recruitment and selection of chains; analyze the content related to the fields of hospitality in the tools used in the process of recruitment and selection, and meet stakeholders in this area. The research was conducted through interviews with managers of lodging facilities and with stakeholders in the area of recruitment and selection, based on a semistructured interview guide. Through this research, we found that some features of the fields of hospitality are considered in the process of recruitment and selection. Chains surveyed, however, point out that it is necessary to use tools and processes that enable this type of analysis.

  4. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in selected populations from two previously high malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmini Gunawardena

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD enzyme deficiency is known to offer protection against malaria and an increased selection of mutant genes in malaria endemic regions is expected. However, anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine can cause haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. We studied the extent of G6PD deficiency in selected persons attending Teaching Hospitals of Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, two previously high malaria endemic districts in Sri Lanka. A total of 2059 filter-paper blood spots collected between November 2013 and June 2014 were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using the modified WST-8/1-methoxy PMS method. Each assay was conducted with a set of controls and the colour development assessed visually as well as with a microplate reader at OD450-630nm. Overall, 142/1018 (13.95% and 83/1041 (7.97% were G6PD deficient in Anuradhapura and Kurunegala districts respectively. The G6PD prevalence was significantly greater in Anuradhapura when compared to Kurunegala (P0.05. Severe deficiency (<10% normal was seen among 28/1018 (2.75% in Anuradhapura (7 males; 21 females and 17/1041 (1.63% in Kurunegala (7 males; 10 females. Enzyme activity between 10-30% was observed among 114/1018 (11.20%; 28 males; 86 females in Anuradhapura while it was 66/1041 (6.34%; 18 males; 48 females in Kurunegala. Screening and educational programmes for G6PD deficiency are warranted in these high risk areas irrespective of gender for the prevention of disease states related to this condition.

  5. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  6. Superradiators created atom by atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschede, Dieter

    2018-02-01

    High radiation rates are usually associated with macroscopic lasers. Laser radiation is “coherent”—its amplitude and phase are well-defined—but its generation requires energy inputs to overcome loss. Excited atoms spontaneously emit in a random and incoherent fashion, and for N such atoms, the emission rate simply increases as N. However, if these atoms are in close proximity and coherently coupled by a radiation field, this microscopic ensemble acts as a single emitter whose emission rate increases as N2 and becomes “superradiant,” to use Dicke's terminology (1). On page 662 of this issue, Kim et al. (2) show the buildup of coherent light fields through collective emission from atomic radiators injected one by one into a resonator field. There is only one atom ever in the cavity, but the emission is still collective and superradiant. These results suggest another route toward thresholdless lasing.

  7. FERTILITY STATUS OF EUTRIC NITISOL AND FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION USING NUMASS IN THE SELECTED AREAS OF JIMMA ZONE, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Nigussie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient management decision support system (NuMaSS is a tool that diagnoses soil constraints and selects the appropriate management practices, based on agronomic, economic and environmental criteria, for location-specific conditions. However, its validation in different soil orders and agroecosystems should be tested. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the fertility status of Eutric Nitisol and suggests the application of NuMaSS as a diagnostic tool to recommend supplementary N and P fertilizers for maize across different agroecology zones. Accordingly, fifty soil samples were collected from five locations and analyzed for the major soil physical and chemical properties. The soil pH-H2O was below the critical level for all soil samples. Nitrogen, Cu and Zn were deficit in all soil samples. Deficiency of available phosphorous was also observed in 88% of the soil samples. High probabilities of nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency were also observed in the study areas using NuMaSS. Moreover, 24 kg/ha P and 73 kg/ha N for Dedo; 24kg/ha P and 82 kg/ha N for Agaro; 20 kg/ha P and 100 kg/ha N for Serbo; 27 kg/ha P and 94 kg/ha N for Dimtu; and 4.9kg/ha P and 97 kg/ha N for Asendabo were recommended for maize using NuMaSS.

  8. Effect of gas flow on the selective area growth of gallium nitride via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Kasarla, K. R.; Korakakis, D.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of gas flow on the selective area growth (SAG) of gallium nitride (GaN) grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been investigated. In this study, the SAG of GaN was carried out on a silicon dioxide striped pattern along the GaN direction. SAG was initiated with the striped pattern oriented parallel and normal to the incoming gas flow in a horizontal reactor. The orientation of the pattern did not impact cross section of the structure after re-growth as both orientations resulted in similar trapezoidal structures bounded by the (0 0 0 1) and {1 1 2¯ n} facets ( n≈1.7-2.2). However, the growth rates were shown to depend on the orientation of the pattern as the normally oriented samples exhibited enhanced vertical and cross-sectional growth rates compared to the parallel oriented samples. All growths occurred under identical conditions and therefore the difference in growth rates must be attributed to a difference in mass transport of species.

  9. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  10. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  11. Energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Rinker, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of muonic atoms is a complex and highly developed combination of nuclear physics, atomic physics, and quantum electrodynamics. Perhaps nowhere else in microscopic physics are such diverse branches so intimately intertwined and yet readily available for precise experimental verification or rejection. In the present review we summarize and discuss all of the most important components of muonic atom theory, and show in selected cases how this theory meets experimental measurements

  12. Atomic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation λ = h/(mv), where λ is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  13. Atoms, molecules and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Ingolf V

    2015-01-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginner...

  14. Dependence of N-polar GaN rod morphology on growth parameters during selective area growth by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Wang, Xue; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Fündling, Sönke; Erenburg, Milena; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Mandl, Martin; Bergbauer, Werner; Strassburg, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Selective area growth of GaN rods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy has attracted great interest due to its novel applications in optoelectronic and photonics. In this work, we will present the dependence of GaN rod morphology on various growth parameters i.e. growth temperature, H2/N2 carrier gas concentration, V/III ratio, total carrier gas flow and reactor pressure. It is found that higher growth temperature helps to increase the aspect ratio of the rods, but reduces the height homogeneity. Furthermore, H2/N2 carrier gas concentration is found to be a critical factor to obtain vertical rod growth. Pure nitrogen carrier gas leads to irregular growth of GaN structure, while an increase of hydrogen carrier gas results in vertical GaN rod growth. Higher hydrogen carrier gas concentration also reduces the diameter and enhances the aspect of the GaN rods. Besides, increase of V/III ratio causes reduction of the aspect ratio of N-polar GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface when supplying more ammonia. In addition, an increase of the total carrier gas flow leads to a decrease in the diameter and the average volume of GaN rods. These phenomena are tentatively explained by the change of partial pressure of the source materials and boundary layer thickness in the reactor. Finally, it is shown that the average volume of the N-polar GaN rods keeps a similar value for a reactor pressure PR of 66 and 125 mbar, while an incomplete filling of the pattern opening is observed with PR of 250 mbar. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the rods is also briefly discussed.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  16. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03911a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO2 reduction reaction over a competitive H2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = –0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (–0.27 V) for CH3OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) for CH4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH3OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals. PMID:28451248

  17. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogmar, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  18. Map showing principal drainage basins, principal runoff-producing areas, and selected stream flow data in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1978-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area. Streamflow records used to compile this map and the accompanying table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Information about Lake Powell was furnished by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  19. Determination of Lead and Cadmium in environment materials from the planned area for a nuclear power plant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto, C; Djokowidodo; Isyuniarto; Heri-Wahyudi; Ashar-Andrianto

    1996-01-01

    The determination of Pb and Cd in environment materials (water, cassava leaves and soil) have been done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method, The determination of Pb and Cd was done with graphite tube atomizer (GTA) method at optimum condition : wavelength for Pb and Cd 217.0 nm and 228.8 nm; temperature/time ashing 550 o C/37 sec and 350 o C/52 sec; temperature/time atomizing 2000 o C/5.1 sec and 2000 o C/5.2 sec. Modifier for Pb was 3 μL of Mg 1000 μg/ml and Cd was 2 μL of Pd 2000 μg/ml. The content Pb in Spalun river, Hulu Putih river and sea water Lemah Abang was 0.94 ± 0.03; 0.91± 0.02; 4.71 ± 0.26 ng/ml respectively; the Cd content was 1.23 ± 0.11; 0.48 ± 0.01; 0.55 ± 0.01 ng/ml respectively. The Pb dan Cd content in cassava leaves was 163.24 ± 3.72 and 18.45 ± 1.46 ng/g respectively, while the Pb content in soil at the depth variation 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 Cm was 2.35 ± 0.15; 2.86 ± 0.16; 1.97 ± 0.11 and 2.19 ± 0.06 μg/g respectively and the Cd content was 43.67 ± 1.52; 37.01 ± 1.01; 31.68 ± 0.17 and 36.97 ± 1.63 ng/g respectively. SRM Citrous leaves from NSB and SRM Soil 7 from the IAEA local used to control the quality of the analyzed method. The Pb, Cd content in SRM was in accordance with the value in the certified legend

  20. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  1. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1979-01-01

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  2. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  3. Section of Atomic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenyi, D.; Biri, S.; Gulyas, L.; Juhasz, Z.; Kover, A.; Orban, A.; Palinkas, J.; Papp, T.; Racz, R.; Ricz, S.

    2009-01-01

    emission from H 2 by fast ion impact; Fast electron ejection in slow and intermediate velocity ion-atom collisions: Fermi-shuttle type pingpong games in single ionization; Fragmentation of biologically relevant molecules in collisions with ions; Guiding of highly charged ions through insulating nanocapillaries; Theoretical description of the atomic collision processes. Summary: We hope that the present selection provides the reader with a flavor of the atomic collision physics research performed in our Section. It is seen that we have a strong interest in fundamental processes. It is also seen that the research work in the field is developing from the basic study of simple systems to different directions. One of them goes towards a deeper understanding of simple systems and fundamental processes. The other direction is the analysis of complex, sometimes strange phenomena, up to the study of mesoscopic effects governed by atomic collision processes. Moreover, new experimental facilities and possibilities (e.g., the availability of antiparticles) are always a challenge to start into a new direction. Finally, as our community gets better equipped for handling complex problems, we are turning to study systems, which are related to applied sciences and direct applications. We believe that these are all natural ways to find the future of the field of atomic collision physics.

  4. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  5. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickle, D.

    1973-01-01

    The necessity for an area of protection around nuclear facilities could originate from the need to protect these facilities against outside effects. Danger to nuclear facilities can only threaten from a few industries which are of a dangerous nature. In order to keep away these industries there is no need for an area of protection around the nuclear facilities. It would be sufficient to consider in the licensing procedures, according to the trade regulations, that the close proximity of nuclear facilities can present a danger of a special kind, whereby the standards of the nuclear licensing procedures are to be applied. In this context it would be permissible, too, to make bigger demands on the safety requirements than requested by the trade regulations solely. Furthermore, the need to keep away human settlements from the area with nuclear facilities without creating an area of protection can be complied with area planning by interpreting the laws of area planning in such a way that subsequent planning which would increase the risks can be rejected. In any case, poltical clarification of this point seems to be necessary. (orig./LN) [de

  6. The Atomic Papers: A citizen's guide to selected books and articles on the bomb, the arms race, nuclear power, the peace movement, and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Atomic Papers annotates over 800 books published since 1945 and approximately 300 periodical articles since 1980 on every facet of the nuclear dilemma: the development and effects of the bomb, the arms race, nuclear proliferation, and the peace movement. Work on both sides of the nuclear power controversy also receives substantial attention. All references are to English-language material, and nearly half are to work published since 1980. The concluding chapter, ''The Art of Fission,'' describes over one hundred novels and stories with nuclear themes published since 1945--and, in a few cases, before that date

  7. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  8. Area- and depth- weighted averages of selected SSURGO variables for the conterminous United States and District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are area- and depth-weighted average values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are

  9. US Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is a new volume follows in the series supplementing the volumes 11 and 12 published in 1965 and 1966, updating the collection of Federal Acts and Executive Orders of the President of the United States of America relating to atomic energy legislation. Since the publication of volumes 11 and 12, the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954 alone has been amended 25 times, mainly as a consequence of by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, both of 1978. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 is supplemented by a selection of the most important Federal Acts, Executive Orders of the President and Resolutions of the Congress. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Controlling the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazuzan, G.T.; Walker, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors trace the early history of nuclear power regulation in the US. Focusing on the Atomic Energy Commission, they describe the role of other groups that figured in the development of regulatory policies, including the Congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, other federal agencies, state governments, the nuclear industry, and scientific organizations. They consider changes in public perceptions of and attitudes toward atomic energy and the dangers of radiation exposure. The basic purpose of the book is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the general public with information on the historical antecedents and background of regulatory issues so that there will be continuity in policy decisions. The book concludes with an annotated bibliography of selected references. 19 figures

  11. Three novel triazine-based materials with different O/S/N set of donor atoms: One-step preparation and comparison of their capability in selective separation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chiyao; Zhang, Meicheng; Li, Bo; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three novel functional covalent triazine-based frameworks are prepared. • Synthesis and functionalization of the products are accomplished in one step. • Various adsorbents can be prepared using cyanuric chloride as a core skeleton. • The products have high N concentration, regular structures, and high stabilities. • The products exhibit high sorption capacities and distinct selectivity for U (VI). - Abstract: Cyanuric chloride was chosen as a core skeleton which reacted with desired linker molecules, urea, thiourea and thiosemicarbazide, to prepare three novel functional covalent triazine-based frameworks, CCU (O-donor set), CCTU (S-donor set) and CCTS (S, N-donor set) respectively, designed for selective adsorption of U(VI). The products have high nitrogen concentration (>30 wt%), regular structure, relatively high chemical and thermal stability. Adsorption behaviors of the products on U(VI) were examined by batch experiments. CCU and CCTU can extract U(VI) from simulated nuclear industrial effluent containing 12 co-existing cations with relatively high selectivity (54.4% and 54.2%, respectively). Especially, effects of donor atoms O/S on adsorption were investigated, and the outcomes indicate that the difference in coordinating ability between the donor atoms is weakened in large conjugated systems, and the related functional groups with originally very strong coordination abilities may not be the best choice for the application in selective adsorption of uranium and also other metals. The as-proposed approach can easily be expanded into design and preparation of new highly efficient adsorbents for selective separation and recovery of uranium through adjusting the structures, types and amounts of functional groups of adsorbents by choosing suitable linkers.

  12. Atomic cluster collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Andrey V.; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Atomic cluster collisions are a field of rapidly emerging research interest by both experimentalists and theorists. The international symposium on atomic cluster collisions (ISSAC) is the premier forum to present cutting-edge research in this field. It was established in 2003 and the most recent conference was held in Berlin, Germany in July of 2011. This Topical Issue presents original research results from some of the participants, who attended this conference. This issues specifically focuses on two research areas, namely Clusters and Fullerenes in External Fields and Nanoscale Insights in Radiation Biodamage.

  13. Atoms stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1988-01-01

    Physicists from different countries told each evening during one learning week, to an audience of young people, some great discoveries in evoking the difficulties and problems to which the researchers were confronted. From Antiquity to a more recent history, it is a succession of atoms stories. (N.C.)

  14. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  15. Selection of mining method for No.3 uranium ore body in the independent mining area at a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Fulong; Ding Dexin; Ye Yongjun

    2010-01-01

    Mining operation in the existed mining area at a uranium mine is near completion and it is necessary to mine the No.3 uranium ore body in another mining area at the mine. This paper, based on the geological conditions, used analogical method for analyzing the feasible methods and the low cost and high efficiency mining method was suggested for the No.3 ore body in the independent mining area at the uranium mine. (authors)

  16. Crystallographic dependent in-situ CBr4 selective nano-area etching and local regrowth of InP/InGaAs by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Kulkova, Irina; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    Selective area etching and growth in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on nano-scale structures have been examined. Using different mask orientations, crystallographic dependent etching of InP can be observed when carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is used as an etchant. Scanning...

  17. Evaluation of the concentrations and distribution of carbonyl compounds in selected areas of a Brazilian bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the determination of 30 carbonyl compounds (CCs) in three areas (bus boarding platform, passenger circulation area, and a pastry shop) of the Presidente João Goulart Bus Terminal, located at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil, and in an open area 700 m distant from the terminal. Samples were collected using SEP-PAK cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, during May to July 2012. The hydrazones formed were analyzed using rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV detection. The studied locations showed distinct profiles of distribution of CC. The circulation area, which is influenced by different pollution sources, presented an intermediate profile between that of the pastry shop and boarding platform. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CC, but acetaldehyde predominated in the pastry shop once it is a by-product of baking yeast fermentation. Samples taken in the pastry shop and circulation area showed significant concentrations of hexanaldehyde and nonanaldehyde emitted during cooking. The pastry shop showed the largest level of total CC among the studied areas followed by the circulation area, the boarding platform, and the open area.

  18. Predicted high-water elevations for selected flood events at the Albert Pike Recreation Area, Ouachita National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Marion

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic characteristics are determined for the June 11, 2010, flood on the Little Missouri River at the Albert Pike Recreation Area in Arkansas. These characteristics are then used to predict the high-water elevations for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood events in the Loop B, C, and D Campgrounds of the recreation area. The peak discharge and related...

  19. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  20. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    absence of bacteria only for the 10 wells representing the Blue Ridge crystalline and Triassic Lowland siliciclastic setting. Results of Spearman’s rank test showed strong positive correlations in the Devonian-Silurian carbonate setting between 1) the number of pesticides above the MRLs and nitrate concentration, and 2) concentrations of atrazine and nitrate. Atrazine concentration and nitrate concentration also showed a statistically significant positive correlation in the Great Valley siliciclastic setting. An additional component of baseline monitoring was to evaluate changes in pesticide concentration in water from wells representing hydrogeologic settings most vulnerable to contamination from pesticides. In 2003, 16 wells originally sampled in the 1990s were resampled—4 each in the Appalachian Mountain carbonate, Triassic Lowland siliciclastic, Great Valley carbonate, and Piedmont carbonate settings. Nine of these wells, where pesticide concentrations from 1993 and 2003 were analyzed at the NWQL, were chosen for a paired-sample analysis using concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. A statistically significant decrease in atrazine concentration was identified using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.004); significant temporal changes in metolachlor concentrations were not observed (p = 0.625). Monitoring in three areas of special ground-water protection, where selected pesticide concentrations in well water were at or above the PPGWS action levels, was done at wells BE 1370 (Berks County, Oley Township), BA 437 (Blair County, North Woodbury Township), and LN 1842 (Lancaster County, Earl Township). Co-occurrence of pesticide-degradation products with parent compounds was documented for the first time in ground-water samples collected from these three wells. Degradation products of atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were commonly at larger concentrations than the parent compound in the same water sample. Pesticide occurrence in water

  1. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  2. Laser Control of Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Letkhov, V S

    2007-01-01

    This text treats laser light as a universal tool to control matter at the atomic and molecular level, one of the most exciting applications of lasers. Lasers can heat matter, cool atoms to ultra-low temperatures where they show quantum collective behaviour, and can act selectively on specific atoms and molecules for their detection and separation.

  3. Toward Rational Design of Cu/SSZ-13 Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts: Implications from Atomic-Level Understanding of Hydrothermal Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, James [Institute; The; amp, Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646515, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Wang, Yilin [Institute; Walter, Eric D. [Environmental; Washton, Nancy M. [Environmental; Mei, Donghai [Institute; Kovarik, Libor [Environmental; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental; Prodinger, Sebastian [Institute; Wang, Yong [Institute; The; amp, Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646515, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Peden, Charles H. F. [Institute; Gao, Feng [Institute

    2017-11-03

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts has been extensively studied, yet atomic level understanding of changes to the zeolite support and the Cu active sites during hydrothermal aging are still lacking. In this work, via the utilization of spectroscopic methods including solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, EPR, DRIFTS, and XPS, together with imaging and elemental mapping using STEM, detailed kinetic analyses, and theoretical calculations with DFT, various Cu species, including two types of isolated active sites and CuOx clusters, were precisely quantified for samples hydrothermally aged under varying conditions. This quantification convincingly confirms the exceptional hydrothermal stability of isolated Cu2+-2Z sites, and the gradual conversion of [Cu(OH)]+-Z to CuOx clusters with increasing aging severity. This stability difference is rationalized from the hydrolysis activation barrier difference between the two isolated sites via DFT. Discussions are provided on the nature of the CuOx clusters, and their possible detrimental roles on catalyst stability. Finally, a few rational design principles for Cu/SSZ-13 are derived rigorously from the atomic-level understanding of this catalyst obtained here. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The experimental studies described in this paper were performed in the EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  5. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  6. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  7. Ti atoms in Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 mixed oxides form active and selective sites for electrochemical chlorine evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Rasmus K. B.; Hansen, Heine Anton; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    affected by the presence of small amounts of Ru dopant, whereas oxygen adsorption is relatively unaffected by Ti dopants in RuO2. The calculations also indicate that coordinatively unsaturated Ti sites on Ru-doped TiO2 and on Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 could form active and selective sites for Cl2 evolution....... These results suggest a reason for why DSA shows a higher chlorine selectivity than RuO2 and propose an experimental test of the hypothesis....

  8. Research on Time Selection of Mass Sports in Tibetan Areas Plateau of Gansu Province Based on Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jike

    2018-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, instrument measuring, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, this paper analyzed the current situation in Mass Sports of Tibetan Areas Plateau in Gansu Province. Through experimental test access to Tibetan areas in gansu province of air pollutants and meteorological index data as the foundation, control related national standard and exercise science, statistical analysis of data, the Tibetan plateau, gansu province people participate in physical exercise is dedicated to providing you with scientific methods and appropriate time.

  9. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  10. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM 0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Reserve selection with minimum contiguous area restrictions: An application to open space protection planning in suburban Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor F. Toth; Robert Haight; Stephanie A. Snyder; Sonney George; James R. Miller; Mark S. Gregory; Adam M. Skibbe

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts often require site or parcel selection strategies that lead to spatially cohesive reserves. Although habitat contiguity is thought to be conducive to the persistence of many sensitive species, availability of funding and suitable land may restrict the extent to which this spatial attribute can be pursued in land management or conservation. Using...

  12. Geographic name "zagora" and its reference to areas in the Dalmatian hinterland in the selected newspaper medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Vukosav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Croatian language, the word "zagora" or "zagorje" refers to an area "on the other side of a mountain or a hill". Throughout history, this term has been widely used to describe places physically detached from some other, economically or politically more prominent areas; and has thus been adopted as a geographic name (toponym for places which were "in contrast" to such areas and separated from them by an element of terrain. The term zagora is therefore a geographic name which denotes an area observed from an outside point of view, and which is later on accepted by the domicile population, becoming an endonym. In the context of the Croatian national territory, the most prominent usage of this toponym has been present in specific traditional regions in northern and southern Croatia; namely, Hrvatsko zagorje in northern Croatia, and a rather undefined area in the Dalmatian hinterland in southern Croatia. The extent and the degree of identification of the areas in southern Croatia bearing that particular geographic name have not been precisely defined, although there are many obvious indications of the existence of such a region in many contemporary sources. The aim of this paper is to research the perceptual character of an area in the Dalmatian hinterland in relation to geographic names Zagora and Dalmatinska zagora by means of content analysis. The final conclusions are drawn on the basis of informal geographic data retrieval from a chosen contemporary medium source (Slobodna Dalmacija newspaper. The observed extent of perception provides provisional maps which serve as approximations of collective cognitive maps and represents a starting point for a more extensive research on vernacular aspects of the Dalmatian hinterland.

  13. [Radiation-induced changes in the cellular chromatin of cereal plants cultivated in the area of the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, V N; Lapteva, O K; Sosnovskaia, T F; Roshchenko, M V

    1996-01-01

    The changes in chromatin and DNA of seedling and callus tissues of cereals grown in the Chernobyl NPP zones with contamination levels of 15, 40 and 60 Ci/km2 were studied. Test samples produced by germinating and culturing seed cells of grown in contaminated areas were notable for the content of soluble polydesoxiribonucleotides, amount of DNA damages, DNA distribution over separate compartments of cell nucleus as compared to the control. Analogy between radiation-induced changes in chromatine and processes occurring in cell nucleus senescence was observed.

  14. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfuss, W.

    1973-01-01

    The author takes the view that areas of protection do not only not promote but can impede more than hitherto the development of nuclear energy, a field in which it is vital to keep pace with other countries in the world, also after the decision of the Federal Court of Justice regarding the location of the KWO. The best guarantee for safe operation of a nuclear facility and for the protection of citizens, which would be the guarantee for the development of nuclear energy as well, are the safety precautions in the nuclear facility itself which are generally accepted and finely balanced with regard to their necessity and consequence. (orig./LN) [de

  15. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Olds, Hayley T.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  16. Atom-surface potentials and atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long-range atom-surface potentials characterize the physics of many actual systems and are now measurable spectroscopically in deflection of atomic beams in cavities or in reflection of atoms in atomic fountains. For a ground state, spherically symmetric atom the potential varies as -1/R 3 near the wall, where R is the atom-surface distance. For asymptotically large distances the potential is weaker and goes as -1/R 4 due to retardation arising from the finite speed of light. This diminished interaction can also be interpreted as a Casimir effect. The possibility of measuring atom-surface potentials using atomic interferometry is explored. The particular cases studied are the interactions of a ground-state alkali-metal atom and a dielectric or a conducting wall. Accurate descriptions of atom-surface potentials in theories of evanescent-wave atomic mirrors and evanescent wave-guided atoms are also discussed. (author)

  17. Combined atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence imaging to select single InAs/GaAs quantum dots for quantum photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Luca; Liu, Jin; Song, Jin Dong; Fält, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-07-24

    We report on a combined photoluminescence imaging and atomic force microscopy study of single, isolated self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The motivation of this work is to determine an approach that allows to assess single quantum dots as candidates for quantum nanophotonic devices. By combining optical and scanning probe characterization techniques, we find that single quantum dots often appear in the vicinity of comparatively large topographic features. Despite this, the quantum dots generally do not exhibit significant differences in their non-resonantly pumped emission spectra in comparison to quantum dots appearing in defect-free regions, and this behavior is observed across multiple wafers produced in different growth chambers. Such large surface features are nevertheless a detriment to applications in which single quantum dots are embedded within nanofabricated photonic devices: they are likely to cause large spectral shifts in the wavelength of cavity modes designed to resonantly enhance the quantum dot emission, thereby resulting in a nominally perfectly-fabricated single quantum dot device failing to behave in accordance with design. We anticipate that the approach of screening quantum dots not only based on their optical properties, but also their surrounding surface topographies, will be necessary to improve the yield of single quantum dot nanophotonic devices.

  18. Study to determine the nature and extent of ozone and ozone precursor transport in selected areas of California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.T.; Musarra, S.; Smith, T.B.; Lurmann, F.W.

    1992-04-01

    The project was designed to assess the contribution of transported pollutants to violations of the state ozone standard within the air basins covered by the report using existing data and advanced data analysis techniques. The objectives of the project were to determine the characteristics of ozone and ozone precursor transport within the California air basins covered by the report and to identify whether the contribution of transported pollutants to ozone violations in each downwind area was inconsequential, significant, or overwhelming, relative to locally-emitted pollutants. The precursor pollutants of interest were nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The project evaluated transport to the following areas: The Broader Sacramento Area and the Upper Sacramento Valley; The North Central Coast Air Basin; The Southeast Desert Air Basin (SEDAB); and the Imperial County portion of the SEDAB

  19. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  20. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile the map and the following table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated form a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964).

  2. Occurrence of arsenic in selected marine macroalgae from two coastal areas of South Australia. [Rhodophyceae; phaeophyceae; Chlorophyceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, W.A.; Clarke, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Total arsenic concentrations have been measured in macroalgae specimens from two coastal areas of South Australia. Phaeophyta in both areas were found to contain elevated arsenic concentrations (42.2-179 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 26.3-65.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) relative to Rhodophyta (17.6-31.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 12.5-16.2 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) and Chlorophyta (6.3-16.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 9.9-10.8 ..mu..g g/sup -1/). 13 references, 3 tables.

  3. Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa; A decision tool using GIS in Didessa Valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, A.M.; Dwinger, R.H.; Bedane, B.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.; Wint, W.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is one of the main constraints to livestock production, particularly in the sub-humid and the semi-arid zones in Africa. To study the impact of the disease and the people economically affected by the disease GIS has proven to be a valuable decision tool to prioritise intervention areas and to select control or eradication methods. In this study a GIS and remote sensing based model have been used in the Didessa Valley and southwestern Ethiopia to study valley specific relationships of all factors (host, vector, disease, human population/activity) with geography, environment and farming systems to answer the following questions: Where does trypanosomosis have a negative effect on (agricultural) development? In which areas will control measures have the highest impact/economical benefit? These findings have been extrapolated to set priority areas for tsetse control for Ethiopia as a whole, using a multi-criterion evaluation technique and a Boolean disease data-set to create signatures (training sets) to predict the probability of agricultural suitability and disease suitability based on a set of environmental predictors. Data sets have been validated through ground-truthing using a random data-set for the specified window of Southwestern Ethiopia. A logical expression has been used to combine the factors (vector distribution, agricultural suitability, climatically disease suitability, control area suitability) to select the priority areas for tsetse control. Areas permanently infested by malaria, one of the life-threatening human diseases in Africa, have been considered as not suitable for intervention, The result, a Boolean representation of the priority areas for southwestern Ethiopia can be prioritised further by the decision maker (government, donor, specialist) using criteria such as cost/benefit, administrative organisation and control method. The unique altitude related dynamic tsetse situation in Ethiopia, makes wider extrapolation using the

  4. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  5. Temperature Dependences for the Reactions of O2- and O- with N and O Atoms in a Selected-Ion Flow Tube Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    quadrupole mass filter, mass selected, and injected into the flow reactor via a Venturi - type inlet. Ions undergo ∼105 collisions with helium buffer... gas at pressures of 0.4 to 0.8 Torr resulting in complete or near-complete thermalization.10 The higher pressure was used when studying the high...butterfly gate valve resulting in lower pumping speeds and thus longer reaction times. Neutrals were injected 49 cm before the end of the flow tube and

  6. Selected hydrologic data for the central Virgin River basin area, Washington and Iron counties, Utah, 1915-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, Christopher D.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Wilberg, Dale E.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, from 1995 to 1997 to better understand the hydrologic system. Data from earlier years also are presented. Data collected from wells include well-completion data, water-level measurements, and physical properties of the water. Data collected from springs and surface-water sites include discharge and physical properties of the water. Selected water samples collected from ground- and surface-water sites were analyzed for isotopes, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gases.

  7. Electromagnetic transitions in the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulehla, I.; Suk, M.; Trka, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Methods to achieve excitation of atoms are outlined and conditions necessary for the occurrence of electromagnetic transitions in the atomic shell are given. Radiative transitions between the energy states of the atom include stimulated absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. Selection rules applying to the majority of observed transitions are given. The parity concept is explained. It is shown how the electromagnetic field and its interaction with the magnetic moment of the atom lead to a disturbance of the energy states of the atom and the occurrence of various electro-optical and magneto-optical phenomena. The Stark effect and electron spin resonance are described. X-rays and X-ray spectra, the Auger effect and the internal photoeffect are also dealt with. The principle of the laser is explained. (M.D.). 22 figs., 1 tab

  8. Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)

  9. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunselman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Selected Business Programs in Community Colleges and Area Vocational-Technical Centers. Program Review Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    In 1988, a review was conducted of the business component of associate in arts and associate in science (AS) degree programs, and of the certificate programs in business in Florida community colleges and area vocational-technical centers. Focusing primarily on business programs in marketing, general business management, and small business…

  11. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  12. The regional metallogenesis and optimum selection of prospecting target for superlarge uranium deposit in metallogenic area of erguna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yi; Wang Zhengbang; Hou Huiqun; Zhou Dean; Qi Fucheng; Xiao Xiangping

    1995-06-01

    The study area, an activation zone of the median Massif in Xingmeng geosynclinal area, geologically underwent the multiple tectono-magmatic reworking of granitizations during Shinagan, Caledonia and Hercynian periods and of continental rift volcanism in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era. It is an important potential area for uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin in North China. The study identifies that four stages of uranium preconcentration and three phases of hydrothermal superimposed-reworking uranium metallogenesis occurred along with the regional geological elevation process. Studies on the U-Pb isotope and induced fission track of various kinds of basement rocks from the area indicate that the basement composed of crustal source remelting type Caledonian and Hercynian granites is favourable for uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin, and that the late Jurassic intermediate-acid volcano-rock directly act as the source of uranium and that Cretaceous-Tertiary extension-rift basalt magmatic activation supply an important hydrothermal reworking condition for the uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin. Based on comparative study on the metallogenetic conditions of typical large-scale volcanic uranium deposits at home and abroad, nine prospecting criteria are summarized, the polygenetic mixing hydrothermal uranium metallogenetic model for penetrable volcano-collapse basin is presented, and the main prospecting targets of uranium deposits are pointed out. (2 figs.)

  13. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  14. A comparison of selected parametric and non-parametric imputation methods for estimating forest biomass and basal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Gagliasso; Susan Hummel; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    Various methods have been used to estimate the amount of above ground forest biomass across landscapes and to create biomass maps for specific stands or pixels across ownership or project areas. Without an accurate estimation method, land managers might end up with incorrect biomass estimate maps, which could lead them to make poorer decisions in their future...

  15. The Contents of Selected Risk Elements and Organic Pollutants in Soil and Vegetation within a Former Military Area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladková, A.; Száková, J.; Havelcová, Martina; Najmanová, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 325-342 ISSN 1532-0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Military area * risk elements * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * mobility * plant-availability Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.189, year: 2015

  16. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  17. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie W McCallum

    Full Text Available Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants, who may negatively impact native species.

  18. Geographic variation in species richness, rarity, and the selection of areas for conservation: An integrative approach with Brazilian estuarine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ciro C.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Spach, Henry L.

    2017-09-01

    While the number of species is a key indicator of ecological assemblages, spatial conservation priorities solely identified from species richness are not necessarily efficient to protect other important biological assets. Hence, the results of spatial prioritization analysis would be greatly enhanced if richness were used in association to complementary biodiversity measures. In this study, geographic patterns in estuarine fish species rarity (i.e. the average range size in the study area), endemism and richness, were mapped and integrated to identify regions important for biodiversity conservation along the Brazilian coast. Furthermore, we analyzed the effectiveness of the national system of protected areas to represent these regions. Analyses were performed on presence/absence data of 412 fish species in 0.25° latitudinal bands covering the entire Brazilian biogeographical province. Species richness, rarity and endemism patterns differed and strongly reflected biogeographical limits and regions. However, among the existing 154 latitudinal bands, 48 were recognized as conservation priorities by concomitantly harboring high estuarine fish species richness and assemblages of geographically rare species. Priority areas identified for all estuarine fish species largely differed from those identified for Brazilian endemics. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the different aspects of the fish assemblages considered (i.e. species richness, endemism or rarity), suggesting that designating reserves based on a single variable may lead to large gaps in the overall protection of biodiversity. Our results further revealed that the existing system of protected areas is insufficient for representing the priority bands we identified. This highlights the urgent need for expanding the national network of protected areas to maintain estuarine ecosystems with high conservation value.

  19. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  20. Detecting bilateral motor associated areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance: the effect of different seed points selection on the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Huiming; Yang Mingming; Meng Liangliang; Zhang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different seed points selection on localizing bilateral hand motor associated areas in resting state functional magnetic resonance. Methods: Thirty -one subjects were recruited (male 15, female 16), all of them underwent both block-designed fMRI scan during performing bilateral hand motor task and resting-state fMRI scan. DPARSA V2.0 and SPM8 were used to process the data. The peak voxels in the activity map of the task scan were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity map of the resting-state scan. Spatial correlation analysis was performed to compare the activity map of the task scan and the connectivity map of the resting- state scan. Results: Fifteen isolated clusters were picked to generate the peak voxels, which were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity maps. Among all the functional connectivity maps, those generated by motor area (SMA) presented the most consistent spatial distribution with task associated activity map, and the functional connectivity maps generated by primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) consisted of bilateral Ml and SMA. the functional connectivity maps generated by putamen (Pu), thalamus (Th), cerebellum anterior lobe (CbAL) and cerebellum posterior lobe (CbPL) consisted of the areas around the seeds and the mirror areas in the contralateral cortex. Conclusion: Using SMA as seed to compute resting-state functional connectivity map may produce the best spatial coherence with the activity map generated by bilateral hand motor task, and selecting M1 and PMd as seeds may present the best primary motor cortex in the connectivity map. (authors)