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Sample records for selective analyte enrichment

  1. A DUAL PLATFORM FOR SELECTIVE ANALYTE ENRICHMENT AND IONIZATION IN MASS SPECTROMETRY USING APTAMER-CONJUGATED GRAPHENE OXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbakan, Basri; Yasun, Emir; Shukoor, M. Ibrahim; Zhu, Zhi; You, Mingxu; Tan, Xiaohong; Sanchez, Hernan; Powell, David H.; Dai, Hongjie; Tan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of aptamer-conjugated graphene oxide as an affinity extraction and detection platform for analytes from complex biological media. We have shown that cocaine and adenosine can be selectively enriched from plasma samples and that direct mass spectrometric readout can be obtained without a matrix and with greatly improved signal-to-noise ratios. The aptamer conjugated graphene oxide has clear advantages in target enrichment and in generating highly efficient ioniz...

  2. A dual platform for selective analyte enrichment and ionization in mass spectrometry using aptamer-conjugated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbakan, Basri; Yasun, Emir; Shukoor, M Ibrahim; Zhu, Zhi; You, Mingxu; Tan, Xiaohong; Sanchez, Hernan; Powell, David H; Dai, Hongjie; Tan, Weihong

    2010-12-15

    This study demonstrates the use of aptamer-conjugated graphene oxide as an affinity extraction and detection platform for analytes from complex biological media. We have shown that cocaine and adenosine can be selectively enriched from plasma samples and that direct mass spectrometric readouts can be obtained without a matrix and with greatly improved signal-to-noise ratios. Aptamer-conjugated graphene oxide has clear advantages in target enrichment and in generating highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry. These results demonstrate the utility of the approach for analysis of small molecules in real biological samples.

  3. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sampling and analyte enrichment strategies for ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Ma, Wen; Li, Hongmei; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry provides great convenience for fast screening, and has showed promising potential in analytical chemistry. However, its relatively low sensitivity seriously restricts its practical utility in trace compound analysis. In this review, we summarize the sampling and analyte enrichment strategies coupled with nine modes of representative ambient mass spectrometry (desorption electrospray ionization, paper vhspray ionization, wooden-tip spray ionization, probe electrospray ionization, coated blade spray ionization, direct analysis in real time, desorption corona beam ionization, dielectric barrier discharge ionization, and atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe) that have dramatically increased the detection sensitivity. We believe that these advances will promote routine use of ambient mass spectrometry. Graphical abstract Scheme of sampling stretagies for ambient mass spectrometry.

  5. Identification, Selection, and Enrichment of Cardiomyocyte Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale production of cardiomyocytes is a key step in the development of cell therapy and tissue engineering to treat cardiovascular diseases, particularly those caused by ischemia. The main objective of this study was to establish a procedure for the efficient production of cardiomyocytes by reprogramming mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. First, lentiviral vectors expressing neoR and GFP under the control of promoters expressed specifically during cardiomyogenesis were constructed to monitor cell reprogramming into precardiomyocytes and to select cells for amplification and characterization. Cellular reprogramming was performed using 5′-azacytidine followed by electroporation with plasmid pOKS2a, which expressed Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. Under these conditions, GFP expression began only after transfection with pOKS2a, and less than 0.015% of cells were GFP+. These GFP+ cells were selected for G418 resistance to find molecular markers of cardiomyocytes by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both genetic and protein markers of cardiomyocytes were present in the selected cells, with some variations among them. Cell doubling time did not change after selection. Together, these results indicate that enrichment with vectors expressing GFP and neoR under cardiomyocyte-specific promoters can produce large numbers of cardiomyocyte precursors (CMPs, which can then be differentiated terminally for cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  6. Optimal set of selected uranium enrichments that minimizes blending consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachlas, J.A.; Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; Lobber, J.S. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Identities, quantities, and costs associated with producing a set of selected enrichments and blending them to provide fuel for existing reactors are investigated using an optimization model constructed with appropriate constraints. Selected enrichments are required for either nuclear reactor fuel standardization or potential uranium enrichment alternatives such as the gas centrifuge. Using a mixed-integer linear program, the model minimizes present worth costs for a 39-product-enrichment reference case. For four ingredients, the marginal blending cost is only 0.18% of the total direct production cost. Natural uranium is not an optimal blending ingredient. Optimal values reappear in most sets of ingredient enrichments

  7. An analytic solution for the enrichment of uranium hexafluoride in long countercurrent centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetz, E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an analytic solution for the enrichment and the separative power of long countercurrent centrifuges. Equations to derive optimal operation parameters like feed and feed input height are derived and solved. (orig.) [de

  8. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  9. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  10. Selective adsorption-desorption method for the enrichment of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Y.; Ohta, M.; Watanabe, A.; Tani, A.; Takashima, N.

    1975-01-01

    Selective adsorption-desorption method has been developed as an effective means of enriching krypton and xenon gases. A seriesof laboratory-scale tests were performed to provide some basic data of the method when applied to off-gas streams of nuclear power plants. For the first step of the enrichment process of the experiments, krypton was adsorbed on solid adsorbents from dilute mixtures with air at temperatures ranging from -50 0 C to -170 0 C. After the complete breakthrough was obtained, the adsorption bed was evacuated at low temperature by a vacuum pump. By combining these two steps krypton was highly enriched on the adsorbents, and the enrichment factor for krypton was calculated as the product of individual enrichment factors of each step. Two types of adsorbents, coconut charcoal and molecular sieves 5A, were used. Experimental results showed that the present method gave the greater enrichment factor than the conventional method which used selective adsorption step only. (U.S.)

  11. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    -column. Although phosphopeptide enrichment can be achieved by using TFA and acetonitrile alone, the selectivity is dramatically enhanced by adding DHB or phthalic acid since these compounds, in conjunction with the low pH caused by TFA, prevent binding of nonphosphorylated peptides to TiO2. Using an alkaline...... a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...... solution (pH > or = 10.5) both monophosphorylated and multiphosphorylated peptides are eluted from the TiO2 beads. This highly efficient method for purification of phosphopeptides is well suited for the characterization of phosphoproteins from both in vitro and in vivo studies in combination with mass...

  12. Student teachers’ perceptions about an e-portfolio enriched with learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Pihel; Leijen, Äli; Silm, Gerli; Malva, Liina; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the use of e-portfolios has increased in teacher education. Moreover, another rapidly evolving area in teacher education is learning analytics (LA). This paper reports the experiences of 13 student teachers in the implementation of an e-portfolio that is enriched with LA in a teacher

  13. Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing ribonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Chen, Peihong; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-05-27

    Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres (Zr-Fe3O4) for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules were easily synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Characterization of the microspheres revealed that zirconium was successfully doped into the lattice of Fe3O4 at a doping level of 4.0 at%. Zr-Fe3O4 possessed good magnetic properties and high specificity towards cis-diol molecules, as shown using 28 compounds. For ribonucleosides, the adsorbent not only has favorable anti-interferential abilities but also has a high adsorption capacity up to 159.4μmol/g. As an example of a real application, four ribonucleosides in urine were efficiently enriched and detected via magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 0.005 and 0.017μg/mL, and the linearities ranged from 0.02 to 5.00μg/mL (R≥0.996) for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of the analytes in real urine samples, with recoveries varying from 77.8% to 119.6% (RSDs<10.6%, n=6). The results indicate that Zr-Fe3O4 is a suitable adsorbent for the analysis of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of power market structure using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhes Bhattacharyya; Prasanta Kumar Dey

    2003-01-01

    Selection of a power market structure from the available alternatives is an important activity within an overall power sector reform program. The evaluation criteria for selection are both subjective as well as objective in nature and the selection of alternatives is characterised by their conflicting nature. This study demonstrates a methodology for power market structure selection using the analytic hierarchy process, a multiple attribute decision- making technique, to model the selection methodology with the active participation of relevant stakeholders in a workshop environment. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical case of a State Electricity Board reform in India. (author)

  15. Manual of selected physico-chemical analytical methods. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Klosova, E.; Krtil, J.; Sus, F.; Kuvik, V.; Vrbova, L.; Hamplova, M.; Lengyel, J.; Kelnar, L.; Zakouril, K.

    1990-11-01

    The Central Testing Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez has for a decade been participating in the development of analytical procedures and has been providing analyses of samples of different types and origin. The analytical procedures developed have been published in special journals and a number of them in the Manuals of analytical methods, in three parts. The 4th part of the Manual contains selected physico-chemical methods developed or modified by the Laboratory in the years 1986-1990 within the project ''Development of physico-chemical analytical methods''. In most cases, techniques are involved for non-nuclear applications. Some can find wider applications, especially in analyses of environmental samples. Others have been developed for specific cases of sample analyses or require special instrumentation (mass spectrometer), which partly restricts their applicability by other institutions. (author)

  16. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  17. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Baker, M.P.; Strittmatter, R.; Jain, M.; Evans, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development of each of these instruments is discussed, with supporting data, as well as the role each would play in a total international safeguards system. 5 figures

  18. Multiattribute Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Aydin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a multiattribute decision making (MADM problem which contains both qualitative and quantitative factors. Supplier selection has vital importance for most companies. The aim of this paper is to provide an AHP based analytical tool for decision support enabling an effective multicriteria supplier selection process in an air conditioner seller firm under fuzziness. In this article, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP under fuzziness is employed for its permissiveness to use an evaluation scale including linguistic expressions, crisp numerical values, fuzzy numbers and range numerical values. This scale provides a more flexible evaluation compared with the other fuzzy AHP methods. In this study, the modified AHP was used in supplier selection in an air conditioner firm. Three experts evaluated the suppliers according to the proposed model and the most appropriate supplier was selected. The proposed model enables decision makers select the best supplier among supplier firms effectively. We confirm that the modified fuzzy AHP is appropriate for group decision making in supplier selection problems.

  19. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  20. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate analytical methods for characterizing the assembly and morphology of polymer-based vesicles, or polymersomes are required to reach their full potential in biotechnology. This work presents and compares 17 different techniques for their ability to adequately report size....../purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  1. Centrifugal partition chromatography enables selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric proanthocyanidins for biomaterial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Rasika S; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Leme, Ariene A; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana-Karina; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-02-02

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). This CPC method aims at developing PAC based biomaterials, particularly for their application in restoring and repairing dental hard tissue. A general separation scheme beginning with the depletion of polymeric PACs, followed by the removal of monomeric flavan-3-ols and a final enrichment step produced PAC trimer and tetramer enriched fractions. A successful application of this separation scheme is demonstrated for four polyphenol rich plant sources: grape seeds, pine bark, cinnamon bark, and cocoa seeds. Minor modifications to the generic DESIGNER CCS method were sufficient to accommodate the varying chemical complexities of the individual source materials. The step-wise enrichment of PAC trimers and tetramers was monitored using normal phase TLC and Diol-HPLC-UV analyses. CPC proved to be a reliable tool for the selective enrichment of medium size oligomeric PACs (OPACs). This method plays a key role in the development of dental biomaterials considering its reliability and reproducibility, as well as its scale-up capabilities for possible larger-scale manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Special concrete shield selection using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Special types of concrete radiation shields that depend on locally available materials and have improved properties for both neutron and gamma-ray attenuation were developed by using plastic materials and heavy ores. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is implemented to evaluate these types for selecting the best biological radiation shield for nuclear reactors. Factors affecting the selection decision are degree of protection against neutrons, degree of protection against gamma rays, suitability of the concrete as building material, and economic considerations. The seven concrete alternatives are barite-polyethylene concrete, barite-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) concrete, barite-portland cement concrete, pyrite-polyethylene concrete, pyrite-PVC concrete, pyrite-portland cement concrete, and ordinary concrete. The AHP analysis shows the superiority of pyrite-polyethylene concrete over the others

  3. L-Lactate-selective microbial sensor based on flavocytochrome b2-enriched yeast cells using recombinant and nanotechnology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years, nanotechnology is the most developing branch due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, biotechnological and agriculture fields. The binding nanoparticles with various biological molecules makes them attractive candidates for using in sensor technologies. The particularly actual is obtaining the bionanomembranes based on biocatalytic elements with improved sensing characteristics. The aim of this investigation is to study the properties of microbial L-lactate-selective sensor based on using the recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells overproducing flavocytochrome b2 (FC b2), as well as additionally enriched by the enzyme bound with gold nanoparticles (FC b2-nAu). Although, the high permeability of the living cells to nanoparticles is being intensively studied (mostly for delivery of drugs), the idea of using both recombinant technology and nanotechnology to increase the amount of the target enzyme in the biosensing layer is really novel. The FC b2-nAu-enriched living and permeabilized yeast cells were used for construction of a bioselective membrane of microbial L-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor. Phenazine methosulphate was served as a free defusing electron transfer mediator which provides effective electron transfer from the reduced enzyme to the electrode surface. It was shown that the output to L-lactate of FC b2-nAu-enriched permeabilized yeast cells is 2.5-fold higher when compared to the control cells. The obtained results confirm that additional enrichment of the recombinant yeast cell by the enzyme bound with nanoparticles improves the analytical parameters of microbial sensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical characterization of a loading resin containing chlorophosphonazo I and its application to the enrichment of trace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fulong; Mao Xueqin

    1986-01-01

    A loading resin containing chlorophosphonazo I was prepared. The analytical properties of this resin for uranium were studied by the batch and column methods. In case EDTA is used as a masking agent, this method can be successfully applied to the separation and enrichment of trace uranium in wastewater from mining. The uranium adsorbed can be eluted with 1.5N HCl, and determined using the arsenazo III at pH 2 by spectrophotometry. The result obtained agrees well with that of the conventional method

  5. Analytical Modelling Of Milling For Tool Design And Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient analytical model which allows to simulate a large panel of milling operations. A geometrical description of common end mills and of their engagement in the workpiece material is proposed. The internal radius of the rounded part of the tool envelope is used to define the considered type of mill. The cutting edge position is described for a constant lead helix and for a constant local helix angle. A thermomechanical approach of oblique cutting is applied to predict forces acting on the tool and these results are compared with experimental data obtained from milling tests on a 42CrMo4 steel for three classical types of mills. The influence of some tool's geometrical parameters on predicted cutting forces is presented in order to propose optimisation criteria for design and selection of cutting tools

  6. Selection of Vendor Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment is characterized by greater domestic and international competitive position in the global market. Vendors play a key role in achieving the so-called corporate competition. It is not easy however to identify good vendors because evaluation is based on multiple criteria. In practice, for VSP most of the input information about the criteria is not known precisely. Intuitionistic fuzzy set is an extension of the classical fuzzy set theory (FST, which is a suitable way to deal with impreciseness. In other words, the application of intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of fuzzy sets means the introduction of another degree of freedom called nonmembership function into the set description. In this paper, we proposed a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number based approach for the vendor selection problem using analytical hierarchy process. The crisp data of the vendors is represented in the form of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. By applying AHP which involves decomposition, pairwise comparison, and deriving priorities for the various levels of the hierarchy, an overall crisp priority is obtained for ranking the best vendor. A numerical example illustrates our method. Lastly a sensitivity analysis is performed to find the most critical criterion on the basis of which vendor is selected.

  7. Geospatial Analytics in Retail Site Selection and Sales Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching; Yee, Hui Jia; Matsah, Wan Razali

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that certain features from geography, demography, trade area, and environment can play a vital role in retail site selection, largely due to the impact they asserted on retail performance. Although the relevant features could be elicited by domain experts, determining the optimal feature set can be intractable and labor-intensive exercise. The challenges center around (1) how to determine features that are important to a particular retail business and (2) how to estimate retail sales performance given a new location? The challenges become apparent when the features vary across time. In this light, this study proposed a nonintervening approach by employing feature selection algorithms and subsequently sales prediction through similarity-based methods. The results of prediction were validated by domain experts. In this study, data sets from different sources were transformed and aggregated before an analytics data set that is ready for analysis purpose could be obtained. The data sets included data about feature location, population count, property type, education status, and monthly sales from 96 branches of a telecommunication company in Malaysia. The finding suggested that (1) optimal retail performance can only be achieved through fulfillment of specific location features together with the surrounding trade area characteristics and (2) similarity-based method can provide solution to retail sales prediction.

  8. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  9. Applying behavior-analytic methodology to the science and practice of environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Leighty, Katherine A

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518). Multi-institutional studies are the typically-prescribed solution, but these are expensive and difficult to carry out. Kuhar ( Zoo Biology, 25, 339-352) provided a reminder that inferential statistics are only necessary when one wishes to draw general conclusions at the population level. Because welfare is assessed at the level of the individual animal, we argue that evaluations of enrichment efficacy are often instances in which inferential statistics may be neither necessary nor appropriate. In recent years, there have been calls for the application of behavior-analytic techniques to zoo animal behavior management, including environmental enrichment (e.g., Bloomsmith, Marr, & Maple, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 205-222; Tarou & Bashaw, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 189-204). Single-subject (also called single-case, or small-n) designs provide a means of designing evaluations of enrichment efficacy based on an individual's behavior. We discuss how these designs might apply to research and practice goals at zoos and aquariums, contrast them with standard practices in the field, and give examples of how each could be successfully applied in a zoo or aquarium setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Power substation location selection using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and PROMETHEE: A case study from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Golam; Sumi, Razia Sultana

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations emanating from the high voltage lines and substations pose serious adverse health consequences to living beings. As a result, selection of power substation location is an important strategic decision-making problem for both public and private sectors. In general, many conflicting factors affect the appropriate substation location selection problem which adheres to uncertain and imprecise data. In this paper, a simple, systematic and logical scientific approach is structured to evaluate power substation location through integrating Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE). The proposed integrated approach provides more realistic and reliable results, and facilitates the decision-maker to handle multiple contradictory decision perspectives through eliminating the limitations of FAHP and PROMETHEE methods. To accredit the proposed model, it is implemented in a power substation location selection problem in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • Integrate the strengths and eliminate the limitations of FAHP and PROMETHEE. • Consider social, technological, economic, environmental, and site characteristics criteria. • Determine the weights of criteria and sub-criteria using FAHP. • Present both PROMETHEE I and PROMETHEE II ranking. • Enable graphical representation of the alternatives and criteria by GAIA plane

  11. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  12. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes from selective enrichment broth using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Snehal; Sevior, Danielle; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-01-31

    Conventional methods used for primary detection of Listeria monocytogenes from foods and subsequent confirmation of presumptive positive samples involve prolonged incubation and biochemical testing which generally require four to five days to obtain a result. In the current study, a simple and rapid proteomics-based MALDI-TOF MS approach was developed to detect L. monocytogenes directly from selective enrichment broths. Milk samples spiked with single species and multiple species cultures were incubated in a selective enrichment broth for 24h, followed by an additional 6h secondary enrichment. As few as 1 colony-forming unit (cfu) of L. monocytogenes per mL of initial selective broth culture could be detected within 30h. On applying the same approach to solid foods previously implicated in listeriosis, namely chicken pâté, cantaloupe and Camembert cheese, detection was achieved within the same time interval at inoculation levels of 10cfu/mL. Unlike the routine application of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of bacteria from solid media, this study proposes a cost-effective and time-saving detection scheme for direct identification of L. monocytogenes from broth cultures.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. Globally, foodborne diseases are major causes of illness and fatalities in humans. Hence, there is a continual need for reliable and rapid means for pathogen detection from food samples. Recent applications of MALDI-TOF MS for diagnostic microbiology focused on detection of microbes from clinical specimens. However, the current study has emphasized its use as a tool for detecting the major foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, directly from selective enrichment broths. This proof-of-concept study proposes a detection scheme that is more rapid and simple compared to conventional methods of Listeria detection. Very low levels of the pathogen could be identified from different food samples post-enrichment in

  13. Semantic Enrichment of Movement Behavior with Foursquare--A Visual Analytics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert; Thom, Dennis; Ertl, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been developed that efficiently and effectively visualize movement data, e.g., by providing suitable aggregation strategies to reduce visual clutter. Analysts can use them to identify distinct movement patterns, such as trajectories with similar direction, form, length, and speed. However, less effort has been spent on finding the semantics behind movements, i.e. why somebody or something is moving. This can be of great value for different applications, such as product usage and consumer analysis, to better understand urban dynamics, and to improve situational awareness. Unfortunately, semantic information often gets lost when data is recorded. Thus, we suggest to enrich trajectory data with POI information using social media services and show how semantic insights can be gained. Furthermore, we show how to handle semantic uncertainties in time and space, which result from noisy, unprecise, and missing data, by introducing a POI decision model in combination with highly interactive visualizations. Finally, we evaluate our approach with two case studies on a large electric scooter data set and test our model on data with known ground truth.

  14. Bioanalytics of mycotoxins and development of dedicated analyte-selective molecularly imprinted materials for solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodlbauer, H.J.

    2001-09-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species, growing on agricultural products during cultivation, harvest, transport or storage. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of great natural abundance and can be found in various plant products. Due to its frequent occurrence and toxic properties many countries have set up tolerance levels for OTA. Thus, the need for sensitive analytical and in particular selective sample preparation methods for analyte enrichment and removal of interfering matrix compounds is obvious. Molecular imprinting generates polymeric matrices that can selectively recognize and bind target molecules. It was previously demonstrated that molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed in sample preparation. MIPs capable of recognizing OTA have been prepared using an analyte mimic approach. Crucial to the success was the introduction of a novel class of quinuclidine-derived functional monomers which utilize ionic binding increments and hydrophobic interactions for selective recognition of the target analyte and its mimics. Since optimization of SPE procedures demonstrated the convenient use of several solvent systems, the developed MIPs represents an enrichment for the field of mycotoxin analysis. Zeranol has been widely adopted as a growth stimulant for cattle and other animals due to its anabolic and estrogenic properties. Application of zeranol has been banned in the European Union since 1985. Researchers, however, found that the illegal administration of this anabolic agent may not be the only source of zeranol residues in biologically relevant matrices. Previously, it was demonstrated that zeranol was also formed in vivo from the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZON) and α-zearalenol that are carried over from mycotoxin contaminated feed into the animal body. A fast, robust and sensitive LC-MS method for the determination for these compounds in urine and tissue samples has been developed. Crucial for the achievement of low

  15. Selective trace enrichment of chlorotriazine pesticides from natural waters and sediment samples using terbuthylazine molecularly imprinted polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Lanza, F.; Tolokan, A.; Horvath, V.; Sellergren, B.; Horvai, G.; Barcelo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using either dichloromethane or toluene as the porogen and terbuthylazine as the template and were used as solid-phase extraction cartridges for the enrichment of six chlorotriazines (deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine) in natural water and sediment samples. The extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD). Several washing solvents, as well as different volumes, were tested for their ability to remove the matrix components nonspecifically adsorbed on the sorbents. This cleanup step was shown to be of prime importance to the successful extraction of the pesticides from the aqueous samples. The optimal analytical conditions were obtained when the MIP imprinted using dichloromethane was the sorbent, 2 mL of dichloromethane was used in the washing step, and the preconcentrated analytes were eluted with 8 mL of methanol. The recoveries were higher than 80% for all the chlorotriazines except for propazine (53%) when 50- or 100-mL groundwater samples, spiked at 1 ??g/L level, were analyzed. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 to 0.2 ??g/L when preconcentrating a 100-mL groundwater sample. Natural sediment samples from the Ebre Delta area (Tarragona, Spain) containing atrazine and deethylatrazine were Soxhlet extracted and analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. No significant interferences from the sample matrix were noticed, thus indicating good selectivity of the MIP sorbents used.

  16. The use of titanium dioxide for selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    acid (DHB), phthalic acid, lactic acid, or glycolic acid has been shown to improve selectivity significantly by reducing unspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. The phosphopeptides bound to the TiO2 are subsequently eluted from the chromatographic material using an alkaline buffer. TiO2......Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has very high affinity for phosphopeptides and in recent years it has become one of the most popular methods for phosphopeptide enrichment from complex biological samples. Peptide loading onto TiO2 resin in a highly acidic environment in the presence of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic...... chromatography is extremely tolerant towards most buffers used in biological experiments, highly robust and as such it has become the method of choice in large-scale phosphoproteomics. Here we describe a batch mode protocol for phosphopeptide enrichment using TiO2 chromatographic material followed by desalting...

  17. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  18. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70ºC) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, J.; Dai, K.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Zeng, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in

  19. Enrichment: CRISLA [chemical reaction by isotope selective activation] aims to reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Every year, more than $3 billion is spent on enriching uranium. CRISLA (Chemical Reaction by Isotope Selective Activation) uses a laser-catalyzed chemical reaction which, its proponents claim, could substantially reduce these costs. In CRISLA, an infrared CO laser illuminates the intracavity reaction cell (IC) at a frequency tuned to excite primarily UF 6 . When UF 6 and co-reactant RX are passed through the IC, the tuned laser photons preferentially enhance the reaction of UF 6 with RX ten-thousand-fold over the thermal reaction rate. Thus the laser serves as an activator and the chemical energy for separation is largely chemical. (author)

  20. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides from peptide mixtures using titanium dioxide microcolumns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N

    2005-01-01

    based on TiO2microcolumns and peptide loading in 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). The effect of DHB was a very efficient reduction in the binding of nonphosphorylated peptides to TiO2 while retaining its high binding affinity for phosphorylated peptides. Thus, inclusion of DHB dramatically increased...... the selectivity of the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides by TiO2. We demonstrated that this new procedure was more selective for binding phosphorylated peptides than IMAC using MALDI mass spectrometry. In addition, we showed that LC-ESI-MSMS was biased toward monophosphorylated peptides, whereas MALDI MS...... was not. Other substituted aromatic carboxylic acids were also capable of specifically reducing binding of nonphosphorylated peptides, whereas phosphoric acid reduced binding of both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated peptides. A putative mechanism for this intriguing effect is presented....

  1. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    A deuterium-enriched material is produced by selective photoinduced dissociation of a gas phase organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom adjacent to a carbonyl group. Alkyl carbonyl compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, trifluoroacetic acid, cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, methyl acetate, 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone, 2,4-pentanedione, and 4-methyl-2-pentanone are preferred. The carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation from one laser, or two lasers operating at different frequencies, to selectively dissociate the deuterated molecules into stable products. The undissociated compound may be redeuterated by direct aqueous liquid phase H/D exchange, or by indirect liquid phase exchange using an alkanol in an intermediate step

  2. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    /purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  3. ERP Software Selection Model using Analytic Network Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lesmana , Andre Surya; Astanti, Ririn Diar; Ai, The Jin

    2014-01-01

    During the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in any company, one of the most important issues is the selection of ERP software that can satisfy the needs and objectives of the company. This issue is crucial since it may affect the duration of ERP implementation and the costs incurred for the ERP implementation. This research tries to construct a model of the selection of ERP software that are beneficial to the company in order to carry out the selection of the right ERP sof...

  4. 342 analytical investigation of selected pesticide residues from fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The selected pesticides were extracted from fruits and vegetable samples using smaller volume of .... post harvest storage to provide protection against a range of pests, before ... eliminated in the urine (Stephenson, 1982,. Pascual and Peris ...

  5. Quantitative analytical hierarchy process to marketing store location selection

    OpenAIRE

    Harwati; Utami Intan

    2018-01-01

    The selection of Store to market the product is belong to Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. The criteria used have conflict of interest with each other to produce an optimal location. This research uses four important criteria to select new location of marketing store appropriate with the references: distance to location, competition level with competitor, number of potential customer, and location rent cost. Quantitative data is used to determine the optimum location with AHP method. Q...

  6. Analytic theory for the selection of 2-D needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Saleh

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  7. Analytic theory for the selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, S.

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  8. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  9. Multiplexed enrichment of rare DNA variants via sequence-selective and temperature-robust amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R.; Chen, Sherry X.; Wu, Yalei; Patel, Abhijit A.; Zhang, David Yu

    2018-01-01

    Rare DNA-sequence variants hold important clinical and biological information, but existing detection techniques are expensive, complex, allele-specific, or don’t allow for significant multiplexing. Here, we report a temperature-robust polymerase-chain-reaction method, which we term blocker displacement amplification (BDA), that selectively amplifies all sequence variants, including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), within a roughly 20-nucleotide window by 1,000-fold over wild-type sequences. This allows for easy detection and quantitation of hundreds of potential variants originally at ≤0.1% in allele frequency. BDA is compatible with inexpensive thermocycler instrumentation and employs a rationally designed competitive hybridization reaction to achieve comparable enrichment performance across annealing temperatures ranging from 56 °C to 64 °C. To show the sequence generality of BDA, we demonstrate enrichment of 156 SNVs and the reliable detection of single-digit copies. We also show that the BDA detection of rare driver mutations in cell-free DNA samples extracted from the blood plasma of lung-cancer patients is highly consistent with deep sequencing using molecular lineage tags, with a receiver operator characteristic accuracy of 95%. PMID:29805844

  10. Quantitative analytical hierarchy process to marketing store location selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of Store to market the product is belong to Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. The criteria used have conflict of interest with each other to produce an optimal location. This research uses four important criteria to select new location of marketing store appropriate with the references: distance to location, competition level with competitor, number of potential customer, and location rent cost. Quantitative data is used to determine the optimum location with AHP method. Quantitative data are preferred to avoid inconsistency when using expert opinion. The AHP result optimum location among three alternatives places.

  11. The Selection of Bridge Materials Utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    Effective decisions on the use of natural resources often require the input of many individuals. Determining how specific criteria affect the selection of materials can lead to better utilization of raw materials. Concrete, steel, and timber represent over 98% of the materials used for bridge construction in the United States. Highway officials must often consider...

  12. An Elementary Overview of the Selection of Materials for Service in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The process for selecting materials for use in oxygen or oxygen-enriched environments is one that continues to be investigated by many industries due to the importance to those industries of oxygen systems. There are several excellent resources available to assist oxygen systems design engineers and end-users, with the most comprehensive being ASTM MNL-36, Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Handbook for Design, Operation and Maintenance, 2nd Edition. ASTM also makes available several standards for oxygen systems. However, the ASTM publications are extremely detailed, and typically designed for professionals who already possess a working knowledge of oxygen systems. No notable resource exists, whether an ASTM or other organizational publication, which can be used to educate engineers or technicians who have no prior knowledge of the nuances of oxygen system design and safety. This paper will fill the void for information needed by organizations that design or operate oxygen systems. The information in this paper is not new information, but is a concise and easily understood summary of selecting materials for oxygen systems. This paper will serve well as an employee s first introduction to oxygen system materials selection, and probably the employee s first introduction to ASTM.

  13. Bias in the Listeria monocytogenes enrichment procedure: Lineage 2 strains outcompete lineage 1 strains in University of Vermont selective enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    compounds in UVM I and II influenced this bias. The results of the present study demonstrate that the selective procedures used for isolation of L. monocytogenes may not allow a true representation of the types present in foods. Our results could have a significant impact on epidemiological studies...

  14. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  15. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process : an application for naval ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.J.M.; Basten, R.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult

  16. Immunomagnetic separation combined with colony immunoblotting for selective enrichment and detection of piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Q; Wei, Y F; Rao, S Q; Gao, L; Yin, Y Q; Xue, F; Fang, W M; Gu, R X; Jiao, X A

    2016-11-01

    Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains have attracted much attention owing to their excellent mucus adhering capacity and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive method for isolating pLR strains in complex ecosystems using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with colony immunoblotting (CIB). Magnetic nanobeads (diameter: 180 nm) conjugated with anti-pLR SpaA pilin antibodies (anti-SpaA) were prepared and used to preconcentrate pLR strains in samples, followed by confirmation with anti-SpaA-based CIB analysis. Under optimized experimental conditions, IMS-CIB selectively recovered pLR strains from 10 7  CFU ml -1 of faecal microbiota samples spiked with 2·9 × 10 1 to 2·4 × 10 6  CFU ml -1 of pLR strains. No positive colonies were detected in samples without addition of pLR strains. The detection limit of IMS-CIB was 29 CFU pLR ml -1 of faecal microbiota, which is much lower than that of CIB without IMS preconcentration (2·0 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 ). IMS-CIB allowed selective preconcentration of pLR strains in highly heterogeneous bacterial suspensions and direct detection of pLR colonies, which remained readily available for subsequent isolation. Our findings established an effective method for selective enrichment and detection of pLR strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heyong; Tan Kaixuan; Liu Huizhen

    2007-01-01

    According to the complicated conditions and main influence factors of in-situ leaching min- ing, a model and processes of analytic hierarchy are established for evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining methods based on analytic hierarchy process. Taking a uranium mine in Xinjiang of China for example, the application of this model is presented. The results of analyses and calculation indicate that the acid leaching is the optimum project. (authors)

  18. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-03-01

    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C 18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Selective enrichment and biochemical characterization of seven human skin fibroblasts cell types in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.; Bayreuther, K.; Francz, P.I.; Dittmann, K.; Albiez, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mitotic and postmitotic populations of the human skin fibroblast cell line HH-8 are heterogeneous when studied in vitro. There are reproducible changes in the frequencies of the mitotic fibroblasts (MF), MF I, MF II, MF III, and the postmitotic fibroblasts (PMF), PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII. For biochemical characterization, methods for selective enrichment of homogeneous populations of these seven fibroblast cell types have been established. Clonal populations with 95% purity for the mitotic fibroblasts MF I, MF II, and MF III can be raised in uniform clone types of fibroblasts (CTF) CTF I, CTF II, and CTF III. Pure clonal subpopulations of MF I type cells are present in mass populations in the range of 1-20 cumulative population doublings (CPD). Populations of mitotic fibroblasts represent nearly homogeneous populations of MF II (75-85% purity) in the range of 28-34 CPD and MF III (73-86% purity) in the range of 48-53 CPD. These populations can be easily expanded to up to 10(7)-10(8) cells. The spontaneous transition of MF III to PMF VI takes 140-180 days. In order to shorten this period and increase the proportion of distinct postmitotic types, mitotic fibroblast mass populations (CPD 30-32, MF II: 75-85% purity) have been induced by uv-irradiation to differentiate to nearly homogeneous populations of PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII within 4 to 36 days of culture. Using this method, 10(7) cells of one differentiation stage can be obtained. Spontaneously arising and experimentally selected or induced homogeneous clonal and mass populations of MF I, MF II, MF III, PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII express an identical differentiation-dependent and cell-type-specific [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide pattern

  20. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics.

  1. Selective enrichment of sialic acid-containing glycopeptides using titanium dioxide chromatography with analysis by HILIC and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Lendal, Sara Eun; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    -containing glycopeptides is achieved by using a low-pH buffer that contains a substituted acid such as glycolic acid to improve the binding efficiency and selectivity of SA-containing glycopeptides to the TiO(2) resin. By combining TiO(2) enrichment of sialylated glycopeptides with HILIC separation of deglycosylated...... of glycosylation sites and the characterization of glycan structures. In this paper, we describe a protocol for the selective enrichment of SA-containing glycopeptides using a combination of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The selectivity of TiO(2) toward SA...... peptides, a more comprehensive analysis of formerly sialylated glycopeptides by MS can be achieved. Here we illustrate the efficiency of the method by the identification of 1,632 unique formerly sialylated glycopeptides from 817 sialylated glycoproteins. The TiO(2)/HILIC protocol requires 2 d...

  2. Enrichment of Biologically Active Compounds from Selected Plants Using Adsorptive Bubble Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    In this research, foam fractionation a method belonging to the Adsorptive Bubble Separation Methods, was employed to enrich the following active principles contained in medically valuable plants: Faradiol esters from Calendula officinalis, catechins from Camellia sinensis, tryptanthrin from Isatis Tinctoria and cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa. The enrichment methods have been developed in the batch mode for these principles aqueous dilute solutions, based on their physicochemical nature and...

  3. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  4. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Padilla-Arellanes; F. Constantino-Casas; L. Núnez-Ochoa; J. Doubek; C. Vega-Murguia; J. Bouda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were determined in non-diluted and dil...

  5. Accelerating the design of molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes modified by Au@polyaniline for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuling; Wu, Yilin; Dong, Hongjun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Shi; Lu, Jian; Yan, Yongsheng; Li, He

    2018-01-01

    A novel system for harvesting molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes (MINcMs) with Au-modified polyaniline (Au@polyaniline) nanocomposite structure was developed for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen. This unique nanocomposite structure obviously enhanced the adsorption capacity, perm-selectivity performance, and regeneration ability of MINcMs. The as-prepared MINcMs showed outstanding adsorption capacity (22.02 mg g-1) of ibuprofen, which was four times higher than that of non-imprinted nanocomposite membranes (NINcMs). Furthermore, the selectivity factor of MINcMs for ibuprofen reached up to 4.67 and the perm-selectivity factor β was about 8.74, which indicated MINcMs had a good selective separation performance of ibuprofen. We envision that this novel synthesis method will open a new direction to manipulation of molecularly imprinted membrane materials and provide a simple yet convenient way to selective separation of ibuprofen.

  6. Evaluation and selection of energy technologies using an integrated graph theory and analytic hierarchy process methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Lanjewar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and selection of energy technologies involve a large number of attributes whose selection and weighting is decided in accordance with the social, environmental, technical and economic framework. In the present work an integrated multiple attribute decision making methodology is developed by combining graph theory and analytic hierarchy process methods to deal with the evaluation and selection of energy technologies. The energy technology selection attributes digraph enables a quick visual appraisal of the energy technology selection attributes and their interrelationships. The preference index provides a total objective score for comparison of energy technologies alternatives. Application of matrix permanent offers a better appreciation of the considered attributes and helps to analyze the different alternatives from combinatorial viewpoint. The AHP is used to assign relative weights to the attributes. Four examples of evaluation and selection of energy technologies are considered in order to demonstrate and validate the proposed method.

  7. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  8. A semi-analytical approach towards plane wave analysis of local resonance metamaterials using a multiscale enriched continuum description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel multiscale semi-analytical technique for the acoustic plane wave analysis of (negative) dynamic mass density type local resonance metamaterials with complex micro-structural geometry. A two step solution strategy is adopted, in which the unit cell problem at the

  9. Informative gene selection using Adaptive Analytic Hierarchy Process (A2HP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression dataset derived from microarray experiments are marked by large number of genes, which contains the gene expression values at different sample conditions/time-points. Selection of informative genes from these large datasets is an issue of major concern for various researchers and biologists. In this study, we propose a gene selection and dimensionality reduction method called Adaptive Analytic Hierarchy Process (A2HP. Traditional analytic hierarchy process is a multiple-criteria based decision analysis method whose result depends upon the expert knowledge or decision makers. It is mainly used to solve the decision problems in different fields. On the other hand, A2HP is a fused method that combines the outcomes of five individual gene selection ranking methods t-test, chi-square variance test, z-test, wilcoxon test and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. At first, the preprocessing of gene expression dataset is done and then the reduced number of genes obtained, will be fed as input for A2HP. A2HP utilizes both quantitative and qualitative factors to select the informative genes. Results demonstrate that A2HP selects efficient number of genes as compared to the individual gene selection methods. The percentage of deduction in number of genes and time complexity are taken as the performance measure for the proposed method. And it is shown that A2HP outperforms individual gene selection methods.

  10. Metagenome enrichment approach used for selection of oil-degrading bacteria consortia for drill cutting residue bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alaine B; Oliveira, Jorge S; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; Araújo, Wydemberg; Carlos, Aline C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Domingos, Yldeney Silva; de Farias, Mirna Ferreira; Fernandes, Glauber José Turolla; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2018-04-01

    Drill cuttings leave behind thousands of tons of residues without adequate treatment, generating a large environmental liability. Therefore knowledge about the microbial community of drilling residue may be useful for developing bioremediation strategies. In this work, samples of drilling residue were enriched in different culture media in the presence of petroleum, aiming to select potentially oil-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant producers. Total DNA was extracted directly from the drill cutting samples and from two enriched consortia and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. Taxonomic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria in the metagenome from the drill cuttings, while Firmicutes was enriched in consortia samples. Functional analysis using the Biosurfactants and Biodegradation Database (BioSurfDB) revealed a similar pattern among the three samples regarding hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactants production pathways. However, some statistical differences were observed between samples. Namely, the pathways related to the degradation of fatty acids, chloroalkanes, and chloroalkanes were enriched in consortia samples. The degradation colorimetric assay using dichlorophenolindophenol as an indicator was positive for several hydrocarbon substrates. The consortia were also able to produce biosurfactants, with biosynthesis of iturin, lichnysin, and surfactin among the more abundant pathways. A microcosms assay followed by gas chromatography analysis showed the efficacy of the consortia in degrading alkanes, as we observed a reduction of around 66% and 30% for each consortium in total alkanes. These data suggest the potential use of these consortia in the bioremediation of drilling residue based on autochthonous bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection and use of a low enriched fuel in high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-08-01

    A new nuclear fuel composition for research reactors (Osiris, Siloe) is studied using low enriched (E<20%) uranium oxide. Its utilization leads to modifications in the facilities of these experimental reactors: increase of primary coolant flow, modifications in failed element detection system, handling of materials and storage

  12. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  13. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  14. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  15. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  16. An active learning representative subset selection method using net analyte signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghai; Ma, Zhenhe; Luan, Jingmin; Cai, Xi

    2018-05-01

    To guarantee accurate predictions, representative samples are needed when building a calibration model for spectroscopic measurements. However, in general, it is not known whether a sample is representative prior to measuring its concentration, which is both time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, a method to determine whether a sample should be selected into a calibration set is presented. The selection is based on the difference of Euclidean norm of net analyte signal (NAS) vector between the candidate and existing samples. First, the concentrations and spectra of a group of samples are used to compute the projection matrix, NAS vector, and scalar values. Next, the NAS vectors of candidate samples are computed by multiplying projection matrix with spectra of samples. Scalar value of NAS is obtained by norm computation. The distance between the candidate set and the selected set is computed, and samples with the largest distance are added to selected set sequentially. Last, the concentration of the analyte is measured such that the sample can be used as a calibration sample. Using a validation test, it is shown that the presented method is more efficient than random selection. As a result, the amount of time and money spent on reference measurements is greatly reduced.

  17. The use of selective adsorbents in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyte preconcentration and microreactions: a powerful three-dimensional tool for multiple chemical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N A; Stubbs, R J

    2001-10-01

    Much attention has recently been directed to the development and application of online sample preconcentration and microreactions in capillary electrophoresis using selective adsorbents based on chemical or biological specificity. The basic principle involves two interacting chemical or biological systems with high selectivity and affinity for each other. These molecular interactions in nature usually involve noncovalent and reversible chemical processes. Properly bound to a solid support, an "affinity ligand" can selectively adsorb a "target analyte" found in a simple or complex mixture at a wide range of concentrations. As a result, the isolated analyte is enriched and highly purified. When this affinity technique, allowing noncovalent chemical interactions and biochemical reactions to occur, is coupled on-line to high-resolution capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a powerful tool of chemical and biological information is created. This paper describes the concept of biological recognition and affinity interaction on-line with high-resolution separation, the fabrication of an "analyte concentrator-microreactor", optimization conditions of adsorption and desorption, the coupling to mass spectrometry, and various applications of clinical and pharmaceutical interest.

  18. Selecting the best rayon in customer’s perspective using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonjaya, E. G.; Paulus, E.; Hidayat, A.

    2018-03-01

    Annually, the best Rayon selection is conducted by the assessment team of PT.PLN (Persero) Cirebon with the goal to increase the spirit of company members in providing an improved service for customers. However, there is a problem in multiple criteria decision making in this case, which is the importance intensity of each criterion in the selection are often assessed subjectively. To solve this problem, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process are used to cover AHP scale deficiency in the form of ‘crisp’ numbers. So, it should be considered to use Fuzzy logic approach to handle uncertainty. Fuzzy approach, especially triangular fuzzy number towards AHP scale, are expected to minimize the handling of subjective input, which then will make a more objective result. Thus, this research was conducted to help the management or assessment team in the selection of the best Rayon with a more objective selection in according to the company criteria.

  19. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  20. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L – 166 mmol/L, potassium (3.9 mmol/L – 5.2 mmol/L, magnesium (0.8 mmol/L – 1.2 mmol/L, chloride (97 mmol/L – 130 mmol/L, urea (8.2 mmol/L – 25.1 mmol/L and creatinine (88 µmol/L – 288 µmol/L. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  1. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  2. LitPathExplorer: a confidence-based visual text analytics tool for exploring literature-enriched pathway models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Axel J; Zerva, Chrysoula; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2018-04-15

    Pathway models are valuable resources that help us understand the various mechanisms underpinning complex biological processes. Their curation is typically carried out through manual inspection of published scientific literature to find information relevant to a model, which is a laborious and knowledge-intensive task. Furthermore, models curated manually cannot be easily updated and maintained with new evidence extracted from the literature without automated support. We have developed LitPathExplorer, a visual text analytics tool that integrates advanced text mining, semi-supervised learning and interactive visualization, to facilitate the exploration and analysis of pathway models using statements (i.e. events) extracted automatically from the literature and organized according to levels of confidence. LitPathExplorer supports pathway modellers and curators alike by: (i) extracting events from the literature that corroborate existing models with evidence; (ii) discovering new events which can update models; and (iii) providing a confidence value for each event that is automatically computed based on linguistic features and article metadata. Our evaluation of event extraction showed a precision of 89% and a recall of 71%. Evaluation of our confidence measure, when used for ranking sampled events, showed an average precision ranging between 61 and 73%, which can be improved to 95% when the user is involved in the semi-supervised learning process. Qualitative evaluation using pair analytics based on the feedback of three domain experts confirmed the utility of our tool within the context of pathway model exploration. LitPathExplorer is available at http://nactem.ac.uk/LitPathExplorer_BI/. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Microbial degradation of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian select dilbits by freshwater enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruta S; Sundaravadivelu, Devi; Techtmann, Stephen; Conmy, Robyn N; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Campo, Pablo

    2018-06-15

    Treatability experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation of diluted bitumen (dilbit) at 5 and 25 °C for 72 and 60 days, respectively. Microbial consortia obtained from the Kalamazoo River Enbridge Energy spill site were enriched on dilbit at both 5 (cryo) and 25 (meso) ºC. On every sampling day, triplicates were sacrificed and residual hydrocarbon concentrations (alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined by GCMS/MS. The composition and relative abundance of different bacterial groups were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. While some physicochemical differences were observed between the two dilbits, their biodegradation profiles were similar. The rates and extent of degradation were greater at 25 °C. Both consortia metabolized 99.9% of alkanes; however, the meso consortium was more effective at removing aromatics than the cryo consortium (97.5 vs 70%). Known hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were present in both consortia (Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Hydrogenophaga, Parvibaculum, Arthrobacter, Acidovorax), although their relative abundances depended on the temperatures at which they were enriched. Regardless of the dilbit type, the microbial community structure significantly changed as a response to the diminishing hydrocarbon load. Our results demonstrate that dilbit can be effectively degraded by autochthonous microbial consortia from sites with recent exposure to dilbit contamination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluation of biomass quality of selected woody species depending on the soil enrichment practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał; Załuski, Dariusz; Niksa, Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    Perennial energy crops are a source of the bio-mass used to generate energy. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and thermophysical parameters of short rotation woody crops (black locust, poplar and willow), depending on soil enrichment practice (mineral fertilisation, lignin and mycorrhiza), in three- and four-year harvest cycles. In the study, the thermophysical properties and elemental composition of the biomass were determined. All analyses were performed in trip-licate according to the standards. The fresh black locust biomass had the lowest moisture content, which resulted in the best lower heating value (10.16 MJ kg-1, on average) in the four-year harvest cycle. The poplar biomass had the greatest higher heating value, fixed carbon, carbon and ash content, the highest concentrations of which were found in the biomass in which lignin was applied (2.00% d.m.). On the other hand, the willow biomass contained the lowest concentrations of ash and fixed carbon. Soil enrichment significantly differentiated the quality parameters of black locust, poplar and willow. This effect is of particular importance to those who grow and use biomass as a fuel.

  5. Green supply chain management strategy selection using analytic network process: case study at PT XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelina, W.; Kusumastuti, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study is about business strategy selection for green supply chain management (GSCM) for PT XYZ by using Analytic Network Process (ANP). GSCM is initiated as a response to reduce environmental impacts from industrial activities. The purposes of this study are identifying criteria and sub criteria in selecting GSCM Strategy, and analysing a suitable GSCM strategy for PT XYZ. This study proposes ANP network with 6 criteria and 29 sub criteria, which are obtained from the literature and experts’ judgements. One of the six criteria contains GSCM strategy options, namely risk-based strategy, efficiency-based strategy, innovation-based strategy, and closed loop strategy. ANP solves complex GSCM strategy-selection by using a more structured process and considering green perspectives from experts. The result indicates that innovation-based strategy is the most suitable green supply chain management strategy for PT XYZ.

  6. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  7. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  8. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  9. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  10. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  11. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  12. Towards a fully automated lab-on-a-disc system integrating sample enrichment and detection of analytes from complex matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Sune Zoëga

    the technology on a large scale from fulfilling its potential for maturing into applied technologies and products. In this work, we have taken the first steps towards realizing a capable and truly automated “sample-to-answer” analysis system, aimed at small molecule detection and quantification from a complex...... sample matrix. The main result is a working prototype of a microfluidic system, integrating both centrifugal microfluidics for sample handling, supported liquid membrane extraction (SLM) for selective and effective sample treatment, as well as in-situ electrochemical detection. As a case study...

  13. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE's analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992)

  14. Analytical network process based optimum cluster head selection in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Haleem; Javed, Huma; Jan, Bilal; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Shaukat; Khalil, Falak Naz; Khan, Murad

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life due to their applications in weather forecasting, surveillance, implantable sensors for health monitoring and other plethora of applications. WSN is equipped with hundreds and thousands of small sensor nodes. As the size of a sensor node decreases, critical issues such as limited energy, computation time and limited memory become even more highlighted. In such a case, network lifetime mainly depends on efficient use of available resources. Organizing nearby nodes into clusters make it convenient to efficiently manage each cluster as well as the overall network. In this paper, we extend our previous work of grid-based hybrid network deployment approach, in which merge and split technique has been proposed to construct network topology. Constructing topology through our proposed technique, in this paper we have used analytical network process (ANP) model for cluster head selection in WSN. Five distinct parameters: distance from nodes (DistNode), residual energy level (REL), distance from centroid (DistCent), number of times the node has been selected as cluster head (TCH) and merged node (MN) are considered for CH selection. The problem of CH selection based on these parameters is tackled as a multi criteria decision system, for which ANP method is used for optimum cluster head selection. Main contribution of this work is to check the applicability of ANP model for cluster head selection in WSN. In addition, sensitivity analysis is carried out to check the stability of alternatives (available candidate nodes) and their ranking for different scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing energy efficient clustering protocols in terms of optimum CH selection and minimizing CH reselection process that results in extending overall network lifetime. This paper analyzes that ANP method used for CH selection with better understanding of the dependencies of

  15. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  16. Analytical Modeling Approach to Study Harmonic Mitigation in AC Grids with Active Impedance at Selective Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Abad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model, oriented to study harmonic mitigation aspects in AC grids. As it is well known, the presence of non-desired harmonics in AC grids can be palliated in several manners. However, in this paper, a power electronic-based active impedance at selective frequencies (ACISEF is used, due to its already proven flexibility and adaptability to the changing characteristics of AC grids. Hence, the proposed analytical model approach is specially conceived to globally consider both the model of the AC grid itself with its electric equivalent impedances, together with the power electronic-based ACISEF, including its control loops. In addition, the proposed analytical model presents practical and useful properties, as it is simple to understand and simple to use, it has low computational cost and simple adaptability to different scenarios of AC grids, and it provides an accurate enough representation of the reality. The benefits of using the proposed analytical model are shown in this paper through some examples of its usefulness, including an analysis of stability and the identification of sources of instability for a robust design, an analysis of effectiveness in harmonic mitigation, an analysis to assist in the choice of the most suitable active impedance under a given state of the AC grid, an analysis of the interaction between different compensators, and so on. To conclude, experimental validation of a 2.15 kA ACISEF in a real 33 kV AC grid is provided, in which real users (household and industry loads and crucial elements such as wind parks and HVDC systems are near inter-connected.

  17. Manufacturing plant location selection in logistics network using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In recent years, numerous companies have moved their manufacturing plants to China to capitalize on lower cost and tax. Plant location has such an impact on cost, stocks, and logistics network but location selection in the company is usually based on subjective preference of high ranking managers. Such a decision-making process might result in selecting a location with a lower fixed cost but a higher operational cost. Therefore, this research adapts real data from an electronics company to develop a framework that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative factors for selecting new plant locations. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 high rank managers (7 of them are department manager, 2 of them are vice-president, 1 of them is senior engineer, and 2 of them are plant manager in the departments of construction, finance, planning, production, and warehouse to determine the important factors. A questionnaire survey is then conducted for comparing factors which are analyzed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Findings: Results show that the best location chosen by the developed framework coincides well with the company’s primal production base. The results have been presented to the company’s high ranking managers for realizing the accuracy of the framework. Positive responses of the managers indicate usefulness of implementing the proposed model into reality, which adds to the value of this research. Practical implications: The proposed framework can save numerous time-consuming meetings called to compromise opinions and conflictions from different departments in location selection. Originality/value: This paper adapts the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to incorporate quantitative and qualitative factors which are obtained through in-depth interviews with high rank managers in a company into the location decision.

  18. Potential sources of analytical bias and error in selected trace element data-quality analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Garbarino, John R.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Struzeski, Tedmund M.

    2016-09-28

    Potential sources of analytical bias and error associated with laboratory analyses for selected trace elements where concentrations were greater in filtered samples than in paired unfiltered samples were evaluated by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Quality Specialists in collaboration with the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and the Branch of Quality Systems (BQS).Causes for trace-element concentrations in filtered samples to exceed those in associated unfiltered samples have been attributed to variability in analytical measurements, analytical bias, sample contamination either in the field or laboratory, and (or) sample-matrix chemistry. These issues have not only been attributed to data generated by the USGS NWQL but have been observed in data generated by other laboratories. This study continues the evaluation of potential analytical bias and error resulting from matrix chemistry and instrument variability by evaluating the performance of seven selected trace elements in paired filtered and unfiltered surface-water and groundwater samples collected from 23 sampling sites of varying chemistries from six States, matrix spike recoveries, and standard reference materials.Filtered and unfiltered samples have been routinely analyzed on separate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments. Unfiltered samples are treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) during an in-bottle digestion procedure; filtered samples are not routinely treated with HCl as part of the laboratory analytical procedure. To evaluate the influence of HCl on different sample matrices, an aliquot of the filtered samples was treated with HCl. The addition of HCl did little to differentiate the analytical results between filtered samples treated with HCl from those samples left untreated; however, there was a small, but noticeable, decrease in the number of instances where a particular trace-element concentration was greater in a filtered sample than in the associated

  19. Selection of site specific vibration equation by using analytic hierarchy process in a quarry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalayci, Ulku, E-mail: ukalayci@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozer, Umit, E-mail: uozer@istanbul.edu.tr

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a new approach for the selection of the most accurate SSVA (Site Specific Vibration Attenuation) equation for blasting processes in a quarry located near settlements in Istanbul, Turkey. In this context, the SSVA equations obtained from the same study area in the literature were considered in terms of distance between the shot points and buildings and the amount of explosive charge. In this purpose, 11 different SSVA equations obtained from the study area in the past 12 years, forecasting capabilities according to designated new conditions, using 102 vibration records as test data obtained from the study area was investigated. In this study, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was selected as an analysis method in order to determine the most accurate equation among 11 SSAV equations, and the parameters such as year, distance, charge, and r{sup 2} of the equations were used as criteria for AHP. Finally, the most appropriate equation was selected among the existing ones, and the process of selecting according to different target criteria was presented. Furthermore, it was noted that the forecasting results of the selected equation is more accurate than that formed using the test results. - Highlights: • The optimum Site Specific Vibration Attenuation equation for blasting in a quarry located near settlements was determined. • It is indicated that SSVA equations changing over the years don’t give always accurate estimates at changing conditions. • Selection of the blast induced SSVA equation was made using AHP. • Equation selection method was highlighted based on parameters such as charge, distance, and quarry geometry changes (year).

  20. Selection of site specific vibration equation by using analytic hierarchy process in a quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalayci, Ulku; Ozer, Umit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the selection of the most accurate SSVA (Site Specific Vibration Attenuation) equation for blasting processes in a quarry located near settlements in Istanbul, Turkey. In this context, the SSVA equations obtained from the same study area in the literature were considered in terms of distance between the shot points and buildings and the amount of explosive charge. In this purpose, 11 different SSVA equations obtained from the study area in the past 12 years, forecasting capabilities according to designated new conditions, using 102 vibration records as test data obtained from the study area was investigated. In this study, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was selected as an analysis method in order to determine the most accurate equation among 11 SSAV equations, and the parameters such as year, distance, charge, and r"2 of the equations were used as criteria for AHP. Finally, the most appropriate equation was selected among the existing ones, and the process of selecting according to different target criteria was presented. Furthermore, it was noted that the forecasting results of the selected equation is more accurate than that formed using the test results. - Highlights: • The optimum Site Specific Vibration Attenuation equation for blasting in a quarry located near settlements was determined. • It is indicated that SSVA equations changing over the years don’t give always accurate estimates at changing conditions. • Selection of the blast induced SSVA equation was made using AHP. • Equation selection method was highlighted based on parameters such as charge, distance, and quarry geometry changes (year).

  1. Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.-F.; Wu, C.-R.; Li, Y.-T.

    2008-01-01

    While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy

  2. Evaluation of novel supports for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphorylated peptides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bensadek, D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel emulsion based supports MagReSynTM TiO 2 (A-D) were evaluated using 32P labelled phosphopeptides and nano LC-MS/MS. The performance of MagReSynTM TiO 2 (D) was found to be significantly better in terms of selectivity and specificity...

  3. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R

    2015-01-01

    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  4. Rational Selection, Criticality Assessment, and Tiering of Quality Attributes and Test Methods for Analytical Similarity Evaluation of Biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Seidl, Andreas; Gutka, Hiten; Kumar, Manish; Gratzl, Gyöngyi; Keire, David; Coffey, Todd; Kuehne, Henriette

    2018-05-10

    Leading regulatory agencies recommend biosimilar assessment to proceed in a stepwise fashion, starting with a detailed analytical comparison of the structural and functional properties of the proposed biosimilar and reference product. The degree of analytical similarity determines the degree of residual uncertainty that must be addressed through downstream in vivo studies. Substantive evidence of similarity from comprehensive analytical testing may justify a targeted clinical development plan, and thus enable a shorter path to licensing. The importance of a careful design of the analytical similarity study program therefore should not be underestimated. Designing a state-of-the-art analytical similarity study meeting current regulatory requirements in regions such as the USA and EU requires a methodical approach, consisting of specific steps that far precede the work on the actual analytical study protocol. This white paper discusses scientific and methodological considerations on the process of attribute and test method selection, criticality assessment, and subsequent assignment of analytical measures to US FDA's three tiers of analytical similarity assessment. Case examples of selection of critical quality attributes and analytical methods for similarity exercises are provided to illustrate the practical implementation of the principles discussed.

  5. Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, M B; Levine, M M; Daya, V; Angle, P; Young, C

    1980-09-01

    The occurrence of human cholera along the Gulf of Mexico and the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Gulf and Chesapeake Bay make it imperative that microbiology laboratories along estuaries develop the capabilities to culture for these pathogens. In attempts to devise a simplified but efficient culture procedure, a selective medium, thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar, was compared with a nonselective medium, gelatin agar (GA), and the utility of enrichment was examined. TCBS agar detected 99% of the stools found to be positive by all techniques combined, whereas GA identified only 80%. Of acute diarrheal stools, 96% were positive on direct plating, whereas only 66% of formed stools containing V. cholerae were detected by direct plating. Stools from patients with acute diarrhea can be plated directly into TCBS agar alone; stools from persons shedding low numbers of organisms (such as contacts, carriers, or patients receiving antibiotics) should be incubated first in an enrichment broth and then on TCBS agar.

  6. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  7. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Graphene-Templated Synthesis of Magnetic Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites for Selective Enrichment of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Denagamage, Sachira; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-04-27

    Successful control of homogeneous and complete coating of graphene or graphene-based composites with well-defined metal organic framework (MOF) layers is a great challenge. Herein, novel magnetic graphene MOF composites were constructed via a simple strategy for self-assembly of well-distributed, dense, and highly porous MOFs on both sides of graphene nanosheets. Graphene functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles and carboxylic groups on both sides was explored as the backbone and template to direct the controllable self-assembly of MOFs. The prepared composite materials have a relatively high specific surface area (345.4 m(2) g(-1)), and their average pore size is measured to be 3.2 nm. Their relatively high saturation magnetization (23.8 emu g(-1)) indicates their strong magnetism at room temperature. Moreover, the multifunctional composite was demonstrated to be a highly effective affinity material in selective extraction and separation of low-concentration biomolecules from biological samples, in virtue of the size-selection property of the unique porous structure and the excellent affinity of the composite materials. Besides providing a solution for the construction of well-defined functional graphene-based MOFs, this work could also contribute to selective extraction of biomolecules, in virtue of the universal affinity between immobilized metal ions and biomolecules.

  9. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  10. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  11. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE SELECTION FOR ISFAHAN CITY BY USE OF FUZZY LOGIC AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economical effects. The increase in industrial and economical development along with the increase of population growth in Isfahan city generates tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, life span of landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried in selecting the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis of spatial data and consideration of regulations, and accepted criteria are part of the important elements in the site selection. The present study presents a multi criteria evaluation method using GIS technique for landfill suitability site evaluation. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used for weighing the information layers. By using the fuzzy logic method (classification of suitable areas in the range of 0 to 255 byte scale the superposing of the information layers related to topography, soil, water table, sensitive ecosystems, land use and geology maps was performed in the study. Only after omission of inappropriate areas, the suitability examination of the residue areas was accomplished. The application of the present method in Isfahan city shows approximately 5% of the south east and north east parts of the study area with the value of more than 220 byte scale, which are suitable for landfill establishment.

  12. Implementation of preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (Promethee) on selection system of student’s achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Nurrosikawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    Selection of Student Achievement is conducted every year, starting from the level of Study Program, Faculty, to University, which then rank one will be sent to Kopertis level. The criteria made for the selection are Academic and Rich Scientific, Organizational, Personality, and English. In order for the selection of Student Achievement is Objective, then in addition to the presence of the jury is expected to use methods that support the decision to be more optimal in determining the Student Achievement. One method used is the Promethee Method. Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (Promethee) is a method of ranking in Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). PROMETHEE has the advantage that there is a preference type against the criteria that can take into account alternatives with other alternatives on the same criteria. The conjecture of alternate dominance over a criterion used in PROMETHEE is the use of values in the relationships between alternative ranking values. Based on the calculation result, from 7 applicants between Manual and Promethee Matrices, rank 1, 2, and 3, did not change, only 4 to 7 positions were changed. However, after the sensitivity test, almost all criteria experience a high level of sensitivity. Although it does not affect the students who will be sent to the next level, but can bring psychological impact on prospective student’s achievement

  13. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  14. SELECTION OF BUSINESS STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING FUZZY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Das

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy linguistic concepts are often used to enhance the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP in capturing the fuzziness and subjectiveness of decision makers' judgments. In this paper, fuzzy AHP methodology is adopted for selection of the strategies for business improvement in an Indian industry as a decision making problem. Due to simplicity and effectiveness, triangular fuzzy numbers are adopted as a reference to indicate the influence strength of each element in the hierarchy structure. The confidence level and the optimistic levels of multiple decision makers are captured by using ? -cut based fuzzy number methods. This fuzzy set theory based multi-attribute decision making method is found to be quite useful and effective in industrial environment.

  15. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  16. On the selection of optimized carbon nano tube synthesis method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besharati, M. K.; Afaghi Khatibi, A.; Akbari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from the early and late industrializes shows that technology, as the commercial application of scientific knowledge, has been a major driver of industrial and economic development. International technology transfer is now being recognized as having played an important role in the development of the most successful late industrializes of the second half of the twentieth Century. Our society stands to be significantly influenced by carbon nano tubes, shaped by nano tube applications in every aspect, just as silicon-based technology still shapes society today. Nano tubes can be formed in various structures using several different processing methods. In this paper, the synthesis methods used to produce nano tubes in industrial or laboratory scales are discussed and a comparison is made. A technical feasibility study is conducted by using the multi criteria decision-making model, namely Analytic Hierarchy Process. The article ends with a discussion of selecting the best method of Technology Transferring of Carbon Nano tubes to Iran

  17. Decision Support System for Determining Scholarship Selection using an Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, T. D.; Sari, E. O.; Destarianto, P.; Riskiawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Decision Support System is a computer program application that analyzes data and presents it so that users can make decision more easily. Determining Scholarship Selection study case in Senior High School in east Java wasn’t easy. It needed application to solve the problem, to improve the accuracy of targets for prospective beneficiaries of poor students and to speed up the screening process. This research will build system uses the method of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method that solves a complex and unstructured problem into its group, organizes the groups into a hierarchical order, inputs numerical values instead of human perception in comparing relative and ultimately with a synthesis determined elements that have the highest priority. The accuracy system for this research is 90%.

  18. Analytical Solution for Elliptical Cloaks Based on The Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the elliptical dielectric cylinder which is covered with FSS cloak is considered. Frequency selective surface cloak which Alu named it mantle cloak is one of the recent techniques for cloaking. In this method an appropriate FSS can act as cloaking device for suppressing  the scattering of object  in the desired frequency. With using this method the dimension of the cloaks is extremely reduced. By this proposed structure, the RCS of elliptical cylinder  is reduced about 10-20 dB and designed cloak has an appropriate performance.  The analytical solution for the wave in each layer is presented and with using simulation, the electric field and the scattering pattern has been drawn.

  19. Bayesian variable selection for post-analytic interrogation of susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siying; Nunez, Sara; Reilly, Muredach P; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the complex interplay among protein coding genes and regulatory elements requires rigorous interrogation with analytic tools designed for discerning the relative contributions of overlapping genomic regions. To this aim, we offer a novel application of Bayesian variable selection (BVS) for classifying genomic class level associations using existing large meta-analysis summary level resources. This approach is applied using the expectation maximization variable selection (EMVS) algorithm to typed and imputed SNPs across 502 protein coding genes (PCGs) and 220 long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that overlap 45 known loci for coronary artery disease (CAD) using publicly available Global Lipids Gentics Consortium (GLGC) (Teslovich et al., 2010; Willer et al., 2013) meta-analysis summary statistics for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The analysis reveals 33 PCGs and three lncRNAs across 11 loci with >50% posterior probabilities for inclusion in an additive model of association. The findings are consistent with previous reports, while providing some new insight into the architecture of LDL-cholesterol to be investigated further. As genomic taxonomies continue to evolve, additional classes such as enhancer elements and splicing regions, can easily be layered into the proposed analysis framework. Moreover, application of this approach to alternative publicly available meta-analysis resources, or more generally as a post-analytic strategy to further interrogate regions that are identified through single point analysis, is straightforward. All coding examples are implemented in R version 3.2.1 and provided as supplemental material. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Cross-border shipment route selection utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeris Ammarapala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a member of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, Thailand expects a growth of cross-border trade with neighboring countries, especially the agricultural products shipment. To facilitate this, a number of strategies are set, such as the utilization of single check point, the Asian Highway (AH route development, and the truck lane initiation. However, majority of agricultural products traded through the borders are transported using the rural roads, from growing area to the factory, before continuing to the borders using different highways. It is, therefore, necessary for the Department of Rural Roads (DRR to plan for rural road improvement to accommodate the growth of the cross-border trades in the near future. This research, thus, aims to select potential rural roads to support cross-border shipment utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Seven key factors affecting rural roads selection, with references from transport and other related literatures, are extracted. They include:1 cross-border trade value, 2 distance from border to rural road, 3 agriculture and processed agriculture goods transported across the border, 4 compatibility with national strategies, 5 area characteristics around the rural road, 6 truck volume, and 7 number of rural roads in the radius of 50 kilometers from the border. Interviews are conducted with the experts based on seven key factors to collect data for the AHP analysis. The results identify the weight of each factor with an acceptable consistency ratio. It shows that the cross-border trade value is the most important factor as it achieves the highest weight. The distance from border to rural road and the compatibility with national strategies are also found crucial when making rural road selection decision. The Department of Rural Roads could use the results to select suitable roads, and plan for road improvement to support the crossborder shipment when the AEC is fully implemented.

  1. Supplier selection in supply chain management using analytical network process for Indonesian cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Mahardika, R. Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Supply chain management has increased more significance with the impact of globalization. In the present worldwide market, well-managed supply chain is a standout amongst the most vital requirement to be more competitive in the market. For any organization incorporate cement industry, the most critical decision in initial process of supply chain management is to buy products, materials or services from suppliers. So the role of suppliers is irrefutable important in the global aggressive markets. Appropriate decision of supplier selection can lead to reducing cost in supply chain management. However, it is becoming more complex because of existing various criteria and involving the suitable experts in the company to make valid decision in accordance with its criteria. In this study, the supplier selection of an Indonesia’s leading cement company is analyzed by using one of the popular multi-criteria decision making method, Saaty’s analytical network process (ANP). It is employed for the selection of the best alternative among three suppliers of pasted bag. Supplier with the highest rank comes from several major steps from building the relationship between various criteria to rating the alternatives with the help of experts from the company. The results show that, Communication capability, Flexible payment terms, Ability to meet delivery quantities are the most important criteria in the pasted bag supplier selection in Indonesian cement industry with 0.155, 0.110 and 0.1 ANP coefficient respectively. And based on the ANP coefficient values in limit supermatrix, the A2 or supplier 2 had the highest score with 64.7% or 0.13 ANP coefficient.

  2. Cancel and rethink in the Wason selection task: further evidence for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kazushige; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    The reasoning process in the Wason selection task was examined by measuring card inspection times in the letter-number and drinking-age problems. 24 students were asked to solve the problems presented on a computer screen. Only the card touched with a mouse pointer was visible, and the total exposure time of each card was measured. Participants were allowed to cancel their previous selections at any time. Although rethinking was encouraged, the cards once selected were rarely cancelled (10% of the total selections). Moreover, most of the cancelled cards were reselected (89% of the total cancellations). Consistent with previous findings, inspection times were longer for selected cards than for nonselected cards. These results suggest that card selections are determined largely by initial heuristic processes and rarely reversed by subsequent analytic processes. The present study gives further support for the heuristic-analytic dual process theory.

  3. Analytical hierarchy process for the selection of nuclear reactors for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Del-Campo, C.; Nelson, P. F.; Francois, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied as a decision making technique to select the next new nuclear power reactor for Mexico. The main objective is to select the most suitable nuclear reactor technology for Mexico, to start the bidding process within one or two years, and the reactor to initiate commercial operation by 2016. Four alternatives which comply with these specific restrictions were compared: the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (AB WR) from General Electric, Hitachi and Toshiba; the European Pressurized Water Reactor (ERR) from AREVA; the pressurized water reactor - advanced passive plant, AP1000, from Westinghouse; and the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) from General Electric. The evaluation criteria include economic and safety indicator, some of them quantitative and others qualitative. Additional complexity to the solution of this problem is that there are stakeholders that can be involved in the definition of the evaluation criteria and in the definition of relative importance between them, according to each stakeholder interests or benefits. Only the two main stakeholders were considered, these are the Federal Commission of Electricity (Comision Federal de Electricidad, CFE) and the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, CNSNS). Considering the evaluation criteria used and the authors' assessment of their importance, the ABWR was ranked the highest. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to define the most suitable reactor for the needs of Mexico. (authors)

  4. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padilla-Arellanes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT were determined in non-diluted and diluted blood plasma samples. Clotting times determined in diluted plasma samples were prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and there was a difference in the PT value at both 50% and 25% plasma dilutions between both groups of animals (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001. Significant differences between healthy animals and cows with hepatic lipidosis were observed in blood serum values for free fatty acids (FFA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triacyglycerols (P = 0.001, P = 0.007 and P = 0.044, respectively. FFA and liver biopsy are better diagnostic indicators for hepatic lipidosis than coagulation tests. The optimised PT is prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and can detect this alteration that cannot be appreciated using conventional PT test.

  5. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part II: platelet activation and enrichment, leukocyte inclusion, and other selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L

    2014-08-01

    Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.

  6. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-06-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  7. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine. - Highlights: • Both training and testing samples are considered for analytical lines selection. • The analytical lines are auto-selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines. • The new method can achieve better prediction accuracy and modeling robustness. • Model predictions are given with confidence interval of probabilistic distribution

  8. Selection of Alternatives for the Natural Gas Supply in Colombia using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Becerra Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Colombia consumes natural gas in different sectors, especially in the ones that are residential and vehicular transport. Gas consumption serves as backup for power generation in situations of reduced hydroelectric capacity. Nowadays, gas reserve levels have been reduced and it is essential to ensure the uninterrupted supply of the resource. To achieve such objective, there are some alternatives which are difficult to implement at the same time, given the limited financial budget and implementation times that they demanded. In this way, several studies have advanced in the application of models to prioritize alternatives for both supplying power and reducing emissions in the generation, especially regarding the evaluation of energy sources and technology selection for supply. Method: The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP based in the Delphi method to define preferences according to the experts judgment, was applied to evaluate the selection of alternatives supply of natural gas in Colombia, considering technical, environmental and social criteria, which is reliable and policy oriented to guarantee supply of resources in the country. Results: Once the model was applied, we evaluated the criteria and alternatives for infrastructure to support gas supply, finding that reliability is the most relevant criterion as well as alternative of building the ‘Regasification Pacific Plant’ followed by the construction of the ‘Buenaventura-Cali pipeline’ and the ‘Storage Plant in Bogotá'. Conclusions: As the results indicate, in Colombia efforts should be focus on imports of the resource through the construction of regasification plants and pipelines to facilitate transport inland to demand points. The latter may help decision makers facing various alternatives to ensure the supply of this resource, which is relevant to various economic sectors, including generation of electricity in the country. Language: Spanish

  9. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective

  10. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacturing Process Selection of Composite Bicycle’s Crank Arm using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, M.; Rosli, M. U.; Khor, C. Y.; Zambree, Shayfull; Jahidi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Crank arm is one of the important parts in a bicycle that is an expensive product due to the high cost of material and production process. This research is aimed to investigate the potential type of manufacturing process to fabricate composite bicycle crank arm and to describe an approach based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP) that assists decision makers or manufacturing engineers in determining the most suitable process to be employed in manufacturing of composite bicycle crank arm at the early stage of the product development process to reduce the production cost. There are four types of processes were considered, namely resin transfer molding (RTM), compression molding (CM), vacuum bag molding and filament winding (FW). The analysis ranks these four types of process for its suitability in the manufacturing of bicycle crank arm based on five main selection factors and 10 sub factors. Determining the right manufacturing process was performed based on AHP process steps. Consistency test was performed to make sure the judgements are consistent during the comparison. The results indicated that the compression molding was the most appropriate manufacturing process because it has the highest value (33.6%) among the other manufacturing processes.

  12. Optimum filter selection for Dual Energy X-ray Applications through Analytical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukou, V; Martini, N; Sotiropoulou, P; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kalyvas, N; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G

    2015-01-01

    In this simulation study, an analytical model was used in order to determine the optimal acquisition parameters for a dual energy breast imaging system. The modeled detector system, consisted of a 33.91mg/cm 2 Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb scintillator screen, placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS sensor. Tungsten anode X-ray spectra, filtered with various filter materials and filter thicknesses were examined for both the low- and high-energy beams, resulting in 3375 combinations. The selection of these filters was based on their K absorption edge (K-edge filtering). The calcification signal-to-noise ratio (SNR tc ) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) were calculated. The total mean glandular dose was constrained to be within acceptable levels. Optimization was based on the maximization of the SNR tc /MGD ratio. The results showed that the optimum spectral combination was 40kVp with added beam filtration of 100 μm Ag and 70kVp Cu filtered spectrum of 1000 μm for the low- and high-energy, respectively. The minimum detectable calcification size was 150 μm. Simulations demonstrate that this dual energy X-ray technique could enhance breast calcification detection. (paper)

  13. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-12-01

    A new one pot, surfactant-free, synthetic route based on the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) concept has been developed for the synthesis of Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn nanoparticles. Bu3SnH selectively reacts with [Pt]-H formed in situ at the surface of Pt nanoparticles, Pt NPs, obtained by reduction of K2PtCl4 by LiB(C2H5)3H. Chemical analysis, 1H MAS and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR as well as two-dimensional double-quantum (DQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) experiments show that organo-tin moieties Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as-synthesized Pt-Sn NPs, enabling the bimetallic NPs to be well dispersed in THF. Additionally, the Pt-Sn nanoparticles can be supported on MgAl2O4 during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Some of the Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 catalyst thus prepared exhibits high activity in PROX of CO and an extremely high selectivity and stability in propane dehydrogenation to propylene. The enhanced activity in propane dehydrogenation is associated with the high concentration of inactive Sn at the surface of Pt nanoparticles which ”isolates” the active Pt atoms. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD, NMR, TEM, and XPS analysis.

  14. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  15. Hydrophilic Nb{sup 5+}-immobilized magnetic core–shell microsphere – A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: yanli@fudan.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Deng, Chunhui [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Duan, Gengli [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-06-23

    Highlights: • A new IMAC material (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) was synthesized. • The strong magnetic behaviors of the microspheres ensure fast and easy separation. • The enrichment ability was tested by human serum and nonfat milk. • The results were compared with other IMAC materials including the commercial kits. • All results proved the good enrichment ability, especially for multiphosphopeptides. - Abstract: Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@polydopamine-Nb{sup 5+} (denoted as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (β-casein:BSA = 1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Ti{sup 4+} microspheres, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+} microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials.

  16. The application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in uranium mine mining method of the optimal selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhongyin; Kuang Zhengping; Qiu Huiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Analytic hierarchy process, AHP, is a combination of qualitative and quantitative, systematic and hierarchical analysis method. Basic decision theory of analytic hierarchy process is applied in this article, with a project example in north Guangdong region as the research object, the in-situ mining method optimization choose hierarchical analysis model is established and the analysis method, The results show that, the AHP model for mining method selecting model was reliable, optimization results were conformity with the actual use of the in-situ mining method, and it has better practicability. (authors)

  17. Chlorinated Electron Acceptor Abundance Drives Selection of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (D. mccartyi Strains in Dechlorinating Enrichment Cultures and Groundwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pérez-de-Mora

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehalococcoides mccartyi (D. mccartyi strains differ primarily from one another by the number and identity of the reductive dehalogenase homologous catalytic subunit A (rdhA genes within their respective genomes. While multiple rdhA genes have been sequenced, the activity of the corresponding proteins has been identified in only a few cases. Examples include the enzymes whose substrates are groundwater contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cDCE and vinyl chloride (VC. The associated rdhA genes, namely tceA, bvcA, and vcrA, along with the D. mccartyi 16S rRNA gene are often used as biomarkers of growth in field samples. In this study, we monitored an additional 12 uncharacterized rdhA sequences identified in the metagenome in the mixed D. mccartyi-containing culture KB-1 to monitor population shifts in more detail. Quantitative PCR (qPCR assays were developed for 15 D. mccartyi rdhA genes and used to measure population diversity in 11 different sub-cultures of KB-1, each enriched on different chlorinated ethenes and ethanes. The proportion of rdhA gene copies relative to D. mccartyi 16S rRNA gene copies revealed the presence of multiple distinct D. mccartyi strains in each culture, many more than the two strains inferred from 16S rRNA analysis. The specific electron acceptor amended to each culture had a major influence on the distribution of D. mccartyi strains and their associated rdhA genes. We also surveyed the abundance of rdhA genes in samples from two bioaugmented field sites (Canada and United Kingdom. Growth of the dominant D. mccartyi strain in KB-1 was detected at the United Kingdom site. At both field sites, the measurement of relative rdhA abundances revealed D. mccartyi population shifts over time as dechlorination progressed from TCE through cDCE to VC and ethene. These shifts indicate a selective pressure of the most abundant chlorinated electron acceptor, as was also observed in lab cultures. These

  18. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF 6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  20. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  1. A novel strategy for global mapping of O-GlcNAc proteins and peptides using selective enzymatic deglycosylation, HILIC enrichment and mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bingquan; Zhang, Wanjun; Shi, Zhaomei; Tian, Fang; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Changqing; Wang, Guangshun; Qin, Weijie; Qian, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a kind of dynamic O-linked glycosylation of nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins. It serves as a major nutrient sensor to regulate numerous biological processes including transcriptional regulation, cell metabolism, cellular signaling, and protein degradation. Dysregulation of cellular O-GlcNAcylated levels contributes to the etiologies of many diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and cancer. However, deeper insight into the biological mechanism of O-GlcNAcylation is hampered by its extremely low stoichiometry and the lack of efficient enrichment approaches for large-scale identification by mass spectrometry. Herein, we developed a novel strategy for the global identification of O-GlcNAc proteins and peptides using selective enzymatic deglycosylation, HILIC enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis. Standard O-GlcNAc peptides can be efficiently enriched even in the presence of 500-fold more abundant non-O-GlcNAc peptides and identified by mass spectrometry with a low nanogram detection sensitivity. This strategy successfully achieved the first large-scale enrichment and characterization of O-GlcNAc proteins and peptides in human urine. A total of 474 O-GlcNAc peptides corresponding to 457 O-GlcNAc proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, which is at least three times more than that obtained by commonly used enrichment methods. A large number of unreported O-GlcNAc proteins related to cell cycle, biological regulation, metabolic and developmental process were found in our data. The above results demonstrated that this novel strategy is highly efficient in the global enrichment and identification of O-GlcNAc peptides. These data provide new insights into the biological function of O-GlcNAcylation in human urine, which is correlated with the physiological states and pathological changes of human body and therefore indicate the potential of this strategy for biomarker discovery from human urine. Copyright

  2. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Nanostructured silicon-based biosensors for the selective identification of analytes of social interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Champdore, Marcella de; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Staiano, Maria; Vitale, Annalisa; Rossi, Mose; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rossi, Andrea M; Borini, Stefano; Rendina, Ivo; Stefano, Luca De

    2006-01-01

    Small analytes such as glucose, L-glutamine (Gln), and ammonium nitrate are detected by means of optical biosensors based on a very common nanostructured material, porous silicon (PSi). Specific recognition elements, such as protein receptors and enzymes, were immobilized on hydrogenated PSi wafers and used as probes in optical sensing systems. The binding events were optically transduced as wavelength shifts of the porous silicon reflectivity spectrum or were monitored via changes of the fluorescence emission. The biosensors described in this article suggest a general approach for the development of new sensing systems for a wide range of analytes of high social interest

  4. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes from selective enrichments from animals and retail meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat. The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus, mecA (associated with methicillin resistance and PVL (virulence factor, and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68-0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement and 0.29-0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0-0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA

  5. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  6. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM 1 0, PM 2 .5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM 1 0/PM 2 .5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  7. Review of analytical models to stream depletion induced by pumping: Guide to model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Sheng; Yang, Tao; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2018-06-01

    Stream depletion due to groundwater extraction by wells may cause impact on aquatic ecosystem in streams, conflict over water rights, and contamination of water from irrigation wells near polluted streams. A variety of studies have been devoted to addressing the issue of stream depletion, but a fundamental framework for analytical modeling developed from aquifer viewpoint has not yet been found. This review shows key differences in existing models regarding the stream depletion problem and provides some guidelines for choosing a proper analytical model in solving the problem of concern. We introduce commonly used models composed of flow equations, boundary conditions, well representations and stream treatments for confined, unconfined, and leaky aquifers. They are briefly evaluated and classified according to six categories of aquifer type, flow dimension, aquifer domain, stream representation, stream channel geometry, and well type. Finally, we recommend promising analytical approaches that can solve stream depletion problem in reality with aquifer heterogeneity and irregular geometry of stream channel. Several unsolved stream depletion problems are also recommended.

  8. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Procedures and the Application of Plastid DNA Enrichment Methods in Selected Non-photosynthetic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Shyu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA was isolated using three DNA extraction commercial kits and three CTAB-based methods for two non-photosynthetic plants, Balanophora japonica and Mitrastemon kanehirai. The quality of the isolated DNA was evaluated and subjected to following restriction enzyme digestions. All six procedures yielded DNA of sufficient quality for PCR, and the method described by Barnwell et al. (1998 performed well in isolating DNA from both species for restriction enzyme digestion. In addition, we succeeded to enrich plastid DNA content by using the methods depending on a high salt buffer to deplete nuclear material. The ‘high salt’ methods based on protocol presented by Milligan (1989 were able to increase plastid DNA effectively and significantly reduce nuclear DNA from M. kanehirai. The plastid DNA enrichment protocols are inexpensive and not time-consuming, and may be applicable to other non-photosynthetic plants.

  9. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in pigs at slaughter and retail meat, and possible associations with the consumption of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. METHODS: During 2009, faecal samples from Danish pigs...... (n = 786) were collected at slaughter, and 866 meat samples [Danish: pork (153), broiler meat (121) and beef (142); and imported: pork (173), broiler meat (193) and beef (84)] were randomly collected in retail stores and outlets. E. coli was isolated after enrichment in MacConkey broth.......7%–3.3% in other meat types. ESC E. coli from imported broiler meat (n = 69) contained blaCMY-2 (48%), blaCTX-M-1 (25%) and blaSHV-12 (16%). Without selective enrichment, no ESC E. coli from pigs and only 4.1% from imported broiler meat were found. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of cephalosporins for slaughter pigs may...

  10. A Meta-Heuristic Regression-Based Feature Selection for Predictive Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A high-dimensional feature selection having a very large number of features with an optimal feature subset is an NP-complete problem. Because conventional optimization techniques are unable to tackle large-scale feature selection problems, meta-heuristic algorithms are widely used. In this paper, we propose a particle swarm optimization technique while utilizing regression techniques for feature selection. We then use the selected features to classify the data. Classification accuracy is used as a criterion to evaluate classifier performance, and classification is accomplished through the use of k-nearest neighbour (KNN and Bayesian techniques. Various high dimensional data sets are used to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Results show that our approach gives better results when compared with other conventional feature selection algorithms.

  11. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  12. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE SELECTION FOR ISFAHAN CITY BY USE OF FUZZY LOGIC AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Afzali; J. M. V. Samani; M. Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economical effects. The increase in industrial and economical development along with the increase of population growth in Isfahan city generates tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, life span of landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried in selecting the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis...

  13. Supplier Assessment and Selection Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process in a Steel Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tahriri, Farzad; Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Dabbagh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Every organization needs suppliers and no organization can exist without suppliers. Therefore, the organizations approach to suppliers and the selection of the appropriate supplier, its acquisition processes and policies, and its relationships with suppliers, is of vital importance, both to organizations and suppliers alike. No organization can be successful without the support of its supplier base, operationally and strategically, short or long-term.To select the best supplier, it is essenti...

  14. SELECTION OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN CONSTRUCTION FIRMS USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP AND FUZZY TOPSIS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torfi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a project manager is a major decision for every construction company. Traditionally, a project manager is selected by interviewing applicants and evaluating their capabilities by considering the special requirements of the project. The interviews are usually conducted by senior managers, and the selection of the best candidate depends on their opinions. Thus, the results may not be completely reliable. Moreover, conducting interviews for a large group of candidates is time-consuming. Thus, there is a need for computational models that can be used to select the most suitable applicant, given the project specifications and the applicants’ details. In this paper, a case study is performed in which a Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making (FMCDM model is used to select the best candidate for the post of project manager in a large construction firm. First, with the opinions of the senior managers, all the criteria and sub-criteria required for the selection are gathered, and the criteria priorities are qualitatively specified. Then, the applicants are ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, approximate weights of the criteria, and fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. The results of the case study are shown to be satisfactory.

  15. Selective enrichment and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters by CU(II) immobilized magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, iminodiacetic acid-Cu(II) functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used as new adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of six monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) from rabbit plasma. The selective enrichment of MNTs at pH 5.0 was motivated by the specific coordination interaction between amino groups of MNTs and the immobilized Cu(II). The employed weak acidic extraction condition avoided the oxidation of MNTs, and thus facilitated operation and ensured higher recoveries. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries of six MNTs from rabbit plasma were in the range of 83.9-109.4%, with RSD of 2.0-10.0%. When coupled the Cu(II) immobilized MSPE with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, the method exhibited relatively lower detection limits than the previously reported methods, and the method was successfully used to determine the endogenous MNTs in rabbit plasma. The proposed method has potential application for the determination of MNTs in biological samples. Also, the utilization of coordination interaction to improve the selectivity might open another way to selectively enrich small alkaloids from complex samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Supervised Variational Relevance Learning, An Analytic Geometric Feature Selection with Applications to Omic Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Cesar, Jonatas; Leite, Vitor B P; Caticha, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Supervised Variational Relevance Learning (Suvrel), a variational method to determine metric tensors to define distance based similarity in pattern classification, inspired in relevance learning. The variational method is applied to a cost function that penalizes large intraclass distances and favors small interclass distances. We find analytically the metric tensor that minimizes the cost function. Preprocessing the patterns by doing linear transformations using the metric tensor yields a dataset which can be more efficiently classified. We test our methods using publicly available datasets, for some standard classifiers. Among these datasets, two were tested by the MAQC-II project and, even without the use of further preprocessing, our results improve on their performance.

  17. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    Intelligent use of modern process analysers allows process technicians and engineers to look deep into the dynamic behaviour of production systems. This opens up for a plurality of new possibilities with respect to process optimisation. Oftentimes, several instruments representing different...... technologies and price classes are able to decipher relevant process information simultaneously. The question then is: how to choose between available technologies without compromising the quality and usability of the data. We apply PLS2 modelling to quantify the relative merits of competing, or complementing......, analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  18. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  19. Enrichment ratios of elements in selected plant species from black coal mine dumps in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kempers, A.J. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn and V as well as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and S were measured in soils and in two tree species (leaves of Betula pendula and Salix caprea) and two herbs (whole above-ground parts of Solidago canadensis and Tanacetum vulgare) sampled from dumps in the Walbrzych coal mine area (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). These plants, as used to evaluate the distribution of elements in the examined dumps, contained elevated levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Especially the highest levels of Mn in Betula pendula seriously exceed background values. Betula pendula characterized also the highest enrichment ratio for Mn, Salix caprea for Ni and Sr and Tanacetum vulgare for Cu. Test-t indicated that from both herbs Tanace-tum vulgare accumulated much more K, N, S and Zn than Solidago canadensis and of both trees Salix caprea accumulated significantly more Cd, Cu, K and Ca than Betula pendula, while this last species accumulated significantly more Fe and Mn than Salix caprea. A post hoc LSD test indicated that all examined plants had similar enrichment ratios for Al, Pb and V.

  20. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  1. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  2. A simple method for finding explicit analytic transition densities of diffusion processes with general diploid selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The transition density function of the Wright-Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright-Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation-selection balance.

  3. A semi-analytical thermal modelling approach for selective laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; van Keulen, A.; Ayas, C.

    2018-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) wherein a metal part is built in a layer-by-layer manner in a powder bed is a promising and versatile way for manufacturing components with complex geometry. However, components built by SLM suffer from substantial deformation of the part and residual stresses.

  4. Analytical modeling of mode selection and power control for underlay D2D communication in cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2014-11-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication enables the user equipments (UEs) located in close proximity to bypass the cellular base stations (BSs) and directly connect to each other, and thereby, offload traffic from the cellular infrastructure. D2D communication can improve spatial frequency reuse and energy efficiency in cellular networks. This paper presents a comprehensive and tractable analytical framework for D2D-enabled uplink cellular networks with a flexible mode selection scheme along with truncated channel inversion power control. The developed framework is used to analyze and understand how the underlaying D2D communication affects the cellular network performance. Through comprehensive numerical analysis, we investigate the expected performance gains and provide guidelines for selecting the network parameters.

  5. On-line solid-phase enrichment coupled to packed reactor flow injection analysis in a green analytical procedure to determine low levels of folic acid using fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emara Samy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of folic acid (FA is not an easy task because of its presence in lower concentrations, its lower stability under acidic conditions, and its sensitiveness against light and high temperature. The present study is concerned with the development and validation of an automated environmentally friendly pre-column derivatization combined by solid-phase enrichment (SPEn to determine low levels of FA. Results Cerium (IV trihydroxyhydroperoxide (CTH as a packed oxidant reactor has been used for oxidative cleavage of FA into highly fluorescent product, 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid. FA was injected into a carrier stream of 0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.4 at a flow-rate of 0.25 mL/min. The sample zone containing the analyte was passed through the CTH reactor thermostated at 40°C, and the fluorescent product was trapped and enriched on a head of small ODS column (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size. The enriched product was then back-flush eluted by column-switching from the small ODS column to the detector with a greener mobile phase consisting of ethanol and phosphate buffer (0.04M, pH 3.4 in the ratio of 5:95 (v/v. The eluent was monitored fluorimetrically at emission and excitation wavelengths of 463 and 367 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear over concentrations of FA in the range of 1.25-50 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.49 ng/mL. Conclusion A new simple and sensitive green analytical procedure including on-line pre-column derivatization combined by SPEn has been developed for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of FA at very low concentration level. The method was a powerful analytical technique that had excellent sensitivity, sufficient accuracy and required relatively simple and inexpensive instrumentation.

  6. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  7. A Context Aware Recommender System for Mobile Phone Selection Using Combination of Elimination Method and Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest proper items to customers based on their preferences and needs. Needed time to search is reduced and the quality of customer’s choice is increased using recommender systems. The context information like time, location and user behaviors can enhance the quality of recommendations and customer satisfication in such systems. In this paper a context aware recommender system is designed and implemented in android smart phones to help customers select mobile phones. The system removes ineffective criteria on user’s purcheses using customer mobile phones’ sensor data. Then creates analytic hierarchy processing tree and computes weights. Finally the recommender system recommends proper mobile phone to user. The system selects and recommends suitable phones using combination of elimination method and analytic hierarchy processing (AHP. The context aware recommender system is used by mobile phone customers to assess recomendation satisfication and user interface design satisfication. In addition a traditional non-context aware recommender system is used by users to compare the recommendation results in two different systems. The article concludes that using context information can improve the recommendation quality and user satisfication. Because of decreasing criteria and pair-wised comparisions, the user interface design satisfication improves a little too.

  8. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  9. Selection of optimum maintenance strategies based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Azizi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on maintenance strategies on Iranian oil terminals’ company. The study determines four main factors, production quality, reliability, cost and safety. Using fuzzy analytical process, the study determines various factors associated with each main factor and ranks them by performing pair-wise comparisons. The results indicate that reliability ranks first (0.255, followed by production quality (0.252, cost (0.25 and safety (0.244. In terms of reliability, the best utilization of resources is number one priority followed by increase access to maintenance tools, reduction in production interruption are among the most important issues. In terms of production quality, reduction in system failure as well as reworks is the most important factors followed by customer satisfaction and defects. In terms of cost items, ease of access to accessories and consulting are important factors followed by necessary software, hardware and training programs. Finally, in terms of safety factors, external, internal and employee services are the most important issues, which are needed to be considered.

  10. Analytical review of minimum critical mass values for selected uranium and plutonium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Henrikson, D.J.; Garcia, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Current subcritical limits for a number of uranium and plutonium materials (metals and compounds) as given in the ANSI/ANS standards for criticality safety are based on evaluations performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the minimum critical mass values for a set of materials using current codes and standard cross section sets. This work is meant to produce a consistent set of minimum critical mass values that can form the basis for adding new materials to the single-parameter tables in ANSI/ANS-8.1. Minimum critical mass results are presented for bare and water reflected full-density spheres and for full density moist (1.5 wt-% water) as calculated with KENO-Va, MCNP4A and ONEDANT. Calculations were also performed for both dry and moist materials at one-half density. Some KENO calculations were repeated using several cross section sets to examine potential bias differences. The results of the calculations were compared to the currently accepted subcritical limits. The calculated minimum critical mass values are reasonably consistent for the three codes, and differences most likely reflect differences in the cross section sets. The results are also consistent with values given in ANSI/ANS-8.1. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Decision making model design for antivirus software selection using Factor Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati Ai; Gautama Aditya; Naseer Muchammad

    2018-01-01

    Virus spread increase significantly through the internet in 2017. One of the protection method is using antivirus software. The wide variety of antivirus software in the market tends to creating confusion among consumer. Selecting the right antivirus according to their needs has become difficult. This is the reason we conduct our research. We formulate a decision making model for antivirus software consumer. The model is constructed by using factor analysis and AHP method. First we spread que...

  12. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  13. Decision making model design for antivirus software selection using Factor Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Ai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus spread increase significantly through the internet in 2017. One of the protection method is using antivirus software. The wide variety of antivirus software in the market tends to creating confusion among consumer. Selecting the right antivirus according to their needs has become difficult. This is the reason we conduct our research. We formulate a decision making model for antivirus software consumer. The model is constructed by using factor analysis and AHP method. First we spread questionnaires to consumer, then from those questionnaires we identified 16 variables that needs to be considered on selecting antivirus software. This 16 variables then divided into 5 factors by using factor analysis method in SPSS software. These five factors are security, performance, internal, time and capacity. To rank those factors we spread questionnaires to 6 IT expert then the data is analyzed using AHP method. The result is that performance factors gained the highest rank from all of the other factors. Thus, consumer can select antivirus software by judging the variables in the performance factors. Those variables are software loading speed, user friendly, no excessive memory use, thorough scanning, and scanning virus fast and accurately.

  14. Comparison of two analyzers to determine selected venous blood analytes of Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Heatley, J Jill; Russell, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    Point of care devices can assess electrolyte, blood gas, biochemical, and hematologic values in a critical care setting. Although these devices are commonly used in humans and companion mammals, few studies have assessed their use in avian species. This study compares electrolyte, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), acid-base, and venous blood gas parameters between the i-STAT and IRMA TruPoint blood gas analysis systems for 35 Quaker parrots. Agreement between the two analyzers and the effect of gender, time lag between sample analysis, and cartridge expiration were evaluated. Male birds had increased Hgb and Hct compared with females, independent of analyzer method. In expired i-STAT cartridges, only glucose significantly increased. Packed cell volume determined by centrifugation was higher than Hct, as calculated by either analyzer. The analyzers had good agreement for total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, pH, and Hgb, fair agreement for potassium (K), ionized calcium (iCa), venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and base excess, and poor agreement for sodium (Na), venous partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and oxygen saturation (SO2). Values for Na, iCa, PO2, and SO2 were significantly higher on the IRMA than the i-STAT, while K was significantly lower on the IRMA when compared with the i-STAT. The time lag between sample analyses on the i-STAT and IRMA did not be correlate to any analyte changes. Despite these differences, both the i-STAT and the IRMA appear to be acceptable clinical tools in avian critical care, although reference ranges for each analyzer should be created.

  15. Preparation and characterization of fluorophenylboronic acid-functionalized affinity monolithic columns for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianjin; Liu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Boronate affinity monolithic columns have been developed into an important means for the selective recognition and capture of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, nucleosides and saccharides. The ligands of boronic acids are playing an important role in boronate affinity monolithic columns. Although several boronate affinity monoliths with high affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules have been reported, only few publications are focused on their detailed procedures for preparation and characterization. This chapter describes in detail the preparation and characterization of a boronate affinity monolithic column applying 2,4-difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA) as a ligand. The DFFPBA-functionalized monolithic column not only exhibited an ultrahigh boronate affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but also showed great potential for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in real samples.

  16. Fabrication of boronate-decorated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes grafted cotton fiber for the selective enrichment of nucleosides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-06-01

    Various cotton fiber based boronate-affinity adsorbents are recently developed for the sample pretreatment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but most do not have efficient capacity due to limited binding sites on the surface of cotton fibers. To increase the density of boronate groups on the surface of cotton fiber, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes were used to modify cotton fiber to provide plentiful reactive sites for subsequent functionalization with 4-formylphenylboronic acid. The new adsorbent showed special recognition ability towards cis-diols and high adsorption capacity (175 μg/g for catechol, 250 μg/g for dopamine, 400 μg/g for adenosine). The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction was investigated under different conditions, including pH and ionic strength of solution, adsorbent amount, pipette times, washing solvent, and elution solvent. The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze four nucleosides in urine samples. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 5.1 and 6.1 ng/mL (S/N  =  3), and the linearity ranged from 20 to 500 ng/mL for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of analytes in real urine samples with recoveries varying from 83 to 104% (RSD = 3.9-10.2%, n = 3). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation And Selection Process of Suppliers Through Analytical Framework: An Emprical Evidence of Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imeri Shpend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplier selection process is very important to companies as selecting the right suppliers that fit companies strategy needs brings drastic savings. Therefore, this paper seeks to address the key area of supplies evaluation from the supplier review perspective. The purpose was to identify the most important criteria for suppliers’ evaluation and develop evaluation tool based on surveyed criteria. The research was conducted through structured questionnaire and the sample focused on small to medium sized companies (SMEs in Greece. In total eighty companies participated in the survey answering the full questionnaire which consisted of questions whether these companies utilize some suppliers’ evaluation criteria and what criteria if any is applied. The main statistical instrument used in the study is Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Thus, the research has shown that the main criteria are: the attitude of the vendor towards the customer, supplier delivery time, product quality and price. Conclusions are made on the suitability and usefulness of suppliers’ evaluation criteria and in way they are applied in enterprises.

  18. Clustering based gene expression feature selection method: A computational approach to enrich the classifier efficiency of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    decrease the computational time and cost, but also improve the classification performance. Among different approaches of feature selection methods, however most of them suffer from several problems such as lack of robustness, validation issues etc. Here, we

  19. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  20. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  1. Decision support for selecting exportable nuclear technology using the analytic hierarchy process: A Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Joo; Hwang, Jooho

    2010-01-01

    The Korean government plans to increase strategically focused R and D investment in some promising nuclear technology areas to create export opportunities of technology in a global nuclear market. The purpose of this paper is to present a decision support process for selecting promising nuclear technology with the perspective of exportability by using the AHP based on extensive data gathered from nuclear experts in Korea. In this study, the decision criteria for evaluating the export competitiveness of nuclear technologies were determined, and a hierarchical structure for the decision-making process was systematically developed. Subsequently relative weights of decision criteria were derived using AHP methodology and the export competitiveness of nuclear technology alternatives was quantified to prioritize them. We discuss the implications of our results with a viewpoint toward national nuclear technology policy.

  2. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Underrepresented during Selective Enrichment with an ISO Method Might Dominate during Passage through Simulated Gastric Fluid and In Vitro Infection of Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food product, potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, due to bias in strain recovery, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive the immune system of a patient. We investigated the effect of cocultivation in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-Y) at 10°C for 8 days on (i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and (ii) the in vitro virulence of strains toward the Caco-2 human colon epithelial cancer cell line following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 2.0)-HCl (37°C). We determined whether the strains which were favored by SE would be effective competitors under the conditions of challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Interstrain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of competitors with better fitness) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a noteworthy scenario associated with the difficulty of matching the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing to be the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. IMPORTANCE This report is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains in different environments (i.e., foods or

  3. Default network activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A selective meta-analytic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2016-01-08

    It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adjustment of pH of enrichment media might improve selective isolation of MRSA from pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Agersø, Yvonne; Mordhorst, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    pig swabs. Initially a total of seven strains, including: two MRSA, two enterococci, two CNS one Aerococcus viridans and one Proteus spp. strains, were tested for growth in Mueller Hinton II broth with pH ranging from 4 to 5.5 and salt addition of 4% to 7%. In the next step, these strains were tested...... concentrations ≥4% did allow growth of S. aureus but was inhibiting the growth of enterococci. Subsequent growth experiments with isolates from background flora showed an inhibitory effect of pH below 5 for Aerococcus spp and enterococci, whereas less effect was observed on CNS and Proteus spp. In the assays...... strains was completely inhibited by pH ≤5.5 at any salt concentrations tested (5- 6,5%), whereas the growth of Proteus spp. was only inhibited totally at pH of 4.5, but the growth rate could be reduced combining pH at 5 or 5.5 with high salt concentrations. In conclusion, pH adjustment of enrichment media...

  5. Clustering based gene expression feature selection method: A computational approach to enrich the classifier efficiency of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2016-07-20

    The native nature of high dimension low sample size of gene expression data make the classification task more challenging. Therefore, feature (gene) selection become an apparent need. Selecting a meaningful and relevant genes for classifier not only decrease the computational time and cost, but also improve the classification performance. Among different approaches of feature selection methods, however most of them suffer from several problems such as lack of robustness, validation issues etc. Here, we present a new feature selection technique that takes advantage of clustering both samples and genes. Materials and methods We used leukemia gene expression dataset [1]. The effectiveness of the selected features were evaluated by four different classification methods; support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and linear discriminate analysis. The method evaluate the importance and relevance of each gene cluster by summing the expression level for each gene belongs to this cluster. The gene cluster consider important, if it satisfies conditions depend on thresholds and percentage otherwise eliminated. Results Initial analysis identified 7120 differentially expressed genes of leukemia (Fig. 15a), after applying our feature selection methodology we end up with specific 1117 genes discriminating two classes of leukemia (Fig. 15b). Further applying the same method with more stringent higher positive and lower negative threshold condition, number reduced to 58 genes have be tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the method (Fig. 15c). The results of the four classification methods are summarized in Table 11. Conclusions The feature selection method gave good results with minimum classification error. Our heat-map result shows distinct pattern of refines genes discriminating between two classes of leukemia.

  6. ANALYTICAL VIEW OF THE PERCEPTION OF SELECTED INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dorčák

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present by means of thorough analysis of the selected market the perception of innovative approaches in marketing communication, both from the perspective of the companies on the supply side and from the perspective of their potential customers on the demand side. As regards the companies, it is in particular about their perception of relative benefits the use of electronic marketing instruments has given the degree of effort and resources spent on the establishment and maintenance of e-marketing infrastructure. As regards the customers, it is, in turn, about their perception of the particular aspects of use of virtual social networks by the companies for branding purposes or directly for promotion.Methodology/Approach: Object of the research were real companies active on the analysed market. The subject of the research were their actual and potential customers represented by the users of one of the local Internet portals long active on the analysed market. Both these groups were presented with questions by means of electronic questionnaires. The data were subsequently processed and interpreted through cluster analyses.Findings: Based on the confirmed aspects we came to the conclusion that perceived benefit of the Internet on business is closely related to on-line activity of the companies and to the number of instruments the company uses to promote its business. Last but not least, we have investigated whether economic status of the users (real or potential customers has an impact on their perception of the companies' use of social networks for promotional purposes. The similarity of behaviour of particular groups allows for more accurate targeting of on-line activity with respect to selected target markets.Research Limitation/implication: The biggest limitation is the territorial nature of the research. Research was targeted primarily at the Central European market.Originality/Value of paper: Presented

  7. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV–visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, M.; Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C.; Sinelli, N.; Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. ► Comparison between non-selective (UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. ► Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. ► Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV–visible (UV–vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV–vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico.

  8. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  9. Using the Analytical Network Process to Select the Best Strategy for Reducing Risks in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers four types of the most prominent risks in the supply chain. Their subcriteria and relations between them and within the network are also considered. In a supply chain, risks are mostly created by fluctuations. The aim of this study is to adopt a strategy for eliminating or reducing risks in a supply chain network. Having various solutions helps the supply chain to be resilient. Therefore, five alternatives are considered, namely, total quality management (TQM, leanness, alignment, adaptability, and agility. This paper develops a new network of supply chain risks by considering the interactions between risks. Perhaps, the network elements have interacted with some or all of the factors (clusters or subfactors. We constitute supply chain risks in the analytic network process (ANP, which attracted less attention in the previous studies. Most of the studies about making a decision in supply chains have been applied in analytic hierarchy process (AHP network. The present study considers the ANP as a well-known multicriteria decision making (MCDM technique to choose the best alternative, because of the interdependency and feedbacks of different levels of the network. Finally, the ANP selects TQM as the best alternative among the considered ones.

  10. Selecting the most appropriate maintenance strategies using fuzzy Analytic Network Process: A case study of Saipa vehicle industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rahimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary for companies and industries to select the most appropriate maintenance strategy to increase the reliability and safety level with reasonable cost. The primary objective of this paper is to assess different maintenance strategies and to select the best and the most appropriate alternatives for Saipa vehicle industry in Tehran, Iran. For this purpose, we simultaneously consider numerous conflicting objectives and constraints. In this study to counter with this conflicting and to consider the dependency among the qualitative and quantitative criteria and sub-criteria, an integration of Analytic Network Process (ANP and fuzzy set theory are considered. Therefore, factors playing important role in selecting the best maintenance strategy are determined by reviewing the research literature and interviewing with the experts by Delphi technique. Considering the relations among different factors, a network with 4 criteria and 28 sub-criteria are proposed. In the next step, ANP technique is applied for ranking effective factors in evolution of appropriate maintenance strategy. Results reveal that the best maintenance strategy for fixture body of pride (setter is corrective maintenance.

  11. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  12. Selecting Health Care Improvement Projects: A Methodology Integrating Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Analytical Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Özlem Müge; Shaygan, Amir; Dasdemir, Erdi; Soydan, Guray

    It is often vital to identify, prioritize, and select quality improvement projects in a hospital. Yet, a methodology, which utilizes experts' opinions with different points of view, is needed for better decision making. The proposed methodology utilizes the cause-and-effect diagram to identify improvement projects and construct a project hierarchy for a problem. The right improvement projects are then prioritized and selected using a weighting scheme of analytical hierarchy process by aggregating experts' opinions. An approach for collecting data from experts and a graphical display for summarizing the obtained information are also provided. The methodology is implemented for improving a hospital appointment system. The top-ranked 2 major project categories for improvements were identified to be system- and accessibility-related causes (45%) and capacity-related causes (28%), respectively. For each of the major project category, subprojects were then ranked for selecting the improvement needs. The methodology is useful in cases where an aggregate decision based on experts' opinions is expected. Some suggestions for practical implementations are provided.

  13. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Prioritize and Select Phase Change Materials for Comfort Application in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socaciu Lavinia Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs selection and prioritization for comfort application in buildings have a significant contribution to the improvement of latent heat storage systems. PCMs have a relatively large thermal energy storage capacity in a temperature range close to their switch point. PCMs absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the environment in the phase change range during a reverse cooling process. Thermal energy storage systems using PCMs as storage medium offer advantages such as: high heat storage capacity and store/release thermal energy at a nearly constant temperature, relative low weight, small unit size and isothermal behaviour during charging and discharging when compared to the sensible thermal energy storage. PCMs are valuable only in the range of temperature close to their phase change point, since their main thermal energy storage capacity depend on their mass and on their latent heat of fusion. Selection of the proper PCMs is a challenging task because there are lots of different materials with different characteristics. In this research paper the principles and techniques of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP are presented, discussed and applied in order to prioritize and select the proper PCMs for comfort application in buildings. The AHP method is used for solving complex decisional problems and allows the decision maker to take the most suitable decisions for the problem studied. The results obtained reveal that the AHP method can be successfully applied when we want to choose a PCM for comfort application in buildings.

  14. Comparative study of the selective degradations of two enantiomers in the racemate and an enriched concentration of indoxacarb in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ping; Hu, De-Yu; Ling, Hu-Rong; Zhong, Lei; Huang, An-Xiang; Zhang, Kan-Kan; Song, Bao-An

    2014-09-17

    In this study, selective degradations of the two enantiomers of indoxacarb in the concentrate (2.33S/1R) and racemate (1S/1R) are examined. The absolute configurations of indoxacarb enantiomers were determined using X-ray diffraction. The results showed that in two alkaline soils, the S-(+)-indoxacarb was preferentially degraded in both the concentrate and racemate. In one acid soil, the two enantiomers degraded no-selectivity. In another acid soil and one neutral soil, the R-(-)-indoxacarb was preferentially degraded in both the concentrate and racemate. Indoxacarb enantiomers were configurationally stable in the five soils, and no interconversion was observed during the incubation. Because no significant difference in degradation was observed after samples were sterilized, the observed enantioselectivity may be attributed primarily to microbial activity in soils. The results indicate that the selective degradation behavior was the same for both formulations that were tested.

  15. Selection of Malaysia School Youth Cadet Corps leader by using analytical hierarchy process: A case study at SMK Ahmad Boestamam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nurul Huda; Ahmat, Norhayati; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal; Razmi, Syazwani Che; Mohamed, Nurul Farihan

    2017-05-01

    This research is a case study to identify the best criteria that a person should have as the leader of Malaysia School Youth Cadet Corps (Kadet Remaja Sekolah (KRS)) at SMK Ahmad Boestamam, Sitiawan in order to select the most appropriate person to hold the position. The approach used in this study is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) which include pairwise comparison to compare the criteria and also the candidates. There are four criteria namely charisma, interpersonal communication, personality and physical. Four candidates (1, 2, 3 and 4) are being considered in this study. Purposive sampling and questionnaires are used as instruments to obtain the data which are then analyzed by using the AHP method. The final output indicates that Candidate 1 has the highest score, followed by Candidate 2, Candidate 4 and Candidate 3. It shows that this method is very helpful in the multi-criteria decision making when there are several options available.

  16. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  17. Analytical Support for Selecting the Best Investment Project in the Presence of Fuzzy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyuba Oleksiy S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of optimal choice in the field of real investments in case of fuzzy estimates of financial and economic parameters. The general methodological basis of the research is an integrated approach to solving decision-making problems under conditions of uncertainty, conflict, and risk generated by them, based on the game theory, proposed by R. I. Trukhayev. In recent decades, it has been actively developed in papers by the followers of the scientific school of riskology under the leadership of V. V. Vitlinsky. One of the system-forming components of the above integration and game methodology is the classifier of information situations (there singled out seven of them. In this case, the description of possible states of the economic environment by a fuzzy set (a subset corresponds to the seventh information situation. An attempt was made to develop a methodical apparatus for the task of selecting the best investment project from a variety of alternative projects in the presence of fuzzy data. As a result, a model based on the use of convolutions of local criteria is formulated. In accordance with the accepted methodological guidelines, the structure of the generalized (integral indicator of the economic attractiveness (efficiency of real investment provides for three hierarchical levels: 1 the level of detailed criteria in terms of partial criteria (financial effect, profitability, payback period, 2 the level of partial criteria, 3 the level presenting the very generalized indicator. In the basic version of the proposed model, among the possible techniques (methods for aggregating indicators detailing the aspects of fuzzy estimates of partial criteria, the preference is given to the method by which they are joined by a combined, additive and multiplicative convolution.

  18. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  19. Selective microwave sensors exploiting the interaction of analytes with trap states in TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, M. H.; Farsinezhad, S.; Abdolrazzaghi, M.; Daneshmand, M.; Shankar, K.

    2016-03-01

    Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform. By placing a polycrystalline anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube membrane in the coupling gap of a microwave resonator, we engineer selectivity for the detection and differentiation of methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The scavenging of reactive trapped holes by aliphatic alcohols adsorbed on TiO2 is responsible for the alcohol-specific detection while the different short chain alcohols are distinguished on the basis of differences in their microwave response. Electrodeless microwave sensors which allow spectral and time-dependent monitoring of the resonance frequency and quality factor provide a wealth of information in comparison with electrode-based resistive sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds. A high dynamic range (400 ppm-10 000 ppm) is demonstrated for methanol detection.Sensing of molecular analytes by probing the effects of their interaction with microwaves is emerging as a cheap, compact, label-free and highly sensitive detection and quantification technique. Microstrip ring-type resonators are particularly favored for this purpose due to their planar sensing geometry, electromagnetic field enhancements in the coupling gap and compatibility with established printed circuit board manufacturing. However, the lack of selectivity in what is essentially a permittivity-sensing method is an impediment to wider adoption and implementation of this sensing platform

  20. Comparação da eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella Dublin Comparison of the efficiency of selective enrichment broths for Salmonella Dublin isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different selective enrichment broths: Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV, selenite cystine (SC and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MKT for Salmonella Dublin isolation from faecal samples of calf experimentally infected. The bacteriological procedure involved pre-enrichment stages in Hajna-GN broth (only for the samples inoculated in RV broth, selective enrichment, culture in modified brilliant green agar (BGA, presumptive biochemistry tests (using triple-sugar-iron agar and lysine-agar and slide agglutination test with poli-O and poli-H Salmonella antiserum. The effects of enrichment temperatures using RV broth were also evaluated (37ºC and 42ºC. SC broth was significantly more efficient in the isolation of Salmonella Dublin (P<0,05, whereas RV broth incubated at 42ºC had a lower efficiency in the microbiological isolation.

  1. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  2. Process and device for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of a laser light and application to isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The description is given of a process for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of the monochromatic light emitted by a high power laser. The laser light at frequency ν 1 is beamed on to an isotopic mixture of gaseous molecules, some of these molecules presenting transitions, between two vibration levels corresponding to a given isotope, separated by an energy interval ΔE 1 =2h ν 1 , and the molecules of a given isotopic species are thus preferentially dissociated into several component parts [fr

  3. Report of the Comptroller General of the United States. Comments on selected aspects of the Administration's proposal for government assistance to private uranium enrichment groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents GAO's views on matters raised by the Vice Chairman, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, related to the private ownership of uranium enrichment and reemphasizes GAO's belief that the Government should add on to one of its existing enrichment plants to provide the next increment of enrichment capacity

  4. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sae Rom [Dept of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Yeol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Nonproliferation System Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  5. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sae Rom; Choi, Sung Yeol; Ko, Wonil

    2017-01-01

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios

  6. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  7. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  8. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke; Erol Genevois, Mujde

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  9. Effect of composition and processing conditions on selected characteristics of extruded corn instant gruels enriched with fruits addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kręcisz Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries and goji berries were used as natural supplements in extruded instant corn gruels. The effects of additive type and level, as well as extrusion-cooking screw speed on selected properties of extrudates were tested. Corn grit was used as the base raw materials and dry and ground goji berries and cranberries were added at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Extrusion-cooking of blends was performed with a single screw extruder at temperature ranged 125-135°C using various screw speed during processing. Extrudates were ground below 1 mm for instant gruels. Water absorption, water solubility, as well as colour profile were tested. The results showed that the highest water absorption was evaluated for instant gruels consist the highest amount of goji berries extruded at the highest screw speed during processing, while cranberries addition have no significant effect on water absorption. Increasing amount of dry cranberries and goji berries in the recipe affected on lowering the water solubility of the extrudates. Significant effect of fruits on color coordinates was observed. Increasing amount of dry berries lowered lightness L* and yellowness of instant gruels, especially when goji berries were used in the recipe. Increasing the screw speed during processing decreased intensity b* values.

  10. Selective enrichment and sequencing of whole mitochondrial genomes in the presence of nuclear encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available Numts are an integral component of many eukaryote genomes offering a snapshot of the evolutionary process that led from the incorporation of an α-proteobacterium into a larger eukaryotic cell some 1.8 billion years ago. Although numt sequence can be harnessed as molecular marker, these sequences often remain unidentified and are mistaken for genuine mtDNA leading to erroneous interpretation of mtDNA data sets. It is therefore indispensable that during the process of amplifying and sequencing mitochondrial genes, preventive measures are taken to ensure the exclusion of numts to guarantee the recovery of genuine mtDNA. This applies to mtDNA analyses in general but especially to studies where mtDNAs are sequenced de novo as the launch pad for subsequent mtDNA-based research. By using a combination of dilution series and nested rolling circle amplification (RCA, we present a novel strategy to selectively amplify mtDNA and exclude the amplification of numt sequence. We have successfully applied this strategy to de novo sequence the mtDNA of the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus, a species known to contain numts. Aligning our assembled sequence to the reference genome of Teleogryllus emma (GenBank EU557269.1 led to the identification of a numt sequence in the reference sequence. This unexpected result further highlights the need of a reliable and accessible strategy to eliminate this source of error.

  11. Simultaneous production of acetate and methane from glycerol by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) mixed culture fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yun; Dai, Kun; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous production of acetate and methane from glycerol was investigated. • Acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. • The maximum concentration of acetate was above 13 g/L. • 93% of archaea were hydrogenotrophic methanogens. • Thermoanaerobacter was main bacterium and its percentage was 92%. - Abstract: The feasibility of simultaneous production of acetate and methane from glycerol was investigated by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in an extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) fermentation. Fed-batch experiments showed acetate was produced at the concentration up to 13.0 g/L. A stable operation of the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was reached within 100 days. Acetate accounted for more than 90 w/w% of metabolites in the fermentation liquid. The yields of methane and acetate were close to the theoretical yields with 0.74–0.80 mol-methane/mol-glycerol and 0.63–0.70 mol-acetate/mol-glycerol. The obtained microbial community was characterized. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens, mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus formed 93% of the methanogenogenic community. This confirms that a high temperature (70 °C) could effectively select for hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. Thermoanaerobacter spp. was the main bacterium forming 91.5% of the bacterial population. This work demonstrated the conversion of the byproduct of biodiesel production, glycerol, to acetate as a chemical and biogas for energy generation

  12. Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkis Steve

    2014-07-01

    and on differences in the application of the various colour complexes used for quantification with UV absorbance is required. Ammonia analysis was carried out by ion chromatography (IC followed by conductivity measurement and gave very similar results between laboratories. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by LC/MS-MS methodology. Optimal conditions for the separation of ammonium from interfering ions and minimizing artefactual ammonia formation from other smoke components need to be addressed during standardisation. Aromatic amine methods involved either LC/MS-MS separation and detection or derivatisation by one of two main reagents followed by GC-MS analysis. Yields were at similar but variable levels using these different techniques. It is currently unclear which method will be taken to a CRM. In general, four compounds were measured (1-amino naphthalene; 2-amino naphthalene; 3-amino biphenyl and 4-amino biphenyl although two others were incorporated in methodologies used by 3 laboratories (o-anisidine and o-toluidine. Semi-volatiles (pyridine, quinoline and styrene were often integrated with the selected volatiles method by measurement of the combination of CFP extracts and the contents of the impinger trapping system. Less data, obtained mainly by inductively-coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, were available on metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, selenium and mercury in smoke. Trace metals were the most variable of the studied smoke analytes. Optimisation of the digestion step to remove the organic matrix needs to be addressed. As a consequence of this study and subsequent discussions within the Sub Group, it was decided to prioritise the development of CRMs for selected phenols followed by hydrogen cyanide and ammonia.

  13. Brackish groundwater membrane system design for sustainable irrigation: Optimal configuration selection using analytic hierarchy process and multi-dimension scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni eLew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent high demands for reuse of salty water for irrigation affected membrane producers to assess new potential technologies for undesirable physical, chemical and biological contaminants removal. This paper studies the assembly options by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model and the multi-dimension scaling (MDS techniques. A specialized form of MDS (CoPlot software enables presentation of the AHP outcomes in a two dimensional space and the optimal model can be visualized clearly. Four types of 8 membranes were selected: (i Nanofiltration low rejection and high flux (ESNA1-LF-LD, 86% rejection, 10,500gpd; (ii Nanofiltration medium rejection and medium flux (ESNA1-LF2-LD, 91% rejection, 8,200gpd; (iii Reverse Osmosis high rejection and high flux (CPA5-MAX, 99.7 rejection, 12,000gpd ; and (iv Reverse Osmosis medium rejection and extreme high flux (ESPA4-MAX, 99.2 rejection, 13,200gpd. The results indicate that: (i Nanofiltration membrane (High flux and Low rejection can produce water for irrigation with valuable levels of nutrient ions and a reduction in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR, minimizing soil salinity; this is an attractive option for agricultural irrigation and is the optimal solution; and (ii implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables is consequently useful to characterize membrane system design.

  14. Tackling the challenge of selective analytical clean-up of complex natural extracts: the curious case of chlorophyll removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-11-15

    Alkaline saponification is often used to remove interfering chlorophylls and lipids during carotenoids analysis. However, saponification also hydrolyses esterified carotenoids and is known to induce artifacts. To avoid carotenoid artifact formation during saponification, Larsen and Christensen (2005) developed a gentler and simpler analytical clean-up procedure involving the use of a strong basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). They hypothesised a saponification mechanism based on their Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array (LC-PDA) data. In the present study, we show with LC-PDA-accurate mass-Mass Spectrometry that the main chlorophyll removal mechanism is not based on saponification, apolar adsorption or anion exchange, but most probably an adsorption mechanism caused by H-bonds and dipole-dipole interactions. We showed experimentally that esterified carotenoids and glycerolipids were not removed, indicating a much more selective mechanism than initially hypothesised. This opens new research opportunities towards a much wider scope of applications (e.g. the refinement of oils rich in phytochemical content). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of the Best Wastewater Treatment Alternative for RIPI Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Expert Choice Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faramarz Tarkian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RIPI as one of the largest and most important research centers in Iran is located in zone 22 of Tehran municipality. According to the environmental priorities in the region taking all necessary measures to control pollution sources is necessary. In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used for the selection of the best wastewater treatment method for RIPI. For this purpose four alternatives including SBR, Extended aeration activated sludge, Rotating MBR, Fix MBR were evaluated. These alternatives were weighted by four main criteria: Environment, Economic, Technical, Management and the defined sub-criteria ,then paired compared with respect to any form of wastewater treatment alternatives and ultimately the results was evaluated by Expert Choice software. The evaluation results indicate that Rotating MBR was the most suitable alternative of wastewater treatment method for RIPI. After the Rotating MBR, the Fix MBR, SBR and Extended activated sludge were considered suitable respectively. Degree of inconsistency is equal to 0.07, indicating that the number of paired comparisons is consistent.

  16. Enriched cultures of lactic acid bacteria from selected Zimbabwean fermented food and medicinal products with potential as therapy or prophylaxis against yeast infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Chabwinja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal activity of crude cultures of putative strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean traditional and commercial food/ medicinal products against yeasts (strains of environmental isolates of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp.. Methods: Cultures of putative LAB from our selection of fermented products were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe and isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar. Results: The crude microbial cultures from the products that showed high antifungal activities (zone of inhibition, mm were as follows: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP from an extract of Melia azedarach leaves [(27.0 ± 2.5 mm] > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk [approximately (26.0 ± 1.8/2.5 mm] > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko [(25.0 ± 1.5 mm] > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.5 mm], SFMP from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.4 mm] and SFMP from mahewu [(20.0 ± 1.5 mm]. These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. However, culture from WAYA LGG (shown elsewhere to harbour antimicrobial activities showed no antifungal activity. The LAB could have inhibited yeasts by either competitive exclusion or the release of antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions: Our cultures of LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean fermented products, especially Ziziphus mauritiana and fermented milk products have great potential for use as antifungal probiotics against yeast infections. Studies are ongoing to determine the exact mechanisms that are employed by the putative LAB to inhibit Candida albicans.

  17. Rethinking of the heuristic-analytic dual process theory: a comment on Wada and Nittono (2004) and the reasoning process in the Wason selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Maurizio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2005-08-01

    This paper raises some methodological problems in the dual process explanation provided by Wada and Nittono for their 2004 results using the Wason selection task. We maintain that the Nittono rethinking approach is weak and that it should be refined to grasp better the evidence of analytic processes.

  18. A facile and selective approach for enrichment of l-cysteine in human plasma sample based on zinc organic polymer: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas; Javadian, Hamedreza; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Taghipour, Tahere

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a facile and selective method was described to extract l-cysteine (l-Cys), an essential α-amino acid for anti-ageing playing an important role in human health, from human blood plasma sample. The importance of this research was the mild and time-consuming synthesis of zinc organic polymer (Zn-MOP) as an adsorbent and evaluation of its ability for efficient enrichment of l-Cys by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The structure of Zn-MOP was investigated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the experimental data to reach the best optimum conditions. The quantification of l-Cys was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection set at λ=230nm. The calibration graph showed reasonable linear responses towards l-Cys concentrations in the range of 4.0-1000μg/L (r 2 =0.999) with low limit of detection (0.76μg/L, S/N=3) and RSD≤2.18 (n=3). The results revealed the applicability and high performance of this novel strategy in detecting trace l-Cys by Zn-MOP in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective enrichment of volatiles confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide gas is detected above Uranus's main cloud deck, confirming the prevalence of H2S ice particles as the main cloud component and a strongly unbalanced nitrogen/sulfur ratio in the planet's deep atmosphere.

  20. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  1. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  2. Centrifuge enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astley, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear has been active in privately funded research and development of centrifuge enrichment technology since 1972. In October of 1975, Exxon Nuclear submitted a proposal to design, construct, and operate a 3000-MT SWU/yr centrifuge enrichment plant, under the provisions of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act of 1975. The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accepted the proposal as a basis for negotiation. It was proposed to build a 1000-MT SWU/yr demonstration increment to be operational in 1982; and after successful operation for about one year, expand the facilities into a 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. As part of the overall centrifuge enrichment plant, a dedicated centrifuge manufacturing plant would be constructed; sized to support the full 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. The selection of the centrifuge process by Exxon Nuclear was based on an extremely thorough evaluation of current and projected enrichment technology; results show that the technology is mature and the process will be cost effective. The substantial savings in energy (about 93%) from utilization of the centrifuge option rather than gaseous diffusion is a compelling argument. As part of this program, Exxon Nuclear has a large hardware R and D program, plus a prototype centrifuge manufacturing capability in Malta, New York. To provide a full-scale machine and limited cascade test capability, Exxon Nuclear is constructing a $4,000,000 Centrifuge Test Facility in Richland, Washington. This facility was to initiate operations in the Fall of 1976. Exxon Nuclear is convinced that the centrifuge enrichment process is the rational selection for emergence of a commercial enrichment industry

  3. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of

  6. Analytic Hierarchy Process & Multi Attribute Utility Theory Based Approach for the Selection of Lighting Systems in Residential Buildings: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Alshamrani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach developed for selecting lighting systems in residential buildings using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Multi Criteria Decision Making Technique (MCDMT. The developed approach considers four selection criteria of lighting systems: life-cycle cost, illumination, environmental performance, and life-span. The criteria of selection, along with the most widely used lighting systems in residential buildings, were determined through questionnaire surveys with suppliers, maintenance managers, and lighting experts. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi Attribute Utility Theory were utilized to assess the significant influence of the identified main and sub-criteria on the selection process, from the design point of view. The developed approach was tested on a real case project in selecting the lighting system for aresidential building in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results show that the life-cycle cost and illumination proprieties, followed by the service life were found to be the most influential measures in the selection process. The results also show that Light-Emitting Diode(LED lighting systems prove to bear the highest initial cost while sustaining the best overall performance.

  7. An Evolutionary/Biochemical Connection Between Promoter- and Primer-Dependent Polymerases Revealed by Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Katherine J; Achuthan, Vasudevan; Schneider, Thomas D; DeStefano, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-16

    DNA polymerases (DNAPs) recognize 3' recessed termini on duplex DNA and carry out nucleotide catalysis. Unlike promoter-specific RNA polymerases (RNAPs), no sequence specificity is required for binding or initiation of catalysis. Despite this, previous results indicate that viral reverse transcriptases bind much more tightly to DNA primers that mimic the polypurine tract. In the current report, primer sequences that bind with high affinity to Taq and Klenow polymerases were identified using a modified Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) approach. Two Taq -specific primers that bound ∼10 (Taq1) and over 100 (Taq2) times more stably than controls to Taq were identified. Taq1 contained 8 nucleotides (5' -CACTAAAG-3') that matched the phage T3 RNAP "core" promoter. Both primers dramatically outcompeted primers with similar binding thermodynamics in PCR reactions. Similarly, exonuclease minus Klenow polymerase also selected a high affinity primer that contained a related core promoter sequence from phage T7 RNAP (5' -ACTATAG-3'). For both Taq and Klenow, even small modifications to the sequence resulted in large losses in binding affinity suggesting that binding was highly sequence-specific. The results are discussed in the context of possible effects on multi-primer (multiplex) PCR assays, molecular information theory, and the evolution of RNAPs and DNAPs. Importance This work further demonstrates that primer-dependent DNA polymerases can have strong sequence biases leading to dramatically tighter binding to specific sequences. These may be related to biological function, or be a consequences of the structural architecture of the enzyme. New sequence specificity for Taq and Klenow polymerases were uncovered and among them were sequences that contained the core promoter elements from T3 and T7 phage RNA polymerase promoters. This suggests the intriguing possibility that phage RNA polymerases exploited intrinsic binding affinities of

  8. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhya Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of additive manufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive. The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseudo-analytical model has been introduced to enable such secondary analysis. The model has been able to mimic a finite element model and was able to capture the thermal trends associated with the process. The model has been validated and subsequently applied in a small optimization case study. The pseudo-analytical modelling technique is established as a fast tool for primary modelling investigations.

  9. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Stropnik, B.; Svetina, M.

    2000-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  10. Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) Approach on Consumer Preference in Franchise Fast Food Restaurant Selection in Manado City (Study at: Mcdonald's, Kfc, and A&w)

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Svetlania Wulan; Tielung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Franchise fast food restaurant has become one of the preferred restaurants in Manado City. There have been many outlets franchise fast food restaurant which opened its business in Manado City. The purpose of this research is to analyze the most preferred franchise fast food restaurant by consumer and to analyze the criteria that influence consumer in selecting franchise fast food restaurant. Researcher used Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare each franchise fast food restaurant as t...

  11. Analytical application of solid contact ion-selective electrodes for determination of copper and nitrate in various food products and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardak, Cecylia; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata

    2016-08-02

    A simple, fast and cheap method for monitoring copper and nitrate in drinking water and food products using newly developed solid contact ion-selective electrodes is proposed. Determination of copper and nitrate was performed by application of multiple standard additions technique. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by comparing them using the anodic stripping voltammetry or spectrophotometry for the same samples. In each case, satisfactory agreement of the results was obtained, which confirms the analytical usefulness of the constructed electrodes.

  12. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  13. Analytical Hierarchy Process for the selection of strategic alternatives for introduction of infrastructure virtual desktop infrastructure in the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina A. Makoviy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of choosing a strategy for implementing the virtual desktop infrastructure into the IT infrastructure of the university is considered. The infrastructure of virtual desktops is a technology that provides centralization of management of client workplaces, increase the service life of computers in classrooms. The analysis of strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities for introducing virtualization in the university. Alternatives to implementation based on the results of the pilot project have been developed. To obtain quantitative estimates in the SWOT - analysis of the pilot project, the analytical hierarchy process is used. The analysis of implementation of the pilot project by experts is carried out and the integral value of quantitative estimates of various alternatives is generated. The combination of the analytical hierarchy process and SWOT - analysis allows you to choose the optimal strategy for implementing desktop virtualization.

  14. A remarkable enhancement of selectivity towards versatile analytes by a strategically integrated H-bonding site containing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Abul K; Qiu, Hongdeng; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2015-09-28

    A double β-alanylated L-glutamide-derived organic phase has been newly designed and synthesized in such a way that integrated H-bonding (interaction) sites make it very suitable for the separation of versatile analytes, including shape-constrained isomers, and nonpolar, polar and basic compounds. The β-alanine residues introduced into two long-chain alkyl group moieties provide ordered polar groups through H-bonding among the amide groups.

  15. Determinants of 25(OH)D sufficiency in obese minority children: selecting outcome measures and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Schechter, Clyde; Cai, Ziyong; Markowitz, Morri

    2011-06-01

    To highlight complexities in defining vitamin D sufficiency in children. Serum 25-(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels from 140 healthy obese children age 6 to 21 years living in the inner city were compared with multiple health outcome measures, including bone biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors. Several statistical analytic approaches were used, including Pearson correlation, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and "hockey stick" regression modeling. Potential threshold levels for vitamin D sufficiency varied by outcome variable and analytic approach. Only systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with 25(OH)D (r = -0.261; P = .038). ANCOVA revealed that SBP and triglyceride levels were statistically significant in the test groups [25(OH)D 25 ng/mL]. ANCOVA also showed that only children with severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D model regression analyses found evidence of a threshold level in SBP, with a 25(OH)D breakpoint of 27 ng/mL, along with a 25(OH)D breakpoint of 18 ng/mL for triglycerides, but no relationship between 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. Defining vitamin D sufficiency should take into account different vitamin D-related health outcome measures and analytic methodologies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella flexneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 contaminate similar types of food and all three can cause foodborne disease. Traditional microbiological enrichment broths to detect these pathogens are different in terms of their composition, which limits the application of multi-pathogen detectio...

  17. The Application of Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP Approach for Appropriate Location Selection of Health Centers: case study in ramsar cite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Mohammadi Zanjirani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate location selection for health Services unites is a Strategic decision which is based on gathering information and also exact analysis of related alternatives. It's clear that result of this decision is really important and will led to long time improvement in all dimensions including economic, social, and etc. Otherwise, the most studies of location have done in background manufacturing rather than service area and there are just few articles which have focused in field of healthcare. This study attempted to solve this stock of researches. Methods: By using an almost comprehensive literatures review, objective and subjective criteria are identified. After finalizing criteria's, Are used from decision-makers’ assessments for collection data. Fuzzy Analytical Network Process is used for analyzing the data. Results: The finding indicates that the criteria's of proposed model are high validity and reliability for appropriate location selection of Health Centers. Conclusion: The analyzing of data indicates that lamtar locate is selected appropriate location.

  18. An evolution in listening: An analytical and critical study of structural, acoustic, and phenomenal aspects of selected works by Pauline Oliveros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setar, Katherine Marie

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation analytically and critically examines composer Pauline Oliveros's philosophy of 'listening' as it applies to selected works created between 1961 and 1984. The dissertation is organized through the application of two criteria: three perspectives of listening (empirical, phenomenal, and, to a lesser extent, personal), and categories derived, in part, from her writings and interviews (improvisational, traditional, theatrical, electronic, meditational, and interactive). In general, Oliveros's works may be categorized by one of two listening perspectives. The 'empirical' listening perspective, which generally includes pure acoustic phenomenon, independent from human interpretation, is exemplified in the analyses of Sound Patterns (1961), OH HA AH (1968), and, to a lesser extent, I of IV (1966). The 'phenomenal' listening perspective, which involves the human interaction with the pure acoustic phenomenon, includes a critical examination of her post-1971 'meditation' pieces and an analytical and critical examination of her tonal 'interactive' improvisations in highly resonant space, such as Watertank Software (1984). The most pervasive element of Oliveros's stylistic evolution is her gradual change from the hierarchical aesthetic of the traditional composer, to one in which creative control is more equally shared by all participants. Other significant contributions by Oliveros include the probable invention of the 'meditation' genre, an emphasis on the subjective perceptions of musical participants as a means to greater musical awareness, her musical exploration of highly resonant space, and her pioneering work in American electronic music. Both analytical and critical commentary were applied to selective representative works from Oliveros's six compositional categories. The analytical methods applied to the Oliveros's works include Wayne Slawson's vowel/formant theory as described in his book, Sound Color, an original method of categorizing consonants as

  19. Noble gas enrichment studies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Andrew, P.; Fundamenski, W.; Guo, H.Y.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Horton, L.D.; Matthews, G.F.; Meigs, A.G.; Morgan, P.M.; Stamp, M.F.; Hellermann, M. von

    2001-01-01

    Adequate helium exhaust has been achieved in reactor-relevant ELMy H-mode plasmas in JET performed in the MKII AP and MKII GB divertor geometry. The divertor-characteristic quantities of noble gas compression and enrichment have been experimentally inferred from Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy measurements in the core plasma, and from spectroscopic analysis of a Penning gauge discharge in the exhaust gas. The retention of helium was found to be satisfactory for a next-step device, with enrichment factors exceeding 0.1. The helium enrichment decreases with increasing core plasma density, while the neon enrichment has the opposite behaviour. Analytic and numerical analyses of these plasmas using the divertor impurity code package DIVIMP/NIMBUS support the explanation that the enrichment of noble gases depends significantly on the penetration depth of the impurity neutrals with respect to the fuel atoms. Changes of the divertor plasma configuration and divertor geometry have no effect on the enrichment

  20. The Implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process Method for Outstanding Achievement Scholarship Reception Selection at Universal University of Batam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfuah; Widiantoro, Suryo

    2017-12-01

    Universal University of Batam offers outstanding achievement scholarship to the current students to be each year of new academic year, seeing the large number of new Students who are interested to get it then the selection team should be able to filter and choose the eligible ones. The selection process starting with evaluation and judgement made by the experts. There were five criteria as the basic of selection and each had three alternatives that must be considered. Based on the policy of University the maximum number of recipients are five for each of six study programs. Those programs are art of music, dance, industrial engineering, environmental engineering, telecommunication engineering, and software engineering. The expert choice was subjective that AHP method was used to help in making decision consistently by doing pairwise comparison matrix process between criteria based on selected alternatives, by determining the priority order of criteria and alternatives used. The results of these calculations were used as supporting decision-making to determine the eligible students receiving scholarships based on alternatives of selected criteria determined by the final results of AHP method calculation with the priority criterion A (0.37%), C (0.23%), E (0.21%), D (0.14%) and B (0.06%), value of consistency ratio 0.05. Then the alternative priorities 1 (0.63), 2 (0.26) and 3 (0.11) the consistency ratio values 0.03, where each CR ≤ 0.1 or consistent weighting preference.

  1. Yarn supplier selection using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and standardized unitless rating (SUR) method on textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfaisalsyah, M. H.; Mansur, A.; Khasanah, A. U.

    2017-11-01

    For a company which engaged in the textile field, specify the supplier of raw materials for production is one important part of supply chain management which can affect the company's business processes. This study aims to identify the best suppliers of raw material suppliers of yarn for PC. PKBI based on several criteria. In this study, the integration between the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Standardized Unitless Rating (SUR) are used to assess the performance of the suppliers. By using AHP, it can be known the value of the relative weighting of each criterion. While SUR shows the sequence performance value of the supplier. The result of supplier ranking calculation can be used to know the strengths and weaknesses of each supplier based on its performance criteria. From the final result, it can be known which suppliers should improve their performance in order to create long term cooperation with the company.

  2. Semi-physiologic model validation and bioequivalence trials simulation to select the best analyte for acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Gragera, Ana; Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; García-Arieta, Alfredo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Casabó, Vicente G; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this paper is to apply a previously developed semi-physiologic pharmacokinetic model implemented in NONMEM to simulate bioequivalence trials (BE) of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in order to validate the model performance against ASA human experimental data. ASA is a drug with first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism following Michaelis-Menten kinetics that leads to the formation of two main metabolites in two generations (first and second generation metabolites). The first aim was to adapt the semi-physiological model for ASA in NOMMEN using ASA pharmacokinetic parameters from literature, showing its sequential metabolism. The second aim was to validate this model by comparing the results obtained in NONMEM simulations with published experimental data at a dose of 1000 mg. The validated model was used to simulate bioequivalence trials at 3 dose schemes (100, 1000 and 3000 mg) and with 6 test formulations with decreasing in vivo dissolution rate constants versus the reference formulation (kD 8-0.25 h (-1)). Finally, the third aim was to determine which analyte (parent drug, first generation or second generation metabolite) was more sensitive to changes in formulation performance. The validation results showed that the concentration-time curves obtained with the simulations reproduced closely the published experimental data, confirming model performance. The parent drug (ASA) was the analyte that showed to be more sensitive to the decrease in pharmaceutical quality, with the highest decrease in Cmax and AUC ratio between test and reference formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transfer of analytical procedures: a panel of strategies selected for risk management, with emphasis on an integrated equivalence-based comparative testing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, C; Caron, A; Giordano, C; Hoffman, D; Ségalini, A

    2011-09-10

    In 2001, a multidisciplinary team made of analytical scientists and statisticians at Sanofi-aventis has published a methodology which has governed, from that time, the transfers from R&D sites to Manufacturing sites of the release monographs. This article provides an overview of the recent adaptations brought to this original methodology taking advantage of our experience and the new regulatory framework, and, in particular, the risk management perspective introduced by ICH Q9. Although some alternate strategies have been introduced in our practices, the comparative testing one, based equivalence testing as statistical approach, remains the standard for assays lying on very critical quality attributes. This is conducted with the concern to control the most important consumer's risk involved at two levels in analytical decisions in the frame of transfer studies: risk, for the receiving laboratory, to take poor release decisions with the analytical method and risk, for the sending laboratory, to accredit such a receiving laboratory on account of its insufficient performances with the method. Among the enhancements to the comparative studies, the manuscript presents the process settled within our company for a better integration of the transfer study into the method life-cycle, just as proposals of generic acceptance criteria and designs for assay and related substances methods. While maintaining rigor and selectivity of the original approach, these improvements tend towards an increased efficiency in the transfer operations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  5. Study on analysing the criteria's for selection of shipping carriers in Chinese shipping market using analytical hierarchy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Kannan, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation has led to the increased export and import of goods worldwide. Due to this, the selection of the right mode of transportation for heavy (huge) goods items is a challenging task for industries. In this regard, maritime transport is the best way to send huge goods compared to other...... are cargoes' damage degree when they are received (R2). It is acting as an important criteria and reliability for on-time delivery (R1) and the carrier's ability of multimodal transportation (C1) are the next priority criteria's for the selection of shipping carrier....

  6. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi criteria decision making to select the best method for the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles of rasagiline mesylate using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveksarathi Kunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select best method for the development of rasagiline mesylate (RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Improper method selection may lead to waste of time, loss of material and financial resources. One of the possibilities to overcome these difficulties, AHP was employed to find the suitable method. In the AHP, a decision of hierarchy was constructed with a goal, criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives. After constructing the AHP, the expert choice software was used to compute the overall priority of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The best alternative selected was based on the highest priority. Nanoscale solid lipid particles of RM was formulated by the selected microemulsion method (M4 and it shows the particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were within acceptable limits. Drug content and entrapment efficiency of the RM-solid lipid nanoparticles were 97.26% and 86.57%, respectively. This study concludes that the AHP was viable and effective tool for selecting a most suitable method for the fabrication of RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles.

  8. Integrated Supplier Selection Framework in a Resilient Construction Supply Chain: An Approach via Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kwei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction supply chain management is a unique and problematic issue within the construction industry due to its inevitable external risks and variations. The resilience capability of a supplier is of significance in supplier selection; a supplier selected in the context of a resilient construction supply chain (RCSC is referred to in this research as a “resilient construction supplier”. This paper proposes a supplier selection framework tailored to effective information integration for supply chain management. The proposed framework works by integrating building information modeling (BIM and a geographic information system (GIS in a RCSC. BIM and GIS together provide highly transparent construction material information, enhanced supply chain status visualization, and workable access information for supplier selection. Supplier performance is evaluated via seventeen resilient criteria under a combined methodology consisting of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and grey relational analysis (GRA; AHP and GRA weigh the criteria and rank the suppliers respectively. By varying the weightings given to each criterion, sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the criteria of resilience which impact the selection priorities of suppliers. An illustrative example is also provided to show the overall process of the proposed framework.

  9. A Simple Analytical Method Using HPLC with Fluorescence Detection to Determine Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Filter Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of a miniaturized extraction method for the determination of selected PACs in sample filters is presented. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the intermediate precision. (Author)

  10. Improving the Faculty Selection Process in Higher Education: A Case for the Analytic Hierarchy Process. IR Applications. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandzol, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The selection of faculty in academic institutions is an important process--one that has long-lasting effects on an institution's ability to fulfill its mission. Faculty influence the quality of the education delivered, the effectiveness of the programs and activities offered, and the financial efficiency of the delivery processes. Failed searches…

  11. A field study of selected U.S. Geological Survey analytical methods for measuring pesticides in filtered stream water, June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Norman, Julia E.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Rose, Claire E.

    2017-09-06

    -use settings, as well as sites on major rivers.The results of the field study identified several challenges for the analysis and interpretation of data analyzed by both old and new methods, particularly when data span the change in methods and are combined for analysis of temporal trends in water quality. The main challenges identified are large (greater than 30 percent), statistically significant differences in analytical recovery, detection capability, and (or) measured concentrations for selected pesticides. These challenges are documented and discussed, but specific guidance or statistical methods to resolve these differences in methods are beyond the scope of the report. The results of the field study indicate that the implications of the change in analytical methods must be assessed individually for each pesticide and method.Understanding the possible causes of the systematic differences in concentrations between methods that remain after recovery adjustment might be necessary to determine how to account for the differences in data analysis. Because recoveries for each method are independently determined from separate reference standards and spiking solutions, the differences might be due to an error in one of the reference standards or solutions or some other basic aspect of standard procedure in the analytical process. Further investigation of the possible causes is needed, which will lead to specific decisions on how to compensate for these differences in concentrations in data analysis. In the event that further investigations do not provide insight into the causes of systematic differences in concentrations between methods, the authors recommend continuing to collect and analyze paired environmental water samples by both old and new methods. This effort should be targeted to seasons, sites, and expected concentrations to supplement those concentrations already assessed and to compare the ongoing analytical recovery of old and new methods to those observed in the

  12. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  13. tDCS Stimulation of the dlPFC Selectively Moderates the Detrimental Impact of Emotion on Analytical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Maheux-Caron, Véronique; Lepage, Jean-François; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of a detrimental effect of emotion on reasoning. Recent studies suggest that this relationship is mediated by working memory, a function closely associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Relying on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), the present research explores the possibility that anodal stimulation of the dlPFC has the potential to prevent the effect of emotion on analytical reasoning. Thirty-four participants took part in a lab experiment and were tested twice: one session using offline anodal stimulation (with a 2 mA current stimulation applied to the left dlPFC for 20 min), one session using a control (sham) stimulation. In each session, participants solved syllogistic reasoning problems featuring neutral and emotionally negative contents. Results showed that anodal stimulation diminished the deleterious effect of emotion on syllogistic reasoning, but only for a subclass of problems: problems where the conclusion was logically valid. We discuss our results in the light of the reasoning literature as well as the apparent variability of tDCS effects.

  14. A Project Strategic Index proposal for portfolio selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Perera, Aida [Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas, Departamento de Gestion Tecnologica, Caracas 1071, Edo Miranda (Venezuela); Garcia-Melon, Monica; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan-Pascual [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Camino de vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The paper introduces a rigorous method with acceptable complexity which seeks to assist managers of a big Electrical Company of Venezuela to distribute the annual budget among the possible improvement actions to be conducted on the electrical network of Caracas. A total of 15 network improvement actions grouped into three clusters according to the strategic objectives of the company have been analyzed using the Project Strategic Index (PSI) proposed. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method with the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The ANP method allows the aggregation of the experts' judgments on each of the indicators used into one Project Strategic Index. In addition, ANP is based on utility ratio functions which are the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts' estimations. Finally, unlike the other multicriteria techniques, ANP allows the decision problem to be modelled using the relationships among dependent criteria. The participating experts coincided in the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional budget distribution techniques. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods. (author)

  15. A Project Strategic Index proposal for portfolio selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Perera, Aida; Garcia-Melon, Monica; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan-Pascual

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The paper introduces a rigorous method with acceptable complexity which seeks to assist managers of a big Electrical Company of Venezuela to distribute the annual budget among the possible improvement actions to be conducted on the electrical network of Caracas. A total of 15 network improvement actions grouped into three clusters according to the strategic objectives of the company have been analyzed using the Project Strategic Index (PSI) proposed. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method with the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The ANP method allows the aggregation of the experts' judgments on each of the indicators used into one Project Strategic Index. In addition, ANP is based on utility ratio functions which are the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts' estimations. Finally, unlike the other multicriteria techniques, ANP allows the decision problem to be modelled using the relationships among dependent criteria. The participating experts coincided in the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional budget distribution techniques. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods. (author)

  16. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Owen D; Mack, Steven J; Lancaster, Alex K; Single, Richard M; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing the strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 indicate that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online.

  18. Mixed complex combinations with a new schiff base used as membranes ion-selective for copper and nickel ions, analytical applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, L.; Tigae, C.

    2009-01-01

    Four electrodes with liquid membrane, Cu/sup 2+/ -selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective, not previously described in the literature, were prepared and characterized. Electrodes 1 and 2 are based on mixed complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with isonicotinoylhydrazone-2-aldehyde pyrrole (INH2AP= HL/sup 1/) as ligand and electrodes 3 and 4 are based on the mixed complexes with isonicotinoyl- hydrazone-2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde (INH2HNA = H/sub 2/L/sup 2/ ) Cu/sup 2+/. selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective electrodes have been used to determine the copper and nickel ions in aqueous solutions, by both direct potentiometric and potentiometric titration with EDTA. They have also been used for determining the Cu/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ ions in industrial waters by direct potentiometry. The analytical results obtained have been checked by the standard addition method and by comparison with determinations through atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  19. Preparation of hydrophilic monolithic capillary column by in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and acrylamide for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Qu, Yanyan; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Qi; Deng, Nan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel kind of amide functionalized hydrophilic monolith was synthesized by the in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), acrylamide (AM), and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in a UV transparent capillary, and successfully applied for hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) based enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides. With 2 μg of the tryptic digests of IgG as the sample, after enrichment, 18 glycopeptides could be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. Furthermore, with the mixture of BSA and IgG digests (10,000:1, m/m) as the sample, 6 N-linked glycopeptides were unambiguously identified after enrichment, indicating the high selectivity and good specificity of such material. Moreover, such a monolithic capillary column was also applied for the N-glycosylation sites profiling of 6 μg protein digests from HeLa cells and 1 μL human serum. In total, 530 and 262 unique N-glycosylated peptides were identified, respectively, corresponding to 282 and 124N-glycoproteins, demonstrating its great potential for the large scale glycoproteomics analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  1. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  2. Optimization of the Analytical Method Using HPLC with Fluorescence Detection to Determine Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Clean Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of 3 miniaturized extraction methods for the determination of selected PACs in clear waters is presented. Three types of liquid-liquid extraction were used for chromatographic analysis by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the scope of the methods developed at low and high levels of concentration and intermediate precision. (Author)

  3. Modeling of Transients in an Enrichment Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, Maria; Delmastro, Dario; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a mathematical model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.Transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations along the closed loop

  4. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by M. Rosenzweig in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-p...

  5. Multi-criteria site selection for fire services: the interaction with analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study combines AHP and GIS to provide decision makers with a model to ensure optimal site location(s for fire stations selected. The roles of AHP and GIS in determining optimal locations are explained, criteria for site selection are outlined, and case study results for finding the optimal fire station locations in Istanbul, Turkey are included. The city of Istanbul has about 13 million residents and is the largest and most populated city in Turkey. The rapid and constant growth of Istanbul has resulted in the increased number of fire related cases. Fire incidents tend to increase year by year in parallel with city expansion, population and hazardous material facilities. Istanbul has seen a rise in reported fire incidents from 12 769 in 1994 to 30 089 in 2009 according to the interim report of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Department of Fire Brigade. The average response time was approximately 7 min 3 s in 2009. The goal of this study is to propose optimal sites for new fire station creation to allow the Fire Brigade in Istanbul to reduce the average response time to 5 min or less. After determining the necessity of suggesting additional fire stations, the following steps are taken into account: six criteria are considered in this analysis. They are: High Population Density (HPD; Proximity to Main Roads (PMR; Distance from Existing Fire Stations (DEF; Distance from Hazardous Material Facilities (DHM; Wooden Building Density (WBD; and Distance from the Areas Subjected to Earthquake Risk (DER. DHM criterion, with the weight of 40%, is the most important criterion in this analysis. The remaining criteria have a weight range from 9% to 16%. Moreover, the following steps are performed: representation of criterion map layers in GIS environment; classification of raster datasets; calculating the result raster map (suitability map for potential fire stations; and offering a model that supports decision makers in selecting fire station sites

  6. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  7. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  8. Which family physician should I choose? The analytic hierarchy process approach for ranking of criteria in the selection of a family physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoglu, Emel; Guldal, Dilek; Mevsim, Vildan; Gunvar, Tolga

    2015-08-05

    Choosing the most appropriate family physician (FP) for the individual, plays a fundamental role in primary care. The aim of this study is to determine the selection criteria for the patients in choosing their family doctors and priority ranking of these criteria by using the multi-criteria decision-making method of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. The study was planned and conducted in two phases. In the first phase, factors affecting the patients' decisions were revealed with a qualitative research. In the next phase, the priorities of FP selection criteria were determined by using AHP model. Criteria were compared in pairs. 96 patient were asked to fill the information forms which contains comparison scores in the Family Health Centres. According to the analysis of focus group discussions FP selection criteria were congregated in to five groups: Individual Characteristics, Patient-Doctor relationship, Professional characteristics, the Setting, and Ethical Characteristics. For each of the 96 participants, comparison matrixes were formed based on the scores of their information forms. Of these, models of only 5 (5.2 %) of the participants were consistent, in other words, they have been able to score consistent ranking. The consistency ratios (CR) were found to be smaller than 0.10. Therefore the comparison matrix of this new model, which was formed based on the medians of scores only given by these 5 participants, was consistent (CR = 0.06 < 0.10). According to comparison results; with a 0.467 value-weight, the most important criterion for choosing a family physician is his/her 'Professional characteristics'. Selection criteria for choosing a FP were put in a priority order by using AHP model. These criteria can be used as measures for selecting alternative FPs in further researches.

  9. Performance evaluation of medical records departments by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach in the selected hospitals in Isfahan : medical records dep. & AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2012-06-01

    Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important unit for evaluating and planning of care services. The goal of this study is evaluating the performance of the Medical Records Departments (MRDs) of the selected hospitals in Isfahan, Iran by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This was an analytic of cross-sectional study that was done in spring 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The statistical population consisted of MRDs of Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan. Data were collected by forms and through brainstorm technique. To analyze and perform AHP, Expert Choice software was used by researchers. Results were showed archiving unit has received the largest importance weight with respect to information management. However, on customer aspect admission unit has received the largest weight. Ordering weights of Medical Records Departments' Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan were with 0.394, 0.342 and 0.264 respectively. It is useful for managers to allocate and prioritize resources according to AHP technique for ranking at the Medical Records Departments.

  10. Using boolean and fuzzy logic combined with analytic hierarchy process for hazardous waste landfill site selection: A case study from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Saadat Foomani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.

  11. Experience with environmental sampling at gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenstam, G. af; Bush, W.; Janov, J.; Kuhn, E.; Ryjinski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental sampling has been used routinely by the IAEA since 1996 after the IAEA Board of Governors approved it in March 1995 as a new technique to strengthen safeguards and improve efficiency. In enrichment plants it is used to confirm that there has been no production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), or production of uranium at above the declared enrichment. The use of environmental sampling is based on the assumption that every process, no matter how leak tight, will release small amounts of process material to the environment. Even though these releases of nuclear material are extremely small in gas centrifuge enrichment plants, and well below levels of concern from a health physics and safety standpoint, they are detectable and their analysis provides an indication of the enrichment of the material that has been processed in the plant. The environmental samples at enrichment plants are collected by swiping selected areas of the plant with squares of cotton cloth (10x10 cm) from sampling kits prepared in ultra clean condition. The squares of cotton cloth sealed in plastic bags are sent for analysis to the Network Analytical Laboratories. The analysis includes the measurement of the uranium isotopic composition in uranium-containing particles by Thermal lonization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS) or Secondary ION Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Since the implementation of environmental sampling, swipes have been collected from 240 sampling points at three gas centrifuge plants of URENCO, which have a total throughput of more than 8,000 tonnes of uranium per year. The particle analysis results generally reflected the known operational history of the plants and confirmed that they had only been operated to produce uranium with enrichment less than 5% 235 U. The information about the content of the minor isotopes 234 U and 236 U also indicates that depleted and recycled uranium were sometimes used as feed materials in some plants. An example is given of the TIMS particle

  12. Analytic hierarchy process-based approach for selecting a Pareto-optimal solution of a multi-objective, multi-site supply-chain planning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Omar; Felfel, Houssem; Masmoudi, Faouzi

    2017-07-01

    The current manufacturing environment has changed from traditional single-plant to multi-site supply chain where multiple plants are serving customer demands. In this article, a tactical multi-objective, multi-period, multi-product, multi-site supply-chain planning problem is proposed. A corresponding optimization model aiming to simultaneously minimize the total cost, maximize product quality and maximize the customer satisfaction demand level is developed. The proposed solution approach yields to a front of Pareto-optimal solutions that represents the trade-offs among the different objectives. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process method is applied to select the best Pareto-optimal solution according to the preferences of the decision maker. The robustness of the solutions and the proposed approach are discussed based on a sensitivity analysis and an application to a real case from the textile and apparel industry.

  13. Tuning excitation laser wavelength for secondary resonance in low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ analytical measurement of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Li, Shuiqing; Tse, Stephen D.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, a novel low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (PS-LIBS) technique has been developed for unique elemental-composition identification of aerosolized nanoparticles, where only the solid-phase nanoparticles break down, forming nanoplasmas, without any surrounding gas-phase breakdown. Additional work has demonstrated that PS-LIBS emissions can be greatly enhanced with secondary resonant excitation by matching the excitation laser wavelength with an atomic transition line in the formed nanoplasma, thereby achieving low limits of detection. In this work, a tunable dye laser is employed to investigate the effects of excitation wavelength and irradiance on in-situ PS-LIBS measurements of TiO2 nanoaerosols. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation can be 220 times greater than that for non-resonant cases under similar conditions. Moreover, the emitted spectra are unique for the selected resonant transition lines for a given element, suggesting the potential to make precise phase-selective and analyte-selective measurements of nanoparticles in a multicomponent multiphase system. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation is highly sensitive to excitation laser wavelength, with narrow excitation spectral windows, i.e., 0.012 to 0.023 nm (FWHM, full width at half maximum) for Ti (I) neutral atomic lines, and 0.051 to 0.139 nm (FWHM) for Ti (II) single-ionized atomic lines. Boltzmann analysis of the emission intensities, temporal response of emissions, and emission dependence on excitation irradiance are investigated to understand aspects of the generated nanoplasmas such as temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and excitation mechanism.

  14. Selecting university undergraduate student activities via compromised-analytical hierarchy process and 0-1 integer programming to maximize SETARA points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Engku Muhammad; Yusof, Nur Ai'Syah; Ahmad, Norazura; Shariffuddin, Mohd Dino Khairri; Khan, Shazida Jan Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Prioritizing and making decisions on what student activities to be selected and conducted to fulfill the aspiration of a university as translated in its strategic plan must be executed with transparency and accountability. It is becoming even more crucial, particularly for universities in Malaysia with the recent budget cut imposed by the Malaysian government. In this paper, we illustrated how 0-1 integer programming (0-1 IP) model was implemented to select which activities among the forty activities proposed by the student body of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) to be implemented for the 2017/2018 academic year. Two different models were constructed. The first model was developed to determine the minimum total budget that should be given to the student body by the UUM management to conduct all the activities that can fulfill the minimum targeted number of activities as stated in its strategic plan. On the other hand, the second model was developed to determine which activities to be selected based on the total budget already allocated beforehand by the UUM management towards fulfilling the requirements as set in its strategic plan. The selection of activities for the second model, was also based on the preference of the members of the student body whereby the preference value for each activity was determined using Compromised-Analytical Hierarchy Process. The outputs from both models were compared and discussed. The technique used in this study will be useful and suitable to be implemented by organizations with key performance indicator-oriented programs and having limited budget allocation issues.

  15. TNF-α promotes nuclear enrichment of the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5 to selectively control inflammatory but not osmoregulatory responses in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zariel I; Doolittle, Alexandra C; Snuggs, Joseph W; Shapiro, Irving M; Le Maitre, Christine L; Risbud, Makarand V

    2017-10-20

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes chronic back pain and is linked to production of proinflammatory molecules by nucleus pulposus (NP) and other disc cells. Activation of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP)/NFAT5 by non-osmotic stimuli, including proinflammatory molecules, occurs in cells involved in immune response. However, whether inflammatory stimuli activate TonEBP in NP cells and whether TonEBP controls inflammation during IDD is unknown. We show that TNF-α, but not IL-1β or LPS, promoted nuclear enrichment of TonEBP protein. However, TNF-α-mediated activation of TonEBP did not cause induction of osmoregulatory genes. RNA sequencing showed that 8.5% of TNF-α transcriptional responses were TonEBP-dependent and identified genes regulated by both TNF-α and TonEBP. These genes were over-enriched in pathways and diseases related to inflammatory response and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. Based on RNA-sequencing results, we further investigated regulation of novel TonEBP targets CXCL1 , CXCL2 , and CXCL3 TonEBP acted synergistically with TNF-α and LPS to induce CXCL1 -proximal promoter activity. Interestingly, this regulation required a highly conserved NF-κB-binding site but not a predicted TonE, suggesting cross-talk between these two members of the Rel family. Finally, analysis of human NP tissue showed that TonEBP expression correlated with canonical osmoregulatory targets TauT/SLC6A6 , SMIT/SLC5A3 , and AR/AKR1B1 , supporting in vitro findings that the inflammatory milieu during IDD does not interfere with TonEBP osmoregulation. In summary, whereas TonEBP participates in the proinflammatory response to TNF-α, therapeutic strategies targeting this transcription factor for treatment of disc disease must spare osmoprotective, prosurvival, and matrix homeostatic activities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  17. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  18. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  19. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  20. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine, partially protects against beta-amyloid1-42 toxicity in primary neuron-enriched cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelley E; de Fiebre, Nancy Ellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2004-10-01

    Studies have suggested that the neuroprotective actions of alpha7 nicotinic agonists arise from activation of receptors and not from the extensive desensitization which rapidly follows activation. Here, we report that the alpha7-selective nicotinic antagonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA), protects against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity; whereas the alpha4beta2-selective antagonist, dihydro-beta-erythroidine, does not. These findings suggest that neuroprotective actions of alpha7-acting agents arise from receptor inhibition/desensitization and that alpha7 antagonists may be useful neuroprotective agents.

  1. A Hybrid Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Approach for Supplier Evaluation and Selection in the Rice Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia–Nan Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy, competition is typically due to the difficulty in selecting the most suitable supplier, one that is capable to help a business to develop a profit to the highest value threshold and capable to meet sustainable development features. In addition, this research discusses a wide range of consequences from choosing an effective supplier, including reducing production cost, improving product quality, delivering the product on time, and responding flexibly to customer requirements. Therefore, the activities noted above are able to increase an enterprise’s competitiveness. It can be seen that selecting a supplier is complex in that decision-makers must have an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative features for assessing the symmetrical impact of the criteria to reach the most accurate result. In this research, the multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM approach was proposed to solve supplier selection problems. The authors collected data from 25 potential suppliers, and the four main criteria within contain 15 sub-criteria to define the most effective supplier, which has viewed factors, including financial efficiency guarantee, quality of materials, ability to deliver on time, and the conditioned response to the environment to improve the efficiency of the industry supply chain. Initially, fuzzy analytic network process (ANP is used to evaluate and rank these criteria, which are able to be utilized to clarify important criteria that directly affect the profitability of the business. Subsequently, data envelopment analysis (DEA models, including the Charnes Cooper Rhodes model (CCR model, Banker Charnes Cooper model (BCC model, and slacks-based measure model (SBM model, were proposed to rank suppliers. The result of the model has proposed 7/25 suppliers, which have a condition response to the enterprises’ supply requirements.

  2. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  3. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  4. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: scaling relations and correlations between residuals in semi-analytic galaxy formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Dubois, Yohan; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2017-07-01

    Recent work has confirmed that the scaling relations between the masses of supermassive black holes and host-galaxy properties such as stellar masses and velocity dispersions may be biased high. Much of this may be caused by the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved for the black hole mass to be reliably estimated. We revisit this issue with a comprehensive galaxy evolution semi-analytic model. Once tuned to reproduce the (mean) correlation of black hole mass with velocity dispersion, the model cannot account for the correlation with stellar mass. This is independent of the model's parameters, thus suggesting an internal inconsistency in the data. The predicted distributions, especially at the low-mass end, are also much broader than observed. However, if selection effects are included, the model's predictions tend to align with the observations. We also demonstrate that the correlations between the residuals of the scaling relations are more effective than the relations themselves at constraining models for the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In fact, we find that our model, while in apparent broad agreement with the scaling relations when accounting for selection biases, yields very weak correlations between their residuals at fixed stellar mass, in stark contrast with observations. This problem persists when changing the AGN feedback strength, and is also present in the hydrodynamic cosmological simulation Horizon-AGN, which includes state-of-the-art treatments of AGN feedback. This suggests that current AGN feedback models are too weak or simply not capturing the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocity dispersion.

  5. Preference of effective Factors in suitable selection of Microtunnel boring machines (mtbm by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fahp approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jafari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of underground infrastructure, environmental concerns, and economic trend is influencing society. Due to the increasingly critical nature of installations of utility systems especially in congested areas, the need for monitoring and control system has increased. The microtunneling system will therefore have to provide for possibility of minimized surface disruption. Suitable selection of Microtunneling Boring Machine (MTBM is the most curial decision that manager must be done. Because once the trenchless excavation has started, it might be too late to make any changes in equipment without extra costs and delays. Therefore, the various factors and parameters are affecting the choice of machine. In this paper discusses a developed methodology based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP in order to determine weights of the criteria and sub criteria and then ranking them. Within the proposed model, four criteria site, machinery, structural, labor force impact and 18 sub-criteria are specified. The linguistic level of comparisons produced by experts are tapped and constructed in a form of triangular fuzzy numbers in order to construct fuzzy pair wise comparison matrices. Therefore, FAHP uses the pair wise comparison matrices for determining the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria.

  6. By their words ye shall know them: evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been theorized that declines in g due to negative selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ, and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less-heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th Century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning 1850 to 2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory and stronger negative correlations between pass-rates and completed fertility presented a steeper decline in use over time, than less difficult and less negatively selected words, which increased in use over time, suggestive of a Flynn effect. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence that both producers and consumers of text have experienced declines in g since the mid-19th Century.

  7. The fractioning factor and the number of theorical plates in isotopic enrichment columns determined simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducatti, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Using an analytical approach and an analytical graphical method, it was determined simultaneously the fractioning factor and the number of theoretical plates in isotopic enrichment columns during the conditions of dinamical isotopic equilibrium. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  9. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  10. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR THE SELECTION OF MANAGEMENT METHODS ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF THEIR INFLUENCE ON EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF CONSTRUCTION ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. T. Ismailova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Relevant problems related to the adoption of unprogrammed solutions in the process of managing the production  activity of a construction enterprise in unstable, a priori  underdetermined economic environments are addressed.The aim of  the study is todevelop tools and methods for assessing the  effectiveness of the current state of construction production and on  this basis to identify the most effective management of a  construction organisation under unstable market conditions.Methods. The methodology of the conducted research is based on the application of the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets for the  processing of expert data and the formation on this basis of linguistic functions that determine the analytical relationship between various  indicators of the production activity of the construction organisation.Results. A method is developed for processing expert data using  fuzzy logic, making it possible to form an analytical relationship  between the performance indicators of the production activity of the  construction organisation and the management parameters that  determine its current state. An alternative means for selecting the  most effective management approach, accounting for its influence on the efficiency of the production activity of the construction organisation, is developed.Conclusion. An information-economic model of situational management of the development of a construction organisation is  developed. The proposed tools and methods allow the effective  management of the production activity of the construction  organisation to be organised, and on this basis to increase the  efficiency of production under different economic conditions in the presence of spontaneously arising perturbative factors. The methodical approach to the organisation of management of the  production activity efficiency of the construction organisation allows the effective subsystems of management

  11. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  12. Multilayer membranes of p-sulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine and their use for selective enrichment of rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutianoush, Ali [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); El-Hashani, Ashraf [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); Schnepf, Judit [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); Tieke, Bernd [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany)]. E-mail: Tieke@Uni-Koeln.de

    2005-06-30

    Using alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of p-octasulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine, multilayer assemblies were built up on porous polymer supports. The resulting composite membranes with ultrathin separation layer were studied on their permeability for various metal chloride salts in aqueous solution. The membranes were permeable for sodium chloride, but much less permeable for divalent metal chlorides such as magnesium and zinc chloride, the theoretical separation factors {alpha} (NaCl/MgCl{sub 2}) and {alpha} (NaCl/ZnCl{sub 2}) being 43 and 20. Rare earth metal chlorides LnCl{sub 3} with Ln being La, Ce, Pr and Sm and the related YCl{sub 3} were strongly rejected from the membrane, the theoretical separation factors {alpha} (NaCl/LaCl{sub 3}) and {alpha} (NaCl/YCl{sub 3}) being 138 and 160, for example. Possible origins for the selective ion transport are discussed in terms of Donnan rejection of the highly charged ions and complex formation of the rare earth metal ions with the p-sulfonato-calixarene units in the membrane.

  13. Multilayer membranes of p-sulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine and their use for selective enrichment of rare earth metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; El-Hashani, Ashraf; Schnepf, Judit; Tieke, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Using alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of p-octasulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine, multilayer assemblies were built up on porous polymer supports. The resulting composite membranes with ultrathin separation layer were studied on their permeability for various metal chloride salts in aqueous solution. The membranes were permeable for sodium chloride, but much less permeable for divalent metal chlorides such as magnesium and zinc chloride, the theoretical separation factors α (NaCl/MgCl 2 ) and α (NaCl/ZnCl 2 ) being 43 and 20. Rare earth metal chlorides LnCl 3 with Ln being La, Ce, Pr and Sm and the related YCl 3 were strongly rejected from the membrane, the theoretical separation factors α (NaCl/LaCl 3 ) and α (NaCl/YCl 3 ) being 138 and 160, for example. Possible origins for the selective ion transport are discussed in terms of Donnan rejection of the highly charged ions and complex formation of the rare earth metal ions with the p-sulfonato-calixarene units in the membrane

  14. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  15. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  16. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  17. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  18. Developments in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The enrichment services market is still characterized by overcapacities. While consumption worldwide will rise by some 15% to 39,000 t SWU/a over the next ten years, capacities amount to nearly 50,000 t SWU/a. The price for enrichment services probably has reached its all time low. Prices below U.S. $ 100/kg SWU are not likely to cover costs even of the economically most advanced enrichment processes. Urenco has prepared for the difficult enrichment business in the years to come by streamlining and cost cutting measures. The company intends to hold and increase its share of more than 10% in the world market. The uranium enrichment plant of Gronau will be expanded further. Expansion beyond 1000 t is subject to another permit being granted under the Atomic Energy Act, an application for which was filed in December 1994. Centrifuge technology is the superior enrichment technology, i.e., there is still considerable potential for further development. Construction of enrichment plants employing the centrifuge technology in the United States and in France is being pursued in various phases, from feasibility studies to licensing procedures. Before these plants could be implemented, however, considerable problems of organization would have to be solved, and the market would have to change greatly, respectively. The laser process, at the present time, does not seem to be able to develop into a major industrial competitor. (orig.) [de

  19. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  20. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  1. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  2. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  3. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF 6 gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques

  4. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for separating and enriching deuterium containing molecules comprising the steps of: providing a source of organic molecules containing a normal abundance of deuterium atoms, the organic molecules having a structural formula RX, in which R is an organic radical selected from ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl and 3-cyclopentenyl, and in which X is selected from F, Cl, Br and OH, and wherein R represents 3-cyclopentenyl, X may additionally represent H; exposing the molecules to the radiation of at least one pulsed infrared laser source which has been specifically tuned and focussed to selectively decompose RX molecules containing deuterium to form an enriched olefin specie containing deuterium, and HX; and separating the deuterium enriched olefin specie from the undecomposed deuterium depleted RX molecules and HX. (author)

  5. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  8. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  9. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  10. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  11. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  12. The competitive enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.W.; Huffman, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

  13. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  14. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  15. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  16. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  17. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  18. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  19. Experimental Validation of a Permeability Model for Enrichment Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellano, Pablo; Brasnarof, Daniel; Florido Pablo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental loop with a real scale diffuser, in a single enrichment-stage configuration, was operated with air at different process conditions, in order to characterize the membrane permeability.Using these experimental data, an analytical geometric-and-morphologic-based model was validated.It is conclude that a new set of independent measurements, i.e. enrichment, is necessary in order to fully characterize diffusers, because of its internal parameters are not univocally determinated with permeability experimental data only

  20. Simultaneous grouping and ranking with combination of SOM and TOPSIS for selection of preferable analytical procedure for furan determination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Tsakovski, Stefan; Lavenu, Aurore; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Novel methodology for grouping and ranking with application of self-organizing maps and multicriteria decision analysis is presented. The dataset consists of 22 objects that are analytical procedures applied to furan determination in food samples. They are described by 10 variables, referred to their analytical performance, environmental and economic aspects. Multivariate statistics analysis allows to limit the amount of input data for ranking analysis. Assessment results show that the most beneficial procedures are based on microextraction techniques with GC-MS final determination. It is presented how the information obtained from both tools complement each other. The applicability of combination of grouping and ranking is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  2. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  3. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  4. Analytical methodologies based on LC–MS/MS for monitoring selected emerging compounds in liquid and solid phases of the sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Boix Sales, Clara; Ibáñez Martínez, María; Fabregat-Safont, David; Morales, E.; Pastor, L.; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Sánchez-Ramírez, J. E.; Hernández Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two analytical methodologies based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) were developed for quantification of emerging pollutants identified in sewage sludge after a previous wide-scope screening. The target list included 13 emerging contaminants (EC): thiabendazole, acesulfame, fenofibric acid, valsartan, irbesartan, salicylic acid, diclofenac, carbamazepine, 4-aminoantipyrine (4- AA), 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine (4-AAA), 4-formyl amin...

  5. Analytical methodologies based on LC?MS/MS for monitoring selected emerging compounds in liquid and solid phases of the sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Boix, C.; Ib??ez, M.; Fabregat-Safont, D.; Morales, E.; Pastor, L.; Sancho, J.V.; S?nchez-Ram?rez, J.E.; Hern?ndez, F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two analytical methodologies based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC?MS/MS) were developed for quantification of emerging pollutants identified in sewage sludge after a previous wide-scope screening. The target list included 13 emerging contaminants (EC): thiabendazole, acesulfame, fenofibric acid, valsartan, irbesartan, salicylic acid, diclofenac, carbamazepine, 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA), 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine (4-AAA), 4-formyl aminoantipyrine (...

  6. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four bla CTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  7. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  8. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  9. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  11. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  12. Uranium enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

  13. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  14. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  15. Availability of enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenke, E.

    1977-01-01

    The report summarizes major uncertainties which are likely to influence future demands for uranium isotopic enrichment. Since for the next decade the development of nuclear power will be largely concerned with the increment in demand the timely need for enrichment capacity will be particularly sensitive to assumptions about growth rates. Existing worldwide capacity together with capacities under construction will be sufficient well into the 1980's. However, long decision and construction leadtime, uncertainty as to future demand as well as other factors, specifically high capital need, all of which entail financial risks, create hindrances to a timely development of increment. The adequacy of current technology is well demonstrated in plant operation and new technology is under way. Technology is, however, not freely available on a purely commercial basis. Commercial willingness, which anticipates a limited degree of financial risk, is requesting both long term back-up from the utilities that would parallel their firm decisions on the acquisition of nuclear power units, and a protective government umbrella. This situation depends on the symbiotic relationship that exists between the nuclear power generating organizations, the enrichment undertakings and the governments involved. The report accordingly stresses the need for a more cooperative approach and this, moreover, at the multinational level. There is otherwise a risk that proper resources and financing means will not be allocated to the enrichment sector. Export limitations that request the highest degree of industrial processing of nuclear fuel, i.e. the compulsory enrichment of natural uranium, do not serve the interests of overall industrial efficiency

  16. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1981-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  17. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  18. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...... charged metal ions such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, Zr4+, and Ti4+ has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from...

  19. Effect of Listeria seeligeri or Listeria welshimeri on Listeria monocytogenes detection in and recovery from buffered Listeria enrichment broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rachel C; Welch, Lacinda J; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2015-04-01

    The presence of multiple species of Listeria in regulated food products is not uncommon and can complicate the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes particularly on a non-differentiating medium. The potential complications of Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri on the recovery of L. monocytogenes from inoculated food test samples using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) selective enrichment procedure was investigated. Post-enrichment enumeration, in the absence of food product, indicates that some L. seeligeri and L. monocytogenes pairings may have population differentials as great as 2.7 ± 0.1 logs with L. seeligeri being the predominant species. A similar observation was noted for L. welshimeri and L. monocytogenes pairings which resulted in population differentials as large as 3.7 ± 0.2 logs with L. welshimeri being the predominant species. Select strain pairings were used to inoculate guacamole, crab meat, broccoli, and cheese with subsequent recovery by the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method with 10 colonies per sample selected for confirmation. The presence of L. seeligeri had little effect on the recovery of L. monocytogenes. The presence of L. welshimeri resulted in the failure to recover L. monocytogenes in three out of the four food matrices. This work extends the observation that non-pathogenic species of Listeria can complicate the recovery of L. monocytogenes and that competition during selective enrichment is not limited to the presence of just Listeria innocua. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of Listeria seeligeri or Listeria welshimeri on Listeria monocytogenes detection in and recovery from buffered Listeria enrichment broth☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rachel C.; Welch, Lacinda J.; Hitchins, Anthony D.; Smiley, R. Derike

    2016-01-01

    The presence of multiple species of Listeria in regulated food products is not uncommon and can complicate the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes particularly on a non-differentiating medium. The potential complications of Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri on the recovery of L. monocytogenes from inoculated food test samples using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) selective enrichment procedure was investigated. Post-enrichment enumeration, in the absence of food product, indicates that some L. seeligeri and L. monocytogenes pairings may have population differentials as great as 2.7 ± 0.1 logs with L. seeligeri being the predominant species. A similar observation was noted for L. welshimeri and L. monocytogenes pairings which resulted in population differentials as large as 3.7 ± 0.2 logs with L. welshimeri being the predominant species. Select strain pairings were used to inoculate guacamole, crab meat, broccoli, and cheese with subsequent recovery by the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method with 10 colonies per sample selected for confirmation. The presence of L. seeligeri had little effect on the recovery of L. monocytogenes. The presence of L. welshimeri resulted in the failure to recover L. monocytogenes in three out of the four food matrices. This work extends the observation that non-pathogenic species of Listeria can complicate the recovery of L. monocytogenes and that competition during selective enrichment is not limited to the presence of just Listeria innocua. PMID:25475325

  1. Future of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, C.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing amount of separative work being done in government facilities to produce low-enriched uranium fuel for nuclear utilities again raises the question: should this business-type, industrial function be burned over the private industry. The idea is being looked at by the Reagan administration, but faces problems of national security as well as from the unique nature of the business. This article suggests that a joint government-private venture combining enriching, reprocessing, and waste disposal could be the answer. Further, a separate entity using advanced laser technology to deplete existing uranium tails and lease them for fertile blankets in breeder reactors might earn substantial revenues to help reduce the national debt

  2. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  3. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating deuterium, i.e., heavy hydrogen, from certain naturally occurring sources using tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose specified classes of organic molecules (i.e., RX) into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms is described. The deuterium containing molecules are easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. The undecomposed molecules and the other reaction products which are depleted of their deuterium containing species can be catalytically treated, preferably using normal water, to restore the natural abundance of deuterium and such restored molecules can then be recycled

  4. Iptycene-based stationary phase with three-dimensional aromatic structure for highly selective separation of H-bonding analytes and aromatic isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Han, Ying; Qi, Meiling; Chen, Chuanfeng

    2016-05-06

    Unique structures and molecular recognition ability endow iptycene derivatives with great potential as stationary phases in chromatography, which, however, has not been explored yet. Herein, we report the first example of utilizing a pentiptycene quinone (PQ) for gas chromatographic (GC) separations. Remarkably, the statically coated capillary column with the stationary phase achieved extremely high column efficiency of 4800 plates/m. It exhibited preferential retention and high resolving capability for H-bonding and aromatic analytes and positional isomers, showing advantages over the ordinary polysiloxane phase. Moreover, the fabricated iptycene column showed excellent separation repeatability with RSD values of 0.02-0.06% for intra-day, 0.20-0.35% for inter-day and 3.1-5.5% for between-column, respectively. In conclusion, iptycene derivatives as a new class of stationary phases show promising future for their use in GC separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term alpha- or gamma-delta-enriched tocopherol oil supplementation differentially effects the expression of proinflammatory mediators: selective impacts on characteristics of protein tyrosine nitration in vivo¿.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein 3’-nitrotyrosine (pNT) is an established biomarker of nitrosative cell stress in animals challenged with proinflammatory mediators like endotoxin (LPS). We determined that short-term feeding of diets supplemented with a-tocopherol- (a-T -96% a-isomer) or '- and d-enriched mixed tocopherol o...

  6. Optimized Enrichment of Phosphoproteomes by Fe-IMAC Column Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Koch, Heiner; Domasinska, Petra; Frejno, Martin; Kuster, Bernhard; Lemeer, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation is among the most important post-translational modifications of proteins and has numerous regulatory functions across all domains of life. However, phosphorylation is often substoichiometric, requiring selective and sensitive methods to enrich phosphorylated peptides from complex

  7. The production of He-3 and heavy ion enrichment in He-3-rich flares by electromagnetic hydrogen cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temerin, M.; Roth, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new model is presented for the production of He-3 and heavy ion enrichments in He-3-rich flares using a direct single-stage mechanism. In analogy with the production of electromagnetic hydrogen cyclotron waves in earth's aurora by electron beams, it is suggested that such waves should exist in the electron acceleration region of impulsive solar flares. Both analytic and test-particle models of the effect of such waves in a nonuniform magnetic field show that these waves can selectively accelerate He-3 and heavy ions to MeV energies in a single-stage process, in contrast to other models which require a two-stage mechanism.

  8. Phosphopeptide enrichment with inorganic nanofibers prepared by forcespinning technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Morávková, J.; Buk, J.; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1427, JAN (2016), s. 8-15 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanofibers * enrichment * phosphopeptides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  9. Phosphopeptide enrichment with inorganic nanofibers prepared by forcespinning technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Morávková, J.; Buk, J.; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1427, JAN (2016), s. 8-15 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanofibers * enrichment * phosphopeptides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  10. Prioritizing the effective factors on projectile performance by combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi Case study: selected aerospace industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saberreza bahrami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prioritize the effective factors in projectile performance. Prioritizing of these factors whit combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment Of Taguchi help designers to develop the performance of projectile structure. According to this that since now, researcher tried to increase the performance of projectile whit change in every factors separately, so in this paper tried whit combination of AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi , analyzed and prioritized all the effective factors in projectile performance simultaneously. For this purpose first by design of experiment Of Taguchi the influence of every these factors on two criteria of range and drift were calculated and then by AHP method these factors were prioritized. By considering of equal weight for both range and drift, the result shows between 11 factors, Firing Angle whit value of 0.3398, Muzzle Velocity whit value of 0.2918 and Burning Time whit value of 0.1257 were the most influenced factors in projectile performance respectively. Propellant Weight and Wind Velocity factors whit value of 0.0104 and 0.00092 were ranked in tenth and eleventh priority respectively.

  11. Analytical methodologies based on LC-MS/MS for monitoring selected emerging compounds in liquid and solid phases of the sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, C; Ibáñez, M; Fabregat-Safont, D; Morales, E; Pastor, L; Sancho, J V; Sánchez-Ramírez, J E; Hernández, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two analytical methodologies based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were developed for quantification of emerging pollutants identified in sewage sludge after a previous wide-scope screening. The target list included 13 emerging contaminants (EC): thiabendazole, acesulfame, fenofibric acid, valsartan, irbesartan, salicylic acid, diclofenac, carbamazepine, 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA), 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine (4-AAA), 4-formyl aminoantipyrine (4-FAA), venlafaxine and benzoylecgonine. The aqueous and solid phases of the sewage sludge were analyzed making use of Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) and UltraSonic Extraction (USE) for sample treatment, respectively. The methods were validated at three concentration levels: 0.2, 2 and 20 μg L(-1) for the aqueous phase, and 50, 500 and 2000 μg kg(-1) for the solid phase of the sludge. In general, the method was satisfactorily validated, showing good recoveries (70-120%) and precision (RSD metabolites of dipyrone had not been studied before in sewage sludge.

  12. Neutron shielding calculations in a proton therapy facility based on Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models: Criterion for selecting the method of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titt, U.; Newhauser, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    Proton therapy facilities are shielded to limit the amount of secondary radiation to which patients, occupational workers and members of the general public are exposed. The most commonly applied shielding design methods for proton therapy facilities comprise semi-empirical and analytical methods to estimate the neutron dose equivalent. This study compares the results of these methods with a detailed simulation of a proton therapy facility by using the Monte Carlo technique. A comparison of neutron dose equivalent values predicted by the various methods reveals the superior accuracy of the Monte Carlo predictions in locations where the calculations converge. However, the reliability of the overall shielding design increases if simulation results, for which solutions have not converged, e.g. owing to too few particle histories, can be excluded, and deterministic models are being used at these locations. Criteria to accept or reject Monte Carlo calculations in such complex structures are not well understood. An optimum rejection criterion would allow all converging solutions of Monte Carlo simulation to be taken into account, and reject all solutions with uncertainties larger than the design safety margins. In this study, the optimum rejection criterion of 10% was found. The mean ratio was 26, 62% of all receptor locations showed a ratio between 0.9 and 10, and 92% were between 1 and 100. (authors)

  13. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed β-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of α- and ε-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of α-S1- and β-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of β-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. β-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from proline-directed kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O

  14. Analytical Comparison of Miniaturized Methods for Selected PAH Determination in Clean Waters; Comparacion Analitica de 4 Metodos Miniaturizados de Determinacion de PAHs mediante HPLC en Aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.; Fernandez, O.

    2012-04-11

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of 4 miniaturized extraction methods for the determination of selected PAHs in clear waters is presented. Four types of liquid-liquid extraction were used for chromatographic analysis by HPLC/ FD. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the scope of the methods developed at low and high levels of concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  16. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriot, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  18. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  19. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  20. Motif enrichment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    activity, increased habituation to a novel environment, decreased voluntary exercise. Rats in the physically-enriched group had increased voluntary ... voluntary exercise. Environmental enrichment prolonged nicotine’s effects through nicotine cessation. Enrichment’s effects on body weight could not...68 Euthanasia ................................................................................................... 68 DATA ANALYTIC STRATEGY FOR

  2. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modular enrichment measurement system for in-situ enrichment assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A modular enrichment measurement system has been designed and is in operation within General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility for the in-situ enrichment assay of uranium-bearing materials in process containers. This enrichment assay system, which is based on the ''enrichment meter'' concept, is an integral part of the site's enrichment control program and is used in the in-situ assay of the enrichment of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder in process containers (five gallon pails). The assay system utilizes a commercially available modular counting system and a collimnator designed for compatability with process container transport lines and ease of operator access. The system has been upgraded to include a microprocessor-based controller to perform system operation functions and to provide data acquisition and processing functions. Standards have been fabricated and qualified for the enrichment assay of several types of uranium-bearing materials, including UO 2 powders. The assay system has performed in excess of 20,000 enrichment verification measurements annually and has significantly contributed to the facility's enrichment control program

  4. Analytical Chemistry: A retrospective view on some current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    In a retrospective view some current trends in Analytical Chemistry are outlined and connected to work published more than a hundred years ago in the same field. For example, gravimetric microanalysis after specific precipitation, once the sole basis for chemical analysis, has been transformed into a mass-sensitive transducer in combination with compound-specific receptors. Molecular spectroscopy, still practising the classical absorption/emission techniques for detecting elements or molecules experiences a change to Raman spectroscopy, is now allowing analysis of a multitude of additional features. Chemical sensors are now used to perform a vast number of analytical measurements. Especially paper-based devices (dipsticks, microfluidic pads) celebrate a revival as they can potentially revolutionize medicine in the developing world. Industry 4.0 will lead to a further increase of sensor applications. Preceding separation and enrichment of analytes from complicated matrices remains the backbone for a successful analysis, despite increasing attempts to avoid clean-up. Continuous separation techniques will become a key element for 24/7 production of goods with certified quality. Attempts to get instantaneous and specific chemical information by optical or electrical transduction will need highly selective receptors in large quantities. Further understanding of ligand - receptor complex structures is the key for successful generation of artificial bio-inspired receptors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  6. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  7. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low-enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium-enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which was initially designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology

  8. A novel lead imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase for extraction and trace detection of lead ions by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Synthesis, characterization and analytical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel ion imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS was applied for preconcentration and determination of lead in real samples. In the first step, Pb(II-IIP was synthesized by copolymerization of 2-vinyl pyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator that imprinted with Pb(II as the template ion, 2-amino pyridine as the ligand. Subsequently, the imprinted Pb(II was completely removed by leaching the dried and powdered imprinted polymer with HCl (2 mol L−1. This polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer. The effect of different variables on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of eluent for extraction, solution’s pH for adsorption, sorption and desorption times was evaluated. Under the optimum conditions: type of eluent, HCl (2 mol L−1; volume of eluent, 5 mL; solution’s pH for sorption, 5; sorption time, 90 min; desorption time, 125 min and breakthrough volume of 750 mL were obtained. Preconcentration factor of the method was about 150. The limit of detection was obtained 0.75 μg L−1 and a dynamic linear range (DLR of 3–150 μg L−1 was found. The maximum sorption retention capacity of Pb(II ions on the imprinted polymer was 85.6 mg g−1. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. Performance of the present method was evaluated for extraction and determination of Pb(II in water samples at microgram per liter concentration and satisfactory results were obtained (RSD = 2.7%.

  9. Isotopically enriched structural materials in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.W.G., E-mail: Lee.Morgan@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shimwell, J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • C-B analysis of isotopic enrichment of structural materials is presented. • Some, previously, prohibited elements could be used as alloying elements in LAM's. • Adding enriched molybdenum and nickel, to EUROFER, could increase availability. • Isotope enrichment for EUROFER could be cost-effective. • Isotopically enriching copper, in CuCrZr, can reduce helium production by 50%. - Abstract: A large number of materials exist which have been labeled as low activation structural materials (LAM). Most often, these materials have been designed in order to substitute-out or completely remove elements that become activated and contribute significantly to shut-down activity after being irradiated by neutrons in a reactor environment. To date, one of the fundamental principles from which LAMs have been developed is that natural elemental compositions are the building blocks of LAMs. Thus, elements such as Co, Al, Ni, Mo, Nb, N and Cu that produce long-lived decay products are significantly reduced or removed from the LAM composition. These elements have an important part to play in the composition of steels and the removal/substitution can have a negative impact on materials properties such as yield stress and fracture toughness. This paper looks in more detail at whether using isotopic selection of the more mechanically desirable, but prohibited due to activation, elements can improve matters. In particular, this paper focuses on the activation of Eurofer. Carefully chosen isotopically enriched elements, which are normally considered to be on the prohibited element list, are added to EUROFER steel as potential alloying elements. The EUROFER activation results show that some prohibited elements can be used as alloying elements in LAM steels, providing the selected isotopes do not have a significant impact on waste disposal rating or shut-down dose. The economic implications of isotopically enriching elements and the potential implications for

  10. Highly sensitive and selective determination of fluorine ion by graphene oxide/nanogold resonance Rayleigh scattering-energy transfer analytical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Peng, Jing; Liu, Qingye; Wen, Guiqing; Lu, Zhujun; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2015-08-15

    In pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution, fluorine ions react with fluorine reagent (FR) and La(III) to generate blue ternary complex that exhibited strong absorption at about 370 nm. Upon addition of graphene oxide/nanogold (GO/NG) as resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectral probe with strong RRS peak at 370 nm, the color changed to gray, and the RRS intensity decreased with the increase of fluorine ion concentration due to the RRS energy transfer (RRSET) from GO/NG to the complex. Under the selected condition, the decreased RRS peak ΔI370 nm was linear to fluorine ion concentration in the range of 6.0 × 10(-8)-1.3 × 10(-5)mol/L, with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-8)mol/L F(-). This RRSET method was applied to the analysis of fluorine in toothpaste and water samples, with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of a modified sequential oral sensory approach to an applied behavior-analytic approach in the treatment of food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Volkert, Valerie M

    2016-09-01

    Treatments of pediatric feeding disorders based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have the most empirical support in the research literature (Volkert & Piazza, 2012); however, professionals often recommend, and caregivers often use, treatments that have limited empirical support. In the current investigation, we compared a modified sequential oral sensory approach (M-SOS; Benson, Parke, Gannon, & Muñoz, 2013) to an ABA approach for the treatment of the food selectivity of 6 children with autism. We randomly assigned 3 children to ABA and 3 children to M-SOS and compared the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design across novel, healthy target foods. We used a multielement design to assess treatment generalization. Consumption of target foods increased for children who received ABA, but not for children who received M-SOS. We subsequently implemented ABA with the children for whom M-SOS was not effective and observed a potential treatment generalization effect during ABA when M-SOS preceded ABA. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  13. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  14. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel; Metodo Optimizado de Extraccion por Ultrasonidos para la Determinacion de PAHs Seleccionados en un Suelo Contaminado con Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-10-21

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel; Evaluacion Analitica de 4 Metodos de Determinacion de PAHs medianteHPLC en un Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-05-21

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  16. Enrichment plants. A survey of major new uranium enriching projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    The work enrichment situation is reported. The development of enrichment in the U.S. and in Europe is outlined. A brief description is given of the technology of separation by diffusion and by centrifugation and the advantages and disadvantages of the two processes are compared. Finally the supply and demand situation is briefly considered. (U.K.)

  17. Method for selective recovery of PET-usable quantities of [.sup.18 F] fluoride and [.sup.13 N] nitrate/nitrite from a single irradiation of low-enriched [.sup.18 O] water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Shea, Colleen

    1995-06-13

    A process for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- for radiotracer synthesis is disclosed. The process includes producing [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- simultaneously by exposing a low-enriched (20%-30%) [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target to proton irradiation, sequentially isolating the [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- from the [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target, and reducing the [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- to [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3. The [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- products are then conveyed to a laboratory for radiotracer applications. The process employs an anion exchange resin for isolation of the isotopes from the [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O, and sequential elution of [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [ .sup.18 F]F.sup.- fractions. Also the apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- from a single irradiation of a single low-enriched [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target.

  18. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  19. Industrial aspects in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezin, M.

    1982-05-01

    Characteristics of isotope separation processes in operation and under development are discussed. These include the number of stages in series, the number of components, the component unit capacity and enery requirements. The implementation of an enrichment process and the question of an enrichment plant in Australia are also considered

  20. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  1. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Uranium enrichment activities: the SILVA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, J.; Cazalet, J.; Camarcat, N.; Figuet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Through its commitment to a nuclear electricity generation policy, France holds today a specific position in the uranium enrichment market thanks to the modern multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant. France has, altogether, a long-term goal in developing SILVA, a laser uranium enrichment process, based on the selective photo-ionization of U-235. After reviewing the fundamentals of SILVA (the laser system with copper vapor lasers and dye lasers and the separator system), a description of the general organization of the R and D program is provided going through basic research, subsystems assessment, production demonstrations and simulations (with the LACAN code), plant design and economics. The general schedule of SILVA is outlined, leading to the possible construction of a commercial plant. 7 figs., 11 refs

  3. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF 6 containing low enriched (approximately 4% 235 U) and highly enriched (above 20% 235 U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a 109 Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF 6 gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF 6 product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  4. Method for selective recovery of PET-usable quantities of [{sup 18}F] fluoride and [{sup 13}N] nitrate/nitrite from a single irradiation of low-enriched [{sup 18}O] water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Shea, C.

    1995-06-13

    A process for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} for radiotracer synthesis is disclosed. The process includes producing [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} simultaneously by exposing a low-enriched (20%-30%) [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target to proton irradiation, sequentially isolating the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target, and reducing the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3}. The [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} products are then conveyed to a laboratory for radiotracer applications. The process employs an anion exchange resin for isolation of the isotopes from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O, and sequential elution of [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} fractions. Also the apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from a single irradiation of a single low-enriched [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target. 2 figs.

  5. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  6. Dual-Analyte Fluorescent Sensor Based on [5]Helicene Derivative with Super Large Stokes Shift for the Selective Determinations of Cu2+ or Zn2+ in Buffer Solutions and Its Application in a Living Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunkaewkasem, Siwakorn; Petdum, Anuwut; Panchan, Waraporn; Sirirak, Jitnapa; Charoenpanich, Adisri; Sooksimuang, Thanasat; Wanichacheva, Nantanit

    2018-05-10

    A new fluorescent sensor, M201-DPA, based on [5]helicene derivative was utilized as dual-analyte sensor for determination of Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ in different media and different emission wavelengths. The sensor could provide selective and bifunctional determination of Cu 2+ in HEPES buffer containing Triton-X100 and Zn 2+ in Tris buffer/methanol without interference from each other and other ions. In HEPES buffer, M201-DPA demonstrated the selective ON-OFF fluorescence quenching at 524 nm toward Cu 2+ . On the other hand, in Tris buffer/methanol, M201-DPA showed the selective OFF-ON fluorescence enhancement upon the addition of Zn 2+ , which was specified by the hypsochromic shift at 448 nm. Additionally, M201-DPA showed extremely large Stokes shifts up to ∼150 nm. By controlling the concentration of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in a living cell, the imaging of a HepG2 cellular system was performed, in which the fluorescence of M201-DPA in the blue channel was decreased upon addition of Cu 2+ and was enhanced in UV channel upon addition of Zn 2+ . The detection limits of M201-DPA for Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ in buffer solutions were 5.6 and 3.8 ppb, respectively. Importantly, the Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ detection limits of the developed sensors were significantly lower than permitted Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ concentrations in drinking water as established by the U.S. EPA and WHO.

  7. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  8. Experimental Verification of the Transient Model in an Enrichment Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, Maria; Brasnarof, Daniel; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In the present work an experimental closed loop representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade is described, loop that is used to experimentally validate an analytical model that describes the dynamics inside such a loop.The conditions established inside the experimental loop after a few working hours were reproduced by the analytical model, leaving the slower thermal phenomena taking place for future studies.Two kinds of perturbations were experimentally introduced: a change in the range of operation of one of the compressors and the addition of mass into the loop.Numerical and experimental results are compared and presented in this work. The analytical model proposed was verified against these two changes, with very good agreement in the time response and measured values.This analytical model allows us to determine the characteristic time response of the system

  9. Supplier Selection within the Process of Analytical Hierarchy in a Business Bir Üretim İşletmesinde Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci İle Tedarikçi Seçimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban KAPAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most critical activities in today's competitive businessworld. Selecting the supplier is a very difficult task to carry out. For determining the bestsupplier selection while assessing all the cases to choose the best approach, the AnalyticalHierarchy Process (AHP is used.AHP is a method used for systematic comparison, evaluation and selection of theoptions via determining the strengths and weaknesses of options. In this study, AHP methodwas utilized in the supplier selection and Expert Choice 11.5 was used while utilizing AHPmethod. The suppliers' superiorities were determined by Expert Choice and they werecompared systematically.Tedarikçi seçimi, günümüz rekabetçi iş dünyasında en kritik faaliyetlerden biridir. Birtedarikçi seçiminde en iyi olanı seçmek zor bir iştir. En iyi tedarikçi seçiminin belirlenmesiiçin çok amaçlı karar verme tekniklerinden birisi olan ve alternatif tedarikçilerdeğerlendirilerek bütün durumlar içinden en iyi olanı seçebilen Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci(AHS, tedarikçi seçiminde yaygın olarak kullanılan bir yöntemdir.AHS, seçim aşamasında seçeneklerin üstünlüklerinin belirlenmesi ve sistematik olarakkarşılaştırılıp değerlendirilmesini sağlayan bir yöntemdir. Bu çalışmada, bir işletmenintedarikçi seçiminde AHS yönteminden yararlanılmış ve AHS yönteminin kullanılmasındaExpert Choice 11.5 programı kullanılmıştır. Expert Choice ile tedarikçilerin üstünlükleribelirlenmiştir ve sistematik olarak karşılaştırılmıştır.

  10. Destructive analytical services to safeguards: Activity report 1984-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.

    1987-08-01

    The report gives an evaluation of the volume, delays and quality of destructive analytical services provided in 84/01/01-87/06/30 in support of Agency Safeguards. General observations are also made. Problems and improvements are identified and trends indicated. The main features of the considered period are as follows: a) About 4,100 inspections samples were received and analyzed in the period 84/01/01-87/06/30 by SAL and NWAL. The samples represented 20 different types of materials issued from different nuclear fuel cycles. b) 496 out of 895 spent fuel samples analyzed in this period were distributed to NWAL. c) The chemical and isotopic analyses of Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium requested by the Inspectors (Americium also but occasionally) resulted in the report of a total of about 14,200 analytical results. d) The calibration of on-site measurements, the certification of Working Reference Materials for Destructive Analysis and the maintenance and improvement of Destructive Analysis required additional analytical services which were provided. e) At present, compared to 1983, the total verification delays by DA were shortened by 16%, 57% and 55% respectively for Uranium, Plutonium and spent fuel materials. f) Timely detection of abrupt diversion is achievable for the low enriched Uranium samples and are close to be achievable for the Plutonium and Spent Fuel Samples. g) Concepts, Procedures, and Materials for Analytical Quality Control Programmes of the measurements performed at SAL and NWAL were prepared. The analysis performed can be adequately accurate. h) Problems continue however to be encountered in the quality of the overall DA verification system. i) Major upgrading of equipment and procedures was undertaken at SAL. j) Other selective chemical assays were being tested and Isotope Dilution Mass Spec assays have been successfully set up for the analysis of 3 mg-sized Plutonium product samples. k) Close contacts have been kept with NWAL via Consultants

  11. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.; Madariaga, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author) [es

  12. Analytic clock frequency selection for global DVFS

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Computers can reduce their power consumption by decreasing their speed using Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS). A form of DVFS for multicore processors is global DVFS, where the voltage and clock frequency is shared among all processor cores. Because global DVFS is efficient and cheap to implement, it is used in modern multicore processors like the IBM Power 7, ARM Cortex A9 and NVIDIA Tegra 2. This theory oriented paper discusses energy optimal DVFS algorithms for such processors....

  13. Analytic clock frequency selection for global DVFS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Computers can reduce their power consumption by decreasing their speed using Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS). A form of DVFS for multicore processors is global DVFS, where the voltage and clock frequency is shared among all processor cores. Because global DVFS is efficient and cheap to

  14. Safety of uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Shigeru; Morikami, Yoshio; Morita, Minoru; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Tokuyasu, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    With respect to safety evaluation of the gas centrifuge enrichment facility, several characteristic problems are described as follows. Criticality safety in the cascade equipments can be obtained to maintain the enrichment of UF 6 below 5 %. External radiation dose equivalent rate of the 30B cylinder is low enough, the shield is not necessary. Penetration ratio of the two-stage HEPA filters for UF 6 aerosol is estimated at 10 -9 . From the experimental investigation, vacuum tightness is not damaged by destruction of gas centrifuge rotor. Carbon steel can be used for uranium enrichment equipments under the condition below 100degC. (author)

  15. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  17. Dimensional enrichment of statistical linked open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Jovan; Vaisman, Alejandro; Romero, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a data analysis technique typically used for local and well-prepared data. However, initiatives like Open Data and Open Government bring new and publicly available data on the web that are to be analyzed in the same way. The use of semantic web technologies...... for this context is especially encouraged by the Linked Data initiative. There is already a considerable amount of statistical linked open data sets published using the RDF Data Cube Vocabulary (QB) which is designed for these purposes. However, QB lacks some essential schema constructs (e.g., dimension levels......) to support OLAP. Thus, the QB4OLAP vocabulary has been proposed to extend QB with the necessary constructs and be fully compliant with OLAP. In this paper, we focus on the enrichment of an existing QB data set with QB4OLAP semantics. We first thoroughly compare the two vocabularies and outline the benefits...

  18. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the RERTR-Meeting in Newport/USA in 1990 recommended in several papers to the research reactor community to agree upon a worldwide unified technical specification for low enriched uranium (LEU) and high enriched uranium (HEU) in order to facilitate supplies of LEU and HEU to fabricators for acceptance and for fabrication of fresh fuel elements. This target for unified and simplified specification has only been partially reached due to different interests of the fabricators because they want to receive the uranium as pure as possible. As a result of various investigations, however, it became clear that both LEU and HEU received from the United States since the late fifties had different qualities which we have to deal with today due to the availability of stocks. We are now one step forward to know more precisely the properties of LEU and HEU we have received in the past. This uranium was never virgin and we have to cope with this situation. Therefore in my present paper I have concentrated on the documentation of analytical work performed on samples of LEU and HEU received in the past. I propose furthermore a frame of unified specifications for so-called virgin LEU and HEU including uranium from a Zero-experiment. In addition I am giving a recommendation for specifications of LEU obtained by blending of reprocessed HEU. Finally I am touching the question of secure supplies of fresh LEU. (author)

  19. Let's Talk... Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  1. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  2. Uranium enrichment: investment options for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The US government supplies a major portion of the enriched uranium used to fuel most of the nuclear power plants that furnish electricity in the free world. As manager of the US uranium enrichment concern, the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating a number of technological choices to improve enrichment service and remain a significant world supplier. The Congress will ultimately select a strategy for federal investment in the uranium enrichment enterprise. A fundamental policy choice between possible future roles - that of the free world's main supplier of enrichment services, and that of a mainly domestic supplier - will underlie any investment decision the Congress makes. The technological choices are gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). A base plan and four alternatives were examined by DOE and the Congressional Budget Office. In terms of total enterprise costs, Option IV, ultimately relying on advanced gas centrifuges for enrichment services, would offer the most economic approach, with costs over the full projection period totaling $123.5 billion. Option III, ultimately relying on AVLIS without gas centrifuge enrichment or gaseous diffusion, falls next in the sequence, with costs of $128.2 billion. Options I and II, involving combinations of the gas centrifuge and AVLIS technologies, follow closely with costs of $128.7 and $129.6 billion. The base plan has costs of $136.8 billion over the projection period. 1 figure, 22 tables

  3. Centar's gas centrifuge enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajian, V.V.; Fishman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the building and operating of Centar Associates gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant are described. Operating costs and machine manufacture are considered. Commitments with the utilities are summarised. (U.K.)

  4. Extraosseus enrichments in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Schumacher, T.; Amthauer, H.; Wolter, M.; Stock, W.; Stroszczynski, C.; Moersler, J.P.; Eichstaedt, H.

    1996-01-01

    Extraosseus enrichments are common findings in bone scintigraphy. Main causes are artifacts by skin or cloth contamination, paravenous and subcutaneous injection. Physical examination, removal of cloths, skin cleaning or further images in differing projections lead to the correct diagnosis artefact or extraosseous enrichments. Further on, extraosseous enrichments are seen in physiological variants. In different diseases extraosseous enrichments are common, especially in urinary tract, liver and extremities. Further diagnostics, e.g. conventional radiologic procedures, sonography and CT scans, have to be performed. In individual cases side results in bone scintigraphy lead to formerly unknown diagnosis, further diagnostic procedure is influenced decisively. Own cases show for example a cerebral apoplectic insult, formerly unknown liver metastasis or metastasis in extraosseous Ewings's sarcoma. (orig.) [de

  5. Uranium enrichment: an evolving market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.; Witzel, R.

    1997-01-01

    With over half of the world uranium enrichment market uncommitted to any supplier early in the next century, competition is certain to be fierce. In the meantime the outlood remains unclear, with the market dominated by a number of developments -privatisation of the United States Enrichment Corp (USEC), increasing availability of Russian and US military inventories, the deployment of advanced technology and the closure of nuclear power plants due to deregulation. (author)

  6. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  7. Capability of the electromagnetic isotope-enrichment facility at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope separation program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepares and distributes electromagnetically enriched stable isotopes to the worldwide scientific community. Among the topics discussed in the present paper are the methods of enriching isotopes, the limitations that apply to the quantity and final assay of the separation products, and a generalized production flowsheet indicating the capability of the facility. A brief description of each of the production steps, from the selection and preparation of initial feedstock to the recovery and distribution of the isotopically enriched material, is presented. The future of the facility, the continued supply of enriched isotopes, and the response of the program to new and changing requirements are emphasized

  8. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  9. Synthesis and characterization of poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV tungstate: A new and novel ‘organic–inorganic’ nano-composite material and its electro-analytical applications as Hg(II ion-selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif A. Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An organic–inorganic nano-composite poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV tungstate was chemically synthesized by sol–gel mixing of the incorporation of organic polymer o-anisidine into the matrices of inorganic ppt of Sn(IV tungstate in different mixing volume ratios. This composite material has been characterized using various analytical techniques like XRD (X-ray diffraction, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared, SEM (Scanning electron microscopy, TEM (Transmission electron microscopy and simultaneous TGA (Thermogravimetric analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for Hg(II. Using this nano-composite cation exchanger as electro-active material, a new heterogeneous precipitate based on ion-sensitive membrane electrode was developed for the determination of Hg(II ions in solutions. The membrane electrode was mechanically stable, with a quick response time, and can be operated within a wide pH range. The electrode was also found to be satisfactory in electrometric titrations.

  10. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  11. PWR fuel of high enrichment with erbia and enriched gadolinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejmer, Klaes-Håkan; Malm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Today standard PWR fuel is licensed for operation up to 65-70 MWd/kgU, which in most cases corresponds to an enrichment of more than 5 w/o "2"3"5U. Due to criticality safety reason of storage and transportation, only fuel up to 5 w/o "2"3"5U enrichment is so far used. New fuel storage installations and transportation casks are necessary investments before the reactivity level of the fresh fuel can be significantly increased. These investments and corresponding licensing work takes time, and in the meantime a solution that requires burnable poisons in all pellets of the fresh high-enriched fuel might be used. By using very small amounts of burnable absorber in every pellet the initial reactivity can be reduced to today's levels. This study presents core calculations with fuel assemblies enriched to almost 6 w/o "2"3"5U mixed with a small amount of erbia. Some of the assemblies also contain gadolinia. The results are compared to a reference case containing assemblies with 4.95 w/o "2"3"5U without erbia, utilizing only gadolinia as burnable poison. The comparison shows that the number of fresh fuel assemblies can be reduced by 21% (which increases the batch burnup by 24%) by utilizing the erbia fuel concept. However, increased cost of uranium due to higher enrichment is not fully compensated for by the cost gain due to the reduction of the number assemblies. Hence, the fuel cycle cost becomes slightly higher for the high enrichment erbia case than for the reference case. (author)

  12. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Accidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.; Rubio, R.; Doval, A.; Lovotti, O.

    1990-01-01

    This work analyzes the different accidents that may occur in the reactor's facility after the 20% high-enriched uranium core's conversion. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. This analysis includes: a) accidents by reactivity insertion; b) accidents by coolant loss; c) analysis by flow loss and d) fission products release. (Author) [es

  13. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  14. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  15. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  16. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  17. Experimental study on enriching 12C by centrifuge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Huaxian

    1994-07-01

    The diamond made from the highly enriched 12 C, whose thermal conductivity and electric insulativity are much better than that of natural diamond, has widely uses in new and high technology. In many enriching 12 C methods, the gas centrifuge method is superior to others. After selecting the appropriate process gas and solving key problems, such as feed and extract, the separation experiments are performed by a single stage of centrifuge. To increase the separation capacity of single machine, various parameters in the centrifugal separation are optimized, and appropriate mechanical drive, thermal drive, hold-up and process parameters are selected. The optimal operating condition of single machine is also obtained in the cascade. Thus, highly enriched 12 C is produced in the centrifuge cascade

  18. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. PC based uranium enrichment analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Gopalakrishana, K.R.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to measure enrichment of unirradiated nuclear fuel elements during production as a quality control measure. An IBM PC based system has recently been tested for enrichment measurements for Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. As required by NFC, the system has ease of calibration. It is easy to switch the system from measuring enrichment of fuel elements to pellets and also automatically store the data and the results. The system uses an IBM PC plug in card to acquire data. The card incorporates programmable interval timers (8253-5). The counter/timer devices are executed by I/O mapped I/O's. A novel algorithm has been incorporated to make the system more reliable. The application software has been written in BASIC. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  1. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.; Slater, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  2. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  3. Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

  4. Radioisotope devices at Novo-Krivorozhskij-ore-enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitskij, V.Ya.; Kucher, V.G.; Ministerstvo Chernoj Metallurgii Ukrainskoj SSR, Dnepropetrovsk, Bazovaya Opytno-Konstruktorskaya Izotopnaya lab.)

    1975-01-01

    Use of the ''Ferrite'' analyzers, AZhR and PAZh-1 and the GR-7 gamma relay in different engineering areas of the Novo-Krivorozh ore-enrichment plant is evaluated. The ''Ferrite'' radioisotopic analyzer was designed for rapid roentgeno-radiometric determination of the total iron and iron group element contents in powdered samples of ores and products of their treatment. From the density of the flux of the characteristic radiation it is possible to determine quantitatively the content of the element of interest in the analyzed material. The radioisotpic analyzer AZhR-1 is distinguished by its high efficiency in the analysis for total iron on products of processing of iron ore raw materials. The use of this apparatus allows complete replacement of the chemical method for rapid analysis of concentrates by the roentgeno-radiometric method, which decreases the total analytical work on determination of total iron and speeds up output of information on concentrate quality. The radioisotopic gamma analyzer PAZh-1 is designed for automatic and either continuous or discrete measurement of the total iron content in iron ore materials ground to 50 mm, carried on a conveyor, without selection or preparation of the samples for analysis. The analyzer operates on the principle of measuring the average frequency of impingement on a detector of gamma quanta back-scattered by the analyzed material. This frequency is determined by the percentage content of total iron in the material. The apparatus operates continuously. The mean square deviation of the apparatus values from chemical data is 0.93% Fesub(total). Use of the apparatus greatly increases the operativeness of the control and decreases the laboriousness of raw material sampling in an engineering stream. The radioisotopic data units GR-7 are designed for control of the level of materials in hoppers for recovery and burning of agglomerates. Use of this apparatus showed its great advantage over data units of other types

  5. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  6. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  7. Prospects and problems of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1974-01-01

    The problem of uranium enrichment now concerns principally peaceful nuclear power generation. With the current oil crisis, energy resources assume unprecedented importance. However, the requirements for enriched uranium vary with the vicissitude of the world situation in nuclear power generation; the enterprise of uranium enrichment is related to economic aspect. The following matters are described: dimension of enrichment problem, political factors, changes in requirements, projects in each country, and strategy of enrichment in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  8. Uranium enrichment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.H.; Parks, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    History, improvement programs, status of electrical power availability, demands for uranium enrichment, operating plan for the U. S. enriching facilities, working inventory of enriched uranium, possible factors affecting deviations in the operating plan, status of gaseous diffusion technology, status of U. S. gas centrifuge advances, transfer of enrichment technology, gaseous diffusion--gas centrifuge comparison, new enrichment capacity, U. S. separative work pricing, and investment in nuclear energy are discussed. (LK)

  9. Quinone-Enriched Gold Nanoparticles in Bioelectrochemistry and Charge Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michal; Qvortrup, Katrine; Tanner, David Ackland

    for merging gold nanoparticles with resultant anthraquinones include one-pot microwave assisted synthesis or after-mixing of separately prepared gold nanoparticles with selected compounds. The quinone-enriched gold nanoparticles can be transferred onto different electrode surfaces, thus enabling facile...

  10. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  11. An Enrichment Program for Migrant Students: MENTE/UOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…

  12. UF6 test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF 6 flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized

  13. Enriched uranium recovery flowsheet improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Savannah River uses 7.5% TBP to recover and purify enriched uranium. Adequate decontamination from fission products is necessary to reduce personnel exposure and to ensure that the enriched uranium product meets specifications. Initial decontamination of the enriched uranium from the fission products is carried out in the 1A bank, 16 stages of mixer-settlers. Separation of the enriched uranium from the fission product, 95 Zr, has been adequate, but excessive solvent degradation caused by the long phase contact times in the mixer-settlers has limited the 95 Zr decontamination factor (DF). An experimental program is investigating the replacement of the current 1A bank with either centrifugal contactors or a combination of centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers. Experimental work completed has compared laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers for 95 Zr removal efficiencies. Feed solutions spiked with actual plant solutions were used. The 95 Zr DF was significantly better in the mixer-settlers than in the centrifugal contactors. As a result of this experimental study, a hybrid equipment flowsheet has been proposed for plant use. The hybrid equipment flowsheet combines the advantages of both types of solvent extraction equipment. Centrifugal contactors would be utilized in the extraction and initial scrub sections, followed by additional scrub stages of mixer-settlers

  14. Enrichment plant management and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, N.H.

    1978-01-01

    The next increment of enrichment at Portsmouth will be gas centrifuge. The safeguards program at Portsmouth is discussed, including the DYMCAS system, the computerization, and the detectors. Control of the material access areas is discussed. The licensee material surveillance and verification program is also described

  15. The changing face of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunckel, E.

    1981-01-01

    The AIS techniques considered are atomic vapour laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. The future of the AIS technique and their advantages over the gas centrifuge method are discussed in terms of economics, power consideration, and possible enrichment contracts. (U.K.)

  16. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  17. Comparing Multi-Step IMAC and Multi-Step TiO2 Methods for Phosphopeptide Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaoshan; Schunter, Alissa; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopeptide enrichment from complicated peptide mixtures is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic studies to reduce sample complexity and ionization suppression effects. Typical methods for enriching phosphopeptides include immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads, which have selective affinity and can interact with phosphopeptides. In this study, the IMAC enrichment method was compared with the TiO2 enrichment method, using a multi-step enrichment strategy from whole cell lysate, to evaluate their abilities to enrich for different types of phosphopeptides. The peptide-to-beads ratios were optimized for both IMAC and TiO2 beads. Both IMAC and TiO2 enrichments were performed for three rounds to enable the maximum extraction of phosphopeptides from the whole cell lysates. The phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment, unique to TiO2 enrichment, and identified with both IMAC and TiO2 enrichment were analyzed for their characteristics. Both IMAC and TiO2 enriched similar amounts of phosphopeptides with comparable enrichment efficiency. However, phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment showed a higher percentage of multi-phosphopeptides, as well as a higher percentage of longer, basic, and hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Also, the IMAC and TiO2 procedures clearly enriched phosphopeptides with different motifs. Finally, further enriching with two rounds of TiO2 from the supernatant after IMAC enrichment, or further enriching with two rounds of IMAC from the supernatant TiO2 enrichment does not fully recover the phosphopeptides that are not identified with the corresponding multi-step enrichment. PMID:26237447

  18. Multicriteria decision analysis in ranking of analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Orłowski, Aleksander

    2015-03-27

    The study presents the possibility of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) application when choosing analytical procedures with low environmental impact. A type of MCDA, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was chosen as versatile tool that meets all the analytical chemists--decision makers requirements. Twenty five analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water samples (as an example) were selected as input alternatives to MCDA analysis. Nine different criteria describing the alternatives were chosen from different groups--metrological, economical and the most importantly--environmental impact. The weights for each criterion were obtained from questionnaires that were sent to experts, giving three different scenarios for MCDA results. The results of analysis show that PROMETHEE is very promising tool to choose the analytical procedure with respect to its greenness. The rankings for all three scenarios placed solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction--based procedures high, while liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and stir bar sorptive extraction--based procedures were placed low in the ranking. The results show that although some of the experts do not intentionally choose green analytical chemistry procedures, their MCDA choice is in accordance with green chemistry principles. The PROMETHEE ranking results were compared with more widely accepted green analytical chemistry tools--NEMI and Eco-Scale. As PROMETHEE involved more different factors than NEMI, the assessment results were only weakly correlated. Oppositely, the results of Eco-Scale assessment were well-correlated as both methodologies involved similar criteria of assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enrichment of gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 by laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinjun, Su; Xiaowei, Zhang; Zhiquan, Li

    2008-01-01

    Laser isotope separation experiments of gadolinium by atomic vapor method have been performed. Gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 were selectively photoionized by means of three linearly polarized dye lasers, the excitation process of which is based on the polarization selection rules. Gramme-magnitude of enriched gadolinium was obtained and the total abundance of gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 was in excess of 80%, and the product rating exceeded 200 mg/h. (author)

  20. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  1. Three-phase molecularly imprinted sol-gel based hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and selective determination of a tentative lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, the modification of a polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with in situ molecularly imprinted sol-gel process (as a novel and one-step method) was prepared and investigated. 3-(propylmethacrylate)trimethoxysilane (3PMTMOS) as an inorganic precursor was used for preparation of molecularly imprinted sol-gel. The modified molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (MSHM) was used for the liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) of hippuric acid (HA) in human plasma and urine samples. MSHM as a selective, robust, and durable tool was used for at least 50 extractions without significant decrease in the extraction efficiency. The non-molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (NSHM) as blank hollow fiber membrane was prepared by the same process, only without HA. To achieve the best condition, influential parameters on the extraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. The capability of this robust, green, and simple method for extraction of HA was successfully accomplished with LC/MS/MS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in human plasma and urine samples were 0.3 and 1.0nmolL(-1), respectively. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-2000nmolL(-1) for HA in human plasma and urine. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were ≥0.998. The obtained data exhibited recoveries were higher than 89% for the extraction of HA in human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The commercial role for centrifuge enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readle, P.H.; Wilcox, P.

    1987-01-01

    The enrichment market is extremely competitive and capacity greatly exceeds demand. BNFL [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.] is in a unique position in having commercial experience of the two enrichment technologies currently used industrially: diffusion, and centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition, BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme. The paper describes the enrichment market, briefly discusses the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment and concludes that the gas centrifuge will be best able to respond to market needs for at least the remainder of the century. (author)

  3. Enrichment into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the future of the enrichment services market into the next century. It is estimated that demand for enrichment services will reach 31 million SWU by the end of the century and remain constant for the following 10 years. The current world enrichment capacity is 44 million SWU, or some 50% ahead of the demand. This oversupply is projected to continue into the next century, but in spite of this, several suppliers are planning new enrichment facilities. HEU as a source of enriched uranium is examined. Overall, long-term prices for enrichment services are expected to decline in the coming decade

  4. Practical enrichment technique for 33S (34S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInteer, B.B.; Lyman, J.L.; Nilsson, A.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The successful preparation of a macroscopic sample of enriched 33 S by laser-induced molecular dissociation is reported. Approach was to induce isotopically selective dissociation of SF 6 with CO 2 -laser pulses and to separate the remaining SF 6 from the sulfur-containing reaction products by cryogenic distillation. A 200 Hz, 0.75 J/pulse laser was used for photolysis of low-pressure (less than 1 torr) gas mixtures. The mixture of SF 6 and scavenger recirculated continuously throughout the irradiation chamber where the laser pulses selectively dissociated 32 SF 6 to give the final products: SF 4 or SOF 2 . The unreacted SF 6 was enriched in the heavier isotopes: 33 S, 34 S, and 36 S. A 1.3-g sample of SF 6 was collected with a 33 S enrichment factor of 1.96 and a 34 S enrichment factor of 2.25. A similar size sample of depleted ( 32 S) sulfur compounds was also collected. A scavenger was necessary to ensure high yield, and moist hydrogen was found to be best for our conditions. Removal of hydrogen fluoride was also necessary to prevent severe corrosion and to maintain high isotopic selectivity. 6 figures

  5. Analytical evaluation of the operation data from selected PV-demonstration systems in the MuD-programme. Final report; Analytische Auswertung der Messergebnisse von ausgewaehlten PV-Demonstrationsanlagen im MuD-Programm. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Heinemann, D. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 8 - Physik; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    From several PV-demonstration programmes, real performance data and the range in utilizing the systems are obtained. Nevertheless, for a particular system, no precise assessment and interpretation of the real system behaviour can be given: The quantification and the separation of the avoidable and of the unavoidable energy losses in the system is not to perform from the monitored data alone. Aim of this project was the interpretation of real operation data of PV-systems, the calculation of all steps of energy conversion and hence the determination of the energy losses in particular PV-systems as well as the presentation of a measure for energy production and system performance. This task includes a brief survey of the optimization potential of the energetic performance. The method choosen was an energy flow analysis, carried out on selected demonstration plants of the MuD-programme. For this reason, detailed simulation models were used. The results of the simulation calculations gives the measure to interprete the monitored system performance. In the course of the project, the analytical evaluation has shown a large ability in the assessment and interpretation of real system perforamances. Since the concept of the evaluation is transferable to many PV-systems, it represents a base for further applications in this field and in the field of the online-system control of PV-plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In verschiedenen Demonstrationsprogrammen werden aus Langzeitmessungen Groessenordnung und Spannbreite der Nutzungsgrade photovoltaischer Anlagen ermittelt. Fuer eine spezifische Anlage ist damit jedoch keine praezise Einschaetzung bzw. Interpretation des Systemverhaltens moeglich, da die Quantifizierung der unvermeidbaren und der vermeidbaren Energieverluste im System nicht aus den Messdaten allein erfolgen kann. Ziel dieses Projektes war die Interpretation des reellen Betriebs von PV-Anlagen, die Berechnung der Zusammensetzung und der Bandbreite der Energieverluste im

  6. Enrichment and identification of polycyclic aromatic compound-degrading bacteria enriched from sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel M; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-07-01

    The degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been widely studied. Knowledge of the degradation of PACs by microbial populations can be utilized in the remediation of contaminated sites. To isolate and identify PAC-degrading bacteria for potential use in future bioremediation programmes, we established a series of PAC enrichments under the same experimental conditions from a single sediment sample taken from a highly polluted estuarine site. Enrichment cultures were established using the pollutants: anthracene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene as a sole carbon source. The shift in microbial community structure on each of these carbon sources was monitored by analysis of a time series of samples from each culture using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Significantly, our findings demonstrate that shifts in the constituent species within each degradative community are directly attributable to enrichment with different PACs. Subsequently, we characterized the microorganisms comprising the degradative communities within each enrichment using 16S rRNA sequence data. Our findings demonstrate that the ability to degrade PACs is present in five divisions of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. By determining the precise identity of the PAC-degrading bacterial species isolated from a single sediment sample, and by comparing our findings with previously published research, we demonstrate how bacteria with similar PAC degrading capabilities and 16S rRNA signatures are found in similarly polluted environments in geographically very distant locations, e.g., China, Italy, Japan and Hawaii. Such a finding suggests that geographical barriers do not limit the distribution of key PAC-degrading bacteria; this finding is in accordance with the Baas-Becking hypothesis "everything is everywhere; the environment selects" and may have significant consequences for the global distribution of PAC-degrading bacteria and

  7. Study of Transients in an Enrichment Closed Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the present thesis a mathematic model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.For the verification of the model, measurements were taken in an experimental circuit using air as the process fluid.This circuit was instrumented so as to register its characteristic thermohydraulic variables.The measured transients were simulated, comparing the numerical results with the experimental measurements.A good agreement between the characteristic setting times and the thermohydraulic parameters evolution was observed.Besides, other transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations

  8. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  9. Enrichment demand boosts SWU prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The enrichment market is picking up significantly on very brisk demand. US utilities, which normally purchase material nine months to a year ahead of time, are already hitting the market to fill their 1996 requirements. In June, two non-US utilities, one European entity and a US utility bought SWUs, the entity in an off-market deal. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Three other US utilities entered the market during the month. Meanwhile, we count 13 more utilities getting ready to hit the market for more than 4 million SWUs. Why the surge in demand? Utilities, uncertain of the role to be played by the new US Enrichment Corp. and seeking to take advantage of low interest rates, are implementing buy and hold strategies. As a result, the upper end of NUKEM's SWU price range inched up to $78. The lower end dipped to $67 based on the European deal

  10. Enrichment techniques employed in phosphoproteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2012), s. 1025-1047 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA ČR GA525/09/0994; GA MŠk OC08011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phosphoproteomics * Enrichment * IMAC Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2012

  11. Uranium enrichment plans and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwennesen, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in US efforts to expand its enrichment capacity. The Cascade Improvement Program (CIP) and Cascade Upgrading Program (CUP) are now complete at Oak Ridge and Paducah and almost complete at Portsmouth. Considerable progress has also been made in constructing the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP), and physical construction of the first process building is well under way. Current plans are to have two process buildings on-line by 1989 with the remaining six buildings to be added sequentially as needed to meet demand. The status of DOE enrichment services contracts is essentially unchanged from that reported at last year's seminar. The OUEA latest forecast of nuclear power growth, however, is considerably lower than reported last year, although a leveling trend is becoming apparent. The Variable Tails Assay Option (VTAO) of the AFC contract was made available for the third time for FY 1983. The DOE inventories of natural uranium still remain high. The Department of Energy will dispose of this material by using it for Government programs and for enrichment plant operations. It appears that Government inventories of uranium are adequate through at least the mid-1990s. It remains DOE policy not to dispose of its natural uranium stocks through direct sales in the marketplace, except for very small quantities or if an emergency situation would exist and all reasonable attempts had been made, without success, to obtain natural uranium from commercial sources. Finally, with regard to DOE plans on future transaction tails assays, it still appears likely that the current 0.20 percent uranium-235 reference tails assay will be maintained until well into the 1990s, at which time it might be increased up to 0.25 percent uranium-235

  12. Method for the enrichment of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the enrichment of isotopes, especially of uranium compounds, is described, working according to the principle of selective excitation by laser beams. As the starting compound, UF 6 is mentioned; the reaction partness are atomic gases (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) or radicals (CH 3 , CHO). According to the invention, the gas mixture flows through the reaction space with a velocity so large that in leaving it, recombination of the reaction partner will already take place again. In this way, competing thermal reactions will be avoided and energy transfer fo excited 235 U molecules to non-excited 238 U molecules is eliminated to a large extent. A suitable equipment for implementing the method is described. (UWI) [de

  13. Enriching project organizations with formal change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskerod, Pernille; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Project success requires effective and efficient cooperation between the project organization and the permanent organization in which the project takes place. The purpose of this paper is to discuss potentials and pitfalls from enriching project organizations by appointing peers as formal...... and middle and top management support are major determinants of success within change projects. To select change agents that the employees respect and can identify with, combined with top management prioritization, is important in order for the project organization to benefit from the additional role...... change agents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review and a multiple-case study in which six organizations participated in an action-oriented research project. The aim for the organizations was to obtain a better health status among the employees by accomplishing...

  14. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions

  15. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  16. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  17. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  18. The isotopic enrichment of uranium in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Eurodif uranium enrichment plant built on the Tricastin site is described. The uranium isotope separation plants in service abroad are presented. The main characteristics of the international enrichment market are defined [fr

  19. Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, C.

    1979-08-01

    An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

  20. Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games | Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  2. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U 3 O 8 ; conclusions. (U.K.)

  3. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section 540.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  4. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  5. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  6. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  7. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  8. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  9. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  10. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  11. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  12. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  13. Can neutral analytes be concentrated by transient isotachophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Foteeva, Lidia S; Jarosz, Maciej; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2014-06-06

    Transient isotachophoresis (tITP) is a versatile sample preconcentration technique that uses ITP to focus electrically charged analytes at the initial stage of CE analysis. However, according to the ruling principle of tITP, uncharged analytes are beyond its capacity while being separated and detected by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). On the other hand, when these are charged micelles that undergo the tITP focusing, one can anticipate the concentration effect, resulting from the formation of transient micellar stack at moving sample/background electrolyte (BGE) boundary, which increasingly accumulates the analytes. This work expands the enrichment potential of tITP for MEKC by demonstrating the quantitative analysis of uncharged metal-based drugs from highly saline samples and introducing to the BGE solution anionic surfactants and buffer (terminating) co-ions of different mobility and concentration to optimize performance. Metallodrugs of assorted lipophilicity were chosen so as to explore whether their varying affinity toward micelles plays the role. In addition to altering the sample and BGE composition, optimization of the detection capability was achieved due to fine-tuning operational variables such as sample volume, separation voltage and pressure, etc. The results of optimization trials shed light on the mechanism of micellar tITP and render effective determination of selected drugs in human urine, with practical limits of detection using conventional UV detector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Process of advective diffusive enrichment using differential gradients and the effects of variations in relaxation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola R.; Bernasconi, G.; Bertolotti, Angel

    1995-01-01

    A multicomponent solution is considered in advective diffusion chambers between two half-permeable barriers. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the concentration fields in the chamber. A new enrichment process is proposed and assessed using a digital simulation of space-time dynamics, based on the analytical solution of the model

  15. Gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF 6 with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures

  16. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24.... White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment Services...

  17. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  18. Laser-induced photochemical enrichment of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, S.M.; Ritter, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A boron trichloride starting material containing both boron-10 isotopes and boron-11 isotopes is selectively enriched in one or the other of these isotopes by a laser-induced photochemical method involving the reaction of laser-excited boron trichloride with either H 2 S or D 2 S. The method is carried out by subjecting a low pressure gaseous mixture of boron trichloride starting material and the sulfide to infrared radiation from a carbon dioxide TE laser. The wave length of the radiation is selected so as to selectively excite one or the other of boron-10 BCl 3 molecules or boron-11 BCl 3 molecules, thereby making them preferentially more reactive with the sulfide. The laser-induced reaction produces both a boron-containing solid phase reaction product and a gaseous phase containing mostly unreacted BCl 3 and small amounts of sulfhydroboranes. Pure boron trichloride selectively enriched in one of the isotopes is recovered as the primary product of the method from the gaseous phase by a multi-step recovery procedure. Pure boron trichloride enriched in the other isotope is recovered as a secondary product of the method by the subsequent chlorination of the solid phase reaction product followed by separation of BCl 3 from the mixture of gaseous products resulting from the chlorination

  19. The reduced enrichment program for JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No. 4(JRR-4) with the rated power of 3.5 MW, swimming pool type research reactor, 93 % enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. The first criticality reached on 28th January, 1965. The reactor has operated for about 26 years. However, it was planed to the reduced enrichment of the fuels to low enrichment according to the International Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This paper describes the program for conversion of the enrichment of fuel from 93 % to less than 20 %. (author)

  20. Protein scaffolds for selective enrichment of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Zhou, Lu; Bosscher, Michael

    2016-02-09

    Polypeptides comprising high affinity for the uranyl ion are provided. Methods for binding uranyl using such proteins are likewise provided and can be used, for example, in methods for uranium purification or removal.

  1. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  2. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  3. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  4. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  5. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  6. Developments on uranium enrichment processes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Gelee, M.; Massignon, D.; Plurien, P.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion has so far been the main source of supply for enriched uranium and it is only recently that the gas centrifuge came into the picture. Numerous other isotope separation processes have been considered or are being assessed, and there is nothing to exclude the future use of a new process. Developments on likely new processes have been carried out by many organizations both governmental and private. The French Commissariat a l'energie atomique, besides their very extensive endeavours already devoted to gaseous diffusion, have studied and developed the gas centrifuge, chemical exchange, aerodynamic and selective photoexcitation processes. The gaseous diffusion process, selected by Eurodif for the Tricastin plant, and which will also be used by Coredif, is discussed in another paper in these Proceedings. This process is the technico-economic yardstick on which our comparisons are based. Within the limits of their development level, processes are compared on the basis of the separative work cost components: specific investment, specific power consumption and power cost, and specific operating and maintenance costs. (author)

  7. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  8. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  9. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air; Estudio sobre las Incertidumbres Asociadas al Metodo de Determinacion de PAC's Seleccionados en Muestras de Aire Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM{sub 1}0, PM{sub 2}.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM{sub 1}0/PM{sub 2}.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. Work-Family Enrichment: the Positive Side of Roles of Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadma Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at understand up how the interaction can promote work-family enrichment in the roles developed by the Executive Secretaries of a public university. The approach used was the qualitative analysis research and data collection technique employed a semi-structured interview, applied to twenty executive secretaries, employed at the public universities. For the data interpretation, we used the technique of content analysis. The analytical results identified the existence of enrichment in this interaction. The learning opportunity to was mentioned as one of the most enriching element of the work, besides the family values as family enriching element. The family support and experience emerged as enrichment phenomena common to both domains. Regarding the implications of work-family interaction, the most perceived implications by respondents were: increased knowledge and skills, material and psychological benefits, improved quality of life and personal and professional fulfillment. The conclusion is that one should not emphasize the negative side of the work-family interaction if there are favorable resources to enrich this relationship. One should also value the positive side of the interaction to seek a balance between the demands of work and the ones of family is equally important, since the participation of Secretaries in family and work roles proved to be necessary and challenging and it can provide enrichment to the executive secretary roles in their work place.

  13. Present state of development of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot plant for uranium enrichment started the operation on September 12, 1979. The pilot plant has been constructed by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. in Ningyo Pass, Okayama Prefecture. 7000 centrifugal separators will be installed by mid 1981, and yearly production of 70 t SWU is expected. The Uranium Enrichment Committee of Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has made the proposal on the method of forwarding the development of uranium enrichment in Japan to Atomic Energy Commission and related government offices in December, 1978. This survey summarized the trends of uranium enrichment in Japan and foreign countries and the problems about nuclear non-proliferation, and provides with the reference materials. The demand and supply of uranium enrichment in the world, the present states and plans in USA, Europe, USSR and others, the demand and supply of uranium enrichment and the measures for securing it in Japan, the present state and future plan of uranium enrichment project in Japan, the international regulation of uranium enrichment, the recent policy of USA and INFCE, and the trend of the regulation of utilizing enriched uranium are described. Moreover, the concept of separation works in uranium enrichment and the various technologies of separation are explained. (Kako, I.)

  14. SRL online Analytical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R ampersand D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R ampersand D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control ampersand Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications

  15. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  16. The effectiveness of enriching relations between spouses to reduce marital conflict between employees in different offices in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aminianfar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective & aim:  Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts.   Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected.  Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses.  At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996.   Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively.  The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression.   Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.

  17. Gasket for uranium enrichment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, S; Aiyoshi, H

    1977-02-08

    A gasket to be inserted between flange joints in the equipments and pipe lines of an uranium enrichment plant having neither permeability nor adsorptivity to water while maintaining mechanical, physical and chemical properties of an elastomer gasket is described. A gasket made of an elastomeric material such as a polymer is integratedly formed at its surface with anti-slip projections. The gasket is further surrounded at its upper and lower peripheral sides, as well as outer circumferential portion with a U-sectioned cover (enclosure) made of fluoro-plastics. In this arrangement, the gasket main body shows a gas-tightness for uranium hexafluoride gas and the cover exhibits a gas-tightness for other component gases such as moisture to thereby prevent degradation of the gasket due to absorption and permeation of the moisture.

  18. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  19. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  20. Considering the post-1995 enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.

    1994-01-01

    World demand for uranium enrichment services is likely to grow only a little over the next decade, from the current 28 million separative work units (SWU) per year to 33 MSWU per year. Much of the growth will come from Asia where nuclear generating capacity is still increasing. The current situation of the primary enrichment companies is summarized. The primary Western suppliers, Cogema, United States Enrichment Corporation and Urenco, are competing for increased market share in the USA, Europe and Asia as utilities purchase their post-1995 requirements. Entry of the Russian enrichment company, Tenex, into Western markets has been limited by trade restrictions. As a consequence of disarmament, blended weapons material has resulted in a surplus of low-enriched uranium. Together with over-capacity amongst the primary enrichers this has led to an expectation that reduced prices will be negotiable in the medium term. (3 figures). (UK)