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Sample records for selection pressure exerted

  1. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  2. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  3. Measurements of the Exerted Pressure by Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, Simon P; van Riel, Marcel P.J.M; Goossens, Richard H.M; van Lieshout, Esther M.M; Patka, Peter; Schipper, Inger B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Data on the efficacy and safety of non-invasive Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices (PCCDs) is limited. Tissue damage may occur if a continuous pressure on the skin exceeding 9.3 kPa is sustained for more than two or three hours. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pressure build-up at the interface, by measuring the PCCD-induced pressure when applying pulling forces to three different PCCDs (Pelvic Binder® , SAM-Sling ® and T-POD® ) in a simplified model. Methods: The resulting exerted pressures were measured at four ‘anatomical’ locations (right, left, posterior and anterior) in a model using a pressure measurement system consisting of pressure cuffs. Results: The exerted pressure varied substantially between the locations as well as between the PCCDs. Maximum pressures ranged from 18.9-23.3 kPa and from 19.2-27.5 kPa at the right location and left location, respectively. Pressures at the posterior location stayed below 18 kPa. At the anterior location pressures varied markedly between the different PCCDs. Conclusion: The circumferential compression by the different PCCDs showed high pressures measured at the four locations using a simplified model. Difference in design and functional characteristics of the PCCDs resulted in different pressure build-up at the four locations. When following the manufacturer’s instructions, the exerted pressure of all three PCCDs tested exceeded the tissue damaging level (9.3 kPa). In case of prolonged use in a clinical situation this might put patients at risk for developing tissue damage. PMID:20361001

  4. The pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Hai; Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas on the container boundary and we introduce a surface force in gases. First, the general expression for the local surface pressure tensor is obtained. We find, by examples, that the pressure vanishes at the edges of a box, peaks at the middle of the surface and its magnitude for different statistics satisfies p Fermi > p classical > p Bose on every boundary point. Then, the relation between the surface pressure tensor and generalized forces is studied. Based on the relation, we find that a confined ideal gas can exert forces whose effect is to reduce the total surface area of the boundary of an incompressible object. The force provides mechanisms for several mechanical effects. (1) The force contributes to the adhesion of two thin films in contact with each other. We derive an expression for the adhesion force between two square sheets, estimate its magnitude, and also give a method for distinguishing it from other adhesion forces. (2) The force can lead to the recoiling of a DNA-like column. We study the recoiling process using a simple model and find a deviation from the result given in the thermodynamic limit, which is in accordance with experiments. (3) An open container immersed in a gas can be compressed by this force like the Casimir effect. We discuss the effect for various geometries. (paper)

  5. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Status report on the conceivable outside pressure exerted on nuclear power stations by gaseous explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, W.

    1977-01-01

    The following incidents to be taken into account in the whole process beginning with gas release and ending with a possible stress exerted on the power plant building are discussed in detail: Conditions leading to the release of large amounts of gas; formation of an explorable gas mixture cloud; ignition and course of explosion; pressure wave propagation in the surrounding air; construction dynamics and damaging effects. Experimental results obtainable so far and analyses of large explosions are discussed with a view to their consequences. Special emphasis is placed on the question as to whether extremely unfavourable conditions may lead to a detonation of the cloud instead of a deflagration. Considering the physical laws of cloud formation and the special initiation conditions governing free gas-air-mixtures as a result of gas dynamics and reaction kinetics it can be concluded that a detonation seems to be very unlikely. It is examined what kind of studies are still to be canied out in order to clarity the question of a possible detonation. On the other hand, it is not yet possible to give a decisive answer to the question of whether and to what extent nuclear power plants are endangered by gas cloud deflagration. Due to the complex wave field resulting from diffraction and reflexion of the incoming pressure wave by the buildings of the nuclear power station, a variety of stress functions are possible that may, under certain circumstances, lead to a selective excitation of single vibration modes of the structure. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order...

  8. Locked-in syndrome caused by the pressure exerted by the sound gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Belin Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient who wounded himself with a gun in the cranial region had a Glasgow coma scale of 3E. At posttraumatic day 7, locked-in syndrome was considered upon detection of vertical eye movements, meaningful winks, and quadriplegia. Apart from the classical view, computed tomography (CT and postmortem examination of the brain showed an infarct area in the cerebellum. However, vertebrobasilar artery system was normal. In this case report, we would like to present that unlike cases with ischemia, specific CT findings may not be evident in posttraumatic cases and ischemia may occur in the cerebellum as a result of the pressure exerted by a sound gun.

  9. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Mulu, B; Raisee, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR

  10. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, K.; Mulu, B.; Raisee, M.; Cervantes, M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR.

  11. An in vitro quantification of pressures exerted by earlobe pulse oximeter probes following reports of device-related pressure ulcers in ICU patients .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Teresa T

    2012-11-01

    The earlobe often is used to monitor perfusion when pulse oximeter signal quality is impaired in the fingers and toes. Prompted by intermittent occurrences of roughly circular earlobe pressure ulcers among patients in intensive care units, a convenience sample of seven calibrated pulse oximeter probes was used to quantify earlobe pressure exerted by these devices in vitro. All were tested twice with an electronic load cell, a strain gauge with a transducer that transforms the measured force into a readable numerical signal. The probe was clipped to the load cell just as it is clipped to the earlobe in the clinical setting. The probes exerted an average of 0.24 lb (SD 0.6) of force over an area of 0.3 square inches, equal to an average of 20.7 mm Hg (SD 0.6) pressure on tissue. This value exceeds some empirically derived values of capillary perfusion pressure. The occurrence of device-related pressure ulcers, as well pressure ulcers on the ears, has been documented, but little is known about device-related earlobe pressure ulcers or the actual pressure exerted by these devices. Additional in vitro studies are needed to quantify the pressures exerted by these and other probes, and future prevalence and incidence studies should include more detailed pressure ulcer location and device use documentation. Until more is known about the possible role of these devices in the development of pressure ulcers, clinicians should be cognizant of their potential for causing pressure ulcers, particularly in patients whose conditions can compromise skin integrity.

  12. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg’s RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE. PMID:27990220

  13. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  14. Study and modeling of fluctuating fluid forces exerted on fuel rods in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in the fuel rods. Due to friction, wear occurs at the contact locations between the spacer grid and the fuel rod. This could compromise the first safety barrier of the nuclear reactor by damaging the fuel rod cladding. In order to ensure the integrity of the cladding, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods. However, the spectra for these fluid forces are not well known. The goal of this PhD thesis was to use simple geometrical elements to check the reproducibility of realistic pressurized water reactor spacer grids. As a first step, large eddy simulations were performed on a concentric annular pipe for different mesh refinements using the CFD code Trio CFD (previously Trio U) developed by CEA. A mesh sensitivity study was performed to obtain an acceptable mesh for reproducing standard literature results. This information on mesh resolution was used when carrying out simulations using various geometric obstacles inside the pipe, namely, mixing vanes, circular spacer grid and a combination of square spacer grid with mixing vanes. The last of the three configurations is the closest to a realistic PWR fuel assembly. Structured mesh was generated for the annular pipe case and circular grid case. An innovative hybrid mesh was used for the two remaining cases of the mixing vanes and the square grid: keeping unstructured mesh around the obstacles and structured mesh in the rest of the domain. The inner wall of the domain was representative of the fuel rod cladding. Both hydraulic and wall pressure characteristics were analyzed for each case. The results for the square grid case were found to be an approximate combination of the mixing vane case and circular grid case. Simulation results were compared with experiments performed at CEA Cadarache. Some preliminary comparisons were also made with classical semi-empirical models. (author) [fr

  15. Changes in the selection differential exerted on a marine snail during the ontogeny of a predatory shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, D; Boulding, E G

    2010-08-01

    Empirical estimates of selection gradients caused by predators are common, yet no one has quantified how these estimates vary with predator ontogeny. We used logistic regression to investigate how selection on gastropod shell thickness changed with predator size. Only small and medium purple shore crabs (Hemigrapsus nudus) exerted a linear selection gradient for increased shell-thickness within a single population of the intertidal snail (Littorina subrotundata). The shape of the fitness function for shell thickness was confirmed to be linear for small and medium crabs but was humped for large male crabs, suggesting no directional selection. A second experiment using two prey species to amplify shell thickness differences established that the selection differential on adult snails decreased linearly as crab size increased. We observed differences in size distribution and sex ratios among three natural shore crab populations that may cause spatial and temporal variation in predator-mediated selection on local snail populations.

  16. Analysis of radiation pressure force exerted on a biological cell induced by high-order Bessel beams using Debye series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi

    2013-01-01

    Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back

  17. High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Ginger Exerts Antistress Effects in Immobilization-Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sohee; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Kang, Bori; Kim, Seog-Young; Park, Seonyoung; Son, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Jo, Young-Hee; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Yangha

    2017-09-01

    Stress contributes to physiological changes such as weight loss and hormonal imbalances. The aim of the present study was to investigate antistress effects of high hydrostatic pressure extract of ginger (HPG) in immobilization-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups as follows: control (C), immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) (S), and immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) plus oral administration of HPG (150 mg/kg body weight/day) (S+G). Immobilization stress reduced the body weight gain and thymus weight by 50.2% and 31.3%, respectively, compared to the control group. The levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and corticosterone were significantly higher in the stress group, compared to the control group. Moreover, immobilization stress elevated the mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), which are related to catecholamine and corticosterone synthesis in the adrenal gland. HPG administration also increased the body weight gain and thymus weight by 12.7% and 16.6%, respectively, compared to the stress group. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Th, Dbh, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and P450scc were elevated by the HPG treatment when compared to the stress group. These results suggest that HPG would have antistress effects partially via the reversal of stress-induced physiological changes and suppression of mRNA expression of genes related to corticosterone and catecholamine synthetic enzymes.

  18. Gender difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol in young adults with comparable routine physical exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. Aims: To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. Settings and Design: This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Results: Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84% in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7% of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  19. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  20. Lactocepin secreted by Lactobacillus exerts anti-inflammatory effects by selectively degrading proinflammatory chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schillde, Marie-Anne; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Weiher, Monika; Alpert, Carl-Alfred; Hahne, Hannes; Bäuerl, Christine; van Huynegem, Karolien; Steidler, Lothar; Hrncir, Tomas; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk

    2012-04-19

    The intestinal microbiota has been linked to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and oral treatment with specific bacteria can ameliorate IBD. One bacterial mixture, VSL#3, containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus, was clinically shown to reduce inflammation in IBD patients and normalize intestinal levels of IP-10, a lymphocyte-recruiting chemokine, in a murine colitis model. We identified Lactobacillus paracasei prtP-encoded lactocepin as a protease that selectively degrades secreted, cell-associated, and tissue-distributed IP-10, resulting in significantly reduced lymphocyte recruitment after intraperitoneal injection in an ileitis model. A human Lactobacillus casei isolate was also found to encode lactocepin and degrade IP-10. L. casei feeding studies in a murine colitis model (T cell transferred Rag2(-/-) mice) revealed that a prtP-disruption mutant was significantly less potent in reducing IP-10 levels, T cell infiltration and inflammation in cecal tissue compared to the isogenic wild-type strain. Thus, lactocepin-based therapies may be effective treatments for chemokine-mediated diseases like IBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  2. Neutron sample cell suitable for the diffraction of aligned biomaterials and capable of exerting up to 370 MPa of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.J.; Nieh, M.-P.; Harroun, T.A.; Katsaras, J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a temperature controlled sample cell suitable for the study of biomimetic materials (e.g., lipid bilayers) using neutron diffraction, and capable of exerting hydrostatic pressures of up to 370 MPa. The advantage of this sample cell, compared to previous high-pressure cells of its type, is that it allows for the use of samples aligned on a solid support which, compared to 'powder' or so-called liposomal preparations, requires only small amounts of sample and allows for the clear differentiation between in-plane and out-of-plane structure

  3. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  4. Fundamentals of negative refractive index optical trapping: forces and radiation pressures exerted by focused Gaussian beams using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2010-11-04

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRUNK INCLINATIONS ON BILATERAL TRUNK MUSCULAR ACTIVITIES, CENTRE OF PRESSURE AND FORCE EXERTIONS IN STATIC PUSHING POSTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Kadek Heri; Lee, Soomin; Sriwarno, Andar Bagus; Shimomura, Yoshihito; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    In order to reconcile contradictory results from previous studies on manual pushing, a study was conducted to examine the effect of trunk inclination on muscular activities, centre of pressure (COP) and force exertion during static pushing. Ten subjects pushed at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees body inclinations in parallel and staggered feet stances. Wall and ground force plates measured pushing force, wall COP, vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and ground COP. Electromyogram data were recorded at 10 trunk muscle sites. Pushing force was found to increase with body inclination. GRF peaked at 15 degrees and reached its lowest level at the 45 degrees inclination. The lowest wall force plate standard deviation of COP displacement was found at the 30 degrees inclination. The lowest low back muscular activity was found at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees inclinations. Based on force exertion, muscular load, and stability, the 30 degrees body inclination was found to be the best posture for static pushing. This study also showed asymmetry in muscular activity and force exertion which has been received less attention in manual pushing studies. These findings will require further study.

  6. The Nature of Social Practice among School Professionals: Consequences of the Academic Pressure Exerted by Teachers in Their Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure teachers' views about trust between teachers, trust between the principal and teachers, peer collaboration, positive attitudes towards the school and how these antecedents influence the academic pressure teachers put on pupils with respect to learning and learning intensity and performance. The methodology…

  7. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  9. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter argument for competitive pressure and the infant industry argument for protection. The key insight is that the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to innovate depend on the firm's eff...

  11. Analysis on working pressure selection of ACME integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lian; Chang Huajian; Li Yuquan; Ye Zishen; Qin Benke

    2011-01-01

    An integral effects test facility, advanced core cooling mechanism experiment facility (ACME) was designed to verify the performance of the passive safety system and validate its safety analysis codes of a pressurized water reactor power plant. Three test facilities for AP1000 design were introduced and review was given. The problems resulted from the different working pressures of its test facilities were analyzed. Then a detailed description was presented on the working pressure selection of ACME facility as well as its characteristics. And the approach of establishing desired testing initial condition was discussed. The selected 9.3 MPa working pressure covered almost all important passive safety system enables the ACME to simulate the LOCAs with the same pressure and property similitude as the prototype. It's expected that the ACME design would be an advanced core cooling integral test facility design. (authors)

  12. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  13. Why climate change will invariably alter selection pressures on phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Reed, Thomas E.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal timing of lifecycle events is closely linked to individual fitness and hence, maladaptation in phenological traits may impact population dynamics. However, few studies have analysed whether and why climate change will alter selection pressures and hence possibly induce maladaptation in

  14. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter

  15. Quantifying Selective Pressures Driving Bacterial Evolution Using Lineage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use a variety of strategies to adapt to their environments and maximize long-term growth potential, but quantitative characterization of the benefits conferred by the use of such strategies, as well as their impact on the whole population's rate of growth, remains challenging. Here, we use a path-integral framework that describes how selection acts on lineages—i.e., the life histories of individuals and their ancestors—to demonstrate that lineage-based measurements can be used to quantify the selective pressures acting on a population. We apply this analysis to Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to cyclical treatments of carbenicillin, an antibiotic that interferes with cell-wall synthesis and affects cells in an age-dependent manner. While the extensive characterization of the life history of thousands of cells is necessary to accurately extract the age-dependent selective pressures caused by carbenicillin, the same measurement can be recapitulated using lineage-based statistics of a single surviving cell. Population-wide evolutionary pressures can be extracted from the properties of the surviving lineages within a population, providing an alternative and efficient procedure to quantify the evolutionary forces acting on a population. Importantly, this approach is not limited to age-dependent selection, and the framework can be generalized to detect signatures of other trait-specific selection using lineage-based measurements. Our results establish a powerful way to study the evolutionary dynamics of life under selection and may be broadly useful in elucidating selective pressures driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the evolution of survival strategies in biological systems.

  16. Identification of physicochemical selective pressure on protein encoding nucleotide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainudiin Raazesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical methods for identifying positively selected sites in protein coding regions are one of the most commonly used tools in evolutionary bioinformatics. However, they have been limited by not taking the physiochemical properties of amino acids into account. Results We develop a new codon-based likelihood model for detecting site-specific selection pressures acting on specific physicochemical properties. Nonsynonymous substitutions are divided into substitutions that differ with respect to the physicochemical properties of interest, and those that do not. The substitution rates of these two types of changes, relative to the synonymous substitution rate, are then described by two parameters, γ and ω respectively. The new model allows us to perform likelihood ratio tests for positive selection acting on specific physicochemical properties of interest. The new method is first used to analyze simulated data and is shown to have good power and accuracy in detecting physicochemical selective pressure. We then re-analyze data from the class-I alleles of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and from the abalone sperm lysine. Conclusion Our new method allows a more flexible framework to identify selection pressure on particular physicochemical properties.

  17. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and intraoperative blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haelst, Ingrid M M; van Klei, Wilton A; Doodeman, Hieronymus J; Kalkman, Cor J; Egberts, Toine C G

    2012-02-01

    The influence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on blood pressure is poorly understood. We hypothesized that if SSRIs have an influence on blood pressure, this might become manifest in changes in intraoperative blood pressure. We aimed to study the association between perioperative use of SSRIs and changes in intraoperative blood pressure by measuring the occurrence of intraoperative hyper- and hypotension. We conducted a retrospective observational follow-up study among patients who underwent elective primary total hip arthroplasty. The index group included users of SSRIs. The reference group included a random sample (ratio 1:3) of nonusers of an antidepressant agent. The outcome was the occurrence of intraoperative hypo- and hypertensive episodes (number, mean and total duration, and area under the curve (AUC)). The outcome was adjusted for confounding factors using regression techniques. The index group included 20 users of an SSRI. The reference group included 60 nonusers. Users of SSRIs showed fewer intraoperative hypotensive episodes, a shorter mean and total duration, and a smaller AUC when compared to the reference group. After adjustment for confounders, SSRI use was associated with a significantly shorter total duration of hypotension: mean difference of -29.4 min (95% confidence interval (CI) -50.4 to -8.3). Two users of an SSRI and two patients in the reference group had a hypertensive episode. Continuation of treatment with SSRIs before surgery was associated with a briefer duration of intraoperative hypotension.

  19. Heart rate and perceived exertion during self-selected intensities for exergaming compared to traditional exercise in college-age participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A; Russell, William D; Bowman, Tracy A; Selsor, Clifford W; Foster, Grant D

    2011-06-01

    Exergames may be useful for promoting physical activity in younger populations. Heart rate (HRs) responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at self-selected intensities were compared in college-age participants during 2 modes of exergame activity vs. traditional exercise. Thirty-seven participants (men: 20, women: 17) completed 3 30-minute self-selected intensity trials: (a) video game interactive bicycle ergometer (GB) (CatEye GB300), (b) interactive video dance game (Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]), and (c) traditional cycle ergometer (CE) while watching television. Mean HR, peak HR (PkHR), and minutes above target HR (THR) were significantly higher for GB (144 ± 22 b · min(-1) [57% HR reserve (HRR)], 161 ± 23 b · min(-1), and 22.5 ± 11.1 minutes) than for DDR (119 ± 16 b · min(-1) [37% HRR], 138 ± 20 b · min(-1), and 11.2 ± 11.9 minutes) or for CE (126 ± 20 b · min(-1) [42% HRR], 144 ± 24 b · min(-1), and 14.2 ± 12.6 minutes). The RPE was significantly higher for GB (4.2 ± 1.5) and CE (3.8 ± 1.2) than for DDR (2.7 ± 1.3). Recovery HR (RecHR) (15 minutes postexercise) was significantly higher for GB (91 ± 14 b · min(-1)) than for DDR (80 ± 11 b · min(-1)) and neared significance vs. CE (84 ± 14 b · min(-1), p = 0.059). No difference in PkHR, RecHR, or minutes above THR was observed between DDR and CE. Session RPE was significantly higher for GB (4.6 ± 1.7) and CE (4.1 ± 1.6) than for DDR (2.8 ± 1.5). All modes elicited extended proportions of time above THR; GB: 75%, DDR: 37%, and CE: 47%. Results support that exergames are capable of eliciting physiological responses necessary for fitness improvements. Practitioners might consider exergames as periodic activity options for clients needing motivation to be regularly active.

  20. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G Bragg

    Full Text Available Our view of marine microbes is transforming, as culture-independent methods facilitate rapid characterization of microbial diversity. It is difficult to assimilate this information into our understanding of marine microbe ecology and evolution, because their distributions, traits, and genomes are shaped by forces that are complex and dynamic. Here we incorporate diverse forces--physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and mutational--into a global ocean model to study selective pressures on a simple trait in a widely distributed lineage of picophytoplankton: the nitrogen use abilities of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria. Some Prochlorococcus ecotypes have lost the ability to use nitrate, whereas their close relatives, marine Synechococcus, typically retain it. We impose mutations for the loss of nitrogen use abilities in modeled picophytoplankton, and ask: in which parts of the ocean are mutants most disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate, and in which parts are they least disadvantaged? Our model predicts that this selective disadvantage is smallest for picophytoplankton that live in tropical regions where Prochlorococcus are abundant in the real ocean. Conversely, the selective disadvantage of losing the ability to use nitrate is larger for modeled picophytoplankton that live at higher latitudes, where Synechococcus are abundant. In regions where we expect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations to cycle seasonally in the real ocean, we find that model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Prochlorococcus are less disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate than model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Synechococcus. The model predictions for the selective advantage associated with nitrate use are broadly consistent with the distribution of this ability among marine picocyanobacteria, and at finer scales, can provide insights into interactions between temporally varying

  1. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Jason G; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Jahn, Oliver; Follows, Michael J; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2010-03-10

    Our view of marine microbes is transforming, as culture-independent methods facilitate rapid characterization of microbial diversity. It is difficult to assimilate this information into our understanding of marine microbe ecology and evolution, because their distributions, traits, and genomes are shaped by forces that are complex and dynamic. Here we incorporate diverse forces--physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and mutational--into a global ocean model to study selective pressures on a simple trait in a widely distributed lineage of picophytoplankton: the nitrogen use abilities of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria. Some Prochlorococcus ecotypes have lost the ability to use nitrate, whereas their close relatives, marine Synechococcus, typically retain it. We impose mutations for the loss of nitrogen use abilities in modeled picophytoplankton, and ask: in which parts of the ocean are mutants most disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate, and in which parts are they least disadvantaged? Our model predicts that this selective disadvantage is smallest for picophytoplankton that live in tropical regions where Prochlorococcus are abundant in the real ocean. Conversely, the selective disadvantage of losing the ability to use nitrate is larger for modeled picophytoplankton that live at higher latitudes, where Synechococcus are abundant. In regions where we expect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations to cycle seasonally in the real ocean, we find that model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Prochlorococcus are less disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate than model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Synechococcus. The model predictions for the selective advantage associated with nitrate use are broadly consistent with the distribution of this ability among marine picocyanobacteria, and at finer scales, can provide insights into interactions between temporally varying ocean processes and

  2. Subtle differences in selective pressures applied on the envelope gene of HIV-1 in pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, Doris G; Lord, Etienne; Caty, Martine; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2018-04-17

    Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients. Differential levels of selective pressure applied on different Env subdomains displayed similar yet non-identical patterns between the two groups, with pressure applied on C1 being significantly lower in constant regions C1 and C2 than in V1, V2, V3 and C3. To draw a general picture of the selection applied on the envelope and compensate for inter-individual variations, we performed a binomial test on selection frequency data pooled from pregnant and non-pregnant women. This analysis uncovered 42 positions, present in both groups, exhibiting statistically-significant frequency of selection that invariably mapped to the surface of the Env protein, with the great majority located within epitopes recognized by Env-specific antibodies or sites associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity. The median frequency of occurrence of positive selection per site was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Furthermore, examination of the distribution of positively selected sites using a hypergeometric test revealed that only 2 positions (D137 and S142) significantly differed between the 2 groups. Taken together, these result indicate that pregnancy is associated with subtle yet distinctive changes in selective pressures exerted on the HIV-1 Env protein that are compatible with transient modulations of maternal

  3. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  4. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P pressure.

  5. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  6. Perspectives on Exertional Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Exertional (exercise-induced) rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition that has been the subject of research, intense discussion, and media attention. The causes of rhabdomyolysis are numerous and can include direct muscle injury, unaccustomed exercise, ischemia, extreme temperatures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrinologic conditions, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, infections, drugs, toxins, and venoms. The objective of this article is to review the literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis, identify precipitating factors, and examine the role of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate. PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were searched using the terms rhabdomyolysis, muscle damage, creatine, creatine supplementation, creatine monohydrate, and phosphocreatine. Additionally, the references of papers identified through this search were examined for relevant studies. A meta-analysis was not performed. Although the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis is low, instances still occur where exercise is improperly prescribed or used as punishment, or incomplete medical history is taken, and exertional rhabdomyolysis occurs. Creatine monohydrate does not appear to be a precipitating factor for exertional rhabdomyolysis. Healthcare professionals should be able to recognize the basic signs of exertional rhabdomyolysis so prompt treatment can be administered. For the risk of rhabdomyolysis to remain low, exercise testing and prescription must be properly conducted based on professional standards.

  7. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixun Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested foliar δ13C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ13C. We noted that all the studies in which δ13C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ13C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ13C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ13C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ13C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ13C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ13C. This study found that the residual foliar δ13C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ13C.

  8. Exertional dyspnoea in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Bernhardt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient. This includes the otherwise healthy obese patient, as well as the obese patient with potentially multiple cardiopulmonary limitations. Despite obvious limitations in lung function, metabolic disease and/or cardiovascular dysfunction, obesity may be the most likely reason for exertional dyspnoea. In this article, we will review the more common cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in the otherwise healthy obese adult with special emphasis on dyspnoea on exertion.

  9. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  10. Selected reading on introduction to pressure tube technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; Coleman, C.E.; Ells, C.E.

    1981-10-01

    Four lectures on pressure tube technology were presented at Sheridan Park, Ontario, on 1981 June 1. The titles were 'Pressure Tubes and Their Operational Environment', 'Fabrication, Inspection and Properties of Current Production Pressure Tubes', 'In-Reactor Deformation of Fuel Channels', and 'Potential Failure Modes in Pressure Tubes'. This report lists the references used in preparing the lectures. It is intended to provide a starting point in reading for people who need to become familiar with pressure tube technology but have little prior knowledge of the topic

  11. Evolution of BCR/ABL gene mutation in CML is time dependent and dependent on the pressure exerted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashri Vaidya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the ABL kinase domain and SH3-SH2 domain of the BCR/ABL gene and amplification of the Philadelphia chromosome are the two important BCR/ABL dependent mechanisms of imatinib resistance. Here, we intended to study the role played by TKI, imatinib, in selection of gene mutations and development of chromosomal abnormalities in Indian CML patients. METHODS: Direct sequencing methodology was employed to detect mutations and conventional cytogenetics was done to identify Philadelphia duplication. RESULTS: Among the different mechanisms of imatinib resistance, kinase domain mutations (39% of the BCR/ABL gene were seen to be more prevalent, followed by mutations in the SH3-SH2 domain (4% and then BCR/ABL amplification with the least frequency (1%. The median duration of occurrence of mutation was significantly shorter for patients with front line imatinib than those pre-treated with hydroxyurea. Patients with high Sokal score (p = 0.003 showed significantly higher incidence of mutations, as compared to patients with low/intermediate score. Impact of mutations on the clinical outcome in AP and BC was observed to be insignificant. Of the 94 imatinib resistant patients, only 1 patient exhibited duplication of Philadelphia chromosome, suggesting a less frequent occurrence of this abnormality in Indian CML patients. CONCLUSION: Close monitoring at regular intervals and proper analysis of the disease resistance would facilitate early detection of resistance and thus aid in the selection of the most appropriate therapy.

  12. Pressure drop effects on selectivity and resolution in packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Snijders, H.M.J.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of pressure drop on retention, selectivity, plate height and resolution was investigated systematically in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using pure carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. Numerical methods developed previously which enabled the prediction of pressure

  13. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  14. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.

  15. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24?48 hours after attending a spi...

  16. Oxybiotest project: microorganisms under pressure. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO and simple pressure interaction on selected bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanon Vincenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HyperBaric Oxygen (HBO therapy involves exposure to pure oxygen in a pressurized room, and it is an already well-established treatment for various conditions, including those originated by serious infections. Starting from the observation of an increased number of patients who were accessing our HBO units for diseases supported from concomitant multidrug-resistant microorganisms, as well as considering the evident clinical benefit and laboratory final outcome of those patients at the end of the treatment, aim of our study was to measure, or better define at least, if there was any interaction between a hyperbaric environment and some selected microorganisms and if those positive results were due to the increased oxygen partial pressure (pO2 value or just to the increased pressure, regardless of the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 applied (21÷100%. Design and methods We applied various increased pO2 values in a hyperbaric environment. Our study design was tailored in four steps to answer four specific questions, ordered in a progressive process: OxyBioTest (OBT-1,2,3, and 4. Specifically, we chose to investigate possible changes in the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and in the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of multi-resistant microorganisms after a single session of hyperbaric therapy. Results OBT-1 and OBT-2 provide a semi-quantitative confirmation of the bacterio-cidal and cytostatic effects of HBO. HBO is cidal only if the total exposure pressure is elevated, and cidal or cytostatic effect are not always dependent on the pO2 applied. OBT-4 has shown the adjuvant effect of HBO and antimicrobial drug against some selected bacteria. Discussion We seem allowed to hypothesize that only in case of a good approach to a lesion, permitting smaller bacterial loads thanks to surgical debridement and/or eventual antibiotic therapy for example, You can observe the clear effectiveness of the HyperBaric Oxygen (HBO

  17. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  18. Vapor Pressure of Selected Aliphatic Alcohols by Ebulliometry. Part 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čenský, M.; Roháč, V.; Růžička, K.; Fulem, M.; Aim, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 2 (2010), s. 192-198 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vapor pressure * ebulliometry * aliphatic alcohols Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.253, year: 2010

  19. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected monoterpenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Dergal, F.; Mokbel, I.; Fulem, Michal; Jose, J.; Růžička, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 406, Nov (2015), 124-133 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : monoterpenoids * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization and sublimation enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  20. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... Animal productivity and efficiency of production are functions of the level of nutrition, ... among the different parts of a plant, choice of parts can markedly affect a .... is a decline in DM intake per bite and a tendency to increase the time spent grazing.

  1. Use of hydrostatic pressure for modulation of protein chemical modification and enzymatic selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexey A; Helmy, Roy; Joyce, Leo; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Maust, Mathew; Ren, Sumei; Mergelsberg, Ingrid; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-05-11

    Using hydrostatic pressure to induce protein conformational changes can be a powerful tool for altering the availability of protein reactive sites and for changing the selectivity of enzymatic reactions. Using a pressure apparatus, it has been demonstrated that hydrostatic pressure can be used to modulate the reactivity of lysine residues of the protein ubiquitin with a water-soluble amine-specific homobifunctional coupling agent. Fewer reactive lysine residues were observed when the reaction was carried out under elevated pressure of 3 kbar, consistent with a pressure-induced conformational change of ubiquitin that results in fewer exposed lysine residues. Additionally, modulation of the stereoselectivity of an enzymatic transamination reaction was observed at elevated hydrostatic pressure. In one case, the minor diasteromeric product formed at atmospheric pressure became the major product at elevated pressure. Such pressure-induced alterations of protein reactivity may provide an important new tool for enzymatic reactions and the chemical modification of proteins.

  2. Analysis of polymorphisms and selective pressures on ama1 gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuen Yang Chua

    2017-09-05

    Sep 5, 2017 ... The presence of purifying selection and low nucleotide diversity ... (2000) studied the gene substitution of ama1 ... in the gene coding for AMA-1 protein in Plasmodium ... Health Malaysia. ...... X. Asembo Bay Cohort Project.

  3. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected hexenols and recommended vapor pressure for hexan-1-ol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 402, Sep (2015), 18-29 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alcohols * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  4. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Triska, P.; Soares, P.; Patin, E.; Fernandes, V.; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2015), s. 3484-3495 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : genome-wide diversity * admixture * selection * Sahel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2015 http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/12/3484.full.pdf+html

  5. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  6. Tetracycline resistance genes persist in soil amended with cattle feces independently from chlortetracycline selection pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyselkova, Martina; Kotrbova, Lucie; Bhumibhamon, Gamonsiri; Chronakova, Alica; Jirout, Jiri; Vrchotova, Nadezda; Schmitt, Heike; Elhottova, Dana

    Antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes originating from animal waste represent environmental pollutants with possible human health consequences. In this study, we addressed the question whether chlortetracycline (CTC) residues in soils can act as selective pressure enhancing the

  7. Selective pressures on C4 photosynthesis evolution in grasses through the lens of optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Akcay, Erol; Zhou, Haoran; Helliker, Brent

    2016-01-01

    CO2, temperature, water availability and light intensity were potential selective pressures to propel the initial evolution and global expansion of C4 photosynthesis in grasses. To tease apart the primary selective pressures along the evolutionary trajectory, we coupled photosynthesis and hydraulics models and optimized photosynthesis over stomatal resistance and leaf/fine-root allocation. We also examined the importance of nitrogen reallocation from the dark to the light reactions. Our resul...

  8. The mathematics of random mutation and natural selection for multiple simultaneous selection pressures and the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2016-12-20

    The random mutation and natural selection phenomenon act in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures when treating infections and cancers. The underlying principle to impair the random mutation and natural selection phenomenon is to use combination therapy, which forces the population to evolve to multiple selection pressures simultaneously that invoke the multiplication rule of probabilities simultaneously as well. Recently, it has been seen that combination therapy for the treatment of malaria has failed to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Using this empirical example and the principles of probability theory, the derivation of the equations describing this treatment failure is carried out. These equations give guidance as to how to use combination therapy for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Study on Material Selection of Reactor Pressure Vessel of SCWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuli; Luo, Ying; Yin, Qinwei; Li, Changxiang; Xie, Guofu

    This paper first analyzes the feasibility of SA-508 Grade 3 Class 1 Steel as an alternative material for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This kind of steel is limited to be applied in SCWR RPV due to its quenching property, though large forging could be accomplished by domestic manufacturers in forging aspect. Therefore, steels with higher strength and better quenching property are needed for SWCR RPV. The chemical component of SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel is similar to that of SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.1 steel, and more appropriate matching of strength and toughness could be achieved by the adjusting the elements contents, as well as proper control of tempering temperature and time. In light of the fact that Cl.2 steel has been successfully applied to steam generator, it could be an alternative material for SWCR RPV. SA-508 Gr.4N steel with high strength and good toughness is another alternative material for SCWR RPV. But large amount of research work before application is still needed for the lack of data on welding and irradiation etc.

  10. Examination of the selective pressures on a live PRRS vaccine virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bøtner, Anette

    1999-01-01

    of the selective pressure this attenuated virus had experienced during reversion. An analysis of nucleotide mutations showed a similar rate of mutations in the two genes (ORF5 and 7). However, non-synonymous mutations in ORF7 were eliminated by purifying selection. In contrast, non-synonymous mutations in ORF5...

  11. The definition of exertion-related cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M; Thompson, P D

    2011-02-01

    Vigorous physical activity increases the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but there is no standard definition as to what constitutes an exertion-related cardiac event, specifically the time interval between physical exertion and cardiac event. A systematic review of studies related to exertion-related cardiac events was performed and the time interval between exertion and the event or the symptoms leading to the event was looked for in all the articles selected for inclusion. A total of 12 of 26 articles "suggested" or "defined" exertion-related events as those events whose symptoms started during or within 1 h of exertion. Others used definitions of 0.5 h, 2 h, "during exertion", "during or immediately post exertion" and "during or within several hours after exertion". It is suggested, therefore, that the definition of an exertion-related cardiac event be established as a cardiac event in which symptoms started during or within 1 h of physical exertion.

  12. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  13. Selective-catalyst formation for carbon nanotube growth by local indentation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, T. [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: yst@mech.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Nakai, Y.; Onozuka, Y. [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    We studied the selective formation of Co catalyst particles as a function of indentation pressure. We subjected a Co (8 nm thickness)/Si substrate pre-annealed at 600 deg. C to indentation processing. The catalytic function was confirmed in the indentations by the selective growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at 800 deg. C. The number density of CNTs against the indentation pressure was investigated against indentation loads for two types of indenter: a Berkovich indenter with a ridge angle of 115{sup o} and a Berkovich indenter with a ridge angle of 90{sup o}. The pressures above 7 GPa applied by the former indenter enhanced Co atomization acting as a catalyst function for CNT growth (35 CNTs in one indentation). In contrast to this, the number of CNTs was markedly reduced when the latter indenter was used with pressures less than 3 GPa. The pop-out phenomenon was observed in unloading curves at pressures above 7 GPa. These results indicate that metastable Si promotes the self-aggregation of catalyst particles (Co) leading to the selective growth of CNTs within indentations at pressures above 7 GPa.

  14. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  15. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Christina D; Rannala, Bruce; Walter, Michael A

    2008-09-24

    Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known functional information allowed prediction of residue function and

  16. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannala Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Results Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Conclusion Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known

  17. Selection pressure transforms the nature of social dilemmas in adaptive networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Segbroeck, Sven; Lenaerts, Tom [MLG, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe-CP 212, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Santos, Francisco C [CENTRIA, Departamento de Informatica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pacheco, Jorge M, E-mail: svsegbro@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: fcsantos@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: tlenaert@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: jmpacheco@math.uminho.pt [ATP-Group, CMAF, Complexo Interdisciplinar, P-1649-003 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    We have studied the evolution of cooperation in structured populations whose topology coevolves with the game strategies of the individuals. Strategy evolution proceeds according to an update rule with a free parameter, which measures the selection pressure. We explore how this parameter affects the interplay between network dynamics and strategy dynamics. A dynamical network topology can influence the strategy dynamics in two ways: (i) by modifying the expected payoff associated with each strategy and (ii) by reshaping the imitation network that underlies the evolutionary process. We show here that the selection pressure tunes the relative contribution of each of these two forces to the final outcome of strategy evolution. The dynamics of the imitation network plays only a minor role under strong selection, but becomes the dominant force under weak selection. We demonstrate how these findings constitute a mechanism supporting cooperative behavior.

  18. Selection pressure transforms the nature of social dilemmas in adaptive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Segbroeck, Sven; Lenaerts, Tom; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of cooperation in structured populations whose topology coevolves with the game strategies of the individuals. Strategy evolution proceeds according to an update rule with a free parameter, which measures the selection pressure. We explore how this parameter affects the interplay between network dynamics and strategy dynamics. A dynamical network topology can influence the strategy dynamics in two ways: (i) by modifying the expected payoff associated with each strategy and (ii) by reshaping the imitation network that underlies the evolutionary process. We show here that the selection pressure tunes the relative contribution of each of these two forces to the final outcome of strategy evolution. The dynamics of the imitation network plays only a minor role under strong selection, but becomes the dominant force under weak selection. We demonstrate how these findings constitute a mechanism supporting cooperative behavior.

  19. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The selection pressures induced non-smooth infectious disease model and bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wenjie; Tang, Sanyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-smooth infectious disease model to describe selection pressure is developed. • The effect of selection pressure on infectious disease transmission is addressed. • The key factors which are related to the threshold value are determined. • The stabilities and bifurcations of model have been revealed in more detail. • Strategies for the prevention of emerging infectious disease are proposed. - Abstract: Mathematical models can assist in the design strategies to control emerging infectious disease. This paper deduces a non-smooth infectious disease model induced by selection pressures. Analysis of this model reveals rich dynamics including local, global stability of equilibria and local sliding bifurcations. Model solutions ultimately stabilize at either one real equilibrium or the pseudo-equilibrium on the switching surface of the present model, depending on the threshold value determined by some related parameters. Our main results show that reducing the threshold value to a appropriate level could contribute to the efficacy on prevention and treatment of emerging infectious disease, which indicates that the selection pressures can be beneficial to prevent the emerging infectious disease under medical resource limitation

  1. Stress, Time Pressure, Strategy Selection and Math Anxiety in Mathematics: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviola, Sara; Carey, Emma; Mammarella, Irene C; Szucs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    We review how stress induction, time pressure manipulations and math anxiety can interfere with or modulate selection of problem-solving strategies (henceforth "strategy selection") in arithmetical tasks. Nineteen relevant articles were identified, which contain references to strategy selection and time limit (or time manipulations), with some also discussing emotional aspects in mathematical outcomes. Few of these take cognitive processes such as working memory or executive functions into consideration. We conclude that due to the sparsity of available literature our questions can only be partially answered and currently there is not much evidence of clear associations. We identify major gaps in knowledge and raise a series of open questions to guide further research.

  2. Does a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist (ICI 169, 369) lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, A K; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Webster, J; Petrie, J C

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of single doses (10, 30 and 50 mg) of a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ICI 169, 369, on blood pressure, heart rate and the electrocardiogram was studied using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject design in hypertensive patients. 2. ICI 169, 369 did not reduce blood pressure or increase QT interval as has been reported with ketanserin. This suggests that it is the other properties of ketanserin which are responsible for its antihypertensive effect. 3. Plasma c...

  3. Selective formation of VO2(A) or VO2(R) polymorph by controlling the hydrothermal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Shidong; Zhang Feng; Jin Ping

    2011-01-01

    Missing VO 2 (A) usually occurs during the preparation of VO 2 polymorphs. This leads to an ambiguous understanding of the transformation between VO 2 polymorphs. The calculation of the ground state energies for different VO 2 polymorphs indicated that there is only a small energy gap between VO 2 (A) and VO 2 (R), which destined that the transformation from VO 2 (A) to VO 2 (R) should be pressure sensitive. This hypothesis was verified during the synthesizing of VO 2 polymorphs by reducing V 2 O 5 with oxalic acid through hydrothermal treatment process. Selective formation of pure phase VO 2 (A) or VO 2 (R) was achieved by controlling the hydrothermal pressure through varying the filling ratio at 270 deg. C. It was found that a filling ratio over 0.5 favors the formation of pure VO 2 (R) while a reduced filling ratio to 0.4 or lower results in the formation of VO 2 (A). Based on our experiments, VO 2 (B) nanobelts were always first formed and then it transformed to VO 2 (A) by assembling process at increased temperature or extended reaction time. Under further higher pressure, the VO 2 (A) transformed spontaneously to VO 2 (R) initialized from the volume shrinkage due to the formation of denser VO 2 (R). - Graphical abstract: Selective formation of VO 2 (A) or VO 2 (R) could be achieved by controlling the system pressure through varying the filling ratio during hydrothermal treatment. Highlights: → Selective formation of VO 2 polymorphs by controlling hydrothermal pressure. → Ground state energy characteristics were revealed for the first time. → Phase transformation mechanism was clearly elucidated.

  4. Exertional Tolerance Assessments After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Bailes, Anna; Constand, Sara; Sroka, Mary Claire; Nissen, Katharine; Kurowski, Brad; Hugentobler, Jason

    2018-05-01

    To review the literature to identify and summarize strategies for evaluating responses to physical exertion after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) for clinical and research purposes. PubMed and EBSCOhost through December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on the following criteria: (1) inclusion of participants with mTBI/concussion, (2) use of a measurement of physiological or psychosomatic response to exertion, (3) a repeatable description of the exertion protocol was provided, (4) a sample of at least 10 participants with a mean age between 8 and 65 years, and (5) the article was in English. The search process yielded 2685 articles, of which 14 studies met the eligibility requirements. A quality assessment using a checklist was conducted for each study by 2 independent study team members and verified by a third team member. Data were extracted by one team member and verified by a second team member. A qualitative synthesis of the studies revealed that most protocols used a treadmill or cycle ergometer as the exercise modality. Protocol methods varied across studies including differences in initial intensity determination, progression parameters, and exertion duration. Common outcome measures were self-reported symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. The strongest evidence indicates that exertional assessments can provide important insight about mTBI recovery and should be administered using symptoms as a guide. Additional studies are needed to verify optimal modes and protocols for post-mTBI exertional assessments. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EST-derived SNP discovery and selective pressure analysis in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengzhang; Wang, Xia; Xiang, Jianhai; Li, Fuhua

    2012-09-01

    Pacific white shrimp has become a major aquaculture and fishery species worldwide. Although a large scale EST resource has been publicly available since 2008, the data have not yet been widely used for SNP discovery or transcriptome-wide assessment of selective pressure. In this study, a set of 155 411 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the NCBI database were computationally analyzed and 17 225 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted, including 9 546 transitions, 5 124 transversions and 2 481 indels. Among the 7 298 SNP substitutions located in functionally annotated contigs, 58.4% (4 262) are non-synonymous SNPs capable of introducing amino acid mutations. Two hundred and fifty nonsynonymous SNPs in genes associated with economic traits have been identified as candidates for markers in selective breeding. Diversity estimates among the synonymous nucleotides were on average 3.49 times greater than those in non-synonymous, suggesting negative selection. Distribution of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks) ratio ranges from 0 to 4.01, (average 0.42, median 0.26), suggesting that the majority of the affected genes are under purifying selection. Enrichment analysis identified multiple gene ontology categories under positive or negative selection. Categories involved in innate immune response and male gamete generation are rich in positively selected genes, which is similar to reports in Drosophila and primates. This work is the first transcriptome-wide assessment of selective pressure in a Penaeid shrimp species. The functionally annotated SNPs provide a valuable resource of potential molecular markers for selective breeding.

  6. Highly efficient and selective pressure-assisted photon-induced polymerization of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Song, Yang, E-mail: yang.song@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    The polymerization process of condensed styrene to produce polystyrene as an industrially important polymeric material was investigated using a novel approach by combining external compression with ultraviolet radiation. The reaction evolution was monitored as a function of time and the reaction products were characterized by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By optimizing the loading pressures, we observed highly efficient and selective production of polystyrene of different tacticities. Specifically, at relatively low loading pressures, infrared spectra suggest that styrene monomers transform to amorphous atactic polystyrene (APS) with minor crystalline isotactic polystyrene. In contrast, APS was found to be the sole product when polymerization occurs at relatively higher loading pressures. The time-dependent reaction profiles allow the examination of the polymerization kinetics by analyzing the rate constant and activation volume as a function of pressure. As a result, an optimized pressure condition, which allows a barrierless reaction to proceed, was identified and attributed to the very desirable reaction yield and kinetics. Finally, the photoinitiated reaction mechanism and the growth geometry of the polymer chains were investigated from the energy diagram of styrene and by the topology analysis of the crystal styrene. This study shows strong promise to produce functional polymeric materials in a highly efficient and controlled manner.

  7. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  8. Pipe leak diagnostic using high frequency piezoelectric pressure sensor and automatic selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Remli, M. A. Pi; Kamarulzaman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent study, the analysis of pressure transient signals could be seen as an accurate and low-cost method for leak and feature detection in water distribution systems. Transient phenomena occurs due to sudden changes in the fluid’s propagation in pipelines system caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation due to events such as closing and opening valves rapidly or through pump failure. In this paper, the feasibility of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method/technique in analysing the pressure transient signals in presented and discussed. HHT is a way to decompose a signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF). However, the advantage of HHT is its difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the next data postprocessing method which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper reveals that utilizing the application of an integrated kurtosis-based algorithm for a z-filter technique (I-Kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-Kaz-Kurtosis) allows/contributes to/leads to automatic selection of the IMF that should be used. This technique is demonstrated on a 57.90-meter medium high-density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe installed with a single artificial leak. The analysis results using the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed/confirmed that the method can be used as an automatic selection of the IMF although the noise level ratio of the signal is low. Therefore, the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio method is recommended as a means to implement an automatic selection technique of the IMF for HHT analysis.

  9. [Selection of occlusal scheme on the basis of pressure distribution on supporting structures under complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kan; Kawano, Fumiaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2004-12-01

    In case of making complete dentures, we have to consider not only denture stability but also the restoration of aesthetics and function such as mastication and speech. However these are contradictory theoretically from the point of view of denture stability, and it is very difficult to satisfy both requirements in the case of a patient who has poor upper and lower alveolar ridges. We investigated the effect of artificial posterior teeth form and occlusal scheme on the distribution of pressure on supporting structures under complete dentures during mastication with upper and lower edentulous simulators. In this report, a guideline for the selection of occlusal scheme for complete dentures, based on our previous investigations, is described. The occlusal scheme remarkably affected the distribution of pressure under simulated complete dentures, as shown by comparing the distribution of pressure using two different occlusal schemes:fully balanced occlusion and lingualized occlusion. However other factors such as posterior teeth form and position affect the distribution of pressure as well, and are related to each other. Therefore, not only occlusal scheme but also posterior artificial teeth form has to be considered, and the form of posterior teeth should be carefully and comprehensively decided when making complete dentures.

  10. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  11. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Silla

    Full Text Available Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280 and Italian (n = 501 by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAF5% are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  12. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Toomas; Kepp, Katrin; Tai, E Shyong; Goh, Liang; Davila, Sonia; Catela Ivkovic, Tina; Calin, George A; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs) in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280) and Italian (n = 501) by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAFpower for association studies. By combining our data with 1000 Genome Project data, we show in three independent datasets that prevalent UCE variants (MAF>5%) are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  13. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    Full Text Available Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i pollinator visitation rate and (ii escape from seed predation and (iii by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  14. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  15. Hitting times of local and global optima in genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.

  16. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  17. Stress, Time Pressure, Strategy Selection and Math Anxiety in Mathematics: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caviola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review how stress induction, time pressure manipulations and math anxiety can interfere with or modulate selection of problem-solving strategies (henceforth “strategy selection” in arithmetical tasks. Nineteen relevant articles were identified, which contain references to strategy selection and time limit (or time manipulations, with some also discussing emotional aspects in mathematical outcomes. Few of these take cognitive processes such as working memory or executive functions into consideration. We conclude that due to the sparsity of available literature our questions can only be partially answered and currently there is not much evidence of clear associations. We identify major gaps in knowledge and raise a series of open questions to guide further research.

  18. Selective component degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using high-pressure steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi; Kim, Dong Hee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    In order to accelerate the bioconversion process of press-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB), the effect of high-pressure steam pre-treatment (HPST) in degrading the lignocellulosic structure was investigated. HPST was carried out under various sets of temperature/pressure conditions such as 170/0.82, 190/1.32, 210/2.03, and 230 °C/3.00 MPa. It was noted that after HPST, the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated EFB had obviously altered. Scanning electron micrographs of the treated EFB exhibited effective surface erosion that had occurred along the structure. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses showed the removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredients. X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity. These results reveal that HPST is an effective pre-treatment method for altering the physicochemical properties of the EFB and enhancing its biodegradability characteristics for the bioconversion process. -- Highlights: ► Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was accelerated by high-pressure steam pre-treatment. ► Scanning electron micrographs exhibited surface erosion as well as composting over 20 days. ► FT-IR and TG data showed the selective removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredient. ► X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity

  19. A Comparison of Selective Pressures in Plant X-Linked and Autosomal Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovec, Marc; Nevado, Bruno; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2018-05-03

    Selection is expected to work differently in autosomal and X-linked genes because of their ploidy difference and the exposure of recessive X-linked mutations to haploid selection in males. However, it is not clear whether these expectations apply to recently evolved sex chromosomes, where many genes retain functional X- and Y-linked gametologs. We took advantage of the recently evolved sex chromosomes in the plant Silene latifolia and its closely related species to compare the selective pressures between hemizygous and non-hemizygous X-linked genes as well as between X-linked genes and autosomal genes. Our analysis, based on over 1000 genes, demonstrated that, similar to animals, X-linked genes in Silene evolve significantly faster than autosomal genes—the so-called faster-X effect. Contrary to expectations, faster-X divergence was detectable only for non-hemizygous X-linked genes. Our phylogeny-based analyses of selection revealed no evidence for faster adaptation in X-linked genes compared to autosomal genes. On the other hand, partial relaxation of purifying selection was apparent on the X-chromosome compared to the autosomes, consistent with a smaller genetic diversity in S. latifolia X-linked genes (π x = 0.016; π aut = 0.023). Thus, the faster-X divergence in S. latifolia appears to be a consequence of the smaller effective population size rather than of a faster adaptive evolution on the X-chromosome. We argue that this may be a general feature of “young” sex chromosomes, where the majority of X-linked genes are not hemizygous, preventing haploid selection in heterogametic sex.

  20. Selective loss of orientation column maps in visual cortex during brief elevation of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Sun, Chao; Huang, Luoxiu; Shou, Tiande

    2003-01-01

    To compare the orientation column maps elicited by different spatial frequency gratings in cortical area 17 of cats before and during brief elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP was elevated by injecting saline into the anterior chamber of a cat's eye through a syringe needle. The IOP was elevated enough to cause a retinal perfusion pressure (arterial pressure minus IOP) of approximately 30 mm Hg during a brief elevation of IOP. The visual stimulus gratings were varied in spatial frequency, whereas other parameters were kept constant. The orientation column maps of the cortical area 17 were monocularly elicited by drifting gratings of different spatial frequencies and revealed by a brain intrinsic signal optical imaging system. These maps were compared before and during short-term elevation of IOP. The response amplitude of the orientation maps in area 17 decreased during a brief elevation of IOP. This decrease was dependent on the retinal perfusion pressure but not on the absolute IOP. The location of the most visible maps was spatial-frequency dependent. The blurring or loss of the pattern of the orientation maps was most severe when high-spatial-frequency gratings were used and appeared most significantly on the posterior part of the exposed cortex while IOP was elevated. However, the basic patterns of the maps remained unchanged. Changes in cortical signal were not due to changes in the optics of the eye with elevation of IOP. A stable normal IOP is essential for maintaining normal visual cortical functions. During a brief and high elevation of IOP, the cortical processing of high-spatial-frequency visual information was diminished because of a selectively functional decline of the retinogeniculocortical X pathway by a mechanism of retinal circulation origin.

  1. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men's vocal pitch and facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Tamsin K; Mackey, Lauren L; McCarty, Kristofor; Neave, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently, however, there has been a shift toward the idea that many male features, including male lower-pitched voices and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male-male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a unique set of video stimuli, we measured people's perceptions of the dominance and attractiveness of men who differ both in terms of voice pitch (4 levels from lower to higher pitched) and beard growth (4 levels from clean shaven to a month's hair growth). We found a nonlinear relationship between lower pitch and increased attractiveness; men's vocal attractiveness peaked at around 96 Hz. Beard growth had equivocal effects on attractiveness judgments. In contrast, perceptions of men's dominance simply increased with increasing masculinity (i.e., with lower-pitched voices and greater beard growth). Together, these results suggest that the optimal level of physical masculinity might differ depending on whether the outcome is social dominance or mate attraction. These dual selection pressures might maintain some of the documented variability in male physical and behavioral masculinity that we see today.

  2. The relationship between PMI (manA) gene expression and optimal selection pressure in Indica rice transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Huaping; Li, Xia; Liu, Yubo; Han, Kai; Li, Xianggan

    2014-07-01

    An efficient mannose selection system was established for transformation of Indica cultivar IR58025B . Different selection pressures were required to achieve optimum transformation frequency for different PMI selectable marker cassettes. This study was conducted to establish an efficient transformation system for Indica rice, cultivar IR58025B. Four combinations of two promoters, rice Actin 1 and maize Ubiquitin 1, and two manA genes, native gene from E. coli (PMI-01) and synthetic maize codon-optimized gene (PMI-09) were compared under various concentrations of mannose. Different selection pressures were required for different gene cassettes to achieve corresponding optimum transformation frequency (TF). Higher TFs as 54 and 53% were obtained when 5 g/L mannose was used for selection of prActin-PMI-01 cassette and 7.5 g/L mannose used for selection of prActin-PMI-09, respectively. TFs as 67 and 56% were obtained when 7.5 and 15 g/L mannose were used for selection of prUbi-PMI-01 and prUbi-PMI-09, respectively. We conclude that higher TFs can be achieved for different gene cassettes when an optimum selection pressure is applied. By investigating the PMI expression level in transgenic calli and leaves, we found there was a significant positive correlation between the protein expression level and the optimal selection pressure. Higher optimal selection pressure is required for those constructs which confer higher expression of PMI protein. The single copy rate of those transgenic events for prActin-PMI-01 cassette is lower than that for other three cassettes. We speculate some of low copy events with low protein expression levels might not have been able to survive in the mannose selection.

  3. Assessment of selected TRAC and RELAP5 calculations for Oconee-1 pressurized thermal shock study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Pu, J.; Saha, P.; Jo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Several Oconee-1 overcooling transients that were computed by LANL and INEL using the latest versions of TRAC-PF1 and RELAPS/MOD1.5 codes have been reviewed by BNL. Three of these transients were selected for detailed review as they either had the potential of challenging the integrity of the pressure vessel or highlighted the effect of code differences. These are: (1) Main Steam Line Break (MSLB); (2) All Turbine Bypass Valves Stuck Open; and (3) 2-Inch Small Break LOCA. Both codes were reasonably successful in modeling these transients. However, there were differences in the code results even though the specified scenarios were exactly the same for two transients (MSLB and Small Break LOCA). This report compares the code results and explains the possible reasons for these differences. Recommendations have been made regarding which result seems more reasonable for a specific transient

  4. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar Robin IM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20 add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social mechanisms and brain units involved. Female sociality (which is more affiliative is related most closely to neocortex volume, but male sociality (which is more competitive and combative is more closely related to subcortical units (notably those associated with emotional responses. Thus different brain units have responded to different selection pressures.

  5. Genome wide adaptations of Plasmodium falciparum in response to lumefantrine selective drug pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Mwai

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of the Artemisinin-derivative Artemether (ART with Lumefantrine (LM (Coartem® is an important malaria treatment regimen in many endemic countries. Resistance to Artemisinin has already been reported, and it is feared that LM resistance (LMR could also evolve quickly. Therefore molecular markers which can be used to track Coartem® efficacy are urgently needed. Often, stable resistance arises from initial, unstable phenotypes that can be identified in vitro. Here we have used the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistant reference strain V1S to induce LMR in vitro by culturing the parasite under continuous drug pressure for 16 months. The initial IC(50 (inhibitory concentration that kills 50% of the parasite population was 24 nM. The resulting resistant strain V1S(LM, obtained after culture for an estimated 166 cycles under LM pressure, grew steadily in 378 nM of LM, corresponding to 15 times the IC(50 of the parental strain. However, after two weeks of culturing V1S(LM in drug-free medium, the IC(50 returned to that of the initial, parental strain V1S. This transient drug tolerance was associated with major changes in gene expression profiles: using the PFSANGER Affymetrix custom array, we identified 184 differentially expressed genes in V1S(LM. Among those are 18 known and putative transporters including the multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1, the multidrug resistance associated protein and the V-type H+ pumping pyrophosphatase 2 (pfvp2 as well as genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. In addition we detected a clear selective advantage provided by two genomic loci in parasites grown under LM drug pressure, suggesting that all, or some of those genes contribute to development of LM tolerance--they may prove useful as molecular markers to monitor P. falciparum LM susceptibility.

  6. Selection pressure on human STR loci and its relevance in repeat expansion disease

    KAUST Repository

    Shimada, Makoto K.

    2016-06-11

    Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) comprise repeats of one to several base pairs. Because of the high mutability due to strand slippage during DNA synthesis, rapid evolutionary change in the number of repeating units directly shapes the range of repeat-number variation according to selection pressure. However, the remaining questions include: Why are STRs causing repeat expansion diseases maintained in the human population; and why are these limited to neurodegenerative diseases? By evaluating the genome-wide selection pressure on STRs using the database we constructed, we identified two different patterns of relationship in repeat-number polymorphisms between DNA and amino-acid sequences, although both patterns are evolutionary consequences of avoiding the formation of harmful long STRs. First, a mixture of degenerate codons is represented in poly-proline (poly-P) repeats. Second, long poly-glutamine (poly-Q) repeats are favored at the protein level; however, at the DNA level, STRs encoding long poly-Qs are frequently divided by synonymous SNPs. Furthermore, significant enrichments of apoptosis and neurodevelopment were biological processes found specifically in genes encoding poly-Qs with repeat polymorphism. This suggests the existence of a specific molecular function for polymorphic and/or long poly-Q stretches. Given that the poly-Qs causing expansion diseases were longer than other poly-Qs, even in healthy subjects, our results indicate that the evolutionary benefits of long and/or polymorphic poly-Q stretches outweigh the risks of long CAG repeats predisposing to pathological hyper-expansions. Molecular pathways in neurodevelopment requiring long and polymorphic poly-Q stretches may provide a clue to understanding why poly-Q expansion diseases are limited to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Responses to river inundation pressures control prey selection of riparian beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt J O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available Riparian habitats are subjected to frequent inundation (flooding and are characterised by food webs that exhibit variability in aquatic/terrestrial subsidies across the ecotone. The strength of this subsidy in active riparian floodplains is thought to underpin local biodiversity. Terrestrial invertebrates dominate the fauna, exhibiting traits that allow exploitation of variable aquatic subsidies while reducing inundation pressures, leading to inter-species micro-spatial positioning. The effect these strategies have on prey selection is not known. This study hypothesised that plasticity in prey choice from either aquatic or terrestrial sources is an important trait linked to inundation tolerance and avoidance.We used hydrological, isotopic and habitat analyses to investigate the diet of riparian Coleoptera in relation to inundation risk and relative spatial positioning in the floodplain. The study examined patch scale and longitudinal changes in utilisation of the aquatic subsidy according to species traits. Prey sourced from terrestrial or emerging/stranded aquatic invertebrates varied in relation to traits for inundation avoidance or tolerance strategies. Traits that favoured rapid dispersal corresponded with highest proportions of aquatic prey, with behavioural traits further predicting uptake. Less able dispersers showed minimal use of aquatic subsidy and switched to a terrestrial diet under moderate inundation pressures. All trait groups showed a seasonal shift in diet towards terrestrial prey in the early spring. Prey selection became exaggerated towards aquatic prey in downstream samples.Our results suggest that partitioning of resources and habitat creates overlapping niches that increase the processing of external subsidies in riparian habitats. By demonstrating functional complexity, this work advances understanding of floodplain ecosystem processes and highlights the importance of hydrological variability. With an increasing interest

  8. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  9. Relating pressure tuned coupled column ensembles with the solvation parameter model for tunable selectivity in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-07-15

    The differential pressure drop of carrier gas by tuning the junction point pressure of a coupled column gas chromatographic system leads to a unique selectivity of the overall separation, which can be tested using a mixture of compounds with a wide range of polarity. This study demonstrates a pressure tuning (PT) GC system employing a microfluidic Deans switch located at the mid-point of the two capillary columns. This PT system allowed variations of inlet-outlet pressure differences of the two columns in a range of 52-17psi for the upstream column and 31-11psi for the downstream column. Peak shifting (differential migration) of compounds due to PT difference are related to a first order regression equation in a Plackett-Burman factorial study. Increased first (upstream) column pressure drop makes the second column characteristics more significant in the coupled column retention behavior, and conversely increased second (downstream) column pressure drop makes the first column characteristics more apparent; such variation can result in component swapping between polar and non-polar compounds. The coupled column system selectivity was evaluated in terms of linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters, and their relation with different pressure drop effects has been constructed by applying multivariate principle component analysis (PCA). It has been found that the coupled column PT system descriptors provide a result that shows a clear clustering of different pressure settings, somewhat intermediate between those of the two commercial columns. This is equivalent to that obtained from a conventional single-column GC analysis where the interaction energy contributed from the stationary phases can be significantly adjusted by choice of midpoint PT. This result provides a foundation for pressure differentiation for selectivity enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous magnesium as an environmental selection pressure in the evolution of phospholipid membranes on early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Punam; Ustriyana, Putu; Sahai, Nita

    2018-02-01

    Early compartmentalization of simple biomolecules by membrane bilayers was, presumably, a critical step in the emergence of the first cell-like entities, protocells. Their membranes were likely composed of single chain amphiphiles (SCAs), but pure SCA membranes especially those with short-chains are highly unstable towards divalent cations, which are ubiquitous in aqueous environments. The prebiotic synthesis of phospholipids (PLs), even in only trace amounts, may also have been possible. PL membranes are much more stable towards divalent cations. Here, we show the transition of fatty acid membranes to mixed fatty acid-PL and, finally, to PL membranes in the presence of Mg2+, which acts as an environmental selection pressure, and we propose different mechanisms for the observed increased Mg2+-immunity. The "fatal" concentration ([Mg2+]fatal) at which vesicles are disrupted increased dramatically by an order of magnitude from OA to mixed to POPC vesicles. Two mechanisms for the increasing immunity were determined. The negative charge density of the vesicles decreased with increasing POPC content, so more Mg2+ was required for disruption. More interestingly, Mg2+ preferentially bound to and abstracted OA from mixed lipid membranes, resulting in relatively POPC-enriched vesicles compared to the initial ratio. The effect was the most dramatic for the largest initial OA-POPC ratio representing the most primitive protocells. Thus, Mg2+ acted to evolve the mixed membrane composition towards PL enrichment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of selective lipid abstraction from mixed SCA-PL vesicles. These results may hold implications for accommodating prebiotic Mg2+-promoted processes such as non-enzymatic RNA polymerization on early Earth.

  11. Parallel selective pressures drive convergent diversification of phenotypes in pythons and boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Scott Keogh, J

    2016-07-01

    Pythons and boas are globally distributed and distantly related radiations with remarkable phenotypic and ecological diversity. We tested whether pythons, boas and their relatives have evolved convergent phenotypes when they display similar ecology. We collected geometric morphometric data on head shape for 1073 specimens representing over 80% of species. We show that these two groups display strong and widespread convergence when they occupy equivalent ecological niches and that the history of phenotypic evolution strongly matches the history of ecological diversification, suggesting that both processes are strongly coupled. These results are consistent with replicated adaptive radiation in both groups. We argue that strong selective pressures related to habitat-use have driven this convergence. Pythons and boas provide a new model system for the study of macro-evolutionary patterns of morphological and ecological evolution and they do so at a deeper level of divergence and global scale than any well-established adaptive radiation model systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Novel selective PDE type 1 inhibitors cause vasodilatation and lower blood pressure in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Beck, Lilliana; Kehler, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The PDE enzymes (PDE1-11) hydrolyse and thus inactivate cyclic nucleotides and are important in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here,we have investigated the effects on the cardiovascular system, of two novel selective PDE1 inhibitors, Lu AF41228 and Lu AF58027...... and Lu AF58027 inhibited PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C enzyme activity, while micromolar concentrations were required to observe inhibitory effects at other PDEs. RT-PCR revealed expression of PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C in rat brain, heart and aorta, but only PDE1A and PDE1B in mesenteric arteries. In rat isolated...... and Lu AF58027 dose-dependently lowered mean BP and increased heart rate. In conscious rats with telemetric pressure transducers, repeated dosing with Lu AF41228 lowered mean arterial BP 10-15 mmHg and increased heart rate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These novel PDE1 inhibitors induce vasodilation...

  13. Home blood pressure monitoring and self-titration of antihypertensive medications: Proposed patient selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), coupled with self-titration of medications is a viable intervention to control hypertension. There are currently no established criteria to evaluate patients for inclusion in such a program. The purpose of this discussion is to propose criteria for determining if a patient is appropriate to participate in a program of HBPM and self-titration. Inclusion criteria for two self-titration trials were examined, and additional factors in clinical practice were identified and discussed. Additional selection criteria were proposed to support the decision to enroll a patient in an antihypertensive self-titration program. Inclusion criteria from self-titration trials provide a reasonable starting point for choosing appropriate patients in clinical practice, but additional research is necessary. Adaptation of these criteria and consideration of the identified factors can be used to develop decision support instruments. Such instruments should be evaluated for effectiveness and reliability prior to use in clinical practice. HBPM combined with self-titration is an effective patient-centered approach for hypertension management. Decision support instruments to determine appropriate patients are necessary for safe and effective use in clinical practice. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Non-Random Inversion Landscapes in Prokaryotic Genomes Are Shaped by Heterogeneous Selection Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, Jelena; Warnecke, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Inversions are a major contributor to structural genome evolution in prokaryotes. Here, using a novel alignment-based method, we systematically compare 1,651 bacterial and 98 archaeal genomes to show that inversion landscapes are frequently biased toward (symmetric) inversions around the origin-terminus axis. However, symmetric inversion bias is not a universal feature of prokaryotic genome evolution but varies considerably across clades. At the extremes, inversion landscapes in Bacillus-Clostridium and Actinobacteria are dominated by symmetric inversions, while there is little or no systematic bias favoring symmetric rearrangements in archaea with a single origin of replication. Within clades, we find strong but clade-specific relationships between symmetric inversion bias and different features of adaptive genome architecture, including the distance of essential genes to the origin of replication and the preferential localization of genes on the leading strand. We suggest that heterogeneous selection pressures have converged to produce similar patterns of structural genome evolution across prokaryotes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Selective pressures to maintain attachment site specificity of integrative and conjugative elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L Menard

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are widespread mobile genetic elements that are usually found integrated in bacterial chromosomes. They are important agents of evolution and contribute to the acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs can excise from the chromosome and transfer to recipients by conjugation. Many ICEs are site-specific in that they integrate preferentially into a primary attachment site in the bacterial genome. Site-specific ICEs can also integrate into secondary locations, particularly if the primary site is absent. However, little is known about the consequences of integration of ICEs into alternative attachment sites or what drives the apparent maintenance and prevalence of the many ICEs that use a single attachment site. Using ICEBs1, a site-specific ICE from Bacillus subtilis that integrates into a tRNA gene, we found that integration into secondary sites was detrimental to both ICEBs1 and the host cell. Excision of ICEBs1 from secondary sites was impaired either partially or completely, limiting the spread of ICEBs1. Furthermore, induction of ICEBs1 gene expression caused a substantial drop in proliferation and cell viability within three hours. This drop was dependent on rolling circle replication of ICEBs1 that was unable to excise from the chromosome. Together, these detrimental effects provide selective pressure against the survival and dissemination of ICEs that have integrated into alternative sites and may explain the maintenance of site-specific integration for many ICEs.

  16. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  17. Vapour pressures of selected organic compounds down to 1 mPa, using mass-loss Knudsen effusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, José M.S.; Gushterov, Nikola; Dohrn, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A recently described mass-loss Knudsen apparatus was used for measurements of vapour pressures down to around 1 mPa. • Complementary calorimetric studies were performed in a Calvet-type calorimeter. • New vapour pressures are given for benzoic acid and benzanthrone, in ranges in which no consistent data existed. • Vapour pressures for solid n-octadecane are presented, correcting existing values from literature. - Abstract: A recently developed Knudsen effusion apparatus was improved and used for measurements of vapour pressures of selected organic compounds. Calorimetric studies were conducted using a Calvet-type calorimeter, complementing the information obtained for the vapour pressures and facilitating the modelling and analysis of the data. Vapour pressures of benzoic acid, a reference substance, were determined at temperatures between 269 K and 317 K, corresponding to a pressure range from 2 mPa to 1 Pa, extending the range of results available in the literature to lower pressures. Benzanthrone was studied between temperatures 360 K and 410 K (5 mPa–1 Pa) in order to test the apparatus at higher temperatures. Values presented in the literature for the vapour pressure of solid n-octadecane, one of the most promising compounds to be used as “phase change material” for textile applications, were found inconsistent with the triple point of the substance. Sublimation pressures were measured for this compound between T = 286 K and 298 K (2–20 mPa) allowing the correction of the existing values. Finally, vapour pressures of diphenyl carbonate, a compound of high industrial relevance for its use in the production of polycarbonates, were determined from T = 302 K to 332 K (0.02–1 Pa)

  18. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  19. Molecular mechanisms of membrane impermeability in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae exposed to imipenem selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, Monica; Vieira, Camila; de Araujo, Maria Rita; Cerda, Alvaro; de Almeida, Lara Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae

    2016-07-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms leading to carbapenem-induced membrane impermeability and multidrug resistance are poorly understood in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, molecular behaviours during the establishment of membrane impermeability in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family under imipenem selective pressure were investigated. Clinical isolates (n = 22) exhibiting susceptibility to multiple antibiotics or characterised as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- or AmpC-producers were submitted to progressive passages on Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing subclinical concentrations of imipenem [0.5 × the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. Changes in outer membrane permeability were evaluated by determination of antimicrobial MICs, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and gene expression analysis related to membrane permeability (i.e. omp35-like, omp36-like and acrA) and regulatory mechanisms (i.e. marA and ompR) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Following imipenem induction, 73% of isolates showed increased carbapenem MICs by ≥2 doubling dilutions. At an early stage of treatment, imipenem modulated the expression of porins and efflux pump genes, represented by a reduction of 78% in omp36-like and a two-fold increase in acrA expression. Transcriptional factors marA and ompR were also affected by imipenem induction, increasing mRNA expression by 14- and 4-fold, respectively. High marA expression levels were associated with higher values of acrA expression. These results suggest that imipenem is an important factor in the development of an adaptive response to carbapenems by regulating key genes involved in the control of efflux pumps and porins, which could lead to a multidrug-resistant profile in clinical isolates, contributing to possible treatment failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  1. Impact of laser pulse duration on the reduction of intraocular pressure during selective laser trabeculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunf Pukl, Spela; Drnovšek-Olup, Brigita

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or ocular hypertension (OHT), when performed with laser pulse duration of 1 ns compared with standard 3-5 ns. Bilateral SLT with a 532 nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser was conducted in 30 patients (60 eyes) with POAG (n = 5), NTG (n = 2) or OHT (n = 23). Pulse duration was 1 ns in the right eye (30 eyes; cases) and 3-5 ns in all left eyes (controls). Main outcome measures were IOP at 1 h, 1 day, 8 weeks and 6 months, and the rate of adverse ocular tissue reactions in all eyes. Mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOPs were 24.1 and 24.3 mmHg, respectively, at baseline. No statistically significant difference in mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOP was observed at 1 h (P = 0.761), 1 day (P = 0.758), 8 weeks (P = 0.352) and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.879). No significant difference in postoperative anterior chamber inflammation was observed between the eyes (P = 0.529). Treatment with both laser pulse durations resulted in minor ultrastructural changes in the drainage angle. SLT performed with a 1 ns laser pulse duration does not appear to be inferior to SLT performed with the standard 3-5 ns duration at lowering IOP in treatment-naïve patients with POAG, NTG or OHT.

  2. Shifts in Selective Pressures on Snake Phototransduction Genes Associated with Photoreceptor Transmutation and Dim-Light Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Ryan K; Van Nynatten, Alexander; Card, Daren C; Castoe, Todd A; S W Chang, Belinda

    2018-06-01

    The visual systems of snakes are heavily modified relative to other squamates, a condition often thought to reflect their fossorial origins. Further modifications are seen in caenophidian snakes, where evolutionary transitions between rod and cone photoreceptors, termed photoreceptor transmutations, have occurred in many lineages. Little previous work, however, has focused on the molecular evolutionary underpinnings of these morphological changes. To address this, we sequenced seven snake eye transcriptomes and utilized new whole-genome and targeted capture sequencing data. We used these data to analyze gene loss and shifts in selection pressures in phototransduction genes that may be associated with snake evolutionary origins and photoreceptor transmutation. We identified the surprising loss of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), despite a low degree of gene loss overall and a lack of relaxed selection early during snake evolution. These results provide some of the first evolutionary genomic corroboration for a dim-light ancestor that lacks strong fossorial adaptations. Our results also indicate that snakes with photoreceptor transmutation experienced significantly different selection pressures from other reptiles. Significant positive selection was found primarily in cone-specific genes, but not rod-specific genes, contrary to our expectations. These results reveal potential molecular adaptations associated with photoreceptor transmutation and also highlight unappreciated functional differences between rod- and cone-specific phototransduction proteins. This intriguing example of snake visual system evolution illustrates how the underlying molecular components of a complex system can be reshaped in response to changing selection pressures.

  3. A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO 2 (110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

  4. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low ... chemical analysis in order that progress can be made in ... One popular hypothesis is that PM exerts toxic effects.

  5. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective effects in ... Lung water content and cell count were estimated by standard protocols. ... It reversed LPS-induced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increase in total antioxidant ...

  6. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  7. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mice, and exerted protective effects against acute LPS-induced lung injury. ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers .... field microscope [20]. ... by Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis.

  8. Bubble point pressures of the selected model system for CatLiq® bio-oil process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Baig, Muhammad Noman

    2010-01-01

    . In this work, the bubble point pressures of a selected model mixture (CO2 + H2O + Ethanol + Acetic acid + Octanoic acid) were measured to investigate the phase boundaries of the CatLiq® process. The bubble points were measured in the JEFRI-DBR high pressure PVT phase behavior system. The experimental results......The CatLiq® process is a second generation catalytic liquefaction process for the production of bio-oil from WDGS (Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles) at subcritical conditions (280-350 oC and 225-250 bar) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst...

  9. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constant......, temperature, pressure and CO/O2 ratio. The frequency of the oscillations is very well defined and increases over time. The oscillation frequency is furthermore strongly temperature dependent with increasing temperature resulting in increasing frequency. A plausible mechanism for the oscillations is proposed...

  10. HIV-1 adaptation to NK cell-mediated immune pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Marjet; Boelen, Lies; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The observation, by Alter et al., of the enrichment of NK cell “escape” variants in individuals carrying certain Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes is compelling evidence that natural killer (NK) cells exert selection pressure on HIV-1. Alter et al hypothesise that variant pepti...

  11. The Symmetry in the Selected Plantar Pressure Distribution Parameters of the Elderly Subject With Lower Limb Discrepancy (LLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Memar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: lower leg discrepancy is a common problem which causes the changes in the plantar pressure distribution pattern during gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to study the symmetry in the various plantar pressure distribution parameters in the elderly subject with leg discrepancy. Methods & Materials: Twenty-one elderly from Esfehan with leg discrepancy (1.5 to 3 cm participated in this study. Plantar pressure distribution and other related parameters were measured in the five discrete steps for each limb by “emed 2” platforms. Three successful steps from five were selected and averaged, and the plantar areas were divided into 11 marks. For each mark peak force (BW%, peak pressure (Kpa, contact area, contact time, pressure time integral and force time integral were calculated. Descriptive statistics (mean and SD to report the plantar pressure pattern, dependent sample t- test for comparison pressure data between long and short limb (P≤0.05 and symmetry index (SI% for the symmetrical status in the selected plantar pressure data of the elderly subject with LLD were used. Results: The consequence of dependent t-test showed that regardless of contact area in the forefoot region and 3th, 4th and 5th toes, there were no significant differences between long and short limb. Symmetry index (SI% also revealed that the contact time in the short limbs heel was less than long limb and peak force and peak pressure in the short limb was less in mid foot region and was greater in forefoot region than long limb. Conclusion: Given The Result Of This Study Showed That In The Short Limb, Initial Contact Time And Weight Acceptance Was Reduced, Which Cause The Increase Of The Pressure In The Forefoot And Also Which Causes The Increase Of Stress Fracture Risk In The Metatarsal Region. Therefore, It Is Suggested That LLD Subject Use Orthotic Or Shoes That Can Increase Their Heel Height And Balancing The Contact Time In The Short Limb To Resolve

  12. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  13. Selected bibliography on pressure vessels for light-water-cooled power reactors (LWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts on LWR pressure vessels are arranged in the following categories: general, design, materials technology, fabrication techniques, inspection and testing, and failures. Author, keyword, and KWIC (keyword-in-content) indices are provided. (U.S.)

  14. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma

    2015-05-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data

  15. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  16. Studies of selected transuranium and lanthanide tri-iodides under pressure using absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.; Young, J.P.; Peterson, J.R.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    The anhydrous tri-iodides of plutonium, americium and curium under pressure have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. These initial studies on plutonium and curium tri-iodides together with the published data for americium tri-iodide show that the rhombohedral form of these compounds (BiI 3 -type structure) can be converted to the orthorhombic form (PuBr 3 -type structure) by applying pressure at room temperature. Absorption spectrophotometry can often differentiate between two crystallographic forms of a material and has been used in the present high-pressure studies to monitor the effects of pressure on the tri-iodides. A complication in these studies of the tri-iodides is a significant shift of their absorption edges with pressure from the near UV to the visible spectral region. With curium tri-iodide this shift causes interference with the major f-f absorption peaks and precludes identification by absorption spectrophotometry of the high pressure phase of CmI 3 . (orig.)

  17. Selective extraction of hydrocarbons, phosphonates and phosphonic acids from soils by successive supercritical fluid and pressurized liquid extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudot, X; Tambuté, A; Caude, M

    2000-01-14

    Hydrocarbons, dialkyl alkylphosphonates and alkyl alkylphosphonic acids are selectively extracted from spiked soils by successive implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide, supercritical methanol-modified carbon dioxide and pressurized water. More than 95% of hydrocarbons are extracted during the first step (pure supercritical carbon dioxide extraction) whereas no organophosphorus compound is evidenced in this first extract. A quantitative extraction of phosphonates is achieved during the second step (methanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction). Polar phosphonic acids are extracted during a third step (pressurized water extraction) and analyzed by gas chromatography under methylated derivatives (diazomethane derivatization). Global recoveries for these compounds are close to 80%, a loss of about 20% occurring during the derivatization process (co-evaporation with solvent). The developed selective extraction method was successfully applied to a soil sample during an international collaborative exercise.

  18. An Evidence-Based Cue-Selection Guide and Logic Model to Improve Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long-term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan M; Bergstrom, Nancy; Hudak, Sandra L; Horn, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Pressure ulcers have consistently resisted prevention efforts in long-term care facilities nationwide. Recent research has described cueing innovations that-when selected according to the assumptions and resources of particular facilities-support best practices of pressure ulcer prevention. This article synthesizes that research into a unified, dynamic logic model to facilitate effective staff implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention program.

  19. Population Genetics and Natural Selection in Rheumatic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paula S

    2017-08-01

    Human genetic diversity is the result of population genetic forces. This genetic variation influences disease risk and contributes to health disparities. Natural selection is an important influence on human genetic variation. Because immune and inflammatory function genes are enriched for signals of positive selection, the prevalence of rheumatic disease-risk alleles seen in different populations is partially the result of differing selective pressures (eg, due to pathogens). This review summarizes the genetic regions associated with susceptibility to different rheumatic diseases and concomitant evidence for natural selection, including known agents of selection exerting selective pressure in these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Evidence-Based Cue-Selection Guide and Logic Model to Improve Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L.; Kennerly, Susan M.; Bergstrom, Nancy; Hudak, Sandra L.; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) have consistently resisted prevention efforts in long term care (LTC) facilities nationwide. Recent research has described cueing innovations that – when selected according to the assumptions and resources of particular facilities – support best practices of PrU prevention. This paper synthesizes that research into a unified, dynamic logic model to facilitate effective staff implementation of a PrU prevention program. PMID:26066791

  1. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however, it is un......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  2. Dissecting historical changes of selective pressures in the evolution of human pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Sijia; Jin, Li; He, Yungang

    2018-01-01

    Human pigmentation is a highly diverse trait among populations, and has drawn particular attention from both academic and non-academic investigators for thousands of years. To explain the diversity of human pigmentation, researchers have proposed that human pigmentation is adapted for ultraviolet radiation and driven by natural selection. Although studies have detected signals of natural selection in several human pigmentation genes, none have quantitatively investigated the historical select...

  3. Cost effectiveness of adding clostridial collagenase ointment to selective debridement in individuals with stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marissa J; Gilligan, Adrienne M; Waycaster, Curtis R; Schaum, Kathleen; Fife, Caroline E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness (from a payer's perspective) of adding clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) to selective debridement compared with selective debridement alone (non-CCO) in the treatment of stage IV pressure ulcers among patients identified from the US Wound Registry. A 3-state Markov model was developed to determine costs and outcomes between the CCO and non-CCO groups over a 2-year time horizon. Outcome data were derived from a retrospective clinical study and included the proportion of pressure ulcers that were closed (epithelialized) over 2 years and the time to wound closure. Transition probabilities for the Markov states were estimated from the clinical study. In the Markov model, the clinical outcome is presented as ulcer-free weeks, which represents the time the wound is in the epithelialized state. Costs for each 4-week cycle were based on frequencies of clinic visits, debridement, and CCO application rates from the clinical study. The final model outputs were cumulative costs (in US dollars), clinical outcome (ulcer-free weeks), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at 2 years. Compared with the non-CCO group, the CCO group incurred lower costs ($11,151 vs $17,596) and greater benefits (33.9 vs 16.8 ulcer-free weeks), resulting in an economically dominant ICER of -$375 per ulcer. Thus, for each additional ulcer-free week that can be gained, there is a concurrent cost savings of $375 if CCO treatment is selected. Over a 2-year period, an additional 17.2 ulcer-free weeks can be gained with concurrent cost savings of $6,445 for each patient. In this Markov model based on real-world data from the US Wound Registry, the addition of CCO to selective debridement in the treatment of pressure ulcers was economically dominant over selective debridement alone, resulting in greater benefit to the patient at lower cost.

  4. Digoxin derivatives with selectivity for the α2β3 isoform of Na,K-ATPase potently reduce intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Adriana; Tal, Daniel M; Heller, Dan; Habeck, Michael; Ben Zeev, Efrat; Rabah, Bilal; Bar Kana, Yaniv; Marcovich, Arie L; Karlish, Steven J D

    2015-11-03

    The ciliary epithelium in the eye consists of pigmented epithelial cells that express the α1β1 isoform of Na,K-ATPase and nonpigmented epithelial cells that express mainly the α2β3 isoform. In principle, a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor with selectivity for α2β3 that penetrates the cornea could effectively reduce intraocular pressure, with minimal systemic or local toxicity. We have recently synthesized perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin by NaIO4 oxidation of the third digitoxose and reductive amination with various R-NH2 substituents and identified derivatives with significant selectivity for human α2β1 over α1β1 (up to 7.5-fold). When applied topically, the most α2-selective derivatives effectively prevented or reversed pharmacologically raised intraocular pressure in rabbits. A recent structure of Na,K-ATPase, with bound digoxin, shows the third digitoxose approaching one residue in the β1 subunit, Gln84, suggesting a role for β in digoxin binding. Gln84 in β1 is replaced by Val88 in β3. Assuming that alkyl substituents might interact with β3Val88, we synthesized perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin with diverse alkyl substituents. The methylcyclopropyl and cyclobutyl derivatives are strongly selective for α2β3 over α1β1 (22-33-fold respectively), as determined either with purified human isoform proteins or intact bovine nonpigmented epithelium cells. When applied topically on rabbit eyes, these derivatives potently reduce both pharmacologically raised and basal intraocular pressure. The cyclobutyl derivative is more efficient than Latanoprost, the most widely used glaucoma drug. Thus, the conclusion is that α2β3-selective digoxin derivatives effectively penetrate the cornea and inhibit the Na,K-ATPase, hence reducing aqueous humor production. The new digoxin derivatives may have potential for glaucoma drug therapy.

  5. Bubble-point pressures of some selected methane + synthetic C{sub 6+} mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, A.; Moshfeghian, M. [Shiraz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Peters, C.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria

    1998-03-01

    In this work, a series of bubble-point measurements were carried out on some synthetic C{sub 6+} mixtures in the presence of methane. These synthetic mixtures included alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics. The experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, and bubble-point pressures were measured in a temperature range of 311--470 K. The corresponding pressures were predicted using the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and the relative errors were estimated. It is shown that such synthetic C{sub 6+} mixtures can be simulated reasonably well by this equation of state.

  6. Characteristics of patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel E; Raikin, Steven; Garras, David N; Vitanzo, Peter; Labrador, Hallie; Espandar, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that causes reversible ischemia and lower extremity pain during exercise. To date there are few large studies examining the characteristics of patients with CECS. This study aimed to present these characteristics by examining the largest published series of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disorder. An IRB-approved, retrospective review was undertaken of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CECS undergoing pre- and postexercise compartment pressure testing between 2000 and 2012. Patients were evaluated for gender, age, duration of symptoms, pain level, specific compartments involved, compartment pressure measurements, and participation and type of athletics. Two-hundred twenty-six patients (393 legs) underwent compartment pressure testing. A diagnosis of CECS was made in 153 (67.7%) patients and 250 (63.6%) legs with elevated compartment measurements; average age of the patients was 24 years (range, 13-69 years). Female patients accounted for 92 (60.1%) of those with elevated pressures. Anterior and lateral compartment pressures were elevated most frequently, with 200 (42.5%) and 167 (35.5%) compartments, respectively. One hundred forty-one (92.2%) patients reported participation in sports, with running being the most common individual sport and soccer being the most common team sport. Duration of pain prior to diagnosis averaged 28 months. Although there is ample literature pertaining to the diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithm of the condition, few papers have described the type of patient most likely to develop CECS. This is the largest study to date to evaluate the type of patient likely to present with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Level III, retrospective review.

  7. Pump selection and application in a pressurized water reactor electric generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitch, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various pump applications utilized in a nuclear pressurized water reactor electric generating plant are described. Emphasis is on pumps installed in the auxiliary systems of the primary nuclear steam supply system. Hydraulic and mechanical details, the ASME Code (Nuclear Design), materials, mechanical seals, shaft design, seismic qualification, and testing are addressed

  8. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  9. The Effect of Early Complications on Flap Selection on Sacral Pressure Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Kemal Keleş

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores occur in bedridden patients in intensive care units, clinics, and even at their own places. Care for sick relatives and working with doctors to address treatment options and ensure proper follow-up are some of the problems associated with these types of wounds. Surgical therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers is associated with significant complications. In comparison to non-surgical treatment, surgical treatment has a low complication rate and is more cost-effective. The surgical treatment enables the patients to return to their social life sooner than non-surgical treatment. Patient's ability to early return to their social life is advantageous in terms of reducing morbidity and the need for additional operations. This study is aimed to review the flap choices used to treat sacral pressure sores and the resulting acute complications rates retrospectively. Material and Methods: Patients treated for stage 3 and stage 4 sacral pressure sores in our clinic in the past 5 years were included in the study. Patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Patients' demographic data and surgical treatment they received were documented. Surgical method and surgical outcomes were evaluated and early complication rates were determined. Result: Fifty patients were included in the study; 10 of them were female, 40 of were male cases. The most common causative agent was paraplegia after traffic accident. Conclusion: A significant difference was not observed between the type of flap used in the surgical treatment and the rate of complications. Consequently, the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers in the sacral region depends on the patient's individual situation, the cooperation of the family, and previously applied treatments

  10. Different selective pressures lead to different genomic outcomes as newly-formed hybrid yeasts evolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Jeff S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization occurs in every eukaryotic kingdom. While hybrid progeny are frequently at a selective disadvantage, in some instances their increased genome size and complexity may result in greater stress resistance than their ancestors, which can be adaptively advantageous at the edges of their ancestors' ranges. While this phenomenon has been repeatedly documented in the field, the response of hybrid populations to long-term selection has not often been explored in the lab. To fill this knowledge gap we crossed the two most distantly related members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and established a mixed population of homoploid and aneuploid hybrids to study how different types of selection impact hybrid genome structure. Results As temperature was raised incrementally from 31°C to 46.5°C over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored loss of the S. uvarum genome, although the kinetics of genome loss differed among independent replicates. Temperature-selected isolates exhibited greater inherent and induced thermal tolerance than parental species and founding hybrids, and also exhibited ethanol resistance. In contrast, as exogenous ethanol was increased from 0% to 14% over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored euploid S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum hybrids. Ethanol-selected isolates were more ethanol tolerant than S. uvarum and one of the founding hybrids, but did not exhibit resistance to temperature stress. Relative to parental and founding hybrids, temperature-selected strains showed heritable differences in cell wall structure in the forms of increased resistance to zymolyase digestion and Micafungin, which targets cell wall biosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to show experimentally that the genomic fate of newly-formed interspecific hybrids depends on the type of selection they encounter during the course of evolution

  11. The selection exerted by oil contamination on mangrove fungal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Rigonato, Janaina; Fiore, Marli de Fatima; Soares, Fabio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dini Andreote, Fernando

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical environments that are characterized by the interaction between the land and the sea. As such, this ecosystem is vulnerable to oil spills. Here, we show a culture-independent survey of fungal communities that are found in the sediments of the following two mangroves

  12. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  13. Digest: Plants adapt under attack: genotypic selection and phenotypic plasticity under herbivore pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nichola J

    2018-03-31

    Plant species adapt to changing environmental conditions through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection. Agrawal et al. (2018) found that dandelions responded to the presence of insect pests by producing higher levels of defensive compounds. This defensive response resulted both from phenotypic plasticity, with individual plants' defenses triggered by insect attack, and from evolution by natural selection acting on genetic variation in the plant population. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Polymorphism at a mimicry supergene maintained by opposing frequency-dependent selection pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine; Piron-Prunier, Florence; Joron, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Although biological diversity is being lost at an alarming rate, a mimetic butterfly from the Amazon reveals a selective mechanism that can lead to rich adaptive diversity. In these toxic and vividly colored butterflies, several forms are maintained within populations, accurately mimicking distinct local butterflies, and controlled by differentiated alleles of a supergene. Such diversity is not expected because selection by predators promotes the fixation of a single morph. We show that the m...

  15. Fuzzy logic prediction of dew point pressure of selected Iranian gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowroozi, Saeed [Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman (Iran); Iranian Offshore Oil Company (I.O.O.C.) (Iran); Ranjbar, Mohammad; Hashemipour, Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin [Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman (Iran)

    2009-12-15

    The experimental determination of dew point pressure in a window PVT cell is often difficult especially in the case of lean retrograde gas condensate. Besides all statistical, graphical and experimental methods, the fuzzy logic method can be useful and more reliable for estimation of reservoir properties. Fuzzy logic can overcome uncertainty existent in many reservoir properties. Complexity, non-linearity and vagueness are some reservoir parameter characteristics, which can be propagated simply by fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic dew point pressure modeling system used in this study is a multi input single output (MISO) Mamdani system. The model was developed using experimentally constant volume depletion (CVD) measured samples of some Iranian fields. The performance of the model is compared against the performance of some of the most accurate and general correlations for dew point pressure calculation. Results show that this novel method is more accurate and reliable with an average absolute deviation of 1.33% and 2.68% for developing and checking, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Selected plantar pressure characteristics associated with the skating performance of national in-line speed skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Hsu, Hsiu-Tao; Chu, I-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jing-Min

    2017-06-01

    In order to help coaches analyse the techniques of professional in-line speed skaters for making the required fine adjustments and corrections in their push-off work, this study analysed the specific plantar pressure characteristics during a 300-m time-trial test. Fourteen elite in-line speed skaters from the national team were recruited in this study. The total completion time of the 300-m time-trial test, duration of each skating phase, and plantar pressure distribution were measured. The correlation between plantar pressure distribution and skating performance was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. The results showed that the contact time of the total foot and force-time integral (FTI) in the medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the start phase, and the FTIs in the medial forefoot of the gliding (left) leg and lateral forefoot of the pushing (right) leg were significantly correlated with the duration of the turning phase. The maximum force in the medial heel, medial forefoot, and median forefoot and the FTI in the medial heel and medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the linear acceleration phase. The results suggest that a correct plantar loading area and push-off strategy can enhance the skating performance.

  17. Selection of a Suitable Wall Pressure Spectrum Model for Estimating Flow-Induced Noise in Sonar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bhujanga Rao

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced structural noise of a sonar dome in which the sonar transducer is housed, constitutes a major source of self-noise above a certain speed of the vessel. Excitation of the sonar dome structure by random pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer flow leads to acoustic radiation into the interior of the dome. This acoustic radiation is termed flow-induced structural noise. Such noise contributes significantly to sonar self-noise of submerged vessels cruising at high speed and plays an important role in surface ships, torpedos, and towed sonars as well. Various turbulent boundary layer wall pressure models published were analyzed and the most suitable analytical model for the sonar dome application selected while taking into account high frequency, fluid loading, low wave number contribution, and pressure gradient effects. These investigations included type of coupling that exists between turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations and dome wall structure of a typical sonar dome. Comparison of theoretical data with measured data onboard a ship are also reported.

  18. Development of in-situ laser cutting technique for removal of single selected coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, S.C.; Upadhyaya, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser based cutting technique for removal of single coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). It includes development of special tools/manipulators and optimization of laser cutting process parameters for cutting of liner tube, end fitting, bellow lip weld joint, and pressure tube stubs. For each cutting operation, a special tool with precision motion control is utilized. These manipulators/tools hold and move the laser cutting nozzle in the required manner and are fixed on the same coolant channel, which has to be removed. This laser cutting technique has been successfully deployed for removal of selected coolant channels Q-16, Q-15 and N-6 of KAPS-2 reactor with minimum radiation dose consumption and in short time. (author)

  19. Risk-based priorities for inspection of nuclear pressure boundary components at selected LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, T.V.; Simonen, F.A.; Gore, B.F.; Doctor, S.R.; Smith, B.W.

    1990-03-01

    Data from existing probabilistic risk assessments for eight representative nuclear power plants were used to identify and prioritize the most relevant systems to plant safety. The objective was to assess current in-service inspection requirements for pressure boundary systems and components, and to develop recommendations for improvements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using risk-based methods to develop plant-specific inspection plans. Results for the eight representative plants also indicate generic trends that suggest improvements in current inspection plans now based on priorities set in accordance with code definitions of Class 1, 2, and 3 systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Risk-based priorities for inspection of nuclear pressure boundary components at selected LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, T.V.; Simonen, F.A.; Gore, B.F.; Doctor, S.R.; Smith, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    Data from existing probabilistic risk assessments for eight representative nuclear power plants were used to identify and prioritize the most relevant systems to plant safety. The objective of this paper is to assess current in-service inspection requirements for pressure boundary systems and components, and to develop recommendations for improvements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using risk-based methods to develop plant-specific inspection plans. Results for the eight representative plants also indicate generic trends that suggest improvements in current inspection plans now based on priorities set in accordance with code definitions of Class 1, 2, and 3 systems

  1. Genomic analysis of codon usage shows influence of mutation pressure, natural selection, and host features on Marburg virus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Izza; Butt, Azeem M; Tahir, Shifa; Idrees, Muhammad; Tong, Yigang

    2015-08-26

    The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  2. Signatures of environmental genetic adaptation pinpoint pathogens as the main selective pressure through human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous genome-wide scans of positive natural selection in humans have identified a number of non-neutrally evolving genes that play important roles in skin pigmentation, metabolism, or immune function. Recent studies have also shown that a genome-wide pattern of local adaptation can be detected by identifying correlations between patterns of allele frequencies and environmental variables. Despite these observations, the degree to which natural selection is primarily driven by adaptation to local environments, and the role of pathogens or other ecological factors as selective agents, is still under debate. To address this issue, we correlated the spatial allele frequency distribution of a large sample of SNPs from 55 distinct human populations to a set of environmental factors that describe local geographical features such as climate, diet regimes, and pathogen loads. In concordance with previous studies, we detected a significant enrichment of genic SNPs, and particularly non-synonymous SNPs associated with local adaptation. Furthermore, we show that the diversity of the local pathogenic environment is the predominant driver of local adaptation, and that climate, at least as measured here, only plays a relatively minor role. While background demography by far makes the strongest contribution in explaining the genetic variance among populations, we detected about 100 genes which show an unexpectedly strong correlation between allele frequencies and pathogenic environment, after correcting for demography. Conversely, for diet regimes and climatic conditions, no genes show a similar correlation between the environmental factor and allele frequencies. This result is validated using low-coverage sequencing data for multiple populations. Among the loci targeted by pathogen-driven selection, we found an enrichment of genes associated to autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and multiples sclerosis, which lends credence to the

  3. Mathematical modeling of ultradeep sequencing data reveals that acute CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses exert strong selective pressure in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques but still fail to clear founder epitope sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tanzy M T; Thurston, Sally W; Keefer, Michael C; Dewhurst, Stephen; Lee, Ha Youn

    2010-06-01

    The prominent role of antiviral cytotoxic CD8(+) T-lymphocytes (CD8-TL) in containing the acute viremia of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and SIV) has rationalized the development of T-cell-based vaccines. However, the presence of escape mutations in the acute stage of infection has raised a concern that accelerated escape from vaccine-induced CD8-TL responses might undermine vaccine efficacy. We reanalyzed previously published data of 101,822 viral genomes of three CD8-TL epitopes, Nef(103-111)RM9 (RM9), Tat(28-35)SL8 (SL8), and Gag(181-189)CM9 (CM9), sampled by ultradeep pyrosequencing from eight macaques. Multiple epitope variants appeared during the resolution of acute viremia, followed by the predominance of a single mutant epitope. By fitting a mathematical model, we estimated the first acute escape rate as 0.36 day(-1) within escape-prone epitopes, RM9 and SL8, and the chronic escape rate as 0.014 day(-1) within the CM9 epitope. Our estimate of SIV acute escape rates was found to be comparable to very early HIV-1 escape rates. The timing of the first escape was more highly correlated with the timing of the peak CD8-TL response than with the magnitude of the CD8-TL response. The transmitted epitope decayed more than 400 times faster during the acute viral decline stage than predicted by a neutral evolution model. However, the founder epitope persisted as a minor population even at the viral set point; in contrast, the majority of acute escape epitopes were completely cleared. Our results suggest that a reservoir of SIV infection is preferentially formed by virus with the transmitted epitope.

  4. Probing of RNA structures in a positive sense RNA virus reveals selection pressures for structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Kyle E; Choudhary, Krishna; Aviran, Sharon; Perry, Keith L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In single stranded (+)-sense RNA viruses, RNA structural elements (SEs) play essential roles in the infection process from replication to encapsidation. Using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE-Seq) and covariation analysis, we explore the structural features of the third genome segment of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), RNA3 (2216 nt), both in vitro and in plant cell lysates. Comparing SHAPE-Seq and covariation analysis results revealed multiple SEs in the coat protein open reading frame and 3′ untranslated region. Four of these SEs were mutated and serially passaged in Nicotiana tabacum plants to identify biologically selected changes to the original mutated sequences. After passaging, loop mutants showed partial reversion to their wild-type sequence and SEs that were structurally disrupted by mutations were restored to wild-type-like structures via synonymous mutations in planta. These results support the existence and selection of virus open reading frame SEs in the host organism and provide a framework for further studies on the role of RNA structure in viral infection. Additionally, this work demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput chemical probing in plant cell lysates and presents a new method for calculating SHAPE reactivities from overlapping reverse transcriptase priming sites. PMID:29294088

  5. Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native γ-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

  6. Epicardial left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy: optimal pace site selection with pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, A L A J; Phelps, B; Dijkman, B; van der Nagel, T; van der Veen, F H; Geskes, G G; Maessen, J G

    2004-06-01

    Patients in heart failure with left bundle branch block benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. Usually the left ventricular pacing lead is placed by coronary sinus catheterization; however, this procedure is not always successful, and patients may be referred for surgical epicardial lead placement. The objective of this study was to develop a method to guide epicardial lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eleven patients in heart failure who were eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy were referred for surgery because of failed coronary sinus left ventricular lead implantation. Minithoracotomy or thoracoscopy was performed, and a temporary epicardial electrode was used for biventricular pacing at various sites on the left ventricle. Pressure-volume loops with the conductance catheter were used to select the best site for each individual patient. Relative to the baseline situation, biventricular pacing with an optimal left ventricular lead position significantly increased stroke volume (+39%, P =.01), maximal left ventricular pressure derivative (+20%, P =.02), ejection fraction (+30%, P =.007), and stroke work (+66%, P =.006) and reduced end-systolic volume (-6%, P =.04). In contrast, biventricular pacing at a suboptimal site did not significantly change left ventricular function and even worsened it in some cases. To optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy with epicardial leads, mapping to determine the best pace site is a prerequisite. Pressure-volume loops offer real-time guidance for targeting epicardial lead placement during minimal invasive surgery.

  7. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  9. Pseudoliquid behavior of heteropoly compound catalysts. Unusual pressure dependencies of the rate and selectivity for ethanol dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misono, M.; Okuhara, T.; Ichiki, T.; Arai, T.; Kanda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Heteropoly compounds arenow utilized as industrial catalysts for olefin hydration and aldehyde oxidation and as interesting cluster models of mixed oxide catalysts. Certain heteropoly acids, like H 3 PW 12 O 40 and H 3 PMo 12 O 40 , easily absorb a large amount of water, alchols, and ethers in the solid state, although their surface areas are very low. This is not adsorption in micropores; rather molecules are absorbed between the lattice polyanions, sometimes expanding the lattice. The expansion can be seen visually as well as by x-ray diffraction. The authors showed that in some cases catalytic reactions take place in this novel bulk phase. Presumably due to this behavior, very high catalytic activity and unique selectivity as well as unusual reactivity order have been observed. They called this state the pseudoliquid phase. However, in only one case was the amount of absorbed reactant measured under the working conditions. They report here unusual pressure dependencies of the rate and selectivity of ethanol dehydration over heteropoly compounds. The dependency can only be explained by the formation of a pseudoliquid phase, i.e., a phase where the amount of absorbed ethanol has changed as a function of ethanol pressure

  10. Considerations for SphygmoCor radial artery pulse wave analysis: side selection and peripheral arterial blood pressure calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Borges, Alexandra R; Christy, John B; Beck, Darren T

    2015-10-01

    Methods employed for pulse wave analysis (PWA) and peripheral blood pressure (PBP) calibration vary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of SphygmoCor PWA parameters derived from radial artery tonometry when considering (1) timing (before vs. after tonometry) and side selection (ipsilateral vs. contralateral limb) for PBP calibration and (2) side selection for tonometry (left vs. right arm). In 34 subjects (aged 21.9 ± 2.3 years), bilateral radial artery tonometry was performed simultaneously on three instances. PBP assessment via oscillometric sphygmomanometry in the left arm only and both arms simultaneously occurred following the first and second instances of tonometry, respectively. Significant within arm differences in PWA parameters derived before and after PBP measurement were observed in the right arm only (for example, aortic systolic blood pressure, Δ=0.38 ± 0.64 mm Hg). Simultaneously captured bilateral PWA variables demonstrated significant between arm differences in 88% (14/16) and 56% (9/16) of outcome variables when calibrated to within arm and equivalent PBP, respectively. Moreover, the right arm consistently demonstrated lower values for clinical PWA variables (for example, augmentation index, bias=-2.79%). However, 26% (n=9) of participants presented with clinically significant differences (>10 mm Hg) in bilateral PBP and their exclusion from analysis abolished most between arm differences observed. SphygmoCor PWA in the right radial artery results in greater variability independent of the timing of PBP measurement and magnitude of calibration pressures in young subjects. Moreover, bilateral PBP measurement is imperative to identify subjects in whom a significant difference in bilateral PWA outcomes may exist.

  11. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  12. Energetic benefits and adaptations in mammalian limbs: Scale effects and selective pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2015-06-01

    Differences in limb size and shape are fundamental to mammalian morphological diversity; however, their relevance to locomotor costs has long been subject to debate. In particular, it remains unknown if scale effects in whole limb morphology could partially underlie decreasing mass-specific locomotor costs with increasing limb length. Whole fore- and hindlimb inertial properties reflecting limb size and shape-moment of inertia (MOI), mass, mass distribution, and natural frequency-were regressed against limb length for 44 species of quadrupedal mammals. Limb mass, MOI, and center of mass position are negatively allometric, having a strong potential for lowering mass-specific locomotor costs in large terrestrial mammals. Negative allometry of limb MOI results in a 40% reduction in MOI relative to isometry's prediction for our largest sampled taxa. However, fitting regression residuals to adaptive diversification models reveals that codiversification of limb mass, limb length, and body mass likely results from selection for differing locomotor modes of running, climbing, digging, and swimming. The observed allometric scaling does not result from selection for energetically beneficial whole limb morphology with increasing size. Instead, our data suggest that it is a consequence of differing morphological adaptations and body size distributions among quadrupedal mammals, highlighting the role of differing limb functions in mammalian evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Summary of results of frictional sliding studies, at confining pressures up to 6.98 kb, in selected rock materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collection of stress-strain charts which were produced by deforming selected simuiated fault gouge materials. Several sets of samples consisted of intact cylinders, 1.000 inch in diameter and 2.500 inches long. The majority of the samples consisted of thin layers of the selected sample material, inserted within a diagonal sawcut in a 1.000-inch by 2.500-inch Westerly Granite cylinder. Two sorts of inserts were used. The first consisted of thin wafers cut from 1.000-inch-diameter cores of the rock being tested. The other consisted of thin layers of crushed material packed onto the sawcut surface. In several groups of tests using various thicknesses (0.010 inch to 0.160 inch) of a given type material there were variations in the stress level and/or stability of sliding as a function of the fault zone width. Because of this we elected to use a standard 0.025-inch width fault zone to compare the frictional properties of many of the different types of rock materials. This 0.025-inch thickness was chosen partially because this thickness of crushed granite behaves approximately the same as a fractured sample of initially intact granite, and also because this is near the lower limit at which we could cut intact wafers for those samples that were prepared from thin slices of rock. One series of tests was done with saw cut granite cylinders without fault gouge inserts. All of these tests were done in a hydraulically operated triaxial testing machine. The confining pressure (δ1, least principal stress) was applied by pumping petroleum ether into a pressure vessel. The differential stress (δ3-δ1) was applied by a hydraulically operated ram that could be advanced into the pressure vessel at any of several strain rates (10-4sec-1, 10-5sec-1, 10-6sec-1, 10-7sec-1, or 10-8sec-1). All samples were jacketed in polyurethane tubing to exclude the confining pressure medium from the samples. The majority of the samples, with the exception of some of the initially

  14. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shipeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m2, which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m2 of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m(2), which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m(2) of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation.

  16. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shipeng

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m2, which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m2 of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men’s vocal pitch and facial hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Lauren L.; McCarty, Kristofor; Neave, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently, however, there has been a shift toward the idea that many male features, including male lower-pitched voices and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male–male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a unique set of video stimuli, we measured people’s perceptions of the dominance and attractiveness of men who differ both in terms of voice pitch (4 levels from lower to higher pitched) and beard growth (4 levels from clean shaven to a month’s hair growth). We found a nonlinear relationship between lower pitch and increased attractiveness; men’s vocal attractiveness peaked at around 96 Hz. Beard growth had equivocal effects on attractiveness judgments. In contrast, perceptions of men’s dominance simply increased with increasing masculinity (i.e., with lower-pitched voices and greater beard growth). Together, these results suggest that the optimal level of physical masculinity might differ depending on whether the outcome is social dominance or mate attraction. These dual selection pressures might maintain some of the documented variability in male physical and behavioral masculinity that we see today. PMID:27004013

  18. Fitness Cost of Daptomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Obtained from in Vitro Daptomycin Selection Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R Staphylococcus aureus strains are well documented, but have not been reported in China. To elucidate the evolution adaptability and fitness cost of DAP-R S. aureus, three DAP susceptible strains, Pre3 (MRSA, ST239-t037, Pre5 (MRSA, ST239-t037, and Pre14b (MSSA, ST188-t189, were isolated from patients with bloodstream infections, and serially passaged in Mueller–Hinton broth with a gradient of DAP concentration to select for resistance. Highly DAP-R mutants were obtained after screening for 34 passages. The DAP minimum inhibitory concentrations increased from 0.5 μg/ml in the parent strains to 16 μg/ml in the mutants, which remained tolerant to 4 μg/ml of DAP for more than 160 generations. The growth of the three mutant strains was slower than that of the parent strains, with relative fitness cost of 34.8%, 19.2%, and 15.0%, respectively. The in vitro serum tolerance of the mutants was decreased, and the lethality and pathogenicity in mice were weakened (P < 0.01. Transmission electron microscopy found that the cell walls of the mutants were significantly thicker (from 38.6% to 75.4% than those of the parent cells. Mutation L826F of mprF was found in Post14b, G299V, and L473I of mprF and Y225N of walK were found in Post3, while T345A of mprF, S52N of graS, and F473I of walK were found in Post5. Thus, stable DAP-R mutants could be obtained from a middle-short term of in vitro DAP selection, and according to their fitness cost, some prevention and control work may be done to cope with DAP-R S. aureus that may appear in China in the future.

  19. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  20. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Identification of learning and memory genes in canine; promoter investigation and determining the selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi Moroudi, Reihane; Masoudi, Ali Akbar; Vaez Torshizi, Rasoul; Zandi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    One of the important behaviors of dogs is trainability which is affected by learning and memory genes. These kinds of the genes have not yet been identified in dogs. In the current research, these genes were found in animal models by mining the biological data and scientific literatures. The proteins of these genes were obtained from the UniProt database in dogs and humans. Not all homologous proteins perform similar functions, thus comparison of these proteins was studied in terms of protein families, domains, biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular location of metabolic pathways in Interpro, KEGG, Quick Go and Psort databases. The results showed that some of these proteins have the same performance in the rat or mouse, dog, and human. It is anticipated that the protein of these genes may be effective in learning and memory in dogs. Then, the expression pattern of the recognized genes was investigated in the dog hippocampus using the existing information in the GEO profile. The results showed that BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes are expressed in the dog hippocampus, therefore, these genes could be strong candidates associated with learning and memory in dogs. Subsequently, due to the importance of the promoter regions in gene function, this region was investigated in the above genes. Analysis of the promoter indicated that the HNF-4 site of BDNF gene and the transcription start site of CCK gene is exposed to methylation. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences of these genes showed high similarity in each of these three genes among the studied species. The dN/dS ratio for BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes indicates a purifying selection during the evolution of the genes.

  2. Different selection pressures give rise to distinct ethnic phenomena : a functionalist framework with illustrations from the Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena's co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.

  3. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Li, Bofan; Yang, Tianshi; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-08-03

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantitative analysis of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in bacterial chromosomes and plasmids using generalised GC skew index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Haruo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their bi-directional replication machinery starting from a single finite origin, bacterial genomes show characteristic nucleotide compositional bias between the two replichores, which can be visualised through GC skew or (C-G/(C+G. Although this polarisation is used for computational prediction of replication origins in many bacterial genomes, the degree of GC skew visibility varies widely among different species, necessitating a quantitative measurement of GC skew strength in order to provide confidence measures for GC skew-based predictions of replication origins. Results Here we discuss a quantitative index for the measurement of GC skew strength, named the generalised GC skew index (gGCSI, which is applicable to genomes of any length, including bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. We demonstrate that gGCSI is independent of the window size and can thus be used to compare genomes with different sizes, such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. It can suggest the existence of different replication mechanisms in archaea and of rolling-circle replication in plasmids. Correlation of gGCSI values between plasmids and their corresponding host chromosomes suggests that within the same strain, these replicons have reproduced using the same replication machinery and thus exhibit similar strengths of replication strand skew. Conclusions gGCSI can be applied to genomes of any length and thus allows comparative study of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in genomes of different lengths such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. Using gGCSI, we showed that replication-related mutation or selection pressure is similar for replicons with similar machinery.

  6. Effects of selection pressure and genetic association on the relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Levy, Karen; Trueba, Gabriel; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic selection pressure and genetic associations may lead to the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in individual pathogens. However, there is a lack of rigorous epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence at the population level. Using samples from a population-based case-control study in 25 villages in rural Ecuador, we characterized resistance to 12 antibiotics among pathogenic (n = 86) and commensal (n = 761) Escherichia coli isolates, classified by the presence or absence of known diarrheagenic virulence factor genes. The prevalences of resistance to single and multiple antibiotics were significantly higher for pathogenic isolates than for commensal isolates. Using a generalized estimating equation, antibiotic resistance was independently associated with virulence factor carriage, case status, and antibiotic use (for these respective factors: odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.7 to 5.1; OR = 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.3 to 3.0; and OR = 1.5, with a 95% CI of 0.9 to 2.5). Virulence factor carriage was more strongly related to antibiotic resistance than antibiotic use for all antibiotics examined, with the exception of fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, and cefotaxime. This study provides epidemiological evidence that antibiotic resistance and virulence factor carriage are linked in E. coli populations in a community setting. Further, these data suggest that while the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in E. coli is partially due to antibiotic selection pressure, it is also genetically determined. These findings should be considered in developing strategies for treating infections and controlling for antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE MEAN TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, AND ENTROPY PROFILES IN 80 SPT-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2014-09-24

    We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg(2) South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of ~20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R (500), which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (~30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R (500)) and outer (r > R (500)) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R (500) of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r lsim 0.7R (500)—this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r gsim R (500) in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (~3×) rate at which group-mass (~2

  8. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  9. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  11. Programming MIL-101Cr for selective and enhanced CO2 adsorption at low pressure by postsynthetic amine functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khutia, Anupam; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-01-21

    MIL-101Cr fully or partially (p) postsynthetically modified with nitro (-NO2) or amino (-NH2) groups was shown to be a robust, water stable, selective and enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption material with the amine-functionality. The highly microporous amine-modified frameworks (up to 1.6 cm(3) g(-1) total pore volume) exhibit excellent thermal stability (>300 °C) with BET surface areas up to 2680 m(2) g(-1). At 1 bar (at 273 K) the gases CO2, CH4 and N2 are adsorbed up to 22.2 wt%, 1.67 wt% and 2.27 wt%, respectively. The two amine-modified MIL-101Cr-NH2 (4) and MIL-101Cr-pNH2 (5) showed the highest gas uptake capacities in the series with high ratios for the CO2 : N2 and CO2 : CH4 selectivities (up to 119 : 1 and 75 : 1, respectively, at 273 K). Comparison with non-modified MIL-101Cr traces the favorable CO2 adsorption properties of MIL-101Cr-NH2 (4) and MIL-101Cr-pNH2 (5) to the presence of the Lewis-basic amine groups. MIL-101Cr-NH2 (4) has a high isosteric heat of adsorption of 43 kJ mol(-1) at zero surface coverage and also >23 kJ mol(-1) over the entire adsorption range, which is well above the heat of liquefaction of bulk CO2. Large CO2 uptake capacities of amine-functionalized 4 and 5, coupled with high adsorption enthalpy, high selectivities and proven long-term water stability, make them suitable candidates for capturing CO2 at low pressure from gas mixtures including the use as a CO2 sorbent from moist air.

  12. Environmental selection pressures related to iron utilization are involved in the loss of the flavodoxin gene from the plant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella Karlusich, Juan J; Ceccoli, Romina D; Graña, Martín; Romero, Héctor; Carrillo, Néstor

    2015-02-16

    Oxidative stress and iron limitation represent the grim side of life in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The versatile electron transfer shuttle ferredoxin, an iron-sulfur protein, is particularly sensitive to these hardships, and its downregulation under adverse conditions severely compromises survival of phototrophs. Replacement of ferredoxin by a stress-resistant isofunctional carrier, flavin-containing flavodoxin, is a widespread strategy employed by photosynthetic microorganisms to overcome environmental adversities. The flavodoxin gene was lost in the course of plant evolution, but its reintroduction in transgenic plants confers increased tolerance to environmental stress and iron starvation, raising the question as to why a genetic asset with obvious adaptive value was not kept by natural selection. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the evolutionary history of flavodoxin is intricate, with several horizontal gene transfer events between distant organisms, including Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. The flavodoxin gene is unevenly distributed in most algal lineages, with flavodoxin-containing species being overrepresented in iron-limited regions and scarce or absent in iron-rich environments. Evaluation of cyanobacterial genomic and metagenomic data yielded essentially the same results, indicating that there was little selection pressure to retain flavodoxin in iron-rich coastal/freshwater phototrophs. Our results show a highly dynamic evolution pattern of flavodoxin tightly connected to the bioavailability of iron. Evidence presented here also indicates that the high concentration of iron in coastal and freshwater habitats may have facilitated the loss of flavodoxin in the freshwater ancestor of modern plants during the transition of photosynthetic organisms from the open oceans to the firm land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  14. Genetic diversity of the NE Atlantic sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis unveils chaotic genetic patchiness possibly linked to local selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norderhaug, K M; Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Fagerli, C W; Gundersen, H; Christie, H; Dahl, K; Hobæk, A

    We compared the genetic differentiation in the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis from discrete populations on the NE Atlantic coast. By using eight recently developed microsatellite markers, genetic structure was compared between populations from the Danish Strait in the south to the Barents Sea in the north (56-79°N). Urchins are spread by pelagic larvae and may be transported long distances by northwards-going ocean currents. Two main superimposed patterns were identified. The first showed a subtle but significant genetic differentiation from the southernmost to the northernmost of the studied populations and could be explained by an isolation by distance model. The second pattern included two coastal populations in mid-Norway (65°N), NH and NS, as well as the northernmost population of continental Norway (71°N) FV. They showed a high degree of differentiation from all other populations. The explanation to the second pattern is most likely chaotic genetic patchiness caused by introgression from another species, S. pallidus, into S. droebachiensis resulting from selective pressure. Ongoing sea urchin collapse and kelp forests recovery are observed in the area of NH, NS and FV populations. High gene flow between populations spanning more than 22° in latitude suggests a high risk of new grazing events to occur rapidly in the future if conditions for sea urchins are favourable. On the other hand, the possibility of hybridization in association with collapsing populations may be used as an early warning indicator for monitoring purposes.

  15. Lipocalin 2 Imparts Selective Pressure on Bacterial Growth in the Bladder and Is Elevated in Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigedal, Magnus; Marstad, Anne; Haug, Markus; Damås, Jan K.; Strong, Roland K.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Stapleton, Ann; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for iron is a critical component of successful bacterial infections, but the underlying in vivo mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is an innate immunity protein that binds to bacterial siderophores and starves them for iron, thus representing a novel host defense mechanism to infection. In the present study we show that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa and protects against urinary tract infection (UTI). We found that LCN2 was expressed in the bladder, ureters, and kidneys of mice subject to UTI. LCN2 was protective with higher bacterial numbers retrieved from bladders of Lcn2-deficient mice than from wild-type mice infected with the LCN2-sensitive Escherichia coli strain H9049. Uropathogenic E. coli mutants in siderophore receptors for salmochelin, aerobactin, or yersiniabactin displayed reduced fitness in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient of LCN2, demonstrating that LCN2 imparts a selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder. In a human cohort of women with recurrent E. coli UTIs, urine LCN2 levels were associated with UTI episodes and with levels of bacteriuria. The number of siderophore systems was associated with increasing bacteriuria during cystitis. Our data demonstrate that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa in response to uropathogenic E. coli challenge and acts in innate immune defenses as a colonization barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection. PMID:25398327

  16. Characterization of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge under tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole selection pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Geng, Jinju; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the microbial community characteristics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and bioreactor effluent quality change under tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) selection pressure, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used with environmentally relevant concentration and high-level of TC and SMX concentrations (0, 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 10 ppm). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH_4"+−N) removals appeared unchanged (p > 0.05) with 5 and 50 ppb, but decreased significantly with 10 ppm (p tetG > sul2 > tetA > intI1 > tetS > tetC. Pearson correlation analysis showed most ARGs (tetA, tetC, tetG, tetK, tetM, sul1) were significantly correlated with intI1 (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • COD and NH_4"+−N removals significantly decrease under 10 ppm TC or SMX. • Activated sludge EPS concentrations increase with increasing TC or SMX concentrations. • TC and SMX affect the microbial community diversity of activated sludge. • Actinobacteria abundances increase with increase of TC or SMX concentration. • ARGs abundance increases with addition of TC or SMX.

  17. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac (R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  18. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac(R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  19. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby

  20. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  1. The role of protozoa-driven selection in shaping human genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2010-03-01

    Protozoa exert a strong selective pressure in humans. The selection signatures left by these pathogens can be exploited to identify genetic modulators of infection susceptibility. We show that protozoa diversity in different geographic locations is a good measure of protozoa-driven selective pressure; protozoa diversity captured selection signatures at known malaria resistance loci and identified several selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune and hemolytic anemia genes. A genome-wide search enabled us to identify 5180 variants mapping to 1145 genes that are subjected to protozoa-driven selective pressure. We provide a genome-wide estimate of protozoa-driven selective pressure and identify candidate susceptibility genes for protozoa-borne diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge under tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole selection pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the microbial community characteristics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and bioreactor effluent quality change under tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) selection pressure, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used with environmentally relevant concentration and high-level of TC and SMX concentrations (0, 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 10 ppm). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N) removals appeared unchanged (p > 0.05) with 5 and 50 ppb, but decreased significantly with 10 ppm (p < 0.05). Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations increased significantly with increasing TC or SMX concentrations (p < 0.05). High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results suggested that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the three most abundant phyla in sludge samples. The Actinobacteria percentages increased with increasing TC or SMX concentration, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. The microbial diversity achieved its maximum at 5 ppb and decreased with higher concentrations. The total ARGs abundances in sludge increased with addition of TC or SMX, and the higher relative abundances were in the order of sul1 > tetG > sul2 > tetA > intI1 > tetS > tetC. Pearson correlation analysis showed most ARGs (tetA, tetC, tetG, tetK, tetM, sul1) were significantly correlated with intI1 (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N removals significantly decrease under 10 ppm TC or SMX. • Activated sludge EPS concentrations increase with increasing TC or SMX concentrations. • TC and SMX affect the microbial community diversity of activated sludge. • Actinobacteria abundances increase with increase of TC or SMX concentration. • ARGs abundance increases with addition of TC or SMX.

  3. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. II. performance of selected concrete embedment strain meters under normal and extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-10-01

    Unique types of instrumentation are used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) to measure strains, stresses, deflections, prestressing forces, moisture content, temperatures, and possibly cracking. Their primary purpose is to monitor these complex structures throughout their 20- to 30-year operating lifetime in order to provide continuing assurance of their reliability and safety. Numerous concrete embedment instrumentation systems are available commercially. Since this instrumentation is important in providing continuing assurance of satisfactory performance of PCPVs, the information provided must be reliable. Therefore, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the reliability of these commercially available instrumentation systems. This report, the second in a series related to instrumentation embedded in concrete, presents performance-reliability data for 13 types of selected concrete embedment strain meters which were subjected to a variety of loading environments, including unloaded, thermally loaded, simulated PCPV, and extreme environments. Although only a limited number of meters of each type were tested in any one test series, the composite results of the investigation indicate that the majority of these meters would not be able to provide reliable data throughout the 20- to 30-year anticipated operating life of a PCPV. Specific conclusions drawn from the study are: (1) Improved corrosion-resistant materials and sealing techniques should be developed for meters that are to be used in PCPV environments. (2) There is a need for the development of meters that are capable of surviving in concretes where temperatures in excess of 66 0 C are present for extended periods of time. (3) Research should be conducted on other measurement techniques, such as inductance, capacitance, and fluidics

  4. High-Calorific Biogas Production by Selective CO2 Retention at Autogenerated Biogas Pressures up to 20 Bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHED) is a novel configuration of anaerobic digestion, in which micro-organisms produce autogenerated biogas pressures up to 90 bar with >90% CH4-content in a single step reactor. The less than 10% CO2-content was postulated to be resulting from

  5. Vapor Pressure Data and Analysis for Selected Organophosphorus Compounds, CMMP, DPMP, DMEP, and DEEP: Extrapolation of High-Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    comparison. The correlation equations are presented using two common units systems , one with temperature given in kelvin (T) and pressure in pascal...This report documents vapor pressure data and correlations for four phosphonate ester compounds that have molecular structures similar to those of...Antoine equation Clausius–Clapeyron equation Enthalpy of vaporization Volatility Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Vapor saturation Normal boiling

  6. Association between Selective Beta-adrenergic Drugs and Blood Pressure Elevation: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.

  7. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  8. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirements of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  9. 20 CFR 416.967 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirments of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  10. An investigation into beef calf mortality on five high-altitude ranches that selected sires with low pulmonary arterial pressures for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Joseph M; Gould, Daniel H; Garry, Franklyn B; Knight, Anthony P; Dargatz, David A; Holt, Timothy N

    2013-03-01

    Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due to the extensive mountainous terrain over which these calves are grazed with their dams. The objective of the current study was to determine the causes of calf mortality on 5 high-altitude ranches in Colorado that have been selectively breeding sires with low pulmonary pressure (branding (6 weeks of age) in the spring to weaning in the fall (7 months of age). Clinical signs were recorded, and blood samples were taken from sick calves. Postmortem examinations were performed, and select tissue samples were submitted for aerobic culture and/or histopathology. On the principal study ranch, 9.6% (59/612) of the calves that were branded in the spring either died or were presumed dead by weaning in the fall. In total, 28 necropsies were performed: 14 calves (50%) had lesions consistent with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure, and 14 calves (50%) died from bronchopneumonia. Remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was evident in the former and to varying degrees in the latter. There is a need to better characterize the additional risk factors that complicate pulmonary arterial pressure testing of herd sires as a strategy to control pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  12. Mask pressure effects on the nasal bridge during short-term noninvasive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Pickersgill, Rachel; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J.; Simonds, Anita K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different masks, ventilator settings and body positions on the pressure exerted on the nasal bridge by the mask and subjective comfort during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We measured the pressure over the nasal bridge in 20 healthy participants receiving NIV via four different NIV masks (three oronasal masks, one nasal mask) at three different ventilator settings and in the seated or supine position. Objective pressure measurements were obtained with an I-Scan pressure-mapping system. Subjective comfort of the mask fit was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The masks exerted mean pressures between 47.6±29 mmHg and 91.9±42.4 mmHg on the nasal bridge. In the supine position, the pressure was lower in all masks (57.1±31.9 mmHg supine, 63.9±37.3 mmHg seated; pmasks, a change of inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) did not influence the objective pressure over the nasal bridge. Subjective discomfort was associated with higher IPAP and positively correlated with the pressure on the skin. Objective measurement of pressure on the skin during mask fitting might be helpful for mask selection. Mask fitting in the supine position should be considered in the clinical routine. PMID:29637077

  13. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalco, R.S.; Snoeck, M.; Quinlivan, R.; Treves, S.; Laforet, P.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild

  14. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Mothes

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a the effects of exercise and b the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  15. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  16. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men?s vocal pitch and facial hair

    OpenAIRE

    Saxton, Tamsin K.; Mackey, Lauren L.; McCarty, Kristofor; Neave, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The traditional assumption within the research literature on human sexually dimorphic traits has been that many sex differences have arisen from intersexual selection. More recently however, there has been a shift towards the idea that many male features, including for example male lower-pitched voices, and male beard growth, might have arisen predominantly through intrasexual selection: that is, to serve the purpose of male-male competition instead of mate attraction. In this study, using a ...

  17. Pressure and density measurements of selected fluid-bearing zones at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstanley, D.; Carrasco, R.; Zurkoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    A field effort is presently being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to collect accurate pressure and density information from the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler formation. The spatial variation of fluid density that occurs in these water-bearing units requires the use of numerical models to accurately solve for flow direction and velocity. The groundwater regime is a vital element in possible release scenarios of radionuclide-bearing fluid from the repository. Field tests were conducted on four wells utilizing a testing apparatus composed of two pressure and temperature monitoring systems and a point water sampler. Pressure versus depth plots are linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 or greater. Comparison of the calculated density and measured density of water obtained at depth agree within 2 percent of density measurements obtained after continuous pumping of the formation for several days before sampling. The temperature gradients ranged from 0.4 0 to 0.6 0 C per 100 feet. The data presented here are preliminary and serve as developmental information for the detailed operating plan currently under preparation

  18. Effect of pressure on the selectivity of polymeric C18 and C30 stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Increased separation of isomeric fatty acid methyl esters, triacylglycerols, and tocopherols at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusa, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kuroda, Ikuma; Miwa, Shohei; Ohira, Masayoshi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-04-25

    A high-density, polymeric C18 stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P) or a polymeric C30 phase (Inertsil C30) provided improved resolution of the isomeric fatty acids (FAs), FA methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and tocopherols with an increase in pressure of 20-70MPa in reversed-phase HPLC. With respect to isomeric C18 FAMEs with one cis-double bond, ODS-P phase was effective for recognizing the position of a double bond among petroselinic (methyl 6Z-octadecenoate), oleic (methyl 9Z-octadecenoate), and cis-vaccenic (methyl 11Z-octadecenoate), especially at high pressure, but the differentiation between oleic and cis-vaccenic was not achieved by C30 phase regardless of the pressure. A monomeric C18 phase (InertSustain C18) was not effective for recognizing the position of the double bond in monounsaturated FAME, while the separation of cis- and trans-isomers was achieved by any of the stationary phases. The ODS-P and C30 phases provided increased separation for TAGs and β- and γ-tocopherols at high pressure. The transfer of FA, FAME, or TAG molecules from the mobile phase to the ODS-P stationary phase was accompanied by large volume reduction (-30∼-90mL/mol) resulting in a large increase in retention (up to 100% for an increase of 50MPa) and improved isomer separation at high pressure. For some isomer pairs, the ODS-P and C30 provided the opposite elution order, and in each case higher pressure improved the separation. The two stationary phases showed selectivity for the isomers having rigid structures, but only the ODS-P was effective for differentiating the position of a double bond in monounsaturated FAMEs. The results indicate that the improved isomer separation was provided by the increased dispersion interactions between the solute and the binding site of the stationary phase at high pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of plane bed on the force exerted on a cylinder oscillating in still water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeeni, S.T.O. [Tehran Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Narayanan, R. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2005-12-01

    The wall pressure field on a cylinder oscillating over a plane bed in still water is reported in this paper. Two gaps between the cylinder and the bed were considered. Pressures on the periphery of the cylinder were measured by a transducer and were found to be essentially repeatable from one cycle to the next. The forces determined from the pressure profiles compare well with those measured directly by a force transducer except significantly at Keulegan-Carpenter number of 15.0. The importance of the plane bed when it is stationary or moving with the cylinder is examined. The significance of the roughness of the bed with respect to the oscillatory forces exerted on the cylinder is also assessed. (Author)

  20. Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure rapidly selects for increased RpoS activity and general stress-resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlint, Dietrich; Rutten, Nele; Govers, Sander K; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is increasingly being used in food preservation as a non-thermal pasteurization process, and its further implementation necessitates a more thorough understanding of bacterial resistance development and intraspecies variability with regard to inactivation by HHP. In this report, we discovered that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure stress can rapidly select for strongly increased RpoS activity in a hypersensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain (ATCC 43888), leading to a simultaneous increase in HHP and heat resistance. Moreover, the level of RpoS activity correlated well with the original hypersensitivity and the extent of acquired HHP resistance, and extremely HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 clearly incurred a number of additional RpoS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest that implementation of novel processing techniques in the food production chain can readily affect the physiology of food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Strategy Selection of Dairy Enterprises on Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun REN; Yucheng HE; Lisha HU

    2016-01-01

    Dairy enterprises have to cope with intense market pressure and survival pressure.In such complex and competitive market environment,it is of great realistic significance for studying the influence of strategy selection of dairy enterprises on their performance.Through selecting 115 dairy enterprises,empirical analysis was made,and multiple linear regression model and structural equation model were established with the aid of SPSS and Amos software.Comparative analysis was carried out for performance of different strategy selection.Results indicate that dairy enterprises selecting vertical strategies obtain the best performance,followed by horizontal strategy,and the worst is multiple strategy,and the strategy selection exerts positive and direct influence on performance of dairy enterprises.

  3. Time and space resolved deep metagenomics to investigate selection pressures on low abundant species in complex environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    and between EBPR plants we sequenced a total of 10 samples from 3 different plants over a 3 year period at a depth of 25 Gb each. In addition, one time point was selected for deep sequencing, generating 200 Gb of sequence divided between replicates. Quantitative FISH analysis using >30 oligonucleotide probes...

  4. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  5. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  6. The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Validation of the thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET based on selected pressure drop and void fraction BFBT tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino, E-mail: valentino.marcello@kit.edu; Escalante, Javier Jimenez; Espinoza, Victor Sanchez

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of BFBT-BWR steady-state and transient tests with ATHLET. • Validation of thermal-hydraulic models based on pressure drops and void fraction measurements. • TRACE system code is used for the comparative study. • Predictions result in a good agreement with the experiments. • Discrepancies are smaller or comparable with respect to the measurements uncertainty. - Abstract: Validation and qualification of thermal-hydraulic system codes based on separate effect tests are essential for the reliability of numerical tools when applied to nuclear power plant analyses. To this purpose, the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is involved in various validation and qualification activities of different CFD, sub-channel and system codes. In this paper, the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET are assessed based on the experimental results provided within the NUPEC BFBT benchmark related to key Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) phenomena. Void fraction and pressure drops measurements in the BFBT bundle performed under steady-state and transient conditions which are representative for e.g. turbine trip and recirculation pump trip events, are compared with the numerical results of ATHLET. The comparison of code predictions with the BFBT data has shown good agreement given the experimental uncertainty and the results are consistent with the trends obtained with similar thermal-hydraulic codes.

  8. The selection of the parameters of high pressure syringe in performing interventional angiography: a retrospective analysis of 692 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dehai; Luo Laishu; Yang Zhihong; Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal parameters of high pressure injector in performing interventional angiography and therapy of different parts of body in order to improve the image quality. Methods: During the period from July 2009 to September 2010 interventional angiography or therapy of different parts of body with the help of high pressure injector was performed in 692 patients, including 538 males and 154 females with a mean age of (53.6±2.5) years. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The angiographic regions included vessels (n=341), cerebral vessels (n=71), thoracic larger vessels (n=19) and the vessels of the arms and legs (n=203). The technical parameters and the image qualities were evaluated and analyzed. Results: Based on the contrast filling degree, the presence or absence of contrast reflux, the imaging resolution and the satisfactory degree in meeting the diagnostic requirements, the angiographic images were evaluated. The image quality was up to standard in 615 cases (88.7%). Unsatisfactory contrast filling with no contrast reflux was seen in 62 cases (9.0%), and poor vascular opacification with contrast reflux was found in 9 cases (1.3%). Vagueness of the images caused by the body movement during exposure was seen in 6 cases (0.8%). No accidental events occurred in all procedures. Conclusion: The use of appropriate catheter, equipment and reasonable injecting parameters, which can match the characteristics of the target lesions, is the key to provide physicians with reliable angiography images. (authors)

  9. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  10. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed.

  11. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  12. Different Patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 Polymorphisms in P. falciparum Isolates from Nigeria and Brazil: The Potential Role of Antimalarial Drug Selection Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbotosho, Grace O.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Bustamante, Carolina; Pereira da Silva, Luis Hildebrando; Mesquita, Elieth; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Zalis, Mariano G.; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.; Happi, Christian T.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of antimalarial drug selection on pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two distinct geographical locations was determined in 70 and 18 P. falciparum isolates from Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, using nested polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing approaches. All isolates from Brazil and 72% from Nigeria harbored the mutant SVMNT and CVIET pfcrt haplotype, respectively. The pfcrt CVMNT haplotype was also observed in (7%) of the Nigerian samples. One hundred percent (100%) and 54% of the parasites from Brazil and Nigeria, respectively, harbored wild-type pfmdr1Asn86. We provide first evidence of emergence of the CVMNT haplotype in West Africa. The high prevalence of pfcrt CVIET and SVMNT haplotypes in Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, is indicative of different selective pressure by chloroquine and amodiaquine. Continuous monitoring of pfcrt SVMNT haplotype is required in endemic areas of Africa, where artesunate-amodiaquine combination is used for treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria. PMID:22302850

  13. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  14. Factors associated with high physical exertion during manual lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... during manual lifting in blue-collar workers. These factors should be considered when planning work with manual lifting for individual workers....

  15. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Giovanni G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  16. Influence of permittivity on gradient force exerted on Mie spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Kaikai; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    In optical trapping, whether a particle could be stably trapped into the focus region greatly depends on the strength of the gradient force. Individual theoretical study on gradient force exerted on a Mie particle is rare because the mathematical separation of the gradient force and the scattering force in the Mie regime is difficult. Based on the recent forces separation work by Du et al. [Sci. Rep.7, 18042 (2017)SRCEC32045-232210.1038/s41598-017-17874-1], we investigate the influence of permittivity (an important macroscopic physical quantity) on the gradient force exerted on a Mie particle by cooperating numerical calculation using fast Fourier transform and analytical analysis using multipole expansion. It is revealed that gradient forces exerted on small spheres are mainly determined by the electric dipole moment except for certain permittivity with which the real part of polarizability of the electric dipole approaches zero, and gradient forces exerted on larger spheres are complex because of the superposition of the multipole moments. The classification of permittivity corresponding to different varying tendencies of gradient forces exerted on small spheres or larger Mie particles are illustrated. Absorption of particles favors the trapping of small spheres by gradient force, while it is bad for the trapping of larger particles. Moreover, the absolute values of the maximal gradient forces exerted on larger Mie particles decline greatly versus the varied imaginary part of permittivity. This work provides elaborate investigation on the different varying tendencies of gradient forces versus permittivity, which favors more accurate and free optical trapping.

  17. Effects of turbine's selection on hydraulic transients in the long pressurized water conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J X; Hu, M; Cai, F L; Huang, X T

    2014-01-01

    For a hydropower station with longer water conveyance system, an optimum turbine's selection will be beneficial to its reliable and stable operation. Different optional turbines will result in possible differences of the hydraulic characteristics in the hydromechanical system, and have different effects on the hydraulic transients' analysis and control. Therefore, the premise for turbine's selection is to fully understand the properties of the optional turbines and their effects on the hydraulic transients. After a brief introduction of the simulation models for hydraulic transients' computation and stability analysis, the effects of hydraulic turbine's characteristics at different operating points on the hydro-mechanical system's free vibration analysis were theoretically investigated with the hydraulic impedance analysis of the hydraulic turbine. For a hydropower station with long water conveyance system, based on the detailed hydraulic transients' computation respectively for two different optional turbines, the effects of the turbine's selection on hydraulic transients were analyzed. Furthermore, considering different operating conditions for each turbine and the similar operating conditions for these two turbines, free vibration analysis was comprehensively carried out to reveal the effects of turbine's impedance on system's vibration characteristics. The results indicate that, respectively with two different turbines, most of the controlling parameters under the worst cases have marginal difference, and few shows obvious differences; the turbine's impedances under different operating conditions have less effect on the natural angular frequencies; different turbine's characteristics and different operating points have obvious effects on system's vibration stability; for the similar operating conditions of these two turbines, system's vibration characteristics are basically consistent with

  18. Technical report on material selection and processing guidelines for BWR [boiling water reactor] coolant pressure boundary piping: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.S.; Koo, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    This report provides the technical bases for the NRC staff's revised recommended methods to control the intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of BWR piping. For piping that does not fully comply with the material selection, testing, and processing guideline combinations of this document, varying degrees of augmented inservice inspection are recommended. This revision also includes guidance and NRC staff recommendations (not requirements) regarding crack evaluation and weld overlay repair methods for long-term operation or for continuing interim operation of plants until a more permanent solution is implemented

  19. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Partial Pressure, and Materials Selection on Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractories for Entrained-Flow Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth

    The penetration rate of molten mineral contents (slag) from spent carbonaceous feedstock into porous ceramic-oxide refractory linings is a critical parameter in determining the lifecycle of integrated gasification combined cycle energy production plants. Refractory linings that withstand longer operation without interruption are desirable because they can mitigate consumable and maintenance costs. Although refractory degradation has been extensively studied for many other high-temperature industrial processes, this work focuses on the mechanisms that are unique to entrained-flow gasification systems. The use of unique feedstock mixtures, temperatures from 1450 °C to 1600 °C, and oxygen partial pressures from 10-7 atm to 10-9 atm pose engineering challenges in designing an optimal refractory material. Experimentation, characterization, and modeling show that gasifier slag infiltration into porous refractory is determined by interactions between the slag and the refractory that either form a physical barrier that impedes fluid flow or induce an increased fluid viscosity that decelerates the velocity of the fluid body. The viscosity of the slag is modified by the thermal profile of the refractory along the penetration direction as well as reactions between the slag and refractory that alter the chemistry, and thereby the thermo-physical properties of the fluid. Infiltration experiments reveal that the temperature gradient inherently present along the refractory lining limits penetration. A refractory in near-isothermal conditions demonstrates deeper slag penetration as compared to one that experiences a steeper thermal profile. The decrease in the local temperatures of the slag as it travels deeper into the refractory increases the viscosity of the fluid, which in turn slows the infiltration velocity of fluid body into the pores of the refractory microstructure. With feedstock mixtures that exhibit high iron-oxide concentrations, a transition-metal-oxide, the oxygen

  20. Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Marshall, Hollie; Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Thomas, Kelley W; Pfrender, Michael E; Spanier, Katina I; De Meester, Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in the presence of strong environmental selection. We address this key question using the water flea Daphnia magna, which produces dormant stages that accumulate in biological archives over time. We assess temporal genetic stability in three biological archives, previously used in resurrection ecology studies showing adaptive evolutionary responses to rapid environmental change. We show that neutral genetic diversity does not decline with the age of the population and it is maintained in the presence of strong selection. In addition, by comparing temporal genetic stability in hatched and unhatched populations from the same biological archive, we show that dormant egg banks can be consulted to obtain a reliable measure of genetic diversity over time, at least in the multidecadal time frame studied here. The stability of neutral genetic diversity through time is likely mediated by the buffering effect of the resting egg bank. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of FGR complexity modelling on the practical results in gas pressure calculation of selected fuel elements from Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, M.

    2001-01-01

    A modernization fuel system and advanced fuel for operation up to the high burnup are used in present time in Dukovany NPP. Reloading of the cores are evaluated using computer codes for thermomechanical behavior of the most loaded fuel rods. The paper presents results of parametric calculations performed by the NRI Rez integral code PIN, version 2000 (PIN2k) to assess influence of fission gas release modelling complexity on achieved results. The representative Dukovany NPP fuel rod irradiation history data are used and two cases of fuel parameter variables (soft and hard) are chosen for the comparison. Involved FGR models where the GASREL diffusion model developed in the NRI Rez plc and standard Weisman model that is recommended in the previous version of the PIN integral code. FGR calculation by PIN2k with GASREL model represents more realistic results than standard Weisman's model. Results for linear power, fuel centre temperature, FGR and gas pressure versus burnup are given for two fuel rods

  2. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Selected Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Surong; Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-03-01

    Emerging brominated flame retardants (eBFRs) other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and their derivatives in foods have been in focus in recent years due to their increasing production volumes, indefinite information on toxicities and the lack of data on occurrence in environments, foods as well as humans. In this study, gas chromatography was coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) for the analysis of six eBFRs in pork, chicken, egg, milk and fish. A short section of unpacked capillary column coupled to the end of the analytical column was applied to improve the chromatographic behaviors of high boiling point compounds. The method was comprehensively validated with method limit of quantification (mLOQ) lower than 8 pg/g wet weight (w.w.). Samples from Chinese Total Diet study were quantified following the validated APGC-MS/MS method. 2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-ethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were most frequently detected in samples. The highest concentration was found in fish with 351.9 pg/g w.w. of PBT. This is the first report on the presence of PBT in food samples with non-ignorable concentrations and detection rate.

  3. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Selected Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Surong; Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-03-10

    Emerging brominated flame retardants (eBFRs) other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and their derivatives in foods have been in focus in recent years due to their increasing production volumes, indefinite information on toxicities and the lack of data on occurrence in environments, foods as well as humans. In this study, gas chromatography was coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) for the analysis of six eBFRs in pork, chicken, egg, milk and fish. A short section of unpacked capillary column coupled to the end of the analytical column was applied to improve the chromatographic behaviors of high boiling point compounds. The method was comprehensively validated with method limit of quantification (mLOQ) lower than 8 pg/g wet weight (w.w.). Samples from Chinese Total Diet study were quantified following the validated APGC-MS/MS method. 2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-ethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were most frequently detected in samples. The highest concentration was found in fish with 351.9 pg/g w.w. of PBT. This is the first report on the presence of PBT in food samples with non-ignorable concentrations and detection rate.

  4. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  5. Mechanochemistry Induced Using Force Exerted by a Functionalized Microscope Tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yongfeng; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density...

  6. Juglans regia Hexane Extract Exerts Antitumor Effect, Apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Juglans regia Hexane Extract Exerts Antitumor Effect,. Apoptosis Induction and Cell Circle Arrest in Prostate. Cancer Cells In vitro. Wei Li1, De-Yuan Li2*, ... composition of walnut is juglone (5-hydroxy-1, 4- naphthoquinone), the .... extract was confirmed by studying apoptotic body formation using ...

  7. Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2015-06-01

    Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted.

  8. Forces exerted by jumping children: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Bakker, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study of the loads exerted vertically by children when jumping. The subjects of the study were 17 children, aged from two to twelve years. Measurements were made using video recordings and a force-plate. The influence of the stiffness of the base and of jumping with

  9. Mind the gap : probing exertion experience with experiential design landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Bogers, S.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our study on applying Experiential Design Landscapes as the basis of design process to support the design of exertion games. We approach this question by setting up an 8-day interaction design module with 7 groups of students. The methods of our module were developed based

  10. 20 CFR 220.132 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 220.132 Section 220.132 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... of walking and standing is often necessary in carrying out job duties. Jobs are sedentary if walking...

  11. Dietary rose hip exerts antiatherosclerotic effects and increases nitric oxide-mediated dilation in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl; Holm, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which rose hip lowers plasma cholesterol and to evaluate its effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation. ApoE-null mice were fed either an HFD (CTR) or HFD with rose hip supplementation (RH) for 24 weeks. At the end of the study, we found that blood pressure and atherosclerotic plaques, together with oxidized LDL, total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were markedly reduced in the RH group. Fecal cholesterol content, liver expression of Ldlr and selected reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) genes such as Abca1, Abcg1 and Scarb1 were significantly increased upon RH feeding. In the aorta, the scavenger receptor Cd36 and the proinflammatory Il1β genes were markedly down-regulated compared to the CTR mice. Finally, we found that RH increased nitric oxide-mediated dilation of the caudal artery. Taken together, these results suggest that rose hip is a suitable dietary supplement for preventing atherosclerotic plaques formation by modulating systemic blood pressure and the expression of RCT and inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Title: variations and sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Accuracy in blood pressure meters is of essence to health, especially in blood pressure monitoring and treatment. The aim of this research was to compare the readings and the sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors in use ...

  13. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  14. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  15. Effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on the adhesion properties of a thin adhesive layer in a selective transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min-Ah; Kim, Chan; Hur, Min; Kang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jaegu; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Seop

    2018-01-01

    The adhesion between a stamp and thin film devices is crucial for their transfer on a flexible substrate. In this paper, a thin adhesive silicone layer on the stamp was treated by atmospheric pressure plasma to locally control the adhesion strength for the selective transfer. The adhesion strength of the silicone layer was significantly reduced after the plasma treatment, while its surface energy was increased. To understand the inconsistency between the adhesion strength and surface energy changes, the surface properties of the silicone layer were characterized using nanoindentation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These techniques revealed that a thin, hard, silica-like layer had formed on the surface from plasma-enhanced oxidation. This layer played an important role in decreasing the contact area and increasing the interfacial slippage, resulting in decreased adhesion. As a practical application, the transfer process was demonstrated on GaN LEDs that had been previously delaminated by a laser lift-off (LLO) process. Although the LEDs were not transferred onto the treated adhesive layer due to the reduced adhesion, the untreated adhesive layer could readily pick up the LEDs. It is expected that this simple method of controlling the adhesion of a stamp with a thin adhesive layer would enable a continuous, selective and large-scale roll-to-roll selective transfer process and thereby advance the development of flexible, stretchable and wearable electronics.

  16. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaschen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length

  17. Unravelling anisogamy: egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on morphology in free-swimming sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-13

    Gamete dimorphism (anisogamy) defines the sexes in most multicellular organisms. Theoretical explanations for its maintenance usually emphasize the size-related selection pressures of sperm competition and zygote survival, assuming that fertilization of all eggs precludes selection for phenotypes that enhance fertility. In external fertilizers, however, fertilization is often incomplete due to sperm limitation, and the risk of polyspermy weakens the advantage of high sperm numbers that is predicted to limit sperm size, allowing alternative selection pressures to target free-swimming sperm. We asked whether egg size and ejaculate size mediate selection on the free-swimming sperm of Galeolaria caespitosa, a marine tubeworm with external fertilization, by comparing relationships between sperm morphology and male fertility across manipulations of egg size and sperm density. Our results suggest that selection pressures exerted by these factors may aid the maintenance of anisogamy in external fertilizers by limiting the adaptive value of larger sperm in the absence of competition. In doing so, our study offers a more complete explanation for the stability of anisogamy across the range of sperm environments typical of this mating system and identifies new potential for the sexes to coevolve via mutual selection pressures exerted by gametes at fertilization. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strains are inherited from parents and persist in the infant's intestines in the absence of selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelog, Martina; Grif, Katharina; Decristoforo, Cornelia; Würzner, Reinhard; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Brunner, Andrea; Zimmerhackl, Lothar Bernd; Orth, Dorothea

    2009-10-01

    The study investigated tetracycline (TC), ampicillin (AMP), cefazolin (CEF), and trimethoprim (TMP) resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the feces of 21 infants up to 6 months of age and in their parents in the absence of selective antimicrobial pressure. Clonality of strains was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three infants had resistant E. coli strains in their feces identical to the mothers' from week 1 on, which persisted over weeks. From week 2 on, in another four infants, persisting resistant E. coli were found, two of them identical to the mothers'. All of these persisting E. coli strains (except one family) showed at least resistance to TC. In infants, resistant E. coli strains inherited from their mothers tended to persist over months. Therefore, the persistence of resistant E. coli and their possible capacity to cause symptomatic infection or transfer its resistance genes to other bacteria deserves more attention.

  19. Improving the prognosis of diabetic patients: evaluating the role of intensive versus moderate blood pressure control with selective angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Bedigian

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ABCD (Appropriate Blood Pressure Control in Diabetes and ABCD-2V (Part 2 with Valsartan are prospective, randomised clinical trials which will provide important data on the impact of intensive vs. moderate blood pressure (BP control on microvascular and macrovascular complications in normotensive and hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The ABCD trial was a five-year study that compared the effects of intensive vs. moderate BP control on the endpoints of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease events using a calcium channel blocker (CCB and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor as the primary antihypertensive agents. The recently published results of the hypertensive cohort of ABCD are reviewed herein. The follow-up study, ABCD-2V, is ongoing and was designed to compare intensive vs. moderate BP control on the same endpoints as the ABCD study, using the highly selective angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB valsartan as the primary antihypertensive agent. First results of ABCD-2V are expected in 2004. The baseline characteristics for the patients enrolled thus far in the hypertensive cohort of ABCD-2V are reviewed. These studies will provide insight into the role of intensive vs. moderate BP control in the management of normotensive and hypertensive patients with type 2 DM.

  20. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  1. [Poor tolerance of exertion during sports and bronchial hyperreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiron-Josse, M; Boutet, S; Ginet, J

    1992-11-01

    135 sportsmen and women, 55 girls, 80 boys, aged from 7 to 30 years, from various sports, who complained of bad tolerance of exertion were examined with an exercise test and isocapnic spontaneous hyperventilation. 61, about 45%, during a hyperventilation test had a fall of V.E.M.S. greater than or equal to 20%, showing bronchial hyperreactivity. After three tests, this fall index was greater than or equal to 50%. 68% of the positive responses were seen in boys and 2/3 of the subjects with a positive response were atopics. No other argument could be maintained from the questioning or clinical history to predict the positive or negative character of the hyperventilation (age, sporting level, symptoms, previous asthma or asthmatic, allergy). H.S.V.I. of the chests of a sporting population that complains of exertion intolerance, therefore allows verification of an H.R.B. assessment of its severity and to follow evolution after treatment.

  2. Molecular evolution of pentatricopeptide repeat genes reveals truncation in species lacking an editing target and structural domains under distinct selective pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Michael L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins are required for numerous RNA processing events in plant organelles including C-to-U editing, splicing, stabilization, and cleavage. Fifteen PPR proteins are known to be required for RNA editing at 21 sites in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, and belong to the PLS class of PPR proteins. In this study, we investigate the co-evolution of four PPR genes (CRR4, CRR21, CLB19, and OTP82 and their six editing targets in Brassicaceae species. PPR genes are composed of approximately 10 to 20 tandem repeats and each repeat has two α-helical regions, helix A and helix B, that are separated by short coil regions. Each repeat and structural feature was examined to determine the selective pressures on these regions. Results All of the PPR genes examined are under strong negative selection. Multiple independent losses of editing site targets are observed for both CRR21 and OTP82. In several species lacking the known editing target for CRR21, PPR genes are truncated near the 17th PPR repeat. The coding sequences of the truncated CRR21 genes are maintained under strong negative selection; however, the 3’ UTR sequences beyond the truncation site have substantially diverged. Phylogenetic analyses of four PPR genes show that sequences corresponding to helix A are high compared to helix B sequences. Differential evolutionary selection of helix A versus helix B is observed in both plant and mammalian PPR genes. Conclusion PPR genes and their cognate editing sites are mutually constrained in evolution. Editing sites are frequently lost by replacement of an edited C with a genomic T. After the loss of an editing site, the PPR genes are observed with three outcomes: first, few changes are detected in some cases; second, the PPR gene is present as a pseudogene; and third, the PPR gene is present but truncated in the C-terminal region. The retention of truncated forms of CRR21 that are maintained under strong negative

  3. Molecular evolution of pentatricopeptide repeat genes reveals truncation in species lacking an editing target and structural domains under distinct selective pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Mulligan, R Michael

    2012-05-14

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required for numerous RNA processing events in plant organelles including C-to-U editing, splicing, stabilization, and cleavage. Fifteen PPR proteins are known to be required for RNA editing at 21 sites in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, and belong to the PLS class of PPR proteins. In this study, we investigate the co-evolution of four PPR genes (CRR4, CRR21, CLB19, and OTP82) and their six editing targets in Brassicaceae species. PPR genes are composed of approximately 10 to 20 tandem repeats and each repeat has two α-helical regions, helix A and helix B, that are separated by short coil regions. Each repeat and structural feature was examined to determine the selective pressures on these regions. All of the PPR genes examined are under strong negative selection. Multiple independent losses of editing site targets are observed for both CRR21 and OTP82. In several species lacking the known editing target for CRR21, PPR genes are truncated near the 17th PPR repeat. The coding sequences of the truncated CRR21 genes are maintained under strong negative selection; however, the 3' UTR sequences beyond the truncation site have substantially diverged. Phylogenetic analyses of four PPR genes show that sequences corresponding to helix A are high compared to helix B sequences. Differential evolutionary selection of helix A versus helix B is observed in both plant and mammalian PPR genes. PPR genes and their cognate editing sites are mutually constrained in evolution. Editing sites are frequently lost by replacement of an edited C with a genomic T. After the loss of an editing site, the PPR genes are observed with three outcomes: first, few changes are detected in some cases; second, the PPR gene is present as a pseudogene; and third, the PPR gene is present but truncated in the C-terminal region. The retention of truncated forms of CRR21 that are maintained under strong negative selection even in the absence of an editing site target

  4. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of input power and gas pressure on the roughening and selective etching of SiO2/Si surfaces in reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, X. X.; Huang, X. Z.; Tam, E.; Ostrikov, K.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the application low-temperature plasmas for roughening Si surfaces which is becoming increasingly important for a number of applications ranging from Si quantum dots to cell and protein attachment for devices such as 'laboratory on a chip' and sensors. It is a requirement that Si surface roughening is scalable and is a single-step process. It is shown that the removal of naturally forming SiO 2 can be used to assist in the roughening of the surface using a low-temperature plasma-based etching approach, similar to the commonly used in semiconductor micromanufacturing. It is demonstrated that the selectivity of SiO 2 /Si etching can be easily controlled by tuning the plasma power, working gas pressure, and other discharge parameters. The achieved selectivity ranges from 0.4 to 25.2 thus providing an effective means for the control of surface roughness of Si during the oxide layer removal, which is required for many advance applications in bio- and nanotechnology.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Selective Pressure in Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1-6: Significance for Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment and Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Lize; Li, Guangdi; Libin, Pieter; Piampongsant, Supinya; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Theys, Kristof

    2015-09-16

    Treatment with pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals, targeting different viral proteins, is the best option for clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronically infected patients. However, the diversity of the HCV genome is a major obstacle for the development of antiviral drugs, vaccines, and genotyping assays. In this large-scale analysis, genome-wide diversity and selective pressure was mapped, focusing on positions important for treatment, drug resistance, and resistance testing. A dataset of 1415 full-genome sequences, including genotypes 1-6 from the Los Alamos database, was analyzed. In 44% of all full-genome positions, the consensus amino acid was different for at least one genotype. Focusing on positions sharing the same consensus amino acid in all genotypes revealed that only 15% was defined as pan-genotypic highly conserved (≥99% amino acid identity) and an additional 24% as pan-genotypic conserved (≥95%). Despite its large genetic diversity, across all genotypes, codon positions were rarely identified to be positively selected (0.23%-0.46%) and predominantly found to be under negative selective pressure, suggesting mainly neutral evolution. For NS3, NS5A, and NS5B, respectively, 40% (6/15), 33% (3/9), and 14% (2/14) of the resistance-related positions harbored as consensus the amino acid variant related to resistance, potentially impeding treatment. For example, the NS3 variant 80K, conferring resistance to simeprevir used for treatment of HCV1 infected patients, was present in 39.3% of the HCV1a strains and 0.25% of HCV1b strains. Both NS5A variants 28M and 30S, known to be associated with resistance to the pan-genotypic drug daclatasvir, were found in a significant proportion of HCV4 strains (10.7%). NS5B variant 556G, known to confer resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitor dasabuvir, was observed in 8.4% of the HCV1b strains. Given the large HCV genetic diversity, sequencing efforts for resistance testing purposes may need to be

  7. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  8. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  9. Distinguishing HIV-1 drug resistance, accessory, and viral fitness mutations using conditional selection pressure analysis of treated versus untreated patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV can evolve drug resistance rapidly in response to new drug treatments, often through a combination of multiple mutations 123. It would be useful to develop automated analyses of HIV sequence polymorphism that are able to predict drug resistance mutations, and to distinguish different types of functional roles among such mutations, for example, those that directly cause drug resistance, versus those that play an accessory role. Detecting functional interactions between mutations is essential for this classification. We have adapted a well-known measure of evolutionary selection pressure (Ka/Ks and developed a conditional Ka/Ks approach to detect important interactions. Results We have applied this analysis to four independent HIV protease sequencing datasets: 50,000 clinical samples sequenced by Specialty Laboratories, Inc.; 1800 samples from patients treated with protease inhibitors; 2600 samples from untreated patients; 400 samples from untreated African patients. We have identified 428 mutation interactions in Specialty dataset with statistical significance and we were able to distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations for many well-studied examples. Amino acid interactions identified by conditional Ka/Ks matched 80 of 92 pair wise interactions found by a completely independent study of HIV protease (p-value for this match is significant: 10-70. Furthermore, Ka/Ks selection pressure results were highly reproducible among these independent datasets, both qualitatively and quantitatively, suggesting that they are detecting real drug-resistance and viral fitness mutations in the wild HIV-1 population. Conclusion Conditional Ka/Ks analysis can detect mutation interactions and distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations in HIV-1. Ka/Ks analysis of treated vs. untreated patient data can distinguish drug-resistance vs. viral fitness mutations. Verification of these results would require longitudinal studies. The result

  10. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  11. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-09-01

    To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  12. Trace analysis of selected hormones and sterols in river sediments by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Ivana; Grujić, Svetlana; Jauković, Zorica; Laušević, Mila

    2014-10-17

    In this paper, development and optimization of new LC-MS method for determination of twenty selected hormones, human/animal and plant sterols in river sediments were described. Sediment samples were prepared using ultrasonic extraction and clean up with silica gel/anhydrous sodium sulphate cartridge. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The optimized extraction parameters were extraction solvent (methanol), weight of the sediment (2 g) and time of ultrasonic extraction (3× 10 min). Successful chromatographic separation of hormones (estriol and estrone, 17α- and 17β-estradiol) and four human/animal sterols (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, α-cholestanol and β-cholestanol) that have identical fragmentation reactions was achieved. The developed and optimized method provided high recoveries (73-118%), low limits of detection (0.8-18 ng g(-1)) and quantification (2.5-60 ng g(-1)) with the RSDs generally lower than 20%. Applicability of the developed method was confirmed by analysis of six river sediment samples. A widespread occurrence of human/animal and plant sterols was found. The only detected hormone was mestranol in just one sediment sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of B16-BL6 murine melanoma metastatic phenotype by tyrosine and phenylalanine restriction in the absence of host selection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, C A; Meadows, G G

    1993-01-01

    We previously showed that restriction of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) in vivo dramatically suppresses the metastatic phenotype of B16-BL6 (BL6) murine melanoma. Present results indicate a direct effect of Tyr and Phe restriction on the tumor in the absence of host selection pressures. Lung colonizing ability of BL6 is dramatically suppressed after one passage in vitro in media containing low levels of Tyr and Phe. This antimetastatic effect is immediate, stable for at least 5 in vitro passages in Tyr and Phe restricted media, and evident event after levels of Tyr and Phe are restored to normal. Heterogeneity for lung colonizing ability is suppressed, as evidence by fewer tumor colonies formed by clones following i.v. inoculation into mice fed normal diet. This suppression of BL6 metastatic phenotype is not due to differential clearance and retention in the lung or to decreased growth, but is specific for these two amino acids. As the mechanism(s) for the antitumor effects of Tyr and Phe restriction are detailed, the relevance of Tyr and Phe restriction as an early adjuvant to effective cancer treatment can be explored.

  14. Characterization of Carbon-Contaminated B4C-Coated Optics after Chemically Selective Cleaning with Low-Pressure RF Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Fernández, H; Rogler, D; Sauthier, G; Thomasset, M; Dietsch, R; Carlino, V; Pellegrin, E

    2018-01-22

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is one of the few materials that is expected to be most resilient with respect to the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam generated by free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at light source facilities, B 4 C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. Carbon contaminations represent a serious issue for the operation of FEL beamlines due to severe reduction of photon flux, beam coherence, creation of destructive interference, and scattering losses. A variety of B 4 C cleaning technologies were developed at different laboratories with varying success. We present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of carbon contaminated B 4 C test samples via inductively coupled O 2 /Ar, H 2 /Ar, and pure O 2 RF plasma produced following previous studies using the same ibss GV10x downstream plasma source. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B 4 C optical coating before and after the plasma cleaning are reported. We conclude that among the above plasma processes only plasma based on pure O 2 feedstock gas exhibits the required chemical selectivity for maintaining the integrity of the B 4 C optical coatings.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Characterizing Pressure Sensors using Modulated Light Beam Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Embodiments of apparatuses and methods are provided that use light sources instead of sound sources for characterizing and calibrating sensors for measuring small pressures to mitigate many of the problems with using sound sources. In one embodiment an apparatus has a light source for directing a beam of light on a sensing surface of a pressure sensor for exerting a force on the sensing surface. The pressure sensor generates an electrical signal indicative of the force exerted on the sensing surface. A modulator modulates the beam of light. A signal processor is electrically coupled to the pressure sensor for receiving the electrical signal.

  16. Basolateral amygdalar D2 receptor activation is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chian-Fang G; Yu, Lung; Wang, Ching-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The presence of companions renders decreases in cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) magnitude. Limbic systems are widely believed to underlie the modulation of accumbal dopamine release and cocaine conditioning. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether intact basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Three cage mates, serving as companions, were arranged to house with the experimental mice in the cocaine conditioning compartment throughout the cocaine conditioning sessions. Approximately 1week before the conditioning procedure, intracranial ibotenic acid infusions were done in an attempt to cause excitotoxic lesions targeting bilateral BLA, DH and DLS. Albeit their BLA, DH, and DLS lesions, the lesioned mice exhibited comparable cocaine-induced CPP magnitudes compared to the intact and sham lesion controls. Bilateral BLA, but not DH or DLS, lesions abolished the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intact mice receiving intra-BLA infusion of raclopride, a selective D2 antagonist, 30min prior to the cocaine conditioning did not exhibit the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intra-BLA infusion of Sch23390, a selective D1 antagonist, did not affect the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the CPP. These results, taken together, prompt us to conclude that the intactness of BLA is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Importantly, activation of D2 receptor in the BLA is required for such suppressive effect on the CPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  18. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  19. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  20. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICP) measurement (Fig. 1). Testing of the flexor compart- ments revealed a raised resting pressure of 16 ... the following values suggestive of CECS in the lower limb: A pre- ... toxin decreases muscle mass and therefore causes a reduction of.

  1. An adaptive technique for multiscale approximate entropy (MAEbin) threshold (r) selection: application to heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) under postural stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amritpal; Saini, Barjinder Singh; Singh, Dilbag

    2016-06-01

    Multiscale approximate entropy (MAE) is used to quantify the complexity of a time series as a function of time scale τ. Approximate entropy (ApEn) tolerance threshold selection 'r' is based on either: (1) arbitrary selection in the recommended range (0.1-0.25) times standard deviation of time series (2) or finding maximum ApEn (ApEnmax) i.e., the point where self-matches start to prevail over other matches and choosing the corresponding 'r' (rmax) as threshold (3) or computing rchon by empirically finding the relation between rmax, SD1/SD2 ratio and N using curve fitting, where, SD1 and SD2 are short-term and long-term variability of a time series respectively. None of these methods is gold standard for selection of 'r'. In our previous study [1], an adaptive procedure for selection of 'r' is proposed for approximate entropy (ApEn). In this paper, this is extended to multiple time scales using MAEbin and multiscale cross-MAEbin (XMAEbin). We applied this to simulations i.e. 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series, fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and MIX (P) [1] series of data length of N = 300 and short term recordings of HRV and SBPV performed under postural stress from supine to standing. MAEbin and XMAEbin analysis was performed on laboratory recorded data of 50 healthy young subjects experiencing postural stress from supine to upright. The study showed that (i) ApEnbin of HRV is more than SBPV in supine position but is lower than SBPV in upright position (ii) ApEnbin of HRV decreases from supine i.e. 1.7324 ± 0.112 (mean ± SD) to upright 1.4916 ± 0.108 due to vagal inhibition (iii) ApEnbin of SBPV increases from supine i.e. 1.5535 ± 0.098 to upright i.e. 1.6241 ± 0.101 due sympathetic activation (iv) individual and cross complexities of RRi and systolic blood pressure (SBP) series depend on time scale under consideration (v) XMAEbin calculated using ApEnmax is correlated with cross-MAE calculated using ApEn (0.1-0.26) in steps of 0

  2. Physical Exertion and Immediate Classroom Mental Performance Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    This study was designed (1) to investigate the relationship between physical exertion and mental performance in elementary school children and (2) to determine if male or female mental performances are more affected by physical exertion. A total of 95 second graders participated in six treatments of induced physical exertion during their regularly…

  3. Identification of Outlier Loci Responding to Anthropogenic and Natural Selection Pressure in Stream Insects Based on a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water quality maintenance should be considered from an ecological perspective since water is a substrate ingredient in the biogeochemical cycle and is closely linked with ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing the status of live organisms in aquatic ecosystems is a critical issue for appropriate prediction and water quality management. Recently, genetic changes in biological organisms have garnered more attention due to their in-depth expression of environmental stress on aquatic ecosystems in an integrative manner. We demonstrate that genetic diversity would adaptively respond to environmental constraints in this study. We applied a self-organizing map (SOM to characterize complex Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP of aquatic insects in six streams in Japan with natural and anthropogenic variability. After SOM training, the loci compositions of aquatic insects effectively responded to environmental selection pressure. To measure how important the role of loci compositions was in the population division, we altered the AFLP data by flipping the existence of given loci individual by individual. Subsequently we recognized the cluster change of the individuals with altered data using the trained SOM. Based on SOM recognition of these altered data, we determined the outlier loci (over 90th percentile that showed drastic changes in their belonging clusters (D. Subsequently environmental responsiveness (Ek’ was also calculated to address relationships with outliers in different species. Outlier loci were sensitive to slightly polluted conditions including Chl-a, NH4-N, NOX-N, PO4-P, and SS, and the food material, epilithon. Natural environmental factors such as altitude and sediment additionally showed relationships with outliers in somewhat lower levels. Poly-loci like responsiveness was detected in adapting to environmental constraints. SOM training followed by recognition shed light on developing algorithms de novo to

  4. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  5. Lactocepin Secreted By Lactobacillus Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects By Selectively Degrading Proinflammatory Chemokines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    von Schillde, M. A.; Hörmannsperger, G.; Weiher, M.; Alpert, C. A.; Hahne, H.; Bäuerl, Ch.; van Huynegem, K.; Steidler, L.; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Pérez-Martínez, G.; Kuster, B.; Haller, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2012), s. 387-396 ISSN 1931-3128 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E09091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE * LACTIC-ACID BACTERIA * ULCERATIVE-COLITIS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 12.609, year: 2012

  6. Revised model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves on a rigid cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shen; Chaohui, Wang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a rigid cylinder in inviscid fluids is extended to account for the dependence on the Rayleigh angle. The conventional model for the radiation force used in the SSAW-based applications is developed in plane standing waves, which fails to predict the movement of the cylinder in the SSAW. Our revised model reveals that, in the direction normal to the piezoelectric substrate on which the SSAW is generated, acoustic radiation force can be large enough to drive the cylinder even in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, the force in this direction can not only push the cylinder away, but also pull it back toward the substrate. In the direction parallel to the substrate, the equilibrium positions for particles can be actively tuned by changing Rayleigh angle. As an example considered in the paper, with the reduction of Rayleigh angle the equilibrium positions for steel cylinders in water change from pressure nodes to pressure antinodes. The model can thus be used in the design of SSAWs for particle manipulations.

  7. Association between work engagement and perceived exertion among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complaints and musculoskeletal discomforts are common manifestations of individuals affected by work-related disorders (WRMD, and the influence of individual and/or psychosocial risk factors may play a significant role in WRMD development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare work engagement (WE and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and to assess the association between indexes of WE and RPE among healthcare workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen female subjects (36 ± 11 years, 1.58 ± 0.06 m and 59 ± 9 kg participated, all officially employed on a nonprofit agency. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints and the Borg Scale used to evaluate the RPE. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale quantified WE (vigor, dedication and absorption domains. Participants were divided into two groups, according to their sectors: healthcare clinics and institution for the elderly. The independent student t test was used to verify differences between groups and the chi-square test to verify associations between variables. RESULTS: All subjects reported musculoskeletal complaints, mainly in the low back (58%. RPE did not differ between groups, while in the vigor, it was found a significant statistically difference (p = 0.035. An association between RPE and vigor and RPE and dedication was establish (p = 0.02 and p = 0.036, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between WE and RPE suggests that workers with lower indexes of vigor and dedication may perceive greater physical demand, which can be imposed by work demands.

  8. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions.

  9. Metallic nanomaterials formed by exerting large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, M; Richert, J.; Zasadzinski, J.; Hawrylkiewicz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations included pure Al and Cu single crystals, AlMg5 alloy and AlCuZr alloy have been presented. The materials were deformed by the cyclic extrusion compression method (CEC) within the range of true strains φ = 0.4-59.8 (1 to 67 deformation cycles by the CEC method). In all examined materials a strong tendency to form banded was observed. Within the range of very large plastic strains there was observed intensive rebuilding of the banded microstructure into subgrains, at first of rhombic shape, and next into equiaxial subgrains. A characteristic feature of the newly formed subgrains, not encountered in the range of conventional deformations, was the occurrence of large misorientation angles between the newly formed subgrains. The proportion of large misorientation angles in the microstructure varied, and it increased with increasing deformation. Reduction of the recovery process in AlMg5 and AlCuZr alloys preserved the growth of the newly formed nanograins, favoring the retaining of the nanomeric dimensions. This results show that there is the effective possibility of production of metallic nanomaterials by exerting of very large nonconventional plastic strains. (author)

  10. Synthetic oligorotaxanes exert high forces when folding under mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Damien; Hubert, Sandrine; Bruns, Carson J.; Zhu, Zhixue; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Duwez, Anne-Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Folding is a ubiquitous process that nature uses to control the conformations of its molecular machines, allowing them to perform chemical and mechanical tasks. Over the years, chemists have synthesized foldamers that adopt well-defined and stable folded architectures, mimicking the control expressed by natural systems1,2. Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, are prototypical molecular machines that enable the controlled movement and positioning of their component parts3-5. Recently, combining the exquisite complexity of these two classes of molecules, donor-acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers have been synthesized, in which interactions between the mechanically interlocked component parts dictate the single-molecule assembly into a folded secondary structure6-8. Here we report on the mechanochemical properties of these molecules. We use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically unfold oligorotaxanes, made of oligomeric dumbbells incorporating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. Real-time capture of fluctuations between unfolded and folded states reveals that the molecules exert forces of up to 50 pN against a mechanical load of up to 150 pN, and displays transition times of less than 10 μs. While the folding is at least as fast as that observed in proteins, it is remarkably more robust, thanks to the mechanically interlocked structure. Our results show that synthetic oligorotaxanes have the potential to exceed the performance of natural folding proteins.

  11. Petiveria alliacea exerts mnemonic and learning effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Paixão, Thiago Portal da; Silva, João Paulo Bastos; Belém-Filho, Ivaldo Jesus Almeida; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina Baetas; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; de Andrade, Marciene Ataíde; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz

    2015-07-01

    Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Amazon region and other tropical areas such as Central America and the Caribbean. Popularly known as mucuracaá, P. alliacea is used in the folk medicine for a broad variety of therapeutic purpose and also in religious ceremonies by slaves as a sedative, which highlights its properties on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The present study evaluated the effects of the P. alliacea leaves hydroalcoholic extract (PaLHE) on the cognition, including learning and memory. Three-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=8-10/group) were administered with 900mg/kg of PaLHE. The behavioral assays included Step-down Inhibitory avoidance (IA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Consistent with our previous reports, P. alliacea improved long-term memory. It also exerted previously unreported effects on short-term and spatial memory improvement, and increased learning in the tasks. The P. alliacea extract elicited mnemonic effects and improved the learning process in both IA and MWM tests. Our results highlight the importance of further studies in order to identify the active substances of the PaLHE and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms that underlies the reported effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exertion Testing in Youth with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteo, Carol; Volterman, Kimberly A; Breithaupt, Peter G; Claridge, Everett A; Adamich, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    The decision regarding return to activity (RTA) after mild traumatic brain injuries/concussion is one of the most difficult and controversial areas in concussion management, particularly for youth. This study investigated how youth with postconcussion syndrome (PCS) are affected by exertion and whether standardized exertion testing using the McMaster All-Out Progressive Continuous Cycling Test can contribute to clinical decision making for safe RTA. Fifty-four youth (8.5-18.3 yr) with a previously confirmed concussion participated in the study. Each participant performed exertion testing on a cycle ergometer and completed a Postconcussion Symptom scale at the following time points: before exertion (baseline), 5 and 30 min, and 24 h after exertion. A modified Postconcussion Symptom scale was administered at 2-min intervals during exertion. Participants had a mean ± SD symptom duration of 6.3 ± 6.9 months after the most recent concussive injury, with a median of 4.1 months (range, 0.7-35 months). Sixty-three percent of participants had symptoms during exertion testing. Symptom profile (number and severity) significantly affected perception of exertion at 50% peak mechanical power. During acute assessment of symptoms (30-min after exertion), headache (P = 0.39), nausea (P = 0.63), and dizziness (P = 0.35) did not change. However, both the number and severity of symptoms significantly improved over 24 h, with 56.8% of youth showing improvements. The time from the most recent injury had a significant effect on the symptom score at baseline, 30 min after exertion, and 24 h after exertion. Exertion testing has an important role in the evaluation of symptoms and readiness to RTA, particularly in youth who are slow to recover. Overall, controlled exertion seemed to lesson symptoms for most youth.

  13. Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E-L; Avemary, J; Zellinger, C; Algermissen, D; Bock, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Potschka, H

    2012-08-01

    Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and

  14. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  16. Exertional Heat Illness and Hyponatremia: An Epidemiological Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    physical fitness Excessive body weight Dehydration >1-h aerobic intense exercise Alcohol Peer pressure/motivation Medical Febrile illness...The use of stimulants (e.g., ephedra, cocaine, heroin , and methamphetamine) has been associated as a risk factor in EHI. Stimulants increase heat...the casual pathway of HYPO. Hyponatremia (water intoxication ) during endurance exercise was first described by Noakes and colleagues (2) and has been

  17. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-05-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts. The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry. SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities. NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.

  18. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7–14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  19. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  20. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  1. Forefoot running improves pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebal, Angela R; Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J Parry

    2012-05-01

    Anterior compartment pressures of the leg as well as kinematic and kinetic measures are significantly influenced by running technique. It is unknown whether adopting a forefoot strike technique will decrease the pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in hindfoot strike runners. For people who have CECS, adopting a forefoot strike running technique will lead to decreased pain and disability associated with this condition. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Ten patients with CECS indicated for surgical release were prospectively enrolled. Resting and postrunning compartment pressures, kinematic and kinetic measurements, and self-report questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of a forefoot strike running intervention. Run distance and reported pain levels were recorded. A 15-point global rating of change (GROC) scale was used to measure perceived change after the intervention. After 6 weeks of forefoot run training, mean postrun anterior compartment pressures significantly decreased from 78.4 ± 32.0 mm Hg to 38.4 ± 11.5 mm Hg. Vertical ground-reaction force and impulse values were significantly reduced. Running distance significantly increased from 1.4 ± 0.6 km before intervention to 4.8 ± 0.5 km 6 weeks after intervention, while reported pain while running significantly decreased. The Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) significantly increased from 49.9 ± 21.4 to 90.4 ± 10.3, and the Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS) significantly increased from 67.3 ± 13.7 to 91.5 ± 8.5. The GROC scores at 6 weeks after intervention were between 5 and 7 for all patients. One year after the intervention, the SANE and LLOS scores were greater than reported during the 6-week follow-up. Two-mile run times were also significantly faster than preintervention values. No patient required surgery. In 10 consecutive patients with CECS, a 6-week forefoot strike running intervention led to decreased

  2. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  3. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  4. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  5. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  6. Selecting fish-based metrics responding to human pressures in French natural lakes and reservoirs: towards the development of a fish-based index (FBI) for French lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Launois, L.; Veslot, J.; Irz, P.; Argillier, C.

    2010-01-01

    1.Fish-based indices of biotic integrity (IBI) have been developed for many lotic systems but remain scarce for lakes. The goal of the present study was to assess the responses of lentic fish assemblages to anthropogenic pressures when environmental variability was controlled for, and to compare them between French natural lakes and reservoirs. 2.Environmental features, catchment-scale anthropogenic descriptors and fish data were collected from 30 natural lakes and 59 reservoirs throughout...

  7. Impaired Player-Coach Perceptions of Exertion and Recovery During Match Congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Steven H.; Brink, Michel S.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    During intensified phases of competition, attunement of exertion and recovery is crucial to maintain performance. Although a mismatch between coach' and players' perceptions of training load is demonstrated, it is unknown if these discrepancies also exist for match exertion and recovery. PURPOSE:

  8. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis at a Low Pressure on Subnanometer Cobalt Oxide Clusters: The Effect of Cluster Size and Support on Activity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Sönke; Winans, Randall E.; Vajda, Stefan

    2015-05-21

    In this study, the catalytic activity and changes in the oxidation state during the Fischer Tropsch (FT) reaction was investigated on subnanometer size-selected cobalt clusters deposited on oxide (Al2O3, MgO) and carbon-based (ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD) supports by temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) combined with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray absorption characterization (GIXAS). The activity and selectivity of ultrasmall cobalt clusters exhibits a very strong dependence on cluster size and support. The evolution of the oxidation state of metal cluster during the reaction reveals that metal-support interaction plays a key role in the reaction.

  9. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Cai, Hongfei; Li, Yang; Chen, Caiwen; Cui, Youbin

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional support, and the other patients not supported nutritionally were selected as the control group. The comparison was drawn between two groups in serum albumin, serum immunoglobulin, postoperative complications, hospitalization, and hospitalization expenses. For all the patients, in 3 and 7 days after the surgery, the serum albumin in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that in group without nutritional support ( P nutritional risk. For the patients in the risk of nutrition, the IgA in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that of group without nutritional support ( P group without nutritional support in 1 and 3 days before the surgery ( P nutrition, the average hospitalization of nutritionally supported group was shorter ( P group without nutritional support. And for the patients in no risk, the hospitalization expenses of supported group surmounted those of group without nutritional support ( P 0.05). For the patients in the risk of nutrition, preoperative nutritional support can facilitate the nutritional status and immunization-relative result after surgery, which shall also decrease the average hospitalization and hospitalization cost.

  10. On the role of thermal fluid dynamics into the evolution of porosity during selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwisawas, C.; Qiu, C.L.; Sovani, Y.; Brooks, J.W.; Attallah, M.M.; Basoalto, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal fluid dynamics and experiments have been used to study the evolution of pores during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V. Scanning electron micrographs show that the morphology of pores changed from near-spherical to elongated shape as the laser scan speed increased. Computational fluid dynamics suggests that this is caused by the change of flow pattern in the melt pool which is dictated by forces such as vapour pressure, gravitational force, capillary and thermal capillary forces exerted on the metallic/gaseous interface

  11. High-pressure vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived oxygenates to hydrocarbons by a PtMo bimetallic catalyst: Product selectivity, reaction pathway, and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohe, Sara L.; Choudhari, Harshavardhan J.; Mehta, Dhairya D.; Dietrich, Paul J.; Detwiler, Michael D.; Akatay, Cem M.; Stach, Eric A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delgass, W. Nicholas; Agrawal, Rakesh; Ribeiro, Fabio H.

    2016-12-01

    High-pressure, vapor-phase, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions of dihydroeugenol (2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), as well as other phenolic, lignin-derived compounds, were investigated over a bimetallic platinum and molybdenum catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (5%Pt2.5%Mo/MWCNT). Hydrocarbons were obtained in 100% yield from dihydroeugenol, including 98% yield of the hydrocarbon propylcyclohexane. The final hydrocarbon distribution was shown to be a strong function of hydrogen partial pressure. Kinetic analysis showed three main dihydroeugenol reaction pathways: HDO, hydrogenation, and alkylation. The major pathway occurred via Pt catalyzed hydrogenation of the aromatic ring and methoxy group cleavage to form 4-propylcyclohexanol, then Mo catalyzed removal of the hydroxyl group by dehydration to form propylcyclohexene, followed by hydrogenation of propylcyclohexene on either the Pt or Mo to form the propylcyclohexane. Transalkylation by the methoxy group occurred as a minor side reaction. Catalyst characterization techniques including chemisorption, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the catalyst structure. Catalyst components identified were Pt particles, bimetallic PtMo particles, a Mo carbide-like phase, and Mo oxide phases.

  12. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pathogen-driven selection in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases and epidemics have always accompanied and characterized human history, representing one of the main causes of death. Even today, despite progress in sanitation and medical research, infections are estimated to account for about 15% of deaths. The hypothesis whereby infectious diseases have been acting as a powerful selective pressure was formulated long ago, but it was not until the availability of large-scale genetic data and the development of novel methods to study molecular evolution that we could assess how pervasively infectious agents have shaped human genetic diversity. Indeed, recent evidences indicated that among the diverse environmental factors that acted as selective pressures during the evolution of our species, pathogen load had the strongest influence. Beside the textbook example of the major histocompatibility complex, selection signatures left by pathogen-exerted pressure can be identified at several human loci, including genes not directly involved in immune response. In the future, high-throughput technologies and the availability of genetic data from different populations are likely to provide novel insights into the evolutionary relationships between the human host and its pathogens. Hopefully, this will help identify the genetic determinants modulating the susceptibility to infectious diseases and will translate into new treatment strategies.

  14. Minocycline fails to exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat status epilepticus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmann, Vera; Goc, Joanna; Boes, Katharina; Ongerth, Tanja; Salvamoser, Josephine D; Siegl, Claudia; Potschka, Heidrun

    2016-01-15

    The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline can exert strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. There is cumulating evidence that epileptogenic brain insults trigger neuroinflammation and anti-inflammatory concepts can modulate the process of epileptogenesis. Based on the mechanisms of action discussed for minocycline, the compound is of interest for intervention studies as it can prevent the polarization of microglia into a pro-inflammatory state. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sub-chronic minocycline administration initiated immediately following an electrically-induced status epilepticus in rats. The treatment did not affect the development of spontaneous seizures. However, minocycline attenuated behavioral long-term consequences of status epilepticus with a reduction in hyperactivity and hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, the compound limited the spatial learning deficits observed in the post-status epilepticus model. The typical status epilepticus-induced neuronal cell loss was evident in the hippocampus and the piriform cortex. Minocycline exposure selectively protected neurons in the piriform cortex and the hilus, but not in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. In conclusion, the data argue against an antiepileptogenic effect of minocycline in adult rats. However, the findings suggest a disease-modifying impact of the tetracycline affecting the development of behavioral co-morbidities, as well as long-term consequences on spatial learning. In addition, minocycline administration resulted in a selective neuroprotective effect. Although strong anti-inflammatory effects have been proposed for minocycline, we could not verify these effects in our experimental model. Considering the multitude of mechanisms claimed to contribute to minocycline's effects, it is of interest to further explore the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Gara, Alan; O& #x27; Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2013-03-12

    Mechanisms are provided for controlling version pressure on a speculative versioning cache. Raw version pressure data is collected based on one or more threads accessing cache lines of the speculative versioning cache. One or more statistical measures of version pressure are generated based on the collected raw version pressure data. A determination is made as to whether one or more modifications to an operation of a data processing system are to be performed based on the one or more statistical measures of version pressure, the one or more modifications affecting version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache. An operation of the data processing system is modified based on the one or more determined modifications, in response to a determination that one or more modifications to the operation of the data processing system are to be performed, to affect the version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache.

  16. Making synthetic mudstone: Parametric resedimentation studies at high effective stress to determine controls on breakthrough pressure and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Cockrell, L.; Espinoza, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. As CO2 rises buoyantly within a reservoir it pools beneath a caprock and a pressure is exerted upon the pores of the caprock proportionally to the height of the pool. The breakthrough pressure is the point at which CO2 begins to flow freely across the caprock. Understanding the mineralogical and grain size controls on breakthrough pressure is important for screening the security of CO2 sequestration sites. However, breakthrough pressure and permeability measurements on caprocks are difficult to conduct in a systematic manner given the variability in and heterogeneity of naturally occurring mudstones and shales causing significant noise and scatter in the literature. Recent work has even revealed the ability for CO2 to pass through thin shale beds at relatively low pressures. To broaden the understanding of shale breakthrough and permeability, we developed an approach that allows for the creation of resedimented mudstones at high effective stresses. Resedimented samples also include calcium carbonate cement. Using this technique, we explore the controls on entry pressure, breakthrough pressure, and permeability of synthetic mudstones. Understanding the effect of mineralogy and grain size on the permeability and breakthrough pressure of mudstones at reservoir stresses will help in the selection and uncertainty quantification of secure CO2 storage sites.

  17. A prospective blinded evaluation of exercise thallium-201 SPET in patients with suspected chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trease, L.; Every, B. van; Rynderman, J.; Baldey, A.; Turlakow, A.; Kelly, Michael J.; Bennell, K.; Brukner, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the quantitative and qualitative results of leg thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in patients with and without raised intracompartmental pressure associated with exercise-related leg pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the aetiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), and to investigate the diagnostic applications of 201 Tl SPET in CECS. Thirty-four study participants underwent compartment pressure testing (CPT) between March and August 2000. There were 25 positive CPT results (patient group), and nine negative CPT results (control group). All 34 participants underwent scintigraphy. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed for the anterolateral and deep posterior compartments of the lower leg. There was no significant difference in either quantitative or qualitative assessments of perfusion between those compartments with and those without CECS. In contrast, a marked effect of exercise type upon compartment perfusion pattern was noted. Results of this study indicate that there is no compartment perfusion deficit in those patients with raised intracompartmental pressure associated with CECS, and suggest a non-ischaemic basis for the pain associated with CECS. They also suggest no role for exercise perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (orig.)

  18. An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Navarro, Tomas; Garcia-Melon, Monica; Acuna-Dutra, Silvia; Diaz-Martin, Diego

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

  19. Chromatographic selectivity of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic columns for polar aromatic compounds by pressure-driven capillary liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Fuh, Ming-Ren, E-mail: msfuh@scu.edu.tw

    2016-10-05

    In this study, divinylbenzene (DVB) was used as the cross-linker to prepare alkyl methacrylate (AlMA) monoliths for incorporating π-π interactions between the aromatic analytes and AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in capillary LC analysis. Various AlMA/DVB ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The physical properties (such as porosity, permeability, and column efficiency) of the synthesized AlMA-DVB monolithic columns were investigated for characterization. Isocratic elution of phenol derivatives was first employed to evaluate the suitability of the prepared AlMA-DVB columns for small molecule separation. The run-to-run (0.16–1.20%, RSD; n = 3) and column-to-column (0.26–2.95%, RSD; n = 3) repeatabilities on retention times were also examined using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. The π-π interactions between the aromatic ring and the DVB-based stationary phase offered better recognition on polar analytes with aromatic moieties, which resulted in better separation resolution of aromatic analytes on the AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. In order to demonstrate the capability of potential environmental and/or food safety applications, eight phenylurea herbicides with single benzene ring and seven sulfonamide antibiotics with polyaromatic moieties were analyzed using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. - Highlights: • First investigation on chromatographic selectivity of AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. • Good run-to-run/column-to-column repeatability (<3%) on AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. • Efficient separation of phenylurea herbicides and sulfonamides on AlMA-DVB columns.

  20. EXERT Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer's Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer’s Cure Can exercise slow or prevent cognitive decline in older people who are at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease? The EXERT Study: Building Memories Through Exercise ...

  1. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...... exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity...

  2. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trigo Pedroso Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  3. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angelica Cristine Almeida; Bosso, Patricia Alves; Lima, Hildener Nogueira; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  4. Benign vascular sexual headache and exertional headache: interrelationships and long term prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbert, P L; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G; Gubbay, S S

    1991-01-01

    There is a definite relationship between the vascular type of benign sexual headache and benign exertional headache. Forty five patients with benign vascular sexual headache were reviewed. Twenty seven (60%) experienced benign vascular sexual headache alone and eighteen (40%) had experienced both benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache on at least one occasion. The mean age was 34.3 years with a male:female ratio of 5.4:1. Thirty patients with a history of benign vascul...

  5. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  6. Nitrate-rich beetroot juice selectively lowers ambulatory pressures and LDL cholesterol in uncontrolled but not controlled hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, C P; Dolan, E; Cormican, L

    2017-11-01

    Dietary nitrate has been shown to increase nitrate/nitrite levels in multiple populations, with potential blood pressure lowering effects. However, there are few reports among hypertensives. We aimed to assess the effect of daily nitrate in subjects with controlled hypertension vs. uncontrolled hypertension. On day 0, hypertensives wore an ambulatory BP monitor (ABPM) for 24 h and fasting blood was taken. Subjects then consumed concentrated beetroot juice (12.9 mmol nitrate) for 14 consecutive days. On day 14 subjects consumed their last nitrate dose after fasting blood was drawn and again had an ABPM for 24 h. According to baseline ABPM, 11 subjects had controlled BP while 8 had uncontrolled BP. There were similar, significant increases in serum nitrate/nitrite in both groups. We observed little change in BP variables among controlled hypertensives. However, there were reductions in BP variables in uncontrolled hypertensives where decreases in nighttime DBP (-6 ± 4.8 mmHg), arterial stiffness (-0.08 ± 0.03 ambulatory arterial stiffness index) and LDL (-0.36 ± 0.42 mmol/L) reached significance (p = 003, 0.05 and 0.046, respectively). Our results support the existing data suggesting an anti-hypertensive effect of nitrate-containing beetroot juice, but only among those with uncontrolled hypertension.

  7. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  8. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Among active component service members in 2016, there were 525 incident diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion and/or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). The crude incidence rate in 2016 was 40.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 46.2% between 2013 and 2016, with the greatest percentage change occurring between 2014 and 2015. In 2016, relative to their respective counterparts, the highest incidence rates of exertional rhabdomyolysis affected service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; and black, non-Hispanic. During the surveillance period, annual incidence rates were highest among service members of the Marine Corps, intermediate among those in the Army, and lowest among those in the Air Force and Navy. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or the Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain or swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (possibly due to myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  9. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  10. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  11. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Secreted Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Exerts a Stimulatory Effect on Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Alessia; Anderloni, Giulia; Pierucci, Federica; Matteini, Francesca; Chellini, Flaminia; Zecchi Orlandini, Sandra; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to significantly contribute to skeletal muscle healing through the secretion of paracrine factors that support proliferation and enhance participation of the endogenous muscle stem cells in the process of repair/regeneration. However, MSC-derived trophic molecules have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate paracrine signaling effects of MSCs on skeletal myoblasts. It was found, using a biochemical and morphological approach that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a natural bioactive lipid exerting a broad range of muscle cell responses, is secreted by MSCs and represents an important factor by which these cells exert their stimulatory effects on C2C12 myoblast and satellite cell proliferation. Indeed, exposure to conditioned medium obtained from MSCs cultured in the presence of the selective sphingosine kinase inhibitor (iSK), blocked increased cell proliferation caused by the conditioned medium from untreated MSCs, and the addition of exogenous S1P in the conditioned medium from MSCs pre-treated with iSK further increased myoblast proliferation. Finally, we also demonstrated that the myoblast response to MSC-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involves the release of S1P from C2C12 cells. Our data may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:25264785

  13. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  14. The effects of superset configuration on kinetic, kinematic, and perceived exertion in the barbell bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon Js; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Jones, Ben L

    2017-08-04

    Training that is efficient and effective is of great importance to an athlete. One method of improving efficiency is by incorporating supersets into resistance training routines. However, the structuring of supersets is still unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of agonist-antagonist (A-A), alternate peripheral (A-P), and similar biomechanical (SB) superset configurations on rate of perceived exertion (RPE), kinetic and kinematic changes during the bench press. 10 subjects performed resistance training protocols in a randomized-crossover design, with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within and between protocols. Changes in RPE were very likely and almost certainly greater in the A-P and SB protocols when compared with the A-A, while all superset protocols had very likely to almost certain reductions in mean velocity and power from baseline. Reductions in mean velocity and power were almost certainly greater in the SB protocol, with differences between the A-A and A-P protocols being unclear. Decreases in peak force were likely and almost certain in the A-A and SB protocols respectively, with changes in A-P being unclear. Differences between these protocols showed likely greater decreases in SB peak forces when compared to A-A, with all other superset comparisons being unclear. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise selection when incorporating supersets into a training routine. It is suggested that the practitioner uses A-A supersets when aiming to improve training efficiency and minimize reductions in kinetic and kinematic output of the agonist musculature while completing the barbell bench press.

  15. Exertional heat stroke management strategies in United States high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year period of 2005-2009 saw more exertional heat stroke-related deaths in organized sports than any other 5-year period in the past 35 years. The risk of exertional heat stroke appears highest in football, particularly during the preseason. To estimate the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and assess the utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies during the 2011 preseason in United States high school football programs. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A self-administered online questionnaire addressing the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies (eg, removing athlete's football equipment, calling Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) was completed in May to June 2012 by 1142 (18.0%) athletic trainers providing care to high school football athletes during the 2011 preseason. Among all respondents, 20.3% reported treating at least 1 exertional heat stroke event. An average of 0.50 ± 1.37 preseason exertional heat stroke events were treated per program. Athletic trainers responding to exertional heat stroke reported using an average of 6.6 ± 1.8 management strategies. The most common management strategies were low-level therapeutic interventions such as removing the athlete's football equipment (98.2%) and clothing (77.8%) and moving the athlete to a shaded area (91.6%). Few athletic trainers reported active management strategies such as calling EMS (29.3%) or using a rectal thermometer to check core body temperature (0.9%). Athletic trainers in states with mandated preseason heat acclimatization guidelines reported a higher utilization of management strategies such as cooling the athlete through air conditioning (90.1% vs 65.0%, respectively; P football programs. The standard of care is (and should be) to treat proactively; therefore, treatment is not a perfect proxy for incidence. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for improved education and awareness of

  16. A simple and selective method for determination of phthalate biomarkers in vegetable samples by high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Li, Shoucong; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, solid-phase extraction cartridges including silica reversed-phase Isolute C18, polymeric reversed-phase Oasis HLB and mixed-mode anion-exchange Oasis MAX, and liquid-liquid extractions with ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and its mixtures were compared for clean-up of phthalate monoesters from vegetable samples. Best recoveries and minimised matrix effects were achieved using ethyl acetate/n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction for these target compounds. A simple and selective method, based on sample preparation by ultrasonic extraction and liquid-liquid extraction clean-up, for the determination of phthalate monoesters in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method detection limits for phthalate monoesters ranged from 0.013 to 0.120 ng g(-1). Good linearity (r(2)>0.991) between MQLs and 1000× MQLs was achieved. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 11.8%. The method was successfully used to determine phthalate monoester metabolites in the vegetable samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  18. Micromechanical Resonator Driven by Radiation Pressure Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boales, Joseph A; Mateen, Farrukh; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2017-11-22

    Radiation pressure exerted by light on any surface is the pressure generated by the momentum of impinging photons. The associated force - fundamentally, a quantum mechanical aspect of light - is usually too small to be useful, except in large-scale problems in astronomy and astrodynamics. In atomic and molecular optics, radiation pressure can be used to trap or cool atoms and ions. Use of radiation pressure on larger objects such as micromechanical resonators has been so far limited to its coupling to an acoustic mode, sideband cooling, or levitation of microscopic objects. In this Letter, we demonstrate direct actuation of a radio-frequency micromechanical plate-type resonator by the radiation pressure force generated by a standard laser diode at room temperature. Using two independent methods, the magnitude of the resonator's response to forcing by radiation pressure is found to be proportional to the intensity of the incident light.

  19. Reversible self-association of ovalbumin at air-water interfaces and the consequences for the exerted surface pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2005-01-01

    In this study the relation between the ability of protein self-association and the surface properties at air-water interfaces is investigated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Three forms of chicken egg ovalbumin were obtained with different self-associating behavior: native

  20. Reversible self-association of ovalbumin at air-water interfaces and the consequences for the exerted pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study the relation between the ability of protein self-association and the surface properties at air-water interfaces is investigated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Three forms of chicken egg ovalbumin were obtained with different self-associating behavior: native

  1. Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laayouni, H.; Oosting, M.; Luisi, P.; Ioana, M.; Alonso, S.; Ricano-Ponce, I.; Trynka, G.; Zhernakova, A.; Plantinga, T.S.; Cheng, S.C.; Meer, J.W. van der; Popp, R.; Sood, A.; Thelma, B.K.; Wijmenga, C.; Joosten, L.A.; Bertranpetit, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic

  2. Circulation of different lineages of dengue virus type 2 in Central America, their evolutionary time-scale and selection pressure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Añez

    Full Text Available Dengue is caused by any of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to 4. Each serotype is genetically distant from the others, and each has been subdivided into different genotypes based on phylogenetic analysis. The study of dengue evolution in endemic regions is important since the diagnosis is often made by nucleic acid amplification tests, which depends upon recognition of the viral genome target, and natural occurring mutations can affect the performance of these assays. Here we report for the first time a detailed study of the phylogenetic relationships of DENV-2 from Central America, and report the first fully sequenced DENV-2 strain from Guatemala. Our analysis of the envelope (E protein and of the open reading frame of strains from Central American countries, between 1999 and 2009, revealed that at least two lineages of the American/Asian genotype of DENV-2 have recently circulated in that region. In occasions the co-circulation of these lineages may have occurred and that has been suggested to play a role in the observed increased severity of clinical cases. Our time-scale analysis indicated that the most recent common ancestor for Central American DENV-2 of the American/Asian genotype existed about 19 years ago. Finally, we report positive selection in DENV-2 from Central America in codons of the genes encoding for C, E, NS2A, NS3, and NS5 proteins. Some of these identified codons are novel findings, described for the first time for any of the DENV-2 genotypes.

  3. Influence exerted by risk factors of space and erath weather on frequency of emergency calls from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belyaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High morbidity with cardiovascular pathology increases loads on a public healthcare system and is not only social but also an economic problem. To optimize cardiovascular pathology prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze risk factors which cause its occurrence. Our research goal was to examine a dynamics of acute cerebral circulation disorders depending on meteorological factors and heliofactors allowing for a seasonal component. We performed a retrospective analysis of morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorders in winter, spring, and summer in 2012 on the basis of the archives obtained from an emergency station in Vladikavkaz. We analyzed 509 cases of the disease (294 women and 215 men. On the basis of our analysis results we assessed influence exerted by external factors on frequency of applications to emergency from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders. We analyzed meteorological factors and heliofactors and their derivatives: average daily temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud coverage, weather pathogenicity, Sun radiation flux density at a wave length equal to 10.7, and a number of sunspots. We detected that in winter negative influence was exerted by temperature; there was also a multi-factor dependence between frequency of acute cerebral circulation disorders and such predictors as temperature pathogenicity index and speed of changes in Sun radiation flux density during a day (Rmulti = 0.50; R2 = 0.25. Drastic temperature fluctuations make for increase in morbidity in spring. Morbidity cases frequency in women in this period correlates not only with temperature pathogenicity index but also with pathogenicity index of air pressure changes. Morbidity increase in summer is caused by simultaneous drop both in air pressure and relative humidity (Rmulti = 0.59; R2 = 0.35. Overall, correlation between external factors and morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorder has seasonal

  4. Distinction of synthetic dl-α-tocopherol from natural vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Enhanced selectivity of a polymeric C18 stationary phase at low temperature and/or at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Yuko; Miyazaki, Shota; Ma, Yan; Ohira, Masayoshi; Fiehn, Oliver; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-10

    Separation of diastereomers of dl-α-tocopherol was studied by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using three types of stationary phases, polymeric ODS, polymeric C30, and monomeric ODS. Polymeric ODS stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P, 3mmID, 20cm) was effective for the separation of the isomers created by the presence of three chiral centers on the alkyl chain of synthetic dl-α-tocopherol. Considerable improvement of the separation of isomers was observed on ODS-P phase at high pressure and at low temperature. Complete separation of four pairs of diastereomers was achieved at 12.0°C, 536bar, while three peaks were observed when the separation was carried out either at 12.0°C at low pressure or at 20°C at 488bar. Higher temperature (30.0°C) with the ODS-P phase resulted in only partial separation of the diastereomers even at high pressure. Only slight resolution was observed for the mixture of diastereomers with the C30 stationary phase (Inertsil C30) at 12.0°C and 441bar, although the stationary phase afforded greater resolution for β- and γ-tocopherol than ODS-P. A monomeric C18 stationary phase did not show any separation at 12.0°C and 463bar. The results suggest that the binding site of the polymeric ODS-P phase is selective for flexible alkyl chains that provided the longest retention for the natural form, (R,R,R) form, and the enantiomer, (S,S,S) form, of dl-α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  6. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  7. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction in elderly hypertensive women: haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roberta R; Karabulut, Murat; Poton, Roberto; Polito, Marcos D

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses during resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) compared with traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in hypertensive older women. Eighteen hypertensive women (age = 67·0 ± 1·7 years.) undertook three random sessions: (i) three sets; 10 repetitions; 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) with BFR; (ii) three sets; 10 repetitions; 65% of 1RM; without BFR; and (iii) no-exercise with BFR. The exercise sessions were performed on knee extension equipment. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly higher (P<0·05) in all sets of exercise sessions than the control. No statistically significant differences were detected between exercise sessions. However, SBP, DBP and systemic vascular resistance were higher (P<0·05) and SV and CO were lower (P<0·05) during the rest intervals in the session with BFR. The perceived exertion was significantly higher (P<0·01) in the 1st (4·8 ± 0·4 versus 3·1 ± 0·3), 2nd (7·3 ± 0·4 versus 5·7 ± 0·4) and 3rd sets (8·6 ± 0·5 versus 7·5 ± 0·4) of the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise compared with the exercise with BFR. Blood lactate was higher (P<0·05) in the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise (6·2 ± 0·7 mmol) than in the exercise with BFR (4·5 ± 0·4 mmol). In comparison with high-intensity resistance exercise, low-intensity resistance exercise with BFR can elicit: (i) same haemodynamic values during exercise; (ii) lower rating of perceived exertion; (iii) lower blood lactate; (iv) higher haemodynamic demand during the rest intervals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Effects of fitness and self-confidence on time perception during exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Human physical and psychological features influence perceptions of the environment during activity. If during exercise an individual over-estimates time, they may interpret this as spending longer than necessary under a potentially aversive state of exertion. This may in turn decrease one’s sense of exercise success and tendency to persevere with exercise. We tested if experimentally manipulating sense of exercise self-efficacy would affect time perception during standardised physical exertion. Method: Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE of 18 -73 year olds (N=51 was measured before and after an exercise challenge of moderate intensity. Height, weight and body fat composition were measured before participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. After a 4-minute treadmill fitness test, participants were presented with either bogus feedback about their performance (positive or negative or no feedback (control. Before and during exercise, participants estimated a prescribed 2-minute time interval. Ratings of perceived exertion were also measured periodically. Results: Feedback on performance had no significant effect on time perception, even when controlling for individual exertion level. Reported ESE was also unaffected by whether someone received positive, negative or no feedback. Age was again found to be significantly correlated with VO2max, r(51 = .62, p < .001, but in contrast to prior findings, estimates of general fitness such as VO2max, BMI and waist circumference were unrelated to changes in time perception due to exertion. Conclusions: These findings failed to support prior findings and anecdotal evidence suggesting that exertion might alter one’s perception of time. We also failed to find any support for effects on ESE when participants were given explicit performance feedback. Finally, participants’ physical characteristics appear to be unrelated to time perception whilst exercising at moderate intensity.

  11. The Strength and Drivers of Bird-Mediated Selection on Fruit Crop Size: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo X. Palacio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seed-dispersal mutualisms, the number of fruit a plant displays is a key trait, as it acts as a signal for seed dispersers that entails fruit removal and exportation of reproductive units (fruit crop size hypothesis. Although this hypothesis has gained general acceptance, forces driving the shape and strength of natural selection exerted by birds on fruit crop size remains an unresolved matter. Here, we propose that ecological filters promoting high functional equivalence of interacting partners (similar functional roles translate into similar selection pressures on fruit crop size, enhancing selection strength on this trait. We performed a meta-analysis on 50 seed-dispersal systems to test the hypothesis that frugivorous birds exert positive selection pressure on fruit crop size, and to assess whether different factors expected to act as filters (fruit diameter, fruit type, fruiting season length, bird functional groups, and latitude influence phenotypic selection regimes on this trait. Birds promote larger fruit crop sizes as a general pattern in nature. Short fruiting seasons and a high proportion of species belonging to the same functional group showed higher selection strength on fruit crop size. Also, selection strength on fruit crop size increased for large-fruited species and toward the tropics. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit crop size represents a conspicuous signal advertising the amount of reward to visually driven interacting partners, and that both plant and bird traits, as well as environmental factors, drive selection strength on fruit display traits. Furthermore, our results suggest that the relationship among forces impinged by phenology and frugivore functional roles may be key to understand their evolutionary stability.

  12. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture

  13. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  14. [Exercise laryngoscopy: a new method for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Iljukov, Sergei; Niskanen, Minna-Liisa; Vilkman, Erkki; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Exertional dyspnea originating from the laryngeal level can be established with certainty only if the paradoxical vocal cord adduction is observed during dyspnea. We have developed a novel diagnostic method, exercise laryngoscopy, which involves observation of the larynx with a flexible endoscope applied via the nose during a bicycle ergometry test. It has been our aim to improve the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion and thus also reduce unnecessary antiasthmatic medication. Exercise laryngoscopy allows examination in the out-patient clinics because the method is well tolerated.

  15. Selective attention in peacocks during predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Predation can exert strong selective pressure on the evolution of behavioral and morphological traits in birds. Because predator avoidance is key to survival and birds rely heavily on visual perception, predation may have shaped avian visual systems as well. To address this question, we examined the role of visual attention in antipredator behavior in peacocks (Pavo cristatus). Peacocks were exposed to a model predator while their gaze was continuously recorded with a telemetric eye-tracker. We found that peacocks spent more time looking at and made more fixations on the predator compared to the same spatial location before the predator was revealed. The duration of fixations they directed toward conspecifics and environmental features decreased after the predator was revealed, indicating that the peacocks were rapidly scanning their environment with their eyes. Maximum eye movement amplitudes and amplitudes of consecutive saccades were similar before and after the predator was revealed. In cases where conspecifics detected the predator first, peacocks appeared to learn that danger was present by observing conspecifics' antipredator behavior. Peacocks were faster to detect the predator when they were fixating closer to the area where the predator would eventually appear. In addition, pupil size increased after predator exposure, consistent with increased physiological arousal. These findings demonstrate that peacocks selectively direct their attention toward predatory threats and suggest that predation has influenced the evolution of visual orienting systems.

  16. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert anti-schistosome activity and inhibit parasite acetylcholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K Sundaraneedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people and there are concerns whether the current chemotherapeutic control strategy (periodic mass drug administration with praziquantel (PZQ-the only licenced anti-schistosome compound is sustainable, necessitating the development of new drugs.We investigated the anti-schistosome efficacy of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against all intra-mammalian stages of S. mansoni. Two compounds, Rubb12-tri and Rubb7-tnl, which were among the most potent in their ability to kill schistosomula and adult worms and inhibit egg hatching in vitro, were assessed for their efficacy in a mouse model of schistosomiasis using 5 consecutive daily i.v. doses of 2 mg/kg (Rubb12-tri and 10 mg/kg (Rubb7-tnl. Mice treated with Rubb12-tri showed an average 42% reduction (P = 0.009, over two independent trials, in adult worm burden. Liver egg burdens were not significantly decreased in either drug-treated group but ova from both of these groups showed significant decreases in hatching ability (Rubb12-tri-68%, Rubb7-tnl-56% and were significantly morphologically altered (Rubb12-tri-62% abnormal, Rubb7-tnl-35% abnormal. We hypothesize that the drugs exerted their activity, at least partially, through inhibition of both neuronal and tegumental acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, as worms treated in vitro showed significant decreases in activity of these enzymes. Further, treated parasites exhibited a significantly decreased ability to uptake glucose, significantly depleted glycogen stores and withered tubercules (a site of glycogen storage, implying drug-mediated interference in this nutrient acquisition pathway.Our data provide compelling evidence that ruthenium complexes are effective against all intra-mammalian stages of schistosomes, including schistosomula (refractory to PZQ and eggs (agents of disease transmissibility. Further, the results of this study suggest that schistosome AChE is a target of

  17. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  18. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  19. Frontoethmoidal Schwannoma with Exertional Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Go; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus. A gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance image revealed a well-defined heterogeneously enhanced tumor situated in the midline anterior cranial fossa and anterior ethmoid sinus. After the resection, the defect of the right anterior skull base was reconstructed with a fascia graft and adipose tissue taken from the abdomen, as well as a pedicle periosteum flap. A histologic examination revealed the tumor as schwannoma. Her rhinorrhea completely resolved. She regained her sense of smell and taste 1 month after the operation. According to previous reports, olfactory groove, and paraolfactory groove/periolfactory groove schwannomas can be divided into 4 types: subfrontal, nasoethmoidal, frontoethmoidal, and ethmofrontal. Among them, a frontoethmoidal schwannoma can manifest exertional CSF rhinorrhea as an initial symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  1. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Michele; Carabalona Roberta; Petrilli Silvia; Sibilla Paolo; Negrini Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from ...

  2. The Effect of Multimodal Feedback on Perceived Exertion on a VR Exercise Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Andersen, Morten G.; Clemmesen, Mathias M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine if multimodal feedback, from auditory and haptic stimuli, can affect a user’s perceived exertion in a virtual reality setting. A simple virtual environment was created in the style of a desert to minimize the amount of visual distractions; a head mounted display was ...

  3. Exertion of forces by children performing a free-style jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Visser, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This research project focuses on the force characteristics and force/time relationships of loads exerted by jumping children. The current study is an experimental research into children jumping on both hard and soft substrates. The hard substrate is obtained by using a force plate. For the soft

  4. Exertional muscle pain in familial Mediterranean fever patients evaluated by MRI and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, T.; Eshed, I.; Heled, Y.; Livneh, A.; Langevitz, P.; Ben Zvi, I.; Konen, E.; Lidar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of physical activity on the structural, morphological, and metabolic characteristics of the gastrocnemius muscle in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, utilizing quantitative 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in order to elucidate the mechanism of their exertional leg pain. Materials and methods: Eleven FMF patients suffering from exertional leg pain (eight male, three female; mean age 33 years) and six healthy individuals (three male, three female; mean age 39 years) constituted the control group. All of the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-selective 31 P MRS (3 T) of the leg muscles before and after graded exercise on a treadmill. Phosphocreatine (PCr):inorganic phosphate (Pi), PCr:adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratios and the intracellular pH of the leg muscles were measured using 31 P MRS. Results: For both groups, normal muscle mass with no signal alterations was observed on the MRI images after exercise. The normal range of pre- and post- exercise MRS muscle parameters was observed in both groups. However, the intracellular pH post-exercise, was significantly higher (less acidic) in the FMF group compared to the control group [pH (FMF) = 7.03 ± 0.02; pH (control) 7.00 ± 0.02; p < 0.0006]. Conclusions: The finding of a less prominent, post-exercise acidification of the gastrocnemius muscle in this FMF patient group suggests a forme fruste of glycogenosis. This preliminary observation should be further investigated in a future, larger-scale study

  5. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  6. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a 21-Year-Old Healthy Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Miramonti, Amelia A; Cramer, Joel T

    2017-05-01

    McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy. Incidentally, this type of resistance training has gained popularity. In the process of testing this hypothesis in a research study in our laboratory, a subject was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis after completing a resistance training session that involved 3 sets to failure at 30% 1RM. Reviewed were the events leading up to and throughout the diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a healthy recreationally-trained 21-year-old woman who was enrolled in a study that compared the acute effects of high-load low-repetition vs. low-load high-repetition resistance training. The subject completed a total of 143 repetitions of the bilateral dumbbell biceps curl exercise. Three days after exercise, she reported excessive muscle soreness and swelling and sought medical attention. She was briefly hospitalized and then discharged with instructions to take acetaminophen for soreness, drink plenty of water, rest, and monitor her creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. Changes in the subject's CK concentrations, ultrasound-determined muscle thickness, and echo intensity monitored over a 14-day period are reported. This case illustrates the potential risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis after a low-load high-repetition resistance training session in healthy, young, recreationally-trained women. The fact that exertional rhabdomyolysis is a possible outcome may warrant caution when prescribing this type of resistance

  7. Comparison of the force exerted by hippocampal and DRG growth cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ladan; Ercolini, Erika; Ban, Jelena; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties such as force generation are fundamental for neuronal motility, development and regeneration. We used optical tweezers to compare the force exerted by growth cones (GCs) of neurons from the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), such as Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons, and from the Central Nervous System (CNS) such as hippocampal neurons. Developing GCs from dissociated DRG and hippocampal neurons were obtained from P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats. Comparing their morphology, we observed that the area of GCs of hippocampal neurons was 8-10 µm(2) and did not vary between P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats, but GCs of DRG neurons were larger and their area increased from P1-P2 to P10-P12 by 2-4 times. The force exerted by DRG filopodia was in the order of 1-2 pN and never exceeded 5 pN, while hippocampal filopodia exerted a larger force, often in the order of 5 pN. Hippocampal and DRG lamellipodia exerted lateral forces up to 20 pN, but lamellipodia of DRG neurons could exert a vertical force larger than that of hippocampal neurons. Force-velocity relationships (Fv) in both types of neurons had the same qualitative behaviour, consistent with a common autocatalytic model of force generation. These results indicate that molecular mechanisms of force generation of GC from CNS and PNS neurons are similar but the amplitude of generated force is influenced by their cytoskeletal properties.

  8. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  9. Lactate and pH evaluation in exhausted humans with prolonged TASER X26 exposure or continued exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Cole, Jon B; Hottinger, Julie C; Overton, Kenneth G; Miner, James R

    2009-09-10

    Safety concerns about TASER Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW) use and media reports of deaths after exposure have been expressed. CEWs are sometimes used on exhausted subjects to end resistance. The alternative is often a continued struggle. It is unclear if CEW use is metabolically different than allowing a continued struggle. We sought to determine if CEW exposure on exhausted humans caused worsening acidosis when compared with continued exertion. This was a prospective study of human volunteers recruited during a CEW training course. Volunteers were from several different occupations and represented a wide range of ages and body mass index characteristics. Medical histories, baseline pH and lactate values were obtained. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: 2 control groups consisting of Exertion only and CEW Exposure only, and the 2 experimental groups that were Exertion plus CEW Exposure and Exertion plus additional Exertion. Blood sampling occurred after Exertion and after any CEW exposure. This was repeated every 2-min until 20 min after protocol completion. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the four groups. The experimental groups and the control groups were compared individually at each time point using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Lactate and pH association was assessed using multiple linear regression. Forty subjects were enrolled. There were no median pH or lactate differences between CEW Exposure groups at baseline, or between Exertion protocol groups immediately after completion. The CEW Exposure only group had higher pH and lower lactate values at all time points after exposure than the Exertion only group. After completing the Exertion protocol, there was no difference in the pH or lactate values between the continued Exertion group and the CEW Exposure group at any time points. Subjects who had CEW Exposure only had higher pH and lower lactate values than subjects who completed the Exertion protocol only. CEW exposure does not appear

  10. Experimental evidence for Abraham pressure of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; She, Weilong; Peng, Nan; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    The question of how much momentum light carries in media has been debated for over a century. Two rivalling theories, one from 1908 by Hermann Minkowski and the other from 1909 by Max Abraham, predict the exact opposite when light enters an optical material: a pulling force in Minkowski's case and a pushing force in Abraham's. Most experimental tests have agreed with Minkowski's theory, but here we report the first quantitative experimental evidence for Abraham's pushing pressure of light. Our results matter in optofluidics and optomechanics, and wherever light exerts mechanical pressure.

  11. Effects of pressurization procedures on calibration results for precise pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Kobata, Tokihiko

    2010-01-01

    The output of electromechanical pressure gauges depends on not only the currently applied pressure, but also the pressurization history. Thus, the calibration results of gauges are affected by the pressurization procedure. In this paper, among several important factors influencing the results, we report the effects of the interval between the calibration cycles and the effects of the preliminary pressurizations. In order to quantitatively evaluate these effects, we developed a fully automated system that uses a pressure balance to calibrate pressure gauges. Subsequently, gauges containing quartz Bourdon-type pressure transducers were calibrated in a stepwise manner for pressures between 10 MPa and 100 MPa. The typical standard deviation of the data over three cycles was reduced to a few parts per million (ppm). The interval between the calibration cycles, which ranges from zero to more than 12 h, exerts a strong influence on the results in the process of increasing the pressure, where at 10 MPa the maximum difference between the results was approximately 40 ppm. The preliminary pressurization immediately before the calibration cycle reduces the effects of the interval on the results in certain cases. However, in turn, the influence of the waiting time between the preliminary pressurization and the main calibration cycle becomes strong. In the present paper, we outline several possible measures for obtaining calibration results with high reproducibility

  12. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  13. Hemodynamic changes after static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test; different patterns in patients with primary benign exertional headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Mazaheri, Reza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH) is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15) and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12) were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  14. Epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis susceptibility in standardbred horses reveals associated risk factors and underlying enhanced performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa M Isgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1 mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.2% per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1-23.4; p = 0.001 and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3-27.0; p = 0.001. Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04 than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006. All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may be

  15. Evaluation of the selective pressure and of the addition of lyophilized bacteria like alternative of improvement of a seed of raw activated mud thickened for the outburst of reactors UASB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra C, Jorge H; Saldarriaga M, Julio C

    2001-01-01

    A sample of thickened activated sludge, from El Retiro sewage treatment plant, was acclimated under anaerobic conditions in a batch reactor. Two types of treatment were tested to check effectiveness in the start up time and granule formation. This would enhance the anaerobic treatment technology for UASB (up flow anaerobic sludge blanket) systems. Three UASB pilot reactors were used, with 7,6 I capacity each: a control reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge; a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge to which lyophilised bacteria were added; and a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge that was previously run under selective pressure mode. The substrate used was prepared with brown sugar to render a solution with a DQO of 800 mg/1. It was always necessary to add sodium bicarbonate (1 g/ l feed) for alkalinity control. Reactors operated under different decreasing hydraulic retention times. This was aimed at accelerating system acclimation. Applied up flow rates gradually varied from 0,1 m/h to 0,42 m/h. It was observed that, when the relative rate was increased, organic load dramatically increased, the system went out of equilibrium; when this latter condition was reached it was not possible to restore it. In that situation DQO removal fell from 75 to 28% (control), 18% (lyophilised) and 26% (washed), values that increased to 39% (control), 43% (Lyophilises) and 40% (washed) at the end of the experimentation period, which reveals some recuperation

  16. Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Nunn, Charles L; Barton, Robert A

    2007-05-10

    Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size. Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on physical conflicts, but no traces of increased demands on

  17. Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunn Charles L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species. Results The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size. Conclusion Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on

  18. Sealing of rotary drums for operation under pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, M.; Khanof, M. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Sadighi, S.

    2006-01-01

    In practice, rotary drums are always designed for operation under vacuum conditions. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for sealing the rotary drums under pressurized conditions. The proposed system is based on applying a secondary pressurized volume around the leaking gap of the drum. By controlling the pressure of this volume above the pressure of the drum, it will be possible to prevent from any leakage of gases to the ambient. The objective of a controller in this system is that the pressure of secondary volume be kept above the pressure of the drum in spite of the disturbances which may be exerted on the system by the wind outside the drum. The control system is also required to trace the variations in the drum pressure with the least fluctuations in the pressure difference among the drum and the volume

  19. Elk and mule deer responses to variation in hunting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Alan A. Ager; James H. Noyes; Norm. Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Hunting can exert a variety of effects on both targeted and nontargeted ungulates, and animals either run or hide in response to hunting pressure. If animals successfully elude hunters by running, the energetic cost may deplete fat reserves needed for survival during winter in temperate regions. If animals successfully elude hunters by hiding, there may be an energetic...

  20. [Relationship between efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines and aquaporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Qiu-hong; Kuang, Hai-xue

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the discovery and studies on aquaporin have made us have a more in-depth understanding about the physiological and pathological processes of water metabolism. Over years, however, there has been no quantitative study on the target sites of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines at the molecular level. In that case, aquaporin was found to been a new target molecule to explain the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. By studying aquaporin, researchers can understand the implicit meaning of the diuretic effect of traditional Chinese medicines and conduct quantitative studies on the diuretic effect. So far, many scholars have conducted a series of studies in the traditional Chinese medicine field by using the findings on aquaporin and made certain advances. This article provides a summary about the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines through target molecule aquaporin.

  1. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted

  2. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Koppisetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT, found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE DVT in patients <30 years of age. Affected population is in the early thirties, predominantly male, often with a history of major physical exertion and presents with extensive or bilateral DVTs. Patients with IVC anomalies usually develop compensatory circulation through the collateral veins with enlarged azygous/hemizygous veins. Despite the compensatory circulation, the venous drainage of the lower limbs is often insufficient leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. We describe a case of extensive and bilateral deep venous thrombosis following physical exertion in a thirty-six-year-old male patient with incidental finding of IVCA on imaging.

  3. Effect of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Selected Gait Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Sajko, Igor; Hadamus, Anna; Mosiołek, Anna; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-08-31

    The sacroiliac joints have complicated biomechanics. While the movements in the joints are small, they exert a significant effect on gait. This study aimed to assess how sacroiliac joint manipulation influences selected gait parameters. The study enrolled 57 healthy subjects. The experimental group consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with dysfunction of one sacroiliac joint. The control group was composed of 31 persons. All subjects from the experimental group underwent sacroiliac joint manipulation. The experimental group showed significant lengthening of the step on both sides and the stride length in this group increased as well. Moreover, the duration of the stride increased (p=0.000826). The maximum midfoot pressure was higher and maximum heel pressure decreased. The differences were statistically significant. 1. Subclinical dysfunctions of the sacroiliac joints may cause functional gait disturbance. 2. Manipulation of the iliosacral joint exerts a significant effect on gait parameters, which may lead to improved gait economy and effec-tiveness. 3. Following manipulation of one iliosacral joint, altered gait parameters are noted on both the manipulated side and the contralateral side, which may translate into improved quality of locomotion.

  4. Political pressures and exchange rate stability in emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Faia; Massimo Giuliodori; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of exchange rate policy. The theory is based on a common agency approach with rational expectations. Financial and exporter lobbies exert political pressures to influence the government’s choice of exchange rate policy, before shocks to the economy are realized. The model shows that political pressures affect exchange rate policy and create an over-commitment to exchange rate stability. This helps to rationalize the empirical evidence on fear of l...

  5. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Salivary Gland Derived BDNF Overexpression in Mice Exerts an Anxiolytic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is abundant in the hippocampus and plays critical roles in memory and synapse formation, as well as exerting antidepressant-like effects in psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that BDNF is expressed in salivary glands and affects blood BDNF content. However, the function of salivary BDNF remains unclear. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in the salivary glands. Hence, we used the Lama construct (hemaggl...

  7. Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

  8. A 68-Year-Old Man With Dyspnea on Exertion and Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Koenig, Seth; Khanijo, Sameer

    2018-06-01

    A 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia well controlled on ibrutinib, hypertension, obesity, and a remote history of smoking (10 pack-years) presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion and cough. He had previously finished two courses of oral antibiotics for his symptoms without significant improvement. On presentation, he had no fevers or sputum production. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wang; Hongfei Cai; Yang Li; Caiwen Chen; Youbin Cui

    2018-01-01

    Objective. Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional su...

  10. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  12. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  13. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  14. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  15. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  16. How emotion context modulates unconscious goal activation during motor force exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-02-01

    Priming participants with emotional or action-related concepts influences goal formation and motor force output during effort exertion tasks, even without awareness of priming information. However, little is known about neural processes underpinning how emotional cues interact with action (or inaction) goals to motivate (or demotivate) motor behaviour. In a novel functional neuroimaging paradigm, visible emotional images followed by subliminal action or inaction word primes were presented before participants performed a maximal force exertion. In neutral emotional contexts, maximum force was lower following inaction than action primes. However, arousing emotional images had interactive motivational effects on the motor system: Unpleasant images prior to inaction primes increased force output (enhanced effort exertion) relative to control primes, and engaged a motivation-related network involving ventral striatum, extended amygdala, as well as right inferior frontal cortex. Conversely, pleasant images presented before action (versus control) primes decreased force and activated regions of the default-mode network, including inferior parietal lobule and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings show that emotional context can determine how unconscious goal representations influence motivational processes and are transformed into actual motor output, without direct rewarding contingencies. Furthermore, they provide insight into altered motor behaviour in psychopathological disorders with dysfunctional motivational processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Zoran; Vukasinović-Vesić, Milica; Dincić, Dragan; Surbatović, Maja; Radaković, Sonja S

    2013-07-01

    Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST) either in cool [20 degrees C, 16 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], or hot (40 degrees C, 29 degrees C, (WBGT) environment, unacclimatized (U) or after 10 days of passive (P) or active (A) acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty) and heart rates (HR). Platelet count (PC), antithrombin III (AT), and prothrombin time (PT) were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR), with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  18. Team Size and Stretching-Exercise Effects on Simulated Chest Compression Performance and Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Schoen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers’ compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1 larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2 brief stretching and breathing exercises during rest periods would sustain compressor performance and mitigate fatigue. Methods: In Phase I, a volunteer cohort of pre-clinical medical students performed four minutes of continuous compressions on a Resusci-Anne manikin to gauge the spectrum of compressor performance in the subject population. Compression rate, depth, and chest recoil were measured. In Phase II, the highest-performing Phase I subjects were placed into 2-, 3-, and/or 4-compressor teams; 2-compressor teams were assigned either to control group (no recovery exercises or intervention group (recovery exercises during rest. All Phase II teams participated in 20-minute simulations with compressor rotation every two minutes. Investigators recorded compression quality and real-time heart rate data, and calculated caloric expenditure from contact heart rate monitor measurements using validated physiologic formulas. Results: Phase I subjects delivered compressions that were 24.9% (IQR1–3: [0.5%–74.1%] correct with a median rate of 112.0 (IQR1–3: [103.5–124.9] compressions per minute and depth of 47.2 (IQR1–3: [35.7–55.2] mm. In their first rotations, all Phase II subjects delivered compressions of similar quality and correctness (p=0.09. Bivariate analyses of 2-, 3-, and 4-compressor teams’ subject compression characteristics by subsequent rotation did not identify significant differences within or across teams. On multivariate analyses, only subjects in 2-compressor teams exhibited significantly lower compression rates (control subjects; p<0.01, diminished chest release (intervention

  19. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch

    2016-03-01

    Among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015, there were 456 incident episodes of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 17% between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the highest incidence rates occurred in service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; black, non-Hispanic; members of the Marine Corps and Army; recruit trainees; and in combat-specific occupations. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain and swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (e.g., myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  20. Genetic diversity of G1P[8] rotavirus VP7 and VP8* antigens in Finland over a 20-year period: No evidence for selection pressure by universal mass vaccination with RotaTeq® vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2013-10-01

    Two live-attenuated oral vaccines (Rotarix™ and Rotateq®) against rotavirus gastroenteritis were licensed in 2006 and have been introduced into National Immunization Programs (NIPs) of several countries. Large scale use of rotavirus vaccines might cause antigenic pressure on circulating rotavirus types or lead to selection of new rotaviruses thus decreasing vaccine efficacy. We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the surface proteins VP7 and VP4 (cleaved to VP8(*) and VP5(*)) of a total of 108 G1P[8] rotavirus strains collected over a 20-year period from 1992, including the years 2006-2009 when rotavirus vaccine (mainly Rotarix™) was available, and the years 2009-2012 after implementation of RotaTeq® vaccine into the NIP of Finland. In G1 VP7 no changes at amino acid level were observed. In VP8(*) periodical fluctuation of the sublineage over the study period was found with multiple changes both at nucleotide and amino acid levels. Most amino acid changes were in the dominant antigenic epitopes of VP8(*). A change in VP8(*) sublineage occurred between 2008 and 2009, with a temporal correlation to the use of Rotarix™ up to 30% coverage in the period. In contrast, no antigenic changes in the VP8(*) protein appeared to be correlated to the exclusive use of RotaTeq® vaccine after 2009. Nevertheless, long-term surveillance of antigenic changes in VP4 and also VP7 proteins in wild-type rotavirus strains is warranted in countries with large scale use of the currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diverse protist grazers select for virulence-related traits in Legionella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Francisco; Wang, Wen; Gilbert, Jack A; Roger Anderson, O; Shuman, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that selection for resistance to grazing by protists has contributed to the evolution of Legionella pneumophila as a pathogen. Grazing resistance is becoming more generally recognized as having an important role in the ecology and evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. However, selection for grazing resistance presupposes the existence of protist grazers that provide the selective pressure. To determine whether there are protists that graze on pathogenic Legionella species, we investigated the existence of such organisms in a variety of environmental samples. We isolated and characterized diverse protists that graze on L. pneumophila and determined the effects of adding L. pneumophila on the protist community structures in microcosms made from these environmental samples. Several unrelated organisms were able to graze efficiently on L. pneumophila. The community structures of all samples were markedly altered by the addition of L. pneumophila. Surprisingly, some of the Legionella grazers were closely related to species that are known hosts for L. pneumophila, indicating the presence of unknown specificity determinants for this interaction. These results provide the first direct support for the hypothesis that protist grazers exert selective pressure on Legionella to acquire and retain adaptations that contribute to survival, and that these properties are relevant to the ability of the bacteria to cause disease in people. We also report a novel mechanism of killing of amoebae by one Legionella species that requires an intact Type IV secretion system but does not involve intracellular replication. We refer to this phenomenon as ‘food poisoning'. PMID:25575308

  2. Forsythoside A exerts antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia mice via inhibiting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiling; Su, Hongchang; Wan, Hongye; Qin, Qingxia; Wu, Xuan; Kong, Xiangying; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Interestingly, FT-A significantly downregulated TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Moreover, FT-A inhibited IL-8 and PGE2 secretions, and calcium influx in the HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells after stimulated with capsaicin, the specific TRPV1 agonist. Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that FT-A treatment rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in both yeast induced pyrexia mice and HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells. These results suggest that FT-A may serve as a potential antipyretic agent and the therapeutic action of Fructus Forsythiae on pyretic related disease is, in part, due to the FT-A activities. PMID:28123347

  3. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    23.4) 13.1–25.7 (3100) All health care settings 26 (25.2–26.8) 13.1–53.3 (7774) * CI indicates confidence interval. † Nonacute care included sub-acute care, chronic care, complex continuing care, long-term care, and nursing home care. ‡ Mixed health care includes a mixture of acute, nonacute, and/or community care health care delivery settings. Pressure ulcers have a considerable economic impact on health care systems. In Australia, the cost of treating a single stage IV ulcer has been estimated to be greater than $61,000 (AUD) (approximately $54,000 CDN), (3) while in the United Kingdom the total cost of pressure ulcers has been estimated at £1.4–£2.1 billion annually or 4% of the National Health Service expenditure. (4) Because of the high physical and economic burden of pressure ulcers, this review was undertaken to determine which interventions are effective at preventing the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population. Review Strategy The main objective of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of pressure ulcer preventive interventions including Risk Assessment, Distribution Devices, Nutritional Supplementation, Repositioning, and Incontinence Management. A comprehensive literature search was completed for each of the above 5 preventive interventions. The electronic databases searched included MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. As well, the bibliographic references of selected studies were searched. All studies meeting explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria for each systematic review section were retained and the quality of the body of evidence was determined using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (5) Where appropriate, a meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the overall estimate of effect of the preventive intervention under review

  4. Examining Effects of Physical Exertion on the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessie N; Murphy, Anna M; Honaker, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion. Current concussion position statements include measures of postural control to examine changes to the balance system postconcussion. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is a commonly used low-cost postural control measure for concussion assessment. Although this is a widely used measure for documenting balance function on both immediate (sideline) and recovery monitoring, the BESS has been shown to be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, the BESS may not be the most efficient means of examining functional changes to the balance system immediately after head injury. Dynamic Visual Acuity Test (DVAT) has been found to effectively evaluate and monitor changes to the gaze stability system postinjury. Thus, DVAT may be an additional measure in the concussion assessment battery, as well as an alternative for more immediate sideline assessment to help make objective return-to-play decisions. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of physical exertion on a clinical vestibular assessment, the DVAT, in collegiate athletes, as a first step in defining the role of this measure in the concussion assessment battery. Cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. Twenty-eight healthy collegiate athletes (20 males, 8 females; age = 20.25 ± 1.46 yr, range = 18-25 yr) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were

  5. A model of directional selection applied to the evolution of drug resistance in HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoighe, Cathal; Ketwaroo, Farahnaz; Pillay, Visva; Scheffler, Konrad; Wood, Natasha; Duffet, Rodger; Zvelebil, Marketa; Martinson, Neil; McIntyre, James; Morris, Lynn; Hide, Winston

    2007-04-01

    Understanding how pathogens acquire resistance to drugs is important for the design of treatment strategies, particularly for rapidly evolving viruses such as HIV-1. Drug treatment can exert strong selective pressures and sites within targeted genes that confer resistance frequently evolve far more rapidly than the neutral rate. Rapid evolution at sites that confer resistance to drugs can be used to help elucidate the mechanisms of evolution of drug resistance and to discover or corroborate novel resistance mutations. We have implemented standard maximum likelihood methods that are used to detect diversifying selection and adapted them for use with serially sampled reverse transcriptase (RT) coding sequences isolated from a group of 300 HIV-1 subtype C-infected women before and after single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. We have also extended the standard models of codon evolution for application to the detection of directional selection. Through simulation, we show that the directional selection model can provide a substantial improvement in sensitivity over models of diversifying selection. Five of the sites within the RT gene that are known to harbor mutations that confer resistance to nevirapine (NVP) strongly supported the directional selection model. There was no evidence that other mutations that are known to confer NVP resistance were selected in this cohort. The directional selection model, applied to serially sampled sequences, also had more power than the diversifying selection model to detect selection resulting from factors other than drug resistance. Because inference of selection from serial samples is unlikely to be adversely affected by recombination, the methods we describe may have general applicability to the analysis of positive selection affecting recombining coding sequences when serially sampled data are available.

  6. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  7. Neural basis of exertional fatigue in the heat: A review of magnetic resonance imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X R; Low, I C C; Stephenson, M C; Soong, T W; Lee, J K W

    2018-03-01

    The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies-brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI, and arterial spin labeling. The review aims to provide a summary on the neural basis of exertional fatigue and proposes future directions for brain MRI studies. A systematic literature search was performed where a total of thirty-seven brain MRI studies associated with exercise, fatigue, or related physiological factors were reviewed. The findings suggest that with moderate dehydration, there is a decrease in total brain volume accompanied with expansion of ventricular volume. With exercise fatigue, there is increased activation of sensorimotor and cognitive brain areas, increased thalamo-insular activation and decreased interhemispheric connectivity in motor cortex. Under passive hyperthermia, there are regional changes in cerebral perfusion, a reduction in local connectivity in functional brain networks and an impairment to executive function. Current literature suggests that the brain structure and function are influenced by exercise, fatigue, and related physiological perturbations. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge and it is hoped that through understanding of MRI advantages and limitations, future studies will shed light on the central origin of exertional fatigue in the heat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  9. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK 100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  10. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  11. Systemic exertion intolerance disease/chronic fatigue syndrome is common in sleep centre patients with hypersomnolence: A retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Caroline; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L; Olvera, Victoria; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn M

    2018-04-06

    Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population. One-hundred and eighty-seven hypersomnolent patients completed questionnaires regarding sleepiness and fatigue; questionnaires and clinical records were used to assess for systemic exertion intolerance disease. Sleep studies, hypocretin and cataplexy were additionally used to assign diagnoses of hypersomnolence disorders or sleep apnea. Included diagnoses were idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 63), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 25), persistent sleepiness after obstructive sleep apnea treatment (n = 25), short habitual sleep duration (n = 41), and sleepiness with normal sleep study (n = 33). Twenty-one percent met systemic exertion intolerance disease criteria, and the frequency of systemic exertion intolerance disease was not different across sleep diagnoses (p = .37). Patients with systemic exertion intolerance disease were no different from those without this diagnosis by gender, age, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, depressive symptoms, or sleep study parameters. The whole cohort reported substantial fatigue on questionnaires, but the systemic exertion intolerance disease group exhibited more profound fatigue and was less likely to respond to traditional wake-promoting agents (88.6% versus 67.7%, p = .01). Systemic exertion intolerance disease appears to be a common co-morbidity in patients with hypersomnolence, which is not specific to hypersomnolence subtype but may portend a poorer prognosis for treatment response. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. LOFT fuel rod pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure sensors selected for measuring fuel rod pressure within the LOFT reactor exhibited stable, repeatable operating characteristics during calibrations at temperatures up to 800 0 F and pressures to 2500 psig. All sensors have a nominal sensitivity of .5 millivolts per psi, decreasing monotonically with temperature. Output signal increases linearly with increasing pressure up to 2000 psig. For imposed slow and rapid temperature variations and for pressure applied during these tests, the sensor indicates a pressure at variance with the actual value by up to 15% of reading. However, the imposed temperature rates of change often exceeded the value of -10 0 F/sec. specified for LOFT. The series of tests in an autoclave permit creation of an environment most closely resembling sensor operating conditions within LOFT. For multiple blowdowns and for longtime durations the sensor continued to provide pressure-related output signals. For temperature rates up to -87 0 F/sec, the indicated pressure measurement error remained less than 13% of reading. Adverse effects caused by heating the 1/16 inch O.D. signal cable to 800 0 F contributed only insignificantly to the noted pressure measurement error

  13. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease: Three Distinct Clinical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank N.M. Twisk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME. However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease, as recently suggested.

  14. Dual effects exerted in vitro by micromolar concentrations of deoxynivalenol on undifferentiated caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Gina; Mocanu, Mihaela Andreea; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-02-16

    Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37-1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  15. Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37–1.50 μM, relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  16. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  17. Post-match Perceived Exertion, Feeling and Wellness in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessi, Mohamed Saifeddin; Moalla, Wassim

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess post-match perceived exertion, feeling and wellness according to the match outcome (winning, drawing or losing) in professional soccer players. Twelve outfield players were followed during 52 official matches where the outcomes (win, draw or lose) were noted. Following each match players completed both a 10-point scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and an 11-point scale rating of perceived feeling. Rating of perceived sleep quality, stress, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected separately on a 7-point scale the day following each match. Player RPE was higher by a very largely magnitude following a loss compared to a draw or a win and higher by a small magnitude after a draw compared to a win. Players felt more pleasure after a win compared to a draw or loss and more displeasure after a loss compared to draw. The players reported a largely and moderately better-perceived sleep quality, less stress and fatigue following a win compared to draw or a loss, and a moderately bad-perceived sleep quality, higher stress and fatigue following a draw compared to a loss. In contrast, only a trivial-small change was observed in perceived muscle soreness between all outcomes. Matches outcomes moderately to largely affect RPE, perceived feeling, sleep quality, stress and fatigue whereas perceived muscle soreness remains high regardless of the match outcome. However, winning a match decreases the strain and improves both pleasure and wellness in professional soccer players.

  18. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  19. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain. PMID:25761874

  20. Influence of Exogenous β-Hydroxybutyrate on Walking Economy and Rating of Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shaun; Kjerulf Greer, Beau

    2018-06-28

    This study investigates the effect of a supplementary ketone, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), on walking economy and ratings of perceived exertion in apparently healthy individuals. In a repeated-measures, crossover design, ten non-aerobically trained participants (three males; seven females) performed two stages of a duration-modified Bruce treadmill protocol. Participants blindly consumed either 1 ounce of an exogenous BHB solution (KETO) or a noncaloric placebo (CON) 30 minutes prior to exercise testing. Blood ketone and glucose concentrations were measured prior to supplementation (baseline), immediately before exercise, and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), energy expenditure (EE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the last two minutes of each stage. Blood BHB concentrations were significantly elevated at the pre-exercise and postexercise time points as compared to the CON condition (p .05) were found for VO 2 , RER, EE, or RPE. The intervention of this study did not produce evidence of an ergogenic benefit from BHB supplementation in a healthy subject pool.

  1. Magnetic tweezers optimized to exert high forces over extended distances from the magnet in multicellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, L.; Pasakarnis, L.; Brunner, D.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic tweezers are mainly divided into two classes depending on the ability of applying torque or forces to the magnetic probe. We focused on the second category and designed a device composed by a single electromagnet equipped with a core having a special asymmetric profile to exert forces as large as 230 pN-2.8 μm Dynabeads at distances in excess of 100 μm from the magnetic tip. Compared to existing solutions our magnetic tweezers overcome important limitations, opening new experimental paths for the study of a wide range of materials in a variety of biophysical research settings. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different magnet core characteristics, which led us to design the current core profile. To demonstrate the usefulness of our magnetic tweezers, we determined the microrheological properties inside embryos of Drosophila melanogaster during the syncytial stage. Measurements in different locations along the dorsal-ventral axis of the embryos showed little variation, with a slight increase in cytoplasm viscosity at the periphery of the embryos. The mean cytoplasm viscosity we obtain by active force exertion inside the embryos is comparable to that determined passively using high-speed video microrheology.

  2. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Ji, Yoon Cheol; Shin, Eun-Seok; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-08-01

    Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using a novel method. Based on a physiological observation that longer coronary arteries have more daughter branches feeding a larger mass of cardiac muscle, the method measures the vessel lengths from coronary angiogram or CT images (vessel length-based method) and predicts the coronary flow resistances. The underlying equations are derived from the physiological relation among flow rate, resistance, and vessel length. To validate the present estimation method, we calculate the coronary flow division over coronary major arteries for 50 patients using the vessel length-based method as well as the muscle volume-based one. These results are compared with the direct measurements in a clinical study. Further proving the usefulness of the present method, we compute the coronary FFR from the images of optical coherence tomography.

  3. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1 to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2 to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3 to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET.

  4. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  5. Interface pressure is affected by slippage of bandages at thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, K; Hirai, M; Koyama, A; Iwata, H; Ohashi, M; Ota, A

    2012-12-01

    Very little is known about how compression bandages lose interface pressure. We hypothesized that the loss of interface pressure is correlated with the slippage of the bandages, and studied the interface pressure and slippage of three bandages over 8 hours. Twenty-Seven legs from 27 healthy volunteers were bandaged with short stretch bandages (SS), cohesive short stretch bandages (CS), and long stretch bandages (LS). Pressure sensors were placed above the ankle (B1), below the knee (D), and mid thigh (F). Interface pressures in a sitting position were recorded at the beginning, and 4 and 8 hours later. In 17 legs, the pressure sensor sites were marked, and their heights were measured on standing upright. SS and CS lost interface pressure quickly, but LS maintained pressure better than SS and CS at all sites. There was no pressure difference between SS and CS at the lower leg. However, CS maintained pressure better than SS at the mid thigh (44.6% vs. 54.4% pressure loss at 8 hours, respectively. P=0.037). There was a tendency toward less slippage with CS than SS at the mid thigh. In CS and LS, there was a linear correlation between the slippage of bandages and the interface pressure at the mid thigh (P pressure may be affected by the slippage of bandages at the thigh, but not at the lower leg. Cohesive short stretch bandages may exert their beneficial impact at the thigh.

  6. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is needed to enable a real and efficient classification of perceived individual efforts. In this paper, we propose a heart rate-based personalized method to assess perceived exertion; our method uses fuzzy logic as an option to manage imprecision and uncertainty in involved variables. We applied some experiments to cleaning staff and obtained results that highlight the importance of a custom method to classify perceived exertion of people doing physical work.

  7. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Pancardo, Pablo; Hernández-Nolasco, J. A.; Acosta-Escalante, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is ne...

  8. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XXIV. Selected alkane-α,ω-diols at temperatures T = 298 K to 573 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibulka, Ivan; Hnědkovský, Lubomír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard molar volumes of three alkane-α,ω-diols (C 5 , C 8 , C 9 ) in water are presented. • Data were obtained in the range T from (298 to 573) K and p up to 30 MPa. • Dependences on carbon atom number, temperature, and pressure are analysed. -- Abstract: Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of three alkane-α,ω-diols (pentane-1,5-diol, octane-1,8-diol, nonane-1,9-diol) are presented together with standard molar volumes (partial molar volumes at infinite dilution) calculated from the experimental data. The measurements were performed at temperatures from T = 298 K up to T = 573 K. Experimental pressures were slightly above the saturation vapour pressure of water, and (15 and 30) MPa. The data were obtained using a high-temperature high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter. Measured standard molar volumes were combined with data previously published for other members of the homologous series and discussed. Experimental standard molar volumes were correlated as a function of temperature and pressure using an empirical polynomial function. Dependences of standard molar volumes on temperature and pressure were analysed. Contributions of the methylene group to the standard molar volume were also evaluated and discussed

  9. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Jin, Shao-Bo [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Han, Liwei [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Lendahl, Urban [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhao, Jian, E-mail: Jian.Zhao@ki.se [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Nistér, Monica [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  10. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  11. EEG signatures of arm isometric exertions in preparation, planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Lakany, Heba; Conway, Bernard A

    2014-04-15

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity patterns in humans during motor behaviour provide insight into normal motor control processes and for diagnostic and rehabilitation applications. While the patterns preceding brisk voluntary movements, and especially movement execution, are well described, there are few EEG studies that address the cortical activation patterns seen in isometric exertions and their planning. In this paper, we report on time and time-frequency EEG signatures in experiments in normal subjects (n=8), using multichannel EEG during motor preparation, planning and execution of directional centre-out arm isometric exertions performed at the wrist in the horizontal plane, in response to instruction-delay visual cues. Our observations suggest that isometric force exertions are accompanied by transient and sustained event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related (de-)synchronisations (ERD/ERS), comparable to those of a movement task. Furthermore, the ERPs and ERD/ERS are also observed during preparation and planning of the isometric task. Comparison of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian ERPs indicates the contribution of superficial sources in supplementary and pre-motor (FC(z)), parietal (CP(z)) and primary motor cortical areas (C₁ and FC₁) to ERPs (primarily negative peaks in frontal and positive peaks in parietal areas), but contribution of deep sources to sustained time-domain potentials (negativity in planning and positivity in execution). Transient and sustained ERD patterns in μ and β frequency bands of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian EEG indicate the contribution of both superficial and deep sources to ERD/ERS. As no physical displacement happens during the task, we can infer that the underlying mechanisms of motor-related ERPs and ERD/ERS patterns do not only depend on change in limb coordinate or muscle-length-dependent ascending sensory information and are primary generated by motor preparation, direction

  12. Exertional myopathy in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) captured by leghold snare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon; Bollinger, Trent

    2008-10-01

    We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the primary cause of death because autolysis precluded accurate evaluation of all tissues. Nevertheless, comparison of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations and survival between the affected bear and other grizzly bears captured by leghold snare in the same research project suggests EM also occurred in other bears, but that it is not generally a cause of mortality. We propose, however, occurrence of nonfatal EM in grizzly bears after capture by leghold snare has potential implications for use of this capture method, including negative effects on wildlife welfare and research data.

  13. Fgf8-related secondary organizers exert different polarizing planar instructions along the mouse anterior neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens) detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical location of the secondary organizers: the isthmic organizer (IsO) and the anterior neural ridge (anr) but not on zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Our results suggest that Sprouty2, a negative modulator of RAS/ERK pathway, is important for regulating Fgf8 morphogenetic signal activity by controlling Fgf8-induced signaling pathways and positional information during early brain development.

  14. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  15. Endogenous IFN-β signaling exerts anti-inflammatory actions in experimentally induced focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inácio, Ana R; Liu, Yawei; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    of infiltrating leukocytes in the brain 2 days after stroke. Concomitantly, in the blood of IFN-βKO mice, we found a higher percentage of total B cells but a similar percentage of mature and activated B cells, collectively indicating a higher proliferation rate. The additional differential regulation......BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-β exerts anti-inflammatory effects, coupled to remarkable neurological improvements in multiple sclerosis, a neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system. Analogously, it has been hypothesized that IFN-β, by limiting inflammation, decreases neuronal death...... strength tests, and cerebral infarct volumes were given by lack of neuronal nuclei immunoreactivity. RESULTS: Here, we report alterations in local and systemic inflammation in IFN-β knockout (IFN-βKO) mice over 8 days after induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Notably, IFN-βKO mice showed a higher number...

  16. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  17. Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector arbitrary-order Bessel beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiping; Li, Renxian

    2016-01-01

    An analytical description of optical force on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is investigated. Linearly, radially, azimuthally, and circularly polarized Bessel beams are considered. The radial, azimuthal, and axial forces by a vector Bessel beam are numerically simulated. The effect of polarization, order of beams, and half-cone angle to the optical force are mainly discussed. For Bessel beams of larger half-cone angle, the non-paraxiality of beams plays an important role in optical forces. Numerical calculations show that optical forces, especially azimuthal forces, are very sensitive to the polarization of beams. - Highlights: • Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is analytically derived. • Radial, azimuthal, and axial forces are numerically analyzed. • The effect of polarization, order of beam, and non-paraxiality is analyzed.

  18. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert in vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity and show significant inhibition of parasite acetylcholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sundaraneedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 4.5 billion people are at risk of infection with soil transmitted helminths and there are concerns about the development of resistance to the handful of frontline nematocides in endemic populations. We investigated the anti-nematode efficacy of a series of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against L3 and adult stages of Trichuris muris, the rodent homologue of the causative agent of human trichuriasis, T. trichiura. One of the compounds, Rubb12-mono, which was among the most potent in its ability to kill L3 (IC50 = 3.1 ± 0.4 μM and adult (IC50 = 5.2 ± 0.3 μM stage worms was assessed for efficacy in a mouse model of trichuriasis by administering 3 consecutive daily oral doses of the drug 3 weeks post infection with the murine whipworm Trichuris muris. Mice treated with Rubb12-mono showed an average 66% reduction (P = 0.015 in faecal egg count over two independent trials. The drugs partially exerted their activity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterases, as worms treated in vitro and in vivo showed significant decreases in the activity of this class of enzymes. Our data show that ruthenium complexes are effective against T. muris, a model gastro-intestinal nematode and soil-transmitted helminth. Further, knowledge of the target of ruthenium drugs can facilitate modification of current compounds to identify analogues which are even more effective and selective against Trichuris and other helminths of human and veterinary importance. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Trichuris muris, Ruthenium complex, Anthelmintic

  20. TMG-123, a novel glucokinase activator, exerts durable effects on hyperglycemia without increasing triglyceride in diabetic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yoshinori; Tsushima, Yu; Tamura, Azusa; Hasebe, Makiko; Kanou, Masanobu; Kato, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi

    2017-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) plays a critical role for maintaining glucose homeostasis with regulating glucose uptake in liver and insulin secretion in pancreas. GK activators have been reported to decrease blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, clinical development of GK activators has failed due to the loss of glucose-lowering effects and increased plasma triglyceride levels after chronic treatment. Here, we generated a novel GK activator, TMG-123, examined its in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characteristics, and evaluated its risks of aforementioned clinical issues. TMG-123 selectively activated GK enzyme activity without increasing Vmax. TMG-123 improved glucose tolerance without increasing plasma insulin levels in both insulin-deficient (Goto-Kakizaki rats) and insulin-resistant (db/db mice) models. The beneficial effect on glucose tolerance was greater than results observed with clinically available antidiabetic drugs such as metformin and glibenclamide in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. TMG-123 also improved glucose tolerance in combination with metformin. After 4 weeks of administration, TMG-123 reduced the Hemoglobin A1c levels without affecting liver and plasma triglyceride levels in Goto-Kakizaki rats and Diet-Induced Obesity mice. Moreover, TMG-123 sustained its effect on Hemoglobin A1c levels even after 24 weeks of administration without affecting triglycerides. Taken together, these data indicate that TMG-123 exerts glucose-lowering effects in both insulin-deficient and -resistant diabetes, and sustains reduced Hemoglobin A1c levels without affecting hepatic and plasma triglycerides even after chronic treatment. Therefore, TMG-123 is expected to be an antidiabetic drug that overcomes the concerns previously reported with other GK activators.

  1. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  2. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted synergistic effects on rat spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dan; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Rui; Xu, Li-Xian; Mei, Xiao-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.

  3. Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christina M; Cox, Zachary; Dundore, Tyler; Thomas, Tayler; Kim, Johnathon; Pillivant, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Beaudoin, CM, Cox, Z, Dundore, T, Thomas, T, Kim, J, and Pillivant, D. Effect of bench press load knowledge on repetitions, rating of perceived exertion, and attentional focus. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 514-519, 2018-Few studies have examined the role of the teleoanticipation during resistance training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bench press (BP) load knowledge on repetitions completed, ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), and attentional focus (% associative). Thirty-six recreationally active resistance-trained men (n = 25) and women (n = 11) participated in this study (age = 20.97 ± 1.87 years; ht = 174.12 ± 9.41 cm; and mass = 80.14 ± 14.03 kg). All subjects completed 3 testing sessions: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP determination; (b) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue known load (KL); and (c) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue unknown load (UL). Known load and UL sessions were randomized and counterbalanced and both completed at 70% 1RM. An estimated weight ratio was computed using the subject's estimate of the UL weight relative to the KL weight. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant testing order difference for the estimated weight ratio. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no significant differences in the number of repetitions (p = 0.63), RPE (p = 0.18), or attentional focus (% associative) (p = 0.93) between the KL and UL conditions. Pearson correlations found a moderate positive association between KL repetitions completed and % associative focus when the UL was completed before the KL. Load knowledge did not influence the number of repetitions, RPE, or attentional focus while completing the BP. Further research examining the use of pacing strategies, RPE, and attentional focus during KL and UL conditions are warranted.

  4. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS). Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains. Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

  5. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  6. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  7. Human occipital cortices differentially exert saccadic suppression: intracranial recording in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Mitsugu; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Brown, Erik C.; Kojima, Katsuaki; Asano, Eishi

    2013-01-01

    By repeating saccades unconsciously, humans explore the surrounding world every day. Saccades inevitably move external visual images across the retina at high velocity; nonetheless, healthy humans don’t perceive transient blurring of the visual scene during saccades. This perceptual stability is referred to as saccadic suppression. Functional suppression is believed to take place transiently in the visual systems, but it remains unknown how commonly or differentially the human occipital lobe activities are suppressed at the large-scale cortical network level. We determined the spatial-temporal dynamics of intracranially-recorded gamma activity at 80–150 Hz around spontaneous saccades under no-task conditions during wakefulness and those in darkness during REM sleep. Regardless of wakefulness or REM sleep, a small degree of attenuation of gamma activity was noted in the occipital regions during saccades, most extensively in the polar and least in the medial portions. Longer saccades were associated with more intense gamma-attenuation. Gamma-attenuation was subsequently followed by gamma-augmentation most extensively involving the medial and least involving the polar occipital region. Such gamma-augmentation was more intense during wakefulness and temporally locked to the offset of saccades. The polarities of initial peaks of perisaccadic event-related potentials (ERPs) were frequently positive in the medial and negative in the polar occipital regions. The present study, for the first time, provided the electrophysiological evidence that human occipital cortices differentially exert peri-saccadic modulation. Transiently suppressed sensitivity of the primary visual cortex in the polar region may be an important neural basis for saccadic suppression. Presence of occipital gamma-attenuation even during REM sleep suggests that saccadic suppression might be exerted even without external visual inputs. The primary visual cortex in the medial region, compared to the

  8. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  9. Implementation of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT), generalized (G)SAFT+cubic, and cubic-plus-association (CPA) for modeling thermophysical properties of selected 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids in a wide pressure range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishuk, Ilya

    2013-03-14

    This study is the first comparative investigation of predicting the isochoric and the isobaric heat capacities, the isothermal and the isentropic compressibilities, the isobaric thermal expansibilities, the thermal pressure coefficients, and the sound velocities of ionic liquids by statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state (EoS) models and cubic-plus-association (CPA). It is demonstrated that, taking into account the high uncertainty of the literature data (excluding sound velocities), the generalized for heavy compounds version of SAFT+Cubic (GSAFT+Cubic) appears as a robust estimator of the auxiliary thermodynamic properties under consideration. In the case of the ionic liquids the performance of PC-SAFT seems to be less accurate in comparison to ordinary compounds. In particular, PC-SAFT substantially overestimates heat capacities and underestimates the temperature and pressure dependencies of sound velocities and compressibilities. An undesired phenomenon of predicting high fictitious critical temperatures of ionic liquids by PC-SAFT should be noticed as well. CPA is the less accurate estimator of the liquid phase properties, but it is advantageous in modeling vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids. At the same time, the preliminary results indicate that the inaccuracies in predicting the deep vacuum vapor pressures of ionic liquids do not influence modeling of phase equilibria in their mixtures at much higher pressures.

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  12. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  14. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  15. Uranium extraction history using pressure leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.S.; Thomas, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 60 years of uranium process development only a few commercial uranium plants have adopted a pressure leaching process in their flowsheet. The selection of acid versus alkaline pressure leaching is related to the uranium and gangue mineralogy. Tetravalent (U"+"4) uranium has to be oxidized to hexavalent (U"+"6) uranium to be soluble. Refractory tetravalent uranium requires higher temperature and pressure, as practised in pressure leaching, for conversation to soluble hexavalent uranium. This paper chronicles the history of these uranium pressure leaching facilities over the past 60 years, with specific details of each design and operation. (author)

  16. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  17. Confounding compression: the effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Williams, Ned; Driller, Matthew William; Shing, Cecilia Mary; Fell, James William; Halson, Shona Leigh; Halson, Shona Louise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the interface pressure exerted by lower body sports compression garments, in order to assess the effect of garment type, size and posture in athletes. Twelve national-level boxers were fitted with sports compression garments (tights and leggings), each in three different sizes (undersized, recommended size and oversized). Interface pressure was assessed across six landmarks on the lower limb (ranging from medial malleolus to upper thigh) as athletes assumed sitting, standing and supine postures. Sports compression leggings exerted a significantly higher mean pressure than sports compression tights (P sports compression garments is significantly affected by garment type, size and posture assumed by the wearer.

  18. How does yeast respond to pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes P.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewing and baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for stress response studies of eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP on S. cerevisiae. HHP exerts a broad effect on yeast cells characteristic of common stresses, mainly associated with protein alteration and lipid bilayer phase transition. Like most stresses, pressure induces cell cycle arrest. Below 50 MPa (500 atm yeast cell morphology is unaffected whereas above 220 MPa wild-type cells are killed. S. cerevisiae cells can acquire barotolerance if they are pretreated with a sublethal stress due to temperature, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, or pressure. Nevertheless, pressure only leads to protection against severe stress if, after pressure pretreatment, the cells are also re-incubated at room pressure. We attribute this effect to the inhibition of the protein synthesis apparatus under HHP. The global genome expression analysis of S. cerevisiae cells submitted to HHP revealed a stress response profile. The majority of the up-regulated genes are involved in stress defense and carbohydrate metabolism while most repressed genes belong to the cell cycle progression and protein synthesis categories. However, the signaling pathway involved in the pressure response is still to be elucidated. Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions, confers baroprotection. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae cells in the early exponential phase submitted to 50-MPa pressure show induction of the expression level of the nitric oxide synthase inducible isoform. As pressure becomes an important biotechnological tool, studies concerning this kind of stress in microorganisms are imperative.

  19. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  20. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  1. Prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in endurance horses in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberger, M S; McKenzie, E C; Payton, M E; Rigas, J D; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a reported syndrome in competing endurance horses; however, the prevalence and cause of ER in this population have not been defined. To determine the prevalence of ER in a sample of endurance racing horses and investigate factors, including relevant genetic defects, contributing to the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in this group. Prospective clinical study. Riders of 101 horses participating in one of four 50-mile (80.5 km) distance races completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding the medical history, management and performance of their horse. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was measured before and 4 h after completion of exercise. Hair samples were analysed by PCR for the R309H mutation in the glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) and the C7360G mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene causing malignant hyperthermia (MH). Samples were obtained from 68 Arabians, 20 half-Arabians and 13 horses of other breeds. Serum CK was above the resting reference interval (145-633 u/l) in 38 horses after racing (median 883 u/l, range 658-3739) but was compatible with values previously reported in apparently healthy endurance horses. Pathological ER was suspected to occur in 4 horses with serum CK activities exceeding 10,000 u/l 4 h after racing (median 84,825 u/l; range 10,846-381,790) including 3 Arabians and one half-Arabian horse. GYS1 and RYR1 mutations were not present in hair samples from any horses. Exertional rhabdomyolysis occurred at a prevalence of 4.0% in a sample of horses participating in 50 mile distance events and all affected horses were Arabian or half-Arabian. The cause of ER in the endurance horse population remains unknown; however, ER in competing Arabian endurance horses is unlikely to be due to type 1 PSSM or MH. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition exerts renoprotective effects in rats with established heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco De Arruda Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF. To this end, male Wistar rats were subjected to left ventricle (LV radiofrequency ablation or sham operation. Six weeks after surgery, radiofrequency-ablated rats who developed HF were randomly divided into two groups and treated for four weeks with vildagliptin (120 mg/kg/day or vehicle by oral gavage. Echocardiography was performed before (pretreatment and at the end of treatment (post-treatment to evaluate cardiac function. The fractional area change increased (34±5 vs. 45±3%, p<0.05, and the isovolumic relaxation time decreased (33±2 vs. 27±1 ms; p<0.05 in HF rats treated with vildagliptin (post-treatment vs. pretreatment. On the other hand, cardiac dysfunction deteriorated further in vehicle-treated HF rats. Renal function was impaired in vehicle-treated HF rats as evidenced by fluid retention, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR and high levels of urinary protein excretion. Vildagliptin treatment restored urinary flow, GFR, urinary sodium and urinary protein excretion to sham levels. Restoration of renal function in HF rats by DPPIV inhibition was associated with increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 serum concentration, reduced DPPIV activity and increased activity of protein kinase A in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the anti-proteinuric effect of vildagliptin treatment in rats with established HF was associated with

  3. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

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    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Cadaveric Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Daniel R; Sellon, Jacob L; Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Academic institution procedural skills laboratory. Ten unembalmed cadaveric knee-ankle-foot specimens from 1 female (2 specimens) and 7 male donors aged 62-91 years (mean 78.6 years) with body mass indices of 18.9-35.3 kg/m 2 (mean 27.1 kg/m 2 ). Two experienced operators each performed USG anterior and lateral compartment fasciotomies on 5 unembalmed cadaveric legs. A third physician subsequently dissected the legs to assess the continuity of the fasciotomies and to identify any neurovascular damage related to the procedures. Fasciotomy length (in centimeters) and classification by completeness (achieved target length or did not achieve target length) and continuity (continuous or discontinuous) based on predetermined criteria. Muscles, retinaculae, and neurovascular structures were assessed for damage. No neurovascular injuries occurred in any of the 20 USG fasciotomies. The average fasciotomy length was 22.5 cm. All 20 of the fasciotomies achieved the target length. A continuous cephalocaudal fasciotomy was accomplished in 13 of 20 fasciotomies. When a fasciotomy was not continuous, the average length and number of intact fascial bands was 1.52 cm and 2.3, respectively. USG fasciotomy of the anterior and lateral leg compartments can be safely performed in a cadaveric model and can achieve a fasciotomy length comparable to surgical fasciotomy. Most procedures successfully

  5. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  6. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  7. Foot Plantar Pressure Estimation Using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xidias , Elias; Koutkalaki , Zoi; Papagiannis , Panagiotis; Papanikos , Paraskevas; Azariadis , Philip

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Smart Products; International audience; In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimate the maximum pressure over the foot plantar surface exerted by a two-layer shoe sole for three distinct phases of the gait cycle. The proposed method is based on Artificial Neural Networks and can be utilized for the determination of the comfort that is related to the sole construction. Input parameters to the proposed neural network are the material properties and the thicknesses of the sole...

  8. Exchange Market Pressure on the Croatian Kuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Tatomir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currency crises exert strong pressure on currencies often causing costly economic adjustment. A measure of exchange market pressure (EMP gauges the severity of such tensions. Measuring EMP is important for monetary authorities that manage exchange rates. It is also relevant in academic research that studies currency crises. A precise EMP measure is therefore important and this paper reexamines the measurement of EMP on the Croatian kuna. It improves it by considering intervention data and thresholds that account for the EMP distribution. It also tests the robustness of weights. A discussion of the results demonstrates a modest improvement over the previous measure and concludes that the new EMP on the Croatian kuna should be used in future research.

  9. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  10. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  11. Circulating Angiogenic Growth Factors in Diabetes Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Exertional Leg Pain in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Yeboah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a common complication of diabetes, associated with impairment in angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is regulated by angiogenic growth factors such as angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1, Ang-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. We studied the association between angiogenic growth factors versus PAD and exertional leg symptoms in diabetes patients in Ghana. Method. In this cross-sectional study, ankle-brachial index was measured with oscillometrically and exertional leg symptoms were screened with Edinburgh claudication questionnaire in 140 diabetes patients and 110 nondiabetes individuals. Circulating levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, and VEGF were measured with immunosorbent assay. Results. The prevalence of PAD and exertional leg pain was 16.8% and 24.8%, respectively. Compared to non-PAD participants, PAD patients had higher VEGF levels [85.8 (37.5–154.5 versus 57.7 (16.6–161.1 p=0.032] and lower Ang-1 levels [31.3 (24.8–42.6 versus 40.9 (28.2–62.1, p=0.017]. In multivariable logistic regression, patients with exertional leg pain had increased the odds of plasma Ang-2 levels [OR (95% CI: 2.08 (1.08–6.41, p=0.036]. Conclusion. Diabetes patients with PAD and exertional leg pain have imbalance in angiogenic growth factors, indicating impaired angiogenesis. In patients with exertional leg pains, Ang-2 may be an important biomarker.

  12. Proteomics analysis in frozen horse mackerel previously high-pressure processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Vázquez, Manuel; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-10-15

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) (150, 300 and 450 MPa for 0, 2.5 and 5 min) on total sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble and sarcoplasmic proteins in frozen (-10 °C for 3 months) horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) was evaluated. Proteomics tools based on image analysis of SDS-PAGE protein gels and protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were applied. Although total SDS-soluble fraction indicated no important changes induced by HPP, this processing modified the 1-D SDS-PAGE sarcoplasmic patterns in a direct-dependent manner and exerted a selective effect on particular proteins depending on processing conditions. Thus, application of the highest pressure (450 MPa) provoked a significant degradation of phosphoglycerate mutase 2, glycogen phosphorylase muscle form, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, beta-enolase and triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase-1. Conversely, protein bands assigned to tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, fast myotomal muscle troponin T and parvalbumin beta 2 increased their intensity after applying a 450-MPa processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of a cuboidal permanent magnet’s force exerted on a robotic capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wan’an Yang,1 Chengbing Tang,2 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, 2CNPC Chuanqing Geophysical Prospecting Company Research Center Computer Department, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To control and drive a robotic capsule accurately from outside a patient’s body, we present a schema in which the capsule enclosing the imaging device, circuits, batteries, etc is looped by a permanent magnet ring that acts as an actuator. A cuboidal permanent magnet situated outside the patient's body attracts or pushes the magnet ring from different directions to make the capsule move or rotate. A mathematic model of attractive or repulsive force that the cuboidal magnet exerts on the magnet ring is presented for accurate calculation of force. The experiments showed that the measuring force was in agreement with the theoretical one, and the relations between the dimensions of the cuboidal magnet and force are useful to produce a cuboidal magnet with optimal shape to get appropriate force. Keywords: control and drive, robotic capsule, permanent magnet ring, optimal dimension, force model

  14. Exertional dyspnoea in interstitial lung diseases: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis, decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature. The respiratory derangement observed in ILD patients at rest is even more evident during exercise. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for exertional dyspnoea and reduced exercise tolerance include altered respiratory mechanics, impaired gas exchange, cardiovascular abnormalities and peripheral muscle dysfunction. This review describes the respiratory physiology of ILD, both at rest and during exercise, and aims to provide comprehensive and updated evidence on the clinical utility of the cardiopulmonary exercise test in the assessment and management of these pathological entities. In addition, the role of exercise training and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in the ILD population is addressed.

  15. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  16. Gasdermin D Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects by Promoting Neutrophil Death

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    Hiroto Kambara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gasdermin D (GSDMD is considered a proinflammatory factor that mediates pyroptosis in macrophages to protect hosts from intracellular bacteria. Here, we reveal that GSDMD deficiency paradoxically augmented host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, which established GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. In contrast to its activation in macrophages, in which activated inflammatory caspases cleave GSDMD to produce an N-terminal fragment (GSDMD-cNT to trigger pyroptosis, GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils was caspase independent. It was mediated by a neutrophil-specific serine protease, neutrophil elastase (ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. ELANE-mediated GSDMD cleavage was upstream of the caspase cleavage site and produced a fully active ELANE-derived NT fragment (GSDMD-eNT that induced lytic cell death as efficiently as GSDMD-cNT. Thus, GSDMD is pleiotropic, exerting both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects that make it a potential target for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapies. : Kambara et al. find that GSDMD deficiency augments host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, establishing GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils is mediated by ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. Keywords: GSDMD, neutrophil death, neutrophil elastase, innate immunity, host defense

  17. Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Pinto Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to relate the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-overall with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during stationary running with the elbow flexion/extension performed with water-floating equipment. The sample consisted of eleven women that performed the water-based exercise at submaximal cadences. The heart rate, oxygen uptake, ventilation, and electromyographic signal (EMG from biceps brachii (%EMG BB, triceps brachii (%EMG TB, biceps femoris (%EMG BF and rectus femoris (%EMG RF muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall RPE was measured immediately following its completion. The Pearson product-moment linear correlation was used to investigate associations between the variables analyzed in the present study. Significant relationships were observed between the RPE-overall and all the cardiorespiratory variables, with the r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.70 (p<0.05. In addition, the RPE-overall showed a significant (p<0.05 relationship with %EMG BB (r=0.55 and %EMG BF (r=0.50. These results suggest an association between the RPE-overall with all cardiorespiratory and two neuromuscular variables during the execution of a water-based aerobic exercise using water-floating equipment.

  18. Modified Polymeric Nanoparticles Exert In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Babu, Jegdish P; Osorio, Raquel; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano, Manuel

    2018-06-14

    Polymeric nanoparticles were modified to exert antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. Nanoparticles were loaded with calcium, zinc and doxycycline. Ions and doxycycline release were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography. Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus lactis , Streptoccocus mutans , gordonii and sobrinus were grown and the number of bacteria was determined by optical density. Nanoparticles were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/mL and incubated with 1.0 mL of each bacterial suspension for 3, 12, and 24 h. The bacterial viability was assessed by determining their ability to cleave the tetrazolium salt to a formazan dye. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe’s F ( p Nanoparticles (60% to 99% reduction) followed by Ca-Nanoparticles or Zn-Nanoparticles (30% to 70% reduction) and finally the non-doped nanoparticles (7% to 35% reduction). P. gingivalis , S. mutans and L. lactis were the most susceptible bacteria, being S. gordonii and S. sobrinus the most resistant to the tested nanoparticles.

  19. Hydrocortisone infusion exerts dose- and sex-dependent effects on attention to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C; Wood, Suzanne E; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to negative words. Healthy volunteers received placebo and either low-dose (0.15mg/kg) or high-dose (0.45mg/kg) hydrocortisone intravenously during two separate visits in a double-blind, randomized design. Seventy-five minutes post-infusion, the subjects performed tests of attention (Rapid Visual Information Processing [RVIP]), spatial working memory (Spatial Span) and emotional processing (Affective Go/No-go task [AGNG]). On the attention task, performance was impaired under both hydrocortisone doses relative to placebo, though the effect on error rate was not significant after controlling for age; Spatial Span performance was unaffected by hydrocortisone administration. On the AGNG task, relative to the placebo condition the low-dose hydrocortisone infusion decreased response time to emotional words while high-dose hydrocortisone increased response time. In the females specifically, both high and low dose hydrocortisone administration attenuated the normal attentional bias toward positively valenced words. These data suggest that, in healthy women, the modulation of attention by the emotional salience of stimuli is influenced by glucocorticoid hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammation-reactive astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Linda; Jörneberg, Per; Björklund, Ulrika; Westerlund, Anna; Biber, Björn; Hansson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a widely used, local anesthetic agent that blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels when used for neuro-axial blockades. Much lower concentrations of bupivacaine than in normal clinical use, bupivacaine exerts an influence on the Ca2+ signaling and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in inflammation-reactive astrocytes when used at ultralow concentrations, bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- (5-HT) and glutamate-receptor systems. With respect to the μ-opioid- and 5-HT-receptor systems, bupivacaine restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. With respect to the glutamate-receptor system, bupivacaine, in combination with an ultralow concentration of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and μ-opioid receptor agonists, restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine attenuated the inflammation-induced upregulation of IL-1β secretion. The results indicate that bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-HT- and glutamate-receptor systems by affecting Ca2+ signaling and IL-1β release in inflammation-reactive astrocytes. These results suggest that bupivacaine may be used at ultralow concentrations as an anti-inflammatory drug, either alone or in combination with opioid agonists and ultralow concentrations of an opioid antagonist. PMID:24083665

  1. Evaluation of influence on environment exerted by nuclear and non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1981-10-01

    Mankind must consume some form of energy, therefore, it is meaningless to discuss the danger or safety of atomic energy only, and the discussion should be made in comparison with the safety when other energy resources are used. The upper limit of the use of fossil fuel is not determined by its amount of deposits, but the danger of changing the climate by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide is a serious problem. This book is originated from the text for the one-day seminar on the comparison of the influence on environment exerted by atomic energy and other energy resources, held by the Atomic Energy Information Center on August 29, 1980, of which the contents were made more circumstantial by adding many new data and discussions. Almost all influences produced by the use of energy are treated in it. It is the result of discussions with many experts in the world. The logics of introducing atomic energy, radioactivity, ordinary chemical contamination, chemical carcinogen, large accidents, acid rain, the change of climate due to carbon dioxide and other causes, the effect of greenhouse effect on human society, and the actual state of greenhouse effect and the countermeasures are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Effect of temperature change exerted on plastic deformation of SUS 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Yasushi; Ikegami, Kozo

    1985-01-01

    Under the condition of mechanical load, on which the thermal stress due to temperature change is superposed, the deformation behavior of structural materials is affected by not only loading history but also temperature history. Also at the time of working materials, the case that the relation between plastic deformation and temperature change becomes a problem is not few, such as cold working after hot rolling. In this study, the effect of temperature change exerted on the plastic deformation of SUS 304 stainless steel was examined, as this material has been frequently used as a high temperature structural material. That is, the plastic deformation behavior at a certain temperature after prestrain was applied at a different temperature was experimentally determined under various temperature and load conditions. Moreover, the quantitative evaluation of the results obtained was attempted by using the concept of an equal plastic strain curved surface. The test pieces and the experimental method, the behavior in uniaxial loading and the behavior in combined loading are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Melittin exerts an antitumor effect on non‑small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Chen, Zhe

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for a significant percentage of all cancer‑associated mortalities in men and women, with non‑small cell lung cancer being the most frequently occurring type of lung cancer. Melittin is the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that has been reported to exert anti‑chronic inflammatory and anti‑cancer effects. In the present study, the antitumor effect of melittin was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro analyses. The results demonstrated that melittin significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor‑induced invasion and migration of non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Subcutaneous injection of melittin at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed non‑small cell lung cancer tumor growth by 27 and 61%, respectively. In addition, melittin significantly inhibited the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Furthermore, melittin decreased the protein expression of VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α. Therefore, the antitumor activity of melittin may be associated with the anti‑angiogenic actions of inhibiting the VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor signaling pathways.

  4. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-02

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  5. Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Baba, Makoto; Noto, Fumitoshi; Ruike, Mitsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)

  6. Exertional Dyspnoea in Chronic Respiratory Diseases: From Physiology to Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Vermeulen, François; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-02-01

    Dyspnoea is a complex, highly personalized and multidimensional sensory experience, and its underlying cause and mechanisms are still being investigated. Exertional dyspnoea is one of the most frequently encountered symptoms of patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, and is a common reason for seeking medical help. As the symptom usually progresses with the underlying disease, it can lead to an avoidance of physical activity, peripheral muscle deconditioning and decreased quality of life. Dyspnoea is closely associated with quality of life, exercise (in)tolerance and prognosis in various conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension, and is therefore an important therapeutic target. Effective management and treatment of dyspnoea is an important challenge for caregivers, and therapeutic options that attempt to reverse its underlying cause have been only partially successful This "review" will attempt to shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying dyspnoea during exercise and to translate/apply them to a broad clinical spectrum of cardio-respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The fruit extract of Berberis crataegina DC: exerts potent antioxidant activity and protects DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sipahi, Hande; Celep, Engin; Üstündağ, Aylin; Cemiloğlu Ülker, Özge; Duydu, Yalçın; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-04-17

    Dried fruits of Berberis crataegina (Berberidaceae) have been frequently consumed as food garniture in Turkish cuisine, while its fruit paste has been used to increase stamina and in particular to prevent from cardiovascular dysfunctions in Northeastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This study investigated this folkloric information in order to explain the claimed healing effects as well as to evaluate possible risks. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic fruit extract were evaluated through several in vitro assays. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of B. crataegina fruit extract were also assessed in both cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The extract showed protective effects against ferric-induced oxidative stress and had a relatively good antioxidant activity. It also ameliorated the H2O2 mediated DNA damage in lymphocytes, suggesting the protective effect against oxidative DNA damage. The methanolic extract of B. crataegina fruits may be a potential antioxidant nutrient and also may exert a protective role against lipid peroxidation as well as oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  9. The prozone effect exerted by the complement-binding anti-Lea on anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Parekh, Kamlesh H

    2017-01-01

    Prozone phenomenon is seen with very high-titer antibodies in an immune serum. The prozone effect on anti-D by a low-titer anti-Le a was investigated associated with neonatal jaundice. Standard methods were used in investigations. The child was born at full-term developed mild jaundice. With weak direct antiglobulin test+, her indirect serum bilirubin was progressed to 27.5 mg/dL in 48 h. Anti-D and anti-Le a were detected in the mother. Both these antibodies were detected in the child's serum though the eluate from red blood cells (RBCs) contained only anti-D. Mother's anti-D was masked by anti-Le a if the RBCs possessed both the antigens together. Anti-D was revealed only with D-positive RBCs lacking Le a or if the serum was modified by mixing with Le a+ saliva or was heated at 56°C or fortified with citrate solution. An anti-D showed prozone effect exerted by the complement-fixing anti-Le a in the test.

  10. Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlan; Hua, Cong; Pan, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Xijia; Wu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia. Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is naturally occurring in various plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae and exerts protective effects in a mice model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing infarct volume and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which carvacrol protect the brain have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on inflammatory reaction and inflammatory mediators in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The results of the present study showed that carvacrol inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2. It also increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in ischemic cortical tissues. In addition, carvacrol treatment suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of nuclear NF-kB p65. In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  11. Quantifying the Attractive Force Exerted on the Pinned Calcium Spiral Waves by Using the Adventive Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Kang; Tang Jun; Luo Jin-Ming; Ma Jun

    2013-01-01

    The cytosolic calcium system is inhomogenous because of the discrete and random distribution of ion channels on the ER membrane. It is well known that the spiral tip can be pinned by the heterogenous area, and the field can detach the spiral from the heterogeneity. We use the adventive field to counteract the attractive force exerting on the calcium spiral wave by the heterogeneity, then the strength of the adventive field is used to quantify the attractive force indirectly. Two factors determining the attractive force are studied. It is found that: (1) the attractive force sharply increases with size of the heterogeneity for small-size heterogeneity, whereas the force increases to a saturated value for large-size heterogeneity; (2) for large-size heterogeneity, the force almost remains constant unless the level of the heterogeneity vanishes, the force decreases to zero linearly and sharply, and for small-size heterogeneity, the force decreases successively with the level of the heterogeneity. Furthermore, it is found that the forces exist only when the spiral tip is very close to the heterogenous area. Our study may shed some light on the control or suppression of the calcium spiral wave

  12. The Force Exerted by the Membrane Potential During Protein Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The electrostatic force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated and found to vary from 1.4 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 12 to 6.5 Angstroms, its measured range. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a nonaqueous pore gives a force of 3.1 pN per unit charge, which represents an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein harness, these results imply that a force of 11 plus or minus 4 pN is sufficient to catalyze the unfolding of harness during import. Comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy suggests that the two are not inconsistent.

  13. Exertional muscle injury: evaluation of concentric versus eccentric actions with serial MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, F G; Fukunaga, T; Mink, J H; Edgerton, V R

    1991-06-01

    Eccentric muscular actions involve the forced lengthening or stretching of muscles and tend to produce exertional injuries. This study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to serially evaluate muscles in five healthy, untrained subjects who performed exhaustive biceps exercise by doing isolated eccentric and concentric actions with a dumbbell. Symptoms were assessed, and T2-weighted images of the arms were obtained before exercise and 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 40, 50, 60, and 80 days after exercise. Statistically significant increases in T2 relaxation times indicative of muscle injury occurred on each day of MR imaging evaluation in muscles performing eccentric actions, peaking on day 3 in two subjects; day 5, two subjects; and day 10, one subject. The pattern and extent of the abnormalities on MR images were variable. Pain, soreness, and joint stiffness were present on days 1, 3, and 5 in muscles that performed eccentric actions. MR imaging showed subclinical abnormalities that lasted as long as 75 days after the disappearance of symptoms (two subjects). Muscles that performed concentric actions had no changes in T2 relaxation times and were asymptomatic throughout the study.

  14. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  15. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Qin; Li, Yan; Chen, Zi-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Yang, Wen-Ting; Chen, Shuang; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20) exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa's scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH ( P electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway.

  16. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  17. Perceived exertion during muscle fatigue as reflected in movement-related cortical potentials: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Sun, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ri-Hui

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism on perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. A total of 15 individuals in the fatigue group and 13 individuals in the nonfatigue group were recruited into this study, performing 200 intermittent handgrip contractions with 30% maximal voluntary contraction. The force, surface electromyography (sEMG), movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), and rating perception of effort (RPE) were combined to evaluate the perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. The maximal handgrip force significantly decreased (Pfatigue. The RPE scores reported by the individuals and the motor potential amplitude of MRCPs in the fatigue group significantly increased (Pfatigue but could also reflect the peripheral local muscle fatigue.

  18. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushio