WorldWideScience

Sample records for selecting learning materials

  1. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  2. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  3. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  4. Characteristics of Criterion-Referenced Instruments: Implications for Materials Selection for the Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Joyce F.

    Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…

  5. the art of preview in appropriate teaching/learning material selection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. This study recognised the importance of print materials and texts in effective and ... As previewers, they ought to look into the external and internal .... detailed information, the reading techniques will change to suit the purposes.

  6. The Materiality of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    or postgraduate students interested in a variety of fields, including educational studies, educational psychology, social anthropology, and STS. Original ethnographic descriptions showing the fine details of how materials influence the learning process Introduces the advanced and complex Actor-Network Theory......The field of educational research lacks a methodology for the study of learning that does not begin with humans, their aims, and their interests. The Materiality of Learning seeks to overcome this human-centered mentality by developing a novel spatial approach to the materiality of learning....... Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), Estrid Sørensen compares an Internet-based 3D virtual environment project in a fourth-grade class with the class's work with traditional learning materials, including blackboards, textbooks, notebooks, pencils, and rulers. Taking into account pupils...

  7. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  8. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  9. Holistic evaluations of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation of learning material comprises investigations of - the potential learning potential, i.e. the affordances and challenges of the learning material...

  10. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  11. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  12. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  13. Europa Lander Material Selection Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heller, Mellisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Energetic materials (EMs, explosives, pyrotechnics, propellants) provide high-power output of high temperature reaction products. These products can be solid, liquid, or gaseous during reaction or after the products have equilibrated with the surroundings. For example, high explosives typically consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen bonded within a single molecule, and produce almost exclusively gaseous products. Conversely, intermetallics consist of physical mixtures of metals and metalloids, and produce almost exclusively condensed products. Other materials such as pyrotechnics and propellants have intermediate behavior. All energetic materials react in a self-propagating manner that after ignition, does not necessarily require energy input from the surroundings. The range of reaction velocities can range from mm/s for intermetallics, to km/s for high explosives. Energetic material selection depends on numerous requirements specific to the needs of a system. High explosives are used for applications where high pressure gases are necessary for pushing or fracturing materials (e.g., rock, metal) or creating shock waves or air blast. Propellants are used to produce moderate-pressure, high-temperature products without a shock wave. Pyrotechnics are used to produce numerous effects including: high-temperature products, gases, light, smoke, sound, and others. Thermites are used to produce heat, high-temperature products, materials, and other effects that require condensed products. Intermetallics are used to produce high-temperature condensed products and materials, with very little gas production. Numerous categories of energetic materials exist with overlapping definitions, effects, and properties.

  14. LEARNING AND E-MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bajd

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of e-materials in learning. Under pressure from the public,which is becoming increasingly conversant with IT, schools and also other non-formal types of learning are changing into e-classrooms and e-learning. Among parents and teachers, too, there is a widespread opinion that e-learning is more motivating and is more effective. On the other hand, a mass of research shows that e-materials are more effective only in specific areas, where a multimedia approach is needed, for instance in ophthalmic surgery, while everywhere else they are comparable to traditional teaching and learning in terms of both effectiveness and motivation. The paper also highlights the methodological problems of measuring motivation and learning success. Finally it presents e-material which was created taking into account the results of research in this field.

  15. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  16. Statistical learning and selective inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J

    2015-06-23

    We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.

  17. Cristallini Material Review and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Savina, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hebden, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-09-30

    The creation of a handheld unit to utilize the Cristallini method of uranium hexafluoride sampling requires the identification and qualification of suitable substrate materials. These materials will need to quickly and completely react with the process gas, resist vapor locking under vacuum, while being relatively inexpensive and homogeneous. Two forms of powdered alumina have been chosen for a head-to-head comparison during upcoming uranium hexafluoride tests. Both materials have shown ideal uptake characteristics during tungsten hexafluoride tests with a high loading capacity and no measureable breakthrough. They have also been shown to work well at vacuums below 10 Torr, are commercially available and inexpensive. In addition, two possible hydrogen fluoride trapping materials, sodium fluoride and saturated calcium carbonate, have been identified for further testing.

  18. Selection of materials for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Repeated operation of a long burning, ignited plasma in ETF implies high exposure to an intense source of energetic particles and high energy (14.1 MeV) neutrons and presents a unique environment for materials in ETF compared with earlier tokamaks. Designing ETF (and FED) will provide many insights into reactor relevant design issues related to materials performance, particularly in components outside the first wall. This paper focuses primarily on how exposure to the plasma and radiation damage to materials infuence the design lifetime of particular components, including the first wall, armor, and TF coils. Also discussed are radiaton exposure limits for repair welding of the torus and for electrical materials used in RF and diagnostics

  19. Material selection for TFTR limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.

    1980-10-01

    The requirements for the material to be used as the first surface of limiters in TFTR are that it: (1) withstand a heat flux of 1 kw/cm 2 for a pulse length of 1.5s and a duty cycle of 1/200 for 10 5 cycles, (2) withstand the thermal and electro-magnetic loads from 10 4 plasma current disruptions lasting about 200 μs, (3) generate impurities at a rate low enough to meet impurity control requirements (which depend on the atomic number of the material) for TFTR, and (4) have tritium retention characteristics consistent with tritium inventory requirements for TFTR. An extensive set of material tests using electron beams, neutral beams, and plasma bombardment have been carried out to identify materials which can meet the thermal requirements of the above

  20. Material selection and embodied energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available mix concrete apron Non reinforced, ready mix concrete strip foundation Non reinforced, ready mix ground floor slab Concrete block Modular, hollow concrete block Solid concrete block Finishes Floor screed Insulated ceiling panel Perlite... Predicting the embodied energy contribution of a single material is however not as easy as green building practices assume. As illustrated by the example in Box 1, the choice of a material implies the choice of integral constituents such as insulation...

  1. Evaluation of Learning Materials: A Holistic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualised learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through theoretical models and definitions. (Contains 3 figures…

  2. Selected advances in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Several findings emanating from materials research that should have a beneficial impact on technological advancement in the future are described. The report deals with the GRAPHNOL, a new class of high-temperature brazing alloy for joining refractory components, gel-sphere-pac process for manufacture of nuclear fuel, and noble-metal fuel cladding for service in radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to provide auxiliary power aboard spacecraft for planetary exploration

  3. Material selection for an aerospace component

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    In the world of today there is a drive for lighter and more effective products for various reasons e.g. reduced environmental impact, higher payload, fuel efficiency etc. There is also an expanding development of new materials for a large number of different applications. This makes it more and more difficult for engineers to make good material selections. This has led to the development of a large amount of material selection methods that require more or less effort to select material. An ef...

  4. Eco-Material Selection for Auto Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Ahmad T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Omar, Mohammed [Masdar Institute of Science & Technology; Hayajneh, Mohammed T. [Jordan University of Science and Technology

    2017-09-25

    In the last decades, majority of automakers started to include lightweight materials in their vehicles to meet hard environmental regulations and to improve fuel efficiency of their vehicles. As a result, eco-material selection for vehicles emerged as a new discipline under design for environment. This chapter will summarize methods of eco-material selections for automotive applications with more emphasis into auto-bodies. A set of metrics for eco-material selection that takes into account all economic, environmental and social factors will be developed using numerical and qualitative methods. These metrics cover products' environmental impact, functionality and manufacturability, in addition to the economic and societal factors.

  5. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    2017-06-20

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  6. The materials selection in ITER and the first materials workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, R.; Barabash, V.; Kalinin, G.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    The selection of materials and joining technologies to be used in ITER is a trade-off between multiple and often conflicting requirements derived from the unique features of the fusion environment. Materials selection must encompass a total engineering approach, by considering not only physical and mechanical properties, but also the components' manufacturing, their maintainability and reliability, and, finally, how they can be recycled or disposed of at the end of machine operation

  7. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  8. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  9. Learning for Climate Change Adaptation among Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning for Climate Change Adaptation among Selected Communities of Lusaka ... This research was aimed at surveying perceptions of climate change and ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  10. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  11. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  12. Optimal materials selection for bimaterial piezoelectric microactuators

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, P.; Spearing, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuation is one of the commonly employed actuation schemes in microsystems. This paper focuses on identifying and ranking promising active material/substrate combinations for bimaterial piezoelectric (BPE) microactuators based on their performance. The mechanics of BPE structures following simple beam theory assumptions available in the literature are applied to evolve critical performance metrics which govern the materials selection process. Contours of equal performance are p...

  13. Selection of refractory materials for pyrochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, K.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Several pyrochemical processing operations require containment materials that exhibit minimal chemical interactions with the system, good thermal shock resistance, and reusability. One example is Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR). DOR involves the conversion of PuO 2 to metal by an oxidation/reduction reaction with Ca metal. The reaction proceeds within a molten salt flux at temperatures above 800C. A combination of thermodynamics, system thermodynamic modeling, and experimental investigations are in use to select and evaluate potential containment materials

  14. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  15. Selecting materialized views in a data warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Liu, Daxin

    2003-01-01

    A Data Warehouse contains lots of materialized views over the data provided by the distributed heterogeneous databases for the purpose of efficiently implementing decision-support or OLAP queries. It is important to select the right view to materialize that answer a given set of queries. In this paper, we have addressed and designed algorithm to select a set of views to materialize in order to answer the most queries under the constraint of a given space. The algorithm presented in this paper aim at making out a minimum set of views, by which we can directly respond to as many as possible user"s query requests. We use experiments to demonstrate our approach. The results show that our algorithm works better. We implemented our algorithms and a performance study of the algorithm shows that the proposed algorithm gives a less complexity and higher speeds and feasible expandability.

  16. Selection and challenges for LFR reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenburger, A.; Jianu, A.; Del Giacco, M.; Fetzer, R.; Heinzel, A.; Mueller, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy using Fast GenIV reactors can fulfil future demands concerning CO2 free, base load capability and sustainability. One of the most promising coolants especially due to its high thermal inertia is liquid lead (Pb). Since several years researches all over the world investigate this coolant and its impact on the reactor design and by that on the materials to be selected. The LEADER project, a follow up of ELSY, aims to design a prototypical demonstrator ALFRED and to continue with several design related aspects of the ELFR reactor. For a demonstrator the criteria of material selection are somewhat different to a commercial type like the ELFR. Material selection for ELFR of course considers all the aspects relevant for ALFRED plus the targeted burn up and the expected total dpa related damage especially of the fuel pins. In the past compatibility of structural material (steels like 316L, T91 and 15-15Ti (1.4970)) that can be employed for Pb cooled fast nuclear reactors were investigated in several EU projects like EUROTRANS and worldwide. Solubility of steel alloying elements like Ni, Fe, Cr is the driving force for the reduced corrosion resistance in contact with Pb. In-situ oxidation is the acknowledged measure to protect steels in Pb up to certain temperatures that are material dependent. Based on experiments and the derived temperature limits the average core outlet temperatures of ALFRED and the ELFR are set to 480 C. The most challenging conditions with respect to temperature are at the fuel assembly and the heat exchangers. For both, thin stable oxide scales with negligible reduction in heat transfer are the requested protection method. This presentation will give an overview on the selected materials for ALFRED and ELFR considering, beside pure compatibility, the influence of mechanical interaction like creep and fretting. (orig.)

  17. Bioinspired Architecture Selection for Multitask Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bueno-Crespo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a new concept to learn, our brain does not work in isolation. It uses all previously learned knowledge. In addition, the brain is able to isolate the knowledge that does not benefit us, and to use what is actually useful. In machine learning, we do not usually benefit from the knowledge of other learned tasks. However, there is a methodology called Multitask Learning (MTL, which is based on the idea that learning a task along with other related tasks produces a transfer of information between them, what can be advantageous for learning the first one. This paper presents a new method to completely design MTL architectures, by including the selection of the most helpful subtasks for the learning of the main task, and the optimal network connections. In this sense, the proposed method realizes a complete design of the MTL schemes. The method is simple and uses the advantages of the Extreme Learning Machine to automatically design a MTL machine, eliminating those factors that hinder, or do not benefit, the learning process of the main task. This architecture is unique and it is obtained without testing/error methodologies that increase the computational complexity. The results obtained over several real problems show the good performances of the designed networks with this method.

  18. Selection of plasma facing materials for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.

    1996-01-01

    ITER will be the first tokamak having long pulse operation using deuterium-tritium fuel. The problem of designing heat removal structures for steady state in a neutron environment is a major technical goal for the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA). The steady state heat flux specified for divertor components is 5 MW/m 2 for normal operation with transients to 15 MW/m 2 for up to 10 s. The selection of materials for plasma facing components is one of the major research activities. Three materials are being considered for the divertor; carbon fiber composites, beryllium, and tungsten. This paper discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of these materials. The final section of plasma facing materials for the ITER divertor will not be made until the end of the EDA

  19. E-learning materials in mathematics education

    OpenAIRE

    Fajfar, Tina

    2012-01-01

    When studying mathematics, most pupils and students need mathematical tools, along with the teachers' explanation. The updated curriculum for mathematics in primary and secondary education also recommends using materials connected to information and communication technology. Although e-learning materials are not directly mentioned in a curricula as a tool for learning mathematics, they should, nevertheless, be considered as a tool which can be used in a class with the help of a teacher or ind...

  20. Machine-learned and codified synthesis parameters of oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Huang, Kevin; Tomala, Alex; Matthews, Sara; Strubell, Emma; Saunders, Adam; McCallum, Andrew; Olivetti, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Predictive materials design has rapidly accelerated in recent years with the advent of large-scale resources, such as materials structure and property databases generated by ab initio computations. In the absence of analogous ab initio frameworks for materials synthesis, high-throughput and machine learning techniques have recently been harnessed to generate synthesis strategies for select materials of interest. Still, a community-accessible, autonomously-compiled synthesis planning resource which spans across materials systems has not yet been developed. In this work, we present a collection of aggregated synthesis parameters computed using the text contained within over 640,000 journal articles using state-of-the-art natural language processing and machine learning techniques. We provide a dataset of synthesis parameters, compiled autonomously across 30 different oxide systems, in a format optimized for planning novel syntheses of materials.

  1. Material selection for design, manufacturing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a new engineering material product or changing an existing one requires new design selecting material and choosing appropriate and economical manufacturing processes. These three main factors play a great role on the performance of the product in service. These items are independent and should not be performed in isolation from each other. With the great advancement of technology in the last decade and with the greater number of engineering materials which are now available, together with the increasing pressure to produce more economic and get reliable products an integrated approach which considers design, material selection and the appropriate manufacturing process makes it easier to achieve the optimum product that combines the functional requirements with the reliability at competitive cost. These diverse activities or items are interdependent; therefore should not be considered in isolation from each other, for example, it is not sufficient that design of the product should satisfy the technical, safety and legal requirements, it must also be possible to be manufactured economically and to be sold at a competitive price and easily disposed at the end of its working life cycle. In this paper, the interaction of these items together in order to arrive to the optimum solution for a particular application are given and discussed. (author)

  2. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  3. Material Matters: Increasing Emotional Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven S.; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Organizational scholars and neuroscientists suggest that when people are more emotionally engaged, they learn more effectively. Clinical art therapists suggest that the experience as well as the expression of emotions can be enabled or constrained by different materials. So then, what materials can be employed by management educators to achieve…

  4. A Smart Material Interfaces Learning Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Pittarello, Fabio; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience held with a class of primary school children who were introduced to a novel class of resources, named smart materials, and the interfaces built with them (Smart Material Interfaces). The pupils were guided along a multidisciplinary educational path in which

  5. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach.

  6. Learning context conditions for BDI plan selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas

  7. ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ LEARNING OBSTACLES ON LEARNING INVERS FUNCTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna Satrio Perbowo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the presence of obstacle in learning mathematics on inverse function. This research aims to analyze the learning obstacle, to know the types of error that is suffered by the students in learning inverse function. Kind of this kualitative research descriptive with data triangulation. The research subjects are high school students which is contained of 74 students and was taken 6 students to be main sample. The data of students’ error is obtained from the writen test result, the students’ false answers are identified into the type of error. Then it was chosen several students to be interviewed. Which the analysis result finding data in this research showed there are 4 types of errors, which are concept error, procedure error, counting error and concluding error. An obstacle which appear in learning inverse function is influenced by two factors, i.e internal factor and eksternal factor. Internal factor is showed by the students’ motivation in following learning and students’ skill in receiving learning material. While the eksternal factor is showed by the curriculum which applied in school with acceleration class caused many narrow learning time, teaching materials that is less complete with the discussion of question sample.

  8. Comparative Study of Learning Using E-Learning and Printed Materials on Independent Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.

  9. English language learning materials a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Tomlinson

    2010-01-01

    This research collection presents a critical review of the materials used for learning English around the world. The first section includes a discussion of materials for specific learners and purposes, such as young learners, self-study, academic writing and general proficiency. The second section presents a detailed study of the materials used in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, Africa and Australia, and critically evaluates their effectiveness in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Taking both the teacher's and the learner's needs into consideration, the book m

  10. Selection as a learning experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F; Engbers, Rik; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Fluit, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Research on selection for medical school does not explore selection as a learning experience, despite growing attention for the learning effects of assessment in general. Insight in the learning effects allows us to take advantage of selection as an inclusive part of medical students' learning process to become competent professionals. The aims of this study at Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands, were 1) to determine whether students have learning experiences in the selection process, and, if so, what experiences; and 2) to understand what students need in order to utilize the learning effects of the selection process at the start of the formal curriculum. We used focus groups to interview 30 students admitted in 2016 about their learning experiences in the selection process. Thematic analysis was used to explore the outcomes of the interviews and to define relevant themes. In the selection process, students learned about the curriculum, themselves, their relation to others, and the profession they had been selected to enter, although this was not explicitly perceived as learning. Students needed a connection between selection and the curriculum as well as feedback to be able to really use their learning experiences for their further development. Medical school selection qualifies as a learning experience, and students as well as medical schools can take advantage of this. We recommend a careful design of the selection procedure, integrating relevant selection learning experiences into the formal curriculum, providing feedback and explicitly approaching the selection and the formal curriculum as interconnected contributors to students' development.

  11. Selection, development and characterisation of plasma facing materials for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Akiba, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Vieider, G.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of the selection of the armour materials for first wall, limiters and divertor are presented. The candidate armour materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon base materials (mainly carbon fiber composites). The selection of the references grades from these material classes is discussed and the candidate grades are described. The main reasons for the selection of the reference grades are also discussed. The urgent materials R and D needs for the development of the design are described briefly. (orig.)

  12. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  13. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  14. Design of digital learning material for bioprocess-engineering-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der H.

    2007-01-01

    With the advance of computers and the internet, new types of learning material can be developed: web-based digital learning material. Because many complex learning objectives in the food- and bioprocess technology domain are difficult to achieve in a traditional learning environment, a project was

  15. Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material Discovery and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Optimal Learning for Material Discovery & Design Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material inference and optimization methods that can constrain predictions using insights and results from theory directions in the application of information theoretic tools to materials problems related to learning from

  16. Selection of nuclear reactor coolant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lisheng; Wang Bairong

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear material is nuclear material or materials used in nuclear industry, the general term, it is the material basis for the construction of nuclear power, but also a leader in nuclear energy development, the two interdependent and mutually reinforcing. At the same time, nuclear materials research, development and application of the depth and breadth of science and technology reflects a nation and the level of the nuclear power industry. Coolant also known as heat-carrier agent, is an important part of the heart nuclear reactor, its role is to secure as much as possible to the economic output in the form fission energy to heat the reactor to be used: the same time cooling the core, is controlled by the various structural components allowable temperature. This paper described the definition of nuclear reactor coolant and characteristics, and then addressed the requirements of the coolant material, and finally were introduced several useful properties of the coolant and chemical control. (authors)

  17. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed

  18. Development of E-Learning Materials for Machining Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mita, Sumiyoshi; Matsubara, Masaaki; Takashima, Takeo; Tanaka, Koichi; Izawa, Satoru; Kawamura, Takashi

    We developed two e-learning materials for Manufacturing Practice safety education: movie learning materials and hazard-detection learning materials. Using these video and sound media, students can learn how to operate machines safely with movie learning materials, which raise the effectiveness of preparation and review for manufacturing practice. Using these materials, students can realize safety operation well. Students can apply knowledge learned in lectures to the detection of hazards and use study methods for hazard detection during machine operation using the hazard-detection learning materials. Particularly, the hazard-detection learning materials raise students‧ safety consciousness and increase students‧ comprehension of knowledge from lectures and comprehension of operations during Manufacturing Practice.

  19. Radioactive waste - a select list of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A chronological bibliography is presented of literature relating to radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom concentrating on material published since 1978. The main sections include Dept. of Environ. and Official publications, administrative and environmental concerns, technological and scientific considerations, including publications on geological aspects, deep-sea bed and ocean-dumping and salt domes, with general background material and further sources of information listed at the end. (U.K.)

  20. Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Moses F. Oduori; Enoch K. Musyoka; Thomas O. Mbuya

    2016-01-01

    The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials....

  1. Self-assessed learning style correlates to use of supplemental learning materials in an online course management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Caitlin; Kriebel, Richard; Cuzzolino, Robert; Coughlin, Patrick; Fresa-Dillon, Kerin

    2011-01-01

    The benefit of online learning materials in medical education is not well defined. The study correlated certain self-identified learning styles with the use of self-selected online learning materials. First-year osteopathic medical students were given access to review and/or summary materials via an online course management system (CMS) while enrolled in a pre-clinical course. At the end of the course, students completed a self-assessment of learning style based on the Index of Learning Styles and a brief survey regarding their usage and perceived advantage of the online learning materials. Students who accessed the online materials earned equivalent grades to those who did not. However, the study found that students who described their learning styles as active, intuitive, global, and/or visual were more likely to use online educational resources than those who identified their learning style as reflective, sensing, sequential, and/or verbal. Identification of a student's learning style can help medical educators direct students to learning resources that best suit their individual needs.

  2. Selecting suitable enclosures for digitally printed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Rima, L

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that storage enclosures considered safe for traditionally printed images and documents are suitable for modern, digitally printed materials. In this project, a large variety of digital print types were tested using a modified version of the ISO 18916 Imaging materials-Processed imaging materials-Photographic activity test for enclosure materials standard to assess the risk to digital prints by paper enclosures known to be inert or reactive with traditional photographic prints. The types of enclosures tested included buffered and non-buffered cotton papers, and groundwood paper. In addition, qualitative filter paper that had been wetted and dried with either an acidic or basic solution was also tested to determine the effects of enclosure pH on digitally printed materials. It was determined that, in general, digital prints tended to be less reactive with various enclosure types than traditional prints. Digital prints were most sensitive to paper that contained groundwood. The enclosure reactivity test results were then integrated with previous published work on the tendencies of various enclosure types to abrade, ferrotype, or block to digital prints in order to create a comprehensive set of recommendations for digital print storage enclosures.

  3. SELECTED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVENDOWSKI, J.C.

    CITATIONS SUPPLEMENTING BULLETIN NO. 5, "DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION LIBRARY LIST," (ED 012 778) WERE SELECTED FOR DISTRIBUTIVE TEACHER EDUCATORS, ADULT INSTRUCTORS AND TEACHER COORDINATORS. THE PUBLICATIONS ARE FREE OR INEXPENSIVE BROCHURES, BULLETINS, PAMPHLETS AND PAPERBACK BOOKS, LISTED BY TOPICS--(1) "ADVERTISING AND DISPLAY," (2) "DISTRIBUTIVE…

  4. Sustainable material selection for construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology with a specific examination of the UAE. The indicators collected from existing literatures were used in evaluation of sustainable construction materials with the assistance of construction sector-based respondents. The proposed framework...

  5. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  6. Developing a Virtual Book - Material for Virtual Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karin Larsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of, and considerations taken when Virtual Learning Materials were developed for an international study in Comparative Social Work arranged by the VIRCLASS project. The steps taken and the elements included in the Virtual Book – A Guide to Social Work in Europe are presented in details to inform others who are planning to make virtual learning materials. Students from 11 countries in Europe participated, and their reception of this material and learning outcomes from using it are analysed and presented. Furthermore; the article discuss how the learning material contributes to students’ learning, how a common understanding of practice enhances knowledge-building and in what way audio-visual learning material can contribute to good learning in e-learning courses. The results are discussed in relation to theories about composite texts and community of inquiry, and outlines some challenges for e-teachers’ competences.

  7. Selective social learning in infancy: looking for mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Phillips, Sara; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2018-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that selective social learning begins in infancy, the psychological mechanisms underlying this ability are currently a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether theory of mind abilities and statistical learning skills are related to infants' selective social learning. Seventy-seven 18-month-olds were first exposed to a reliable or an unreliable speaker and then completed a word learning task, two theory of mind tasks, and a statistical learning task. If domain-general abilities are linked to selective social learning, then infants who demonstrate superior performance on the statistical learning task should perform better on the selective learning task, that is, should be less likely to learn words from an unreliable speaker. Alternatively, if domain-specific abilities are involved, then superior performance on theory of mind tasks should be related to selective learning performance. Findings revealed that, as expected, infants were more likely to learn a novel word from a reliable speaker. Importantly, infants who passed a theory of mind task assessing knowledge attribution were significantly less likely to learn a novel word from an unreliable speaker compared to infants who failed this task. No such effect was observed for the other tasks. These results suggest that infants who possess superior social-cognitive abilities are more apt to reject an unreliable speaker as informant. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/zuuCniHYzqo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  9. ABOUT INDEX EVALUATION OF MATERIAL RESOURCE SUPPLIER SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Skochinskaya

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes existing methods for evaluation of material resource supplier selection. It shows advantages and shortcomings of the present evaluation systems. The necessity for application of an index evaluation is justified in the paper. The paper contains rating (index) evaluation for material resource supplier selection which is based on the application of quantitative (index) tool instead of an expert (numerical) evaluation. 

  10. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available on their visual appearance. In particular, we present a method for an agent to recognise the required unseen raw material images and link them to corresponding novel object images. This capability provides an agent with an increased degree of resourcefulness... construction from component parts, and in doing so we provide a benchmark for future work to compare against within Minecraft and ShapeNet domains. II. BACKGROUND Our model is inspired by Siamese neural networks, a class of neural network that includes multiple...

  11. Virtual screening of inorganic materials synthesis parameters with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Huang, Kevin; Jegelka, Stefanie; Olivetti, Elsa

    2017-12-01

    Virtual materials screening approaches have proliferated in the past decade, driven by rapid advances in first-principles computational techniques, and machine-learning algorithms. By comparison, computationally driven materials synthesis screening is still in its infancy, and is mired by the challenges of data sparsity and data scarcity: Synthesis routes exist in a sparse, high-dimensional parameter space that is difficult to optimize over directly, and, for some materials of interest, only scarce volumes of literature-reported syntheses are available. In this article, we present a framework for suggesting quantitative synthesis parameters and potential driving factors for synthesis outcomes. We use a variational autoencoder to compress sparse synthesis representations into a lower dimensional space, which is found to improve the performance of machine-learning tasks. To realize this screening framework even in cases where there are few literature data, we devise a novel data augmentation methodology that incorporates literature synthesis data from related materials systems. We apply this variational autoencoder framework to generate potential SrTiO3 synthesis parameter sets, propose driving factors for brookite TiO2 formation, and identify correlations between alkali-ion intercalation and MnO2 polymorph selection.

  12. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  13. Robot soccer action selection based on Q learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper researches robot soccer action selection based on Q learning . The robot learn to activate particular behavior given their current situation and reward signal. We adopt neural network to implementations of Q learning for their generalization properties and limited computer memory requirements

  14. The Selection of Bridge Materials Utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    Effective decisions on the use of natural resources often require the input of many individuals. Determining how specific criteria affect the selection of materials can lead to better utilization of raw materials. Concrete, steel, and timber represent over 98% of the materials used for bridge construction in the United States. Highway officials must often consider...

  15. Criteria for the selection of PEC primary circuit structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Brunori, G.; Maesa, S.; Scibona, G.; Tomassetti, G.

    1977-01-01

    The choice of the structural materials is generally a compromise between the project requirements, the characteristics (mechanical and environmental) of the materials and the available technology to construct the various parts of the components. The criteria of selection of structural materials for the primary circuit of fast reactor are reported. The criteria concern both general and utilization aspects

  16. An Ontology to Support the Classification of Learning Material in an Organizational Learning Environment: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaski, Joselaine; Reinehr, Sheila; Malucelli, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether ontology integrated in an organizational learning environment may support the automatic learning material classification in a specific knowledge area. Design/methodology/approach: An ontology for recommending learning material was integrated in the organizational learning environment…

  17. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  18. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  19. Sorption analyses in materials science: selected oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.; Jones, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Physical adsorption studies have been shown to be extremely valuable in studying the chemistry and structure of dispersed materials. Many processes rely on the access to the large amount of surface made available by the high degree of dispersion. Conversely, there are many applications where consolidation of the dispersed solids is required. Several systems (silica gel, alumina catalysts, mineralogic alumino-silicates, and yttrium oxide plasters) have been studied to show the type and amount of chemical and structural information that can be obtained. Some review of current theories is given and additional concepts are developed based on statistical and thermodynamic arguments. The results are applied to sorption data to show that detailed sorption analyses are extremely useful and can provide valuable information that is difficult to obtain by any other means. Considerable emphasis has been placed on data analyses and interpretation of a nonclassical nature to show the potential of such studies that is often not recognized nor utilized

  20. Subsurface material identification and sensor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, H.; Reghunadh, R.; Ramesh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    In India, most of the landslides occur during monsoon season and causes huge loss of life and property. Design of an early warning system for highly landslide prone area will reduce losses to a great extent. The in-situ monitoring systems needs deployment of several sensors inside a borehole for monitoring a particular slope. Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (AmritaWNA), Amrita University has designed, developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for real time landslide monitoring using geotechnical instruments and sensors like rain gauge, moisture sensor, piezometer, strain gauge, tilt meter and geophone inside a Deep Earth Probe (DEP) at different locations. These sensors provide point measurements of the subsurface at a higher accuracy. Every landslide prone terrain is unique with respect to its geology, hydrological conditions, meteorological conditions, velocity of movement etc. The decision of installing different geotechnical instruments in a landslide prone terrain is a crucial step to be considered. Rain gauge, moisture sensor, and piezometer are usually used in clay rich areas to sense the moisture and pore pressure values. Geophone and Crack meter are instruments used in rocky areas to monitor cracks and vibrations associated with a movement. Inclinometer and Strain gauge are usually placed inside a casing and can be used in both rocky and soil areas. In order to place geotechnical instruments and sensors at appropriate places Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can be used. Variation in electrical resistivity values indicate the changes in composition, layer thickness, or contaminant levels. The derived true resistivity image can be used for identifying the type of materials present in the subsurface at different depths. We have used this method for identifying the type of materials present in our site at Chandmari (Sikkim). Fig 1 shows the typical resistivity values of a particular area in Chandmari site. The

  1. Using learning materials for design-based interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a methodological issue concerning the use of learning materials for interventions in design-based research. When the researcher uses existing or creates new didacticised learning materials for research purposes and tests their applicability in authentic contexts, many...... variables are in play. When using or designing a learning material a lot of choices have to be made and effects are difficult to isolate. The advantage of using learning materials for interventions is that results could have high ecological validity. In the article this methodological issue is exemplified...... through a research project using and developing digital learning materials for developing literacy in the early grades. One of many important choices to be made in elaborating this learning material concerns which texts should be used for supporting students’ literacy development in the lower grades...

  2. DESIGNING ENGLISH LEARNING MATERIALS TO FOSTER CHILDREN‟S CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murni Wahyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning materials form an important part of English teaching-learning processes in Elementary schools. In many cases, teachers and students rely on the learning materials available and the materials dictate teachers‘ strategies. Despite the availability of commercially produced materials, it is considered necessary for teachers to construct or adapt learning materials. Teachers know better about their students‘ ability, needs and interests. In addition, the materials can be more contextual. Good materials should foster children‘s creative thinking since creativity is one of the important skills children need to develop. Features of creativity involve using imagination, generating ideas and questions, experimenting with alternatives, being original and making judgment. This presentation will focus on how to develop learning materials that can foster children‘s creativity. It will discuss about why teachers need to design their own materials, principles for designing effective English learning materials, the concepts and components of creativity and the importance of creativity in language learning. Examples of how to apply features of creativity in the English learning materials for children will be provided.

  3. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as > 100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H 2 environments at ≥1473 K (1200°C) for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti 2 AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti 2 AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO 2 , and therefore Ti 2 AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α' formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at > 1400°C are still being evaluated.

  4. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as > 100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥ 1200°C for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α´ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at > 1400°C are still being evaluated.

  5. Selective Integration in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Andersen, Søren; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with stress integration in the material-point method. In order to avoid parasitic shear in bending, a formulation is proposed, based on selective integration in the background grid that is used to solve the governing equations. The suggested integration scheme is compared...... to a traditional material-point-method computation in which the stresses are evaluated at the material points. The deformation of a cantilever beam is analysed, assuming elastic or elastoplastic material behaviour....

  6. Selection of materials in nuclear fuel: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Reja, C.; Fuentes, L.; Garcia de la Infanta, J. M.; Munoz Sicilia, A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main aspects of the nuclear fuel is the selection of materials for the components. The operating conditions of the fuel elements impose a major challenge to materials: high temperature, corrosive aqueous environment, high mechanical properties, long periods of time under these extreme conditions and what is the differentiating factor; the effect of irradiation. The materials are selected to fulfill these severe requirements and also to be able to control and to predict its behavior in the working conditions. Their development, in terms of composition and processing, is based on the continuous follow-up of the operation behavior. Many of these materials are specific of the nuclear industry, such as the uranium dioxide and the zirconium alloys. This article presents the selection and development of the nuclear fuel materials as a function of the services requirements. It also includes a view of the new nuclear fuels materials that are being raised after Fukushima accident. (Author)

  7. Optimizing learning path selection through memetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Gaeta, M.; Loia, V.; Ritrovato, P.; Salerno, S.

    2008-01-01

    e-Learning is a critical support mechanism for industrial and academic organizations to enhance the skills of employees and students and, consequently, the overall competitiveness in the new economy. The remarkable velocity and volatility of modern knowledge require novel learning methods offering

  8. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  9. The development of learning material using learning cycle 5E model based stem to improve students’ learning outcomes in Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    sugiarti, A. C.; suyatno, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is describing the feasibility of Learning Cycle 5E STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) based learning material which is appropriate to improve students’ learning achievement in Thermochemistry. The study design used 4-D models and one group pretest-posttest design to obtain the information about the improvement of sudents’ learning outcomes. The subject was learning cycle 5E based STEM learning materials which the data were collected from 30 students of Science class at 11th Grade. The techniques used in this study were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. Some result attain: (1) all the learning materials contents were valid, (2) the practicality and the effectiveness of all the learning materials contents were classified as good. The conclution of this study based on those three condition, the Learnig Cycle 5E based STEM learning materials is appropriate to improve students’ learning outcomes in studying Thermochemistry.

  10. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  11. Machine learning application in the life time of materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaojiao

    2017-01-01

    Materials design and development typically takes several decades from the initial discovery to commercialization with the traditional trial and error development approach. With the accumulation of data from both experimental and computational results, data based machine learning becomes an emerging field in materials discovery, design and property prediction. This manuscript reviews the history of materials science as a disciplinary the most common machine learning method used in materials sc...

  12. Selection of views to materialize using simulated annealing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Wang, Hongfeng; Liu, Daixin

    2002-03-01

    A data warehouse contains lots of materialized views over the data provided by the distributed heterogeneous databases for the purpose of efficiently implementing decision-support or OLAP queries. It is important to select the right view to materialize that answer a given set of queries. The goal is the minimization of the combination of the query evaluation and view maintenance costs. In this paper, we have addressed and designed algorithms for selecting a set of views to be materialized so that the sum of processing a set of queries and maintaining the materialized views is minimized. We develop an approach using simulated annealing algorithms to solve it. First, we explore simulated annealing algorithms to optimize the selection of materialized views. Then we use experiments to demonstrate our approach. The results show that our algorithm works better. We implemented our algorithms and a performance study of the algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm gives an optimal solution.

  13. ABOUT INDEX EVALUATION OF MATERIAL RESOURCE SUPPLIER SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Skochinskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes existing methods for evaluation of material resource supplier selection. It shows advantages and shortcomings of the present evaluation systems. The necessity for application of an index evaluation is justified in the paper. The paper contains rating (index evaluation for material resource supplier selection which is based on the application of quantitative (index tool instead of an expert (numerical evaluation. 

  14. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  15. Selective Postevent Review and Children's Memory for Nonreviewed Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, R.; Salmon, K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of selective postevent questioning on children's memory for nonreviewed materials. In both experiments, children participated in a series of novel activities. Children in the selective-review condition were subsequently questioned about half of these and comparisons were made to memory in a no-review…

  16. Considerations in selecting tubing materials for CANDU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the major consideration in selecting tubing material for CANDU steam generators. Corrosion, and additional considerations, lead to the following steam generator tubing material recommendations: for CANDU-BPHWR's (boiling pressurized heavy water reactors) low-cobalt Incoloy-800; for CANDU-PHWR's (pressurized, non-boiling, heavy water reactors), low-cobalt Monel-400

  17. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step

  18. Handling multiple metadata streams regarding digital learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, J.B.M.; Vuuren, J. van; Verbeij, N.; Nijstad, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a study performed in the Netherlands on handling multiple metadata streams regarding digital learning material. The paper describes the present metadata architecture in the Netherlands, the present suppliers and users of metadata and digital learning materials. It

  19. Criteria for assessing learning material for distance education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes eight broad criteria for assessing learning material for distance education institutions such as the University of South Africa (Unisa) where learning material in print format is the main teaching method. To this end, the article analyses and evaluates the major trends in the international and national fields ...

  20. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SARRAB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.

  1. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  2. Properties of selected superconductive materials, 1978 supplement. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.W.

    1978-10-01

    This report includes data on additional superconductive materials extracted from the world literature up to fall 1977 and is an addendum to the data set published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, no. 3, 581-821 (1976) (Reprint no. 84). The data presented are new values and have not been selected or compared to values (except for selected values of the elements) previously assembled by the Superconductive Materials Data Center. The properties included are composition, critical temperature, critical magnetic field, crystal structure and the results of negative experiments. Special tabulations of high magnetic field materials with Type II behavior and materials with organic components are included. All entries are keyed to the literature. A list of recent reviews centered on superconductive materials is included

  3. Report and recommendations on multimedia materials for teaching and learning electricity and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debowska, E; Greczyło, T; Girwidz, R; Kohnle, A; Mason, B; Mathelitsch, L; Melder, T; Michelini, M; Ruddock, I; Silva, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a peer review of multimedia materials for teaching and learning electricity and magnetism prepared as a part of the annual activities undertaken by an international group of scientists associated with Multimedia Physics in Teaching and Learning. The work promotes the use of valuable and freely accessible information technology materials for different levels of teaching, mostly higher education. The authors discuss the process of selecting resources and the rubrics used in the rating process. The reviews of high-quality learning resources are presented along with descriptions of valuable didactical features. (letters and comments)

  4. Report and recommendations on multimedia materials for teaching and learning electricity and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dȩbowska, E.; Girwidz, R.; Greczyło, T.; Kohnle, A.; Mason, B.; Mathelitsch, L.; Melder, T.; Michelini, M.; Ruddock, I.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a peer review of multimedia materials for teaching and learning electricity and magnetism prepared as a part of the annual activities undertaken by an international group of scientists associated with Multimedia Physics in Teaching and Learning. The work promotes the use of valuable and freely accessible information technology materials for different levels of teaching, mostly higher education. The authors discuss the process of selecting resources and the rubrics used in the rating process. The reviews of high-quality learning resources are presented along with descriptions of valuable didactical features.

  5. Socio-material perspectives on interprofessional team and collaborative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Angus; Rohse, Shanta; Kilgour, Kelly N

    2016-02-01

    Interprofessional teamwork and collaboration have become important parts of health care practice and education. Most of the literature on interprofessional learning, however, assumes that learning is something acquired by individuals and readily transferred to other contexts. This assumption severely limits the ways in which interprofessional educators and researchers can conceptualise and support learning related to collaborative interprofessional health care. Socio-material theories provide an alternative to individualistic, acquisition-oriented notions by reconceiving learning in terms of collective dynamics, participation in social communities and active engagement with material contexts. Socio-material literature and theories were reviewed to identify concepts relevant to interprofessional learning. After briefly summarising the origins and key principles of socio-material approaches, the authors draw upon specific socio-material theories--including complexity theory, cultural-historical activity theory and actor-network theory--in order to reconceive how learning happens in interprofessional contexts. This reframing of interprofessional learning focuses less on individuals and more on collective dynamics and the actual social and material relations involved in practice. The paper proposes five ways in which learning may be enacted in interprofessional teamwork and collaboration from a socio-material perspective: (i) diverse contributions; (ii) social interactions and relationships; (iii) synthesis of professional ideas; (iv) integration of material elements, and (v) connections to large-scale organisations. For each of these categories, the paper provides practical illustrations to assist educators and researchers who wish to identify and assess this learning. Although more exploratory than comprehensive, this paper articulates many key aspects of socio-material learning theories and offers practical guidance for those who wish to employ and assess them in

  6. Fast algorithm selection using learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.; Abdulrahman, S.M.; Brazdil, P.; Vanschoren, J.; Fromont, E.; De Bie, T.; Leeuwen, van M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in Machine Learning to find a classifier and parameter settings that work well on a given dataset. Evaluating all possible combinations typically takes too much time, hence many solutions have been proposed that attempt to predict which classifiers are most promising to try. As

  7. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  8. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  9. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research.

  10. SOFTWARE COMPLEX FOR CREATION AND ACCUMULATION OF MODERN LEARNING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Polinovskyi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes weaknesses of existing tools for lecture materials creation and suggests new complex with modular architecture, which supports different types of lecture materials, templates, interactive elements, includes lecture material database with searching, sorting, and grouping capabilities and can be used for creating lectures courses for distance learning, as well as for interactive lectures for full-time courses.

  11. Selective Learning and Teaching among Japanese and German Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunae; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate; Itakura, Shoji; Ueno, Mika; Senju, Atsushi; Proust, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of studies demonstrating that young children selectively learn from others, and a few studies of children's selective teaching, the evidence almost exclusively comes from Western cultures, and cross-cultural comparison in this line of work is very rare. In the present research, we investigated Japanese and German…

  12. A fuzzy logic based PROMETHEE method for material selection problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Gul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a complex problem in the design and development of products for diverse engineering applications. This paper presents a fuzzy PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation method based on trapezoidal fuzzy interval numbers that can be applied to the selection of materials for an automotive instrument panel. Also, it presents uniqueness in making a significant contribution to the literature in terms of the application of fuzzy decision-making approach to material selection problems. The method is illustrated, validated, and compared against three different fuzzy MCDM methods (fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy ELECTRE in terms of its ranking performance. Also, the relationships between the compared methods and the proposed scenarios for fuzzy PROMETHEE are evaluated via the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Styrene Maleic Anhydride and Polypropylene are determined optionally as suitable materials for the automotive instrument panel case. We propose a generic fuzzy MCDM methodology that can be practically implemented to material selection problem. The main advantages of the methodology are consideration of the vagueness, uncertainty, and fuzziness to decision making environment.

  13. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  14. New ion selective materials. Application to the selective extraction of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre-Reguillon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the synthesis and assessment of ion selective materials. The first part reports the development of a general method of assessment of ion selective materials. In the second part, the author describes different methods used to insolubilize macro-cycles on hydrophilic polymers. The obtained polyurethanes are synthesised. These hydrophilic polymers display interesting complexing properties and selectivities with respect to cations of alkali metals. Then the author addresses the improvement of selectivity with respect to caesium of ion exchange resorcinol-formaldehyde resins. Different factors affecting selectivity are identified, and the concept of molecular print is used to study the improvement of selectivity. The effect of macro-cyclic structures on phenolic resins with respect to caesium is highlighted [fr

  15. Over-Selectivity as a Learned Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Petrina, Neysa; McHugh, Louise

    2011-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effects of different levels of task complexity in pre-training on over-selectivity in a subsequent match-to-sample (MTS) task. Twenty human participants were divided into two groups; exposed either to a 3-element, or a 9-element, compound stimulus as a sample during MTS training. After the completion of training,…

  16. Quality indexes for selecting control materials of the nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Pena, J.; Esteban Naudin, A.

    1981-01-01

    Quality indexes are established and valued for selecting control materials, The requirements for accomplishing such purposes are explained with detailed analysis: absortion cross section must be as high as possible, adequate reactivity evolution versus depletion, good resistance to radiation, appropiate thermal stability, mechanical resistance and ductility, chemical compatibility with the environment, good heat transfer properties, abundant in the nature and low costs. At present Westinghouse desire to commercialize hafnium as control material shows the exciting task of looking for new materials controlling nuclear reactors. (auth.)

  17. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Joint Feature Selection and Classification for Multilabel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Guorong; Huang, Qingming; Wu, Xindong

    2018-03-01

    Multilabel learning deals with examples having multiple class labels simultaneously. It has been applied to a variety of applications, such as text categorization and image annotation. A large number of algorithms have been proposed for multilabel learning, most of which concentrate on multilabel classification problems and only a few of them are feature selection algorithms. Current multilabel classification models are mainly built on a single data representation composed of all the features which are shared by all the class labels. Since each class label might be decided by some specific features of its own, and the problems of classification and feature selection are often addressed independently, in this paper, we propose a novel method which can perform joint feature selection and classification for multilabel learning, named JFSC. Different from many existing methods, JFSC learns both shared features and label-specific features by considering pairwise label correlations, and builds the multilabel classifier on the learned low-dimensional data representations simultaneously. A comparative study with state-of-the-art approaches manifests a competitive performance of our proposed method both in classification and feature selection for multilabel learning.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  1. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  2. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Fiore, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  3. Learning to Apply Models of Materials While Explaining Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose: This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials.…

  4. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Varela Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  5. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J

    2013-05-01

    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  6. The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the extent to which instructional material have been used in the teaching and learning of Environmental Studies in the Primary Schools in Winneba. Purposive sampling was used to select 80 respondents comprising 60 Environmental Studies teachers and 20 pupils drawn from six public ...

  7. Online faculty development for creating E-learning materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Virginia; Niebuhr, Bruce; Trumble, Julie; Urbani, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Faculty who want to develop e-learning materials face pedagogical challenges of transforming instruction for the online environment, especially as many have never experienced online learning themselves. They face technical challenges of learning new software and time challenges of not all being able to be in the same place at the same time to learn these new skills. The objective of the Any Day Any Place Teaching (ADAPT) faculty development program was to create an online experience in which faculty could learn to produce e-learning materials. The ADAPT curriculum included units on instructional design, copyright principles and peer review, all for the online environment, and units on specific software tools. Participants experienced asynchronous and synchronous methods, including a learning management system, PC-based videoconferencing, online discussions, desktop sharing, an online toolbox and optional face-to-face labs. Project outcomes were e-learning materials developed and participants' evaluations of the experience. Likert scale responses for five instructional units (quantitative) were analyzed for distance from neutral using one-sample t-tests. Interview data (qualitative) were analyzed with assurance of data trustworthiness and thematic analysis techniques. Participants were 27 interprofessional faculty. They evaluated the program instruction as easy to access, engaging and logically presented. They reported increased confidence in new skills and increased awareness of copyright issues, yet continued to have time management challenges and remained uncomfortable about peer review. They produced 22 new instructional materials. Online faculty development methods are helpful for faculty learning to create e-learning materials. Recommendations are made to increase the success of such a faculty development program.

  8. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  9. Multimedia Materials for Language and Literacy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces educators to inexpensive, commercially-available CD-ROM software that combines speech, text, graphics, sound, video, animation, and special effects that may be incorporated into classroom activities for both normally developing and language learning disabled children. Discusses three types of multimedia CD-ROM products: (1) virtual…

  10. Learning Things: Material Culture in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug; Bolin, Paul E.

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to connect art education to material culture--an evolving pedagogy about the meaning of "things" in the lives of children, youth, and adults. Written by luminaries in the field, this resource explores a range of objects exemplifying material culture, defined as "the human-formed objects, spaces,…

  11. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mandušić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to select the one that meets all defined parameters, with low costs/investment. Proper evaluation can save time and money.

  12. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  13. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  14. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, C. Y., E-mail: cyap001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block S2 - B3a - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chua, C. K., E-mail: mckchua@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, Z. H., E-mail: azhliu@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, D. Q., E-mail: zhangdq@ntu.edu.sg; Loh, L. E., E-mail: leloh1@e.ntu.edu.sg; Sing, S. L., E-mail: sing0011@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dong, Z. L., E-mail: zldong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N4.1, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  15. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. Y.; Chua, C. K.; Dong, Z. L.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, D. Q.; Loh, L. E.; Sing, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  16. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C. Y.; Chua, C. K.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, D. Q.; Loh, L. E.; Sing, S. L.; Dong, Z. L.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section

  17. Durability of Selected Membrane Materials when Exposed to Chlorine Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Marianne Soerflaten

    2001-03-01

    This thesis is focusing on the durability of selected membrane materials when exposed to chlorine gas in the temperature range 30-100{sup o}C. Studies of the changes of membrane separation properties and the mechanisms promoting these changes have been studied. The selected membrane materials were poly(dimethylsioxane) (PDMS), Fluorel, fluorosilicone, and blends of PDMS and Fluorel. The thesis is organised in seven chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the background of the work. The second chapter presents the theory for gas separation using dense rubbery membranes. The properties of the selected membrane materials are presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter describes degradation mechanisms for polymeric materials in general and for the selected membrane materials in particular. Presentation of the experimental work is given in chapter five, while the results with discussions are presented in chapter six. The conclusions and recommendations for further studies are given in chapter seven. Five appendixes are attached: Appendix A describes the calculations of permeability and solubility coefficients and the accuracy of the experimental measurements. Appendix B summarises the measured values in tables and Appendix C describes the analytical methods. Appendix D gives the properties of the gases used in the experiments. Appendix E is the article ''Durability of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) when Exposed to Chlorine Gas'', submitted to the Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Highly crosslinked PDMS was found to have an initial high permeability for chlorine gas and a high Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity. However when exposed to chlorine gas the permeability decreased significantly. Crosslinking of the PDMS polymer chain and chlorination of the polymer gave a denser polymer structure and thus lower permeability. Fluorel showed very low permeabilities and selectivities for the gases in question and was thus not interesting for this

  18. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  19. Development of Knitted Materials Selection for Compression Underwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented research deals with the development of comfortable male underwear taking into account the development of pattern block methods and the analysis of the relationships existing between the compression pressure, the knitted materials properties, and some push-up effects. The main aim of this study is to achieve the technical selection of the materials based on KES-FB evaluations.The ease value has been used as the main index to connect the structural design of underwear, on one hand, and the body sizes, on other hand. A “bodyshell” system for testing the soft tissue of male bodies by FlexiForce sensor has been implemented. The pressures under the shells at six different places on the male body with ease changing have been tested.The collected results including maximum-possible pressure and material tensile indexes measured thanks to KES-FB have been analyzed in order to find the most relevant indexes of the material properties. A mathematical equations based on relationships combining theoretical model with practical application have been established. These equations will be helpful for the consumers and designers to select “the suitable knitting materials for male underwear” and they can be used too in the perspective of parameterization in CAD, in order to improve product developments efficiency.

  20. The Art of Preview in Appropriate Teaching/Learning Material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study recognised the importance of print materials and texts in effective and efficient teaching and learning. Though important, there is a proliferation of these materials in the market that learners, researchers and teachers cannot read all within the limited time available to them. They resort to the art of previewing to ...

  1. Significance of ITER IWS Material Selection and Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhoomi K.; Raval, Jigar; Maheshwari, Abha; Laad, Rahul; Singh, Gurlovleen; Pathak, Haresh

    2017-04-01

    In-Wall Shielding (IWS) is one of the important components of ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) which fills the space between double walls of VV with cooling water. Procurement Arrangement (PA) for IWS has been signed with Indian Domestic Agency (INDA). Procurement of IWS materials, fabrication of IWS blocks and its delivery to respective Domestic Agency (DA) and ITER Organization (IO) are the main scope of this PA. Hence, INDIA is the only country which is contributing to VV IWS among all seven ITER partners. The main functions of the IWS are to provide Neutron Shielding with blanket, VV shells and water during plasma operations and to reduce ripple of the Toroidal Magnetic Field. To meet these functional requirements IWS blocks are made up of special materials (Borated Steels SS304 B4 & SS304 B7, Ferritic Steels SS 430, Austenitic Steel SS 316 L (N)-IG, XM-19 and Inconel-625) which are qualified, reliable and traceable for the design assessment. The choice of these materials has a significant influence on performance, maintainability, licensing, detailed design parameters and waste disposal. The main reasons for the materials selected for IWS are its high mechanical strength at operating temperatures, water chemistry properties, excellent fabrication characteristics and low cost relative to other similar materials. All the materials are qualified with respect to their respective codes (ASTM/EN standards with additional requirements as described in RCC-MR code 2007) and ITER requirements. Agreed Notified Body (ANB) has control conformity of materials certificates with approved material specification and traceability procedure for Safety Important Component (SIC). The procurement strategy for all the IWS materials has been developed in close collaboration with IO, ANB and Industries as per Product Procurement Specification (PPS). The R&D for sample, bulk material production, testing, inspection and handling as required are carried out by IN DA and IO. At present almost all

  2. Route selection for the transport of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F A

    1988-12-01

    The factors governing the risk-weighted selection of routes for transport of hazardous materials are analyzed. Starting from a formulation for the total risk of these transports that assumes complete information, approximations for the more realistic case of partial and uncertain information are discussed. These approximations involve well-known risk assessment techniques and mathematical methods; among the latter, Monte Carlo calculations hold the most promise. The actual route selection is based on an index of total societal cost, evaluated for a set of potential routes. (author)

  3. Characterization of selected LDEF polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composite materials which received 5 years and 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. Resin loss and a decrease in mechanical performance as well as dramatic visual effects were observed. However, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymeric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure. The potential effect of a silicon-containing molecular contamination of these specimens is addressed.

  4. Selection of materials with potential in sensible thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.I.; Martinez, M.; Segarra, M.; Martorell, I.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal energy storage is a technology under investigation since the early 1970s. Since then, numerous new applications have been found and much work has been done to bring this technology to the market. Nevertheless, the materials used either for latent or for sensible storage were mostly investigated 30 years ago, and the research has lead to improvement in their performance under different conditions of applications. In those years a significant number of new materials were developed in many fields other than storage and energy, but a great effort to characterize and classify these materials was done. Taking into account the fact that thousands of materials are known and a large number of new materials are developed every year, the authors use the methodology for materials selection developed by Prof. Ashby to give an overview of other materials suitable to be used in thermal energy storage. Sensible heat storage at temperatures between 150 and 200 C is defined as a case study and two different scenarios were considered: long term sensible heat storage and short term sensible heat storage. (author)

  5. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Penn State, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  6. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers’ knowledge-based selective word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory of mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children’s preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children’s developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  7. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Insights to regenerate materials: learning from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aznar, J. M.; Valero, C.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Javierre, E.

    2016-08-01

    Self-healing materials, both biological and engineered, integrate the ability to repair themselves and recover their functionality using the resources inherently available to them. Although significant advances have been made, in recent years, for the design of different concepts of self-healing materials, this work aims to provide some insights into how living materials are able to regenerate or heal when a fracture or injury occurs. The main sensors that regulate this adaptive and regenerative behavior are the cells. These are able to sense the mechanical alterations in their surroundings and regulate their activity in order to remove dead tissue and/or create new tissue. Therefore, understanding how cells are able to regenerate tissues under complex and multiphysics conditions can define the biomimetics guidelines to heal through inert or traditional engineering materials. In this work, we present a combination of experiments and different kinds of multiscale and multiphysics models in order to understand how mechanics regulate some mechanisms at cell and tissue level. This combination of results aims to gain insight into the development of novel strategies for self-healing materials, mimicking the behavior induced by cells and biological tissues.

  9. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices Through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.

  10. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  11. Selection and evaluation of materials for thermoelectric applications II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J W

    1997-07-01

    In good thermoelectrics phonons have short mean free paths, and charge carriers have long ones. The other requirements are a multivalley band structure and a band gap greater than 0.1 eV for the 200 to 300 K temperature range. The author discusses the use of solid state physics and chemistry concepts, along with atomic and crystal structure data, to select the new materials most likely to meet these criteria.

  12. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  13. REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION FOR LEARNING MATERIALS CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEIM, WILLIAM A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT IS A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE EXPANSION OF AN EXISTING LIBRARY AND THE ADDITION OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATION WAS GIVEN TO THE METHODS OF INSTRUCTION AT THE COLLEGE, THE STUDENTS, THE FACULTY, AND THE AVAILABLE FINANCIAL RESOURCES. A GENERAL STUDY…

  14. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  15. Biologically Predisposed Learning and Selective Associations in Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Barot, Sabiha K.; Kim, Jeansok J.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern views on learning and memory accept the notion of biological constraints--that the formation of association is not uniform across all stimuli. Yet cellular evidence of the encoding of selective associations is lacking. Here, conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) commonly employed in two basic associative learning…

  16. KEEFEKTIFAN EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA MTs MATERI BANGUN RUANG SISI DATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyahsih Alin Sholihah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan keefektifan penerapan model experiential learning dan menentukan mana yang lebih efektif antara model experiential learning dan pembelajaran konvensionalpada pembelajaran matematika materi bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari prestasi belajar dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi-experiment dengan pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison-group design. Populasi dan sampelnya adalah siswa Kelas VIII MTs Negeri Sidoharjo dan siswa Kelas VIIIA dan VIIIB. Untuk menguji keefektifan pembelajaran metamatika dengan model experiential learning dan konvensional digunakan analisis dengan uji proporsi. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan keefektifan pembelajaran matematika dengan model experiential learning dan konvensional, data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t dengan kriteria Bonferroni untuk menentukan model pembelajaran manakah yang lebih efektif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan model experiential learning lebih efektif dari pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran matematika materi bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari prestasi belajar dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Kata Kunci: model experiential learning, konvensional, prestasi belajar, dan apresiasi matematika.   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING  IN SUBJECT MATTER OF FLAT SIDE CONSTRUCT Abstract This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the experiential learning model and to determine which one is more effective between the experiential learning model and the conventional one in mathematics learning in subject matter of flat side construct viewed from the learning achieve-ment and students’ appreciationof mathematics. This study was a quasi-experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison-group design. The research population comprised all Year VIII students, consisting of 4 classes of MTs Negeri Sidoharjo

  17. Machine learning and data science in soft materials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew L

    2018-01-31

    In many branches of materials science it is now routine to generate data sets of such large size and dimensionality that conventional methods of analysis fail. Paradigms and tools from data science and machine learning can provide scalable approaches to identify and extract trends and patterns within voluminous data sets, perform guided traversals of high-dimensional phase spaces, and furnish data-driven strategies for inverse materials design. This topical review provides an accessible introduction to machine learning tools in the context of soft and biological materials by 'de-jargonizing' data science terminology, presenting a taxonomy of machine learning techniques, and surveying the mathematical underpinnings and software implementations of popular tools, including principal component analysis, independent component analysis, diffusion maps, support vector machines, and relative entropy. We present illustrative examples of machine learning applications in soft matter, including inverse design of self-assembling materials, nonlinear learning of protein folding landscapes, high-throughput antimicrobial peptide design, and data-driven materials design engines. We close with an outlook on the challenges and opportunities for the field.

  18. Machine learning and data science in soft materials engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew L.

    2018-01-01

    In many branches of materials science it is now routine to generate data sets of such large size and dimensionality that conventional methods of analysis fail. Paradigms and tools from data science and machine learning can provide scalable approaches to identify and extract trends and patterns within voluminous data sets, perform guided traversals of high-dimensional phase spaces, and furnish data-driven strategies for inverse materials design. This topical review provides an accessible introduction to machine learning tools in the context of soft and biological materials by ‘de-jargonizing’ data science terminology, presenting a taxonomy of machine learning techniques, and surveying the mathematical underpinnings and software implementations of popular tools, including principal component analysis, independent component analysis, diffusion maps, support vector machines, and relative entropy. We present illustrative examples of machine learning applications in soft matter, including inverse design of self-assembling materials, nonlinear learning of protein folding landscapes, high-throughput antimicrobial peptide design, and data-driven materials design engines. We close with an outlook on the challenges and opportunities for the field.

  19. Learning Materials Recommendation Using Good Learners' Ratings and Content-Based Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauth, Khairil Imran; Abdullah, Nor Aniza

    2010-01-01

    The enormity of the amount of learning materials in e-learning has led to the difficulty of locating suitable learning materials for a particular learning topic, creating the need for recommendation tools within a learning context. In this paper, we aim to address this need by proposing a novel e-learning recommender system framework that is based…

  20. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  1. Learning Materials for Open Learning in Further Education. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1606.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latcham, J.

    Arguing that extensive efforts to produce open learning materials should not be undertaken until the possibility of using or adapting existing materials is considered, this paper identifies current sources of materials available in Great Britain for non-advanced further education. The first sections of the paper review common types of open…

  2. EXTENSIVE LISTENING: LET STUDENTS EXPERIENCE LEARNING BY OPTIMIZING THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Hapsari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a country like Indonesia, one of challenges in learning English as a foreign language is a lack of exposure of English in its authentic sense. The use of authentic materials seems to be an option to cope with this situation. One of the ways to optimize the use of the authentic materials to trigger students to experience learning and to enhance their active involvement in the learning process is by using it in extensive listening activities. Through extensive listening by using authentic materials, students are exposed to real native speech in meaningful language use. As the result, difficulties in listening gradually disappear.  In order to put the idea into practice, the first thing to do is to set objectives of each meeting based on core vocabulary and grammar that are suitable for the learners using comprehensible input principle as the basic consideration. Second, selecting authentic materials that suit the objectives and that give exposure to formulaic language and meaningful language use. Then, preparing activities in which the instruction is reasonable and lead to sufficient practice to develop fluency. Finally, synchronize teaching activities to increase students’ motivation to learn. As a follow up activities, students are informed and eventually involved in the whole process. Thus, students experience learning and actively involved in their learning process.

  3. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    of the person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing......It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a novel...... empirical strategy based on continuous time duration models with selection. We use a large longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset that allows us to identify about 220,000 individuals who have left their first entrepreneurial experience, out of which over 35,000 became serial entrepreneurs. We...

  4. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parya Isazadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion

  5. Material Selection for Microchannel Heatsink: Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday Kumar, A.; Javed, Arshad; Dubey, Satish K.

    2018-04-01

    Heat dissipation during the operation of electronic devices causes rise in temperature, which demands an effective thermal management for their performance, life and reliability. Single phase liquid cooling in microchannels is an effective and proven technology for electronics cooling. However, due to the ongoing trends of miniaturization and developments in the microelectronics technology, the future needs of heat flux dissipation rate are expected to rise to 1 kW/cm2. Air cooled systems are unable to meet this demand. Hence, liquid cooled heatsinks are preferred. This paper presents conjugate heat transfer simulation of single phase flow in microchannels with application to electronic cooling. The numerical model is simulated for different materials: copper, aluminium and silicon as solid and water as liquid coolant. The performances of microchannel heatsink are analysed for mass flow rate range of 20-40 ml/min. The investigation has been carried out on same size of electronic chip and heat flux in order to have comparative study of different materials. This paper is divided into two sections: fabrication techniques and numerical simulation for different materials. In the first part, a brief discussion of fabrication techniques of microchannel heatsink have been presented. The second section presents conjugate heat transfer simulation and parametric investigation for different material microchannel heatsink. The presented study and findings are useful for selection of materials for microchannel heatsink.

  6. Stochastic isotropic hyperelastic materials: constitutive calibration and model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Woolley, Thomas E.; Goriely, Alain

    2018-03-01

    Biological and synthetic materials often exhibit intrinsic variability in their elastic responses under large strains, owing to microstructural inhomogeneity or when elastic data are extracted from viscoelastic mechanical tests. For these materials, although hyperelastic models calibrated to mean data are useful, stochastic representations accounting also for data dispersion carry extra information about the variability of material properties found in practical applications. We combine finite elasticity and information theories to construct homogeneous isotropic hyperelastic models with random field parameters calibrated to discrete mean values and standard deviations of either the stress-strain function or the nonlinear shear modulus, which is a function of the deformation, estimated from experimental tests. These quantities can take on different values, corresponding to possible outcomes of the experiments. As multiple models can be derived that adequately represent the observed phenomena, we apply Occam's razor by providing an explicit criterion for model selection based on Bayesian statistics. We then employ this criterion to select a model among competing models calibrated to experimental data for rubber and brain tissue under single or multiaxial loads.

  7. The socio-materiality of learning practices and implications for the field of learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Johri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of digital information technologies in education has becomecommonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories thatexplicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In thispaper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitionersalike by working as a conduit to study and design learning technologies.Towards this goal, I propose socio-materiality as a key theoretical construct withvaluable insights and implications for the field of learning technology. Sociomaterialityhelps balance the disproportionate attention given to either the socialimplications of technology use or the material aspects of technology design.Furthermore, I forward ‘socio-material bricolage' as a useful analytical frameworkto examine and design technology-infused learning environments. I illustratethe value of the framework by applying it to three case studies of formaland informal technology-based learning.

  8. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING INQUIRY TRAINING MODEL ON STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES ON MEASUREMENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa Irawani Hutabarat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement. This type of research is quasi experiment. Sampling done by cluster random sampling by taking 2 classes from grade 9 i.e. class X SCIENCE experiments as a class-B that add up to 35 people and class X SCIENCE-C as control classes that add up to 35 people. The instruments used to find out the results of student learning is the learning outcomes tests have been validated in multiple choice form numbered 15 reserved and activity sheets students. The results of the value obtained 37.71 pretes and postest 70.11. The t-test analysis retrieved thitung greater than ttabel so that it can be concluded no difference due to the influence of the learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement.

  9. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea; Purdie, Thomas G.; Jaffray, David A.; Levinshtein, Alex; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Pekar, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  10. The Influence of Interactive Learning Materials on Self-Regulated Learning and Learning Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengru Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interactive learning materials on learners’ self-regulated learning processes and learning satisfaction. A two-group experimental design was employed for 285 primary school teachers involved in teacher training. Teachers in the experimental group utilised interactive learning materials along with training videos and guidelines for their self-development at the school level. Teachers in the control group conducted self-development only with training videos and guidelines. The result was analysed using self-regulated learning theory explaining how one’s self-regulation processes affect learning satisfaction. Five self-regulation processes were identified in this study: internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, planning and organizing skills, critical and positive thinking skills, and effort regulation. The analysis was conducted in two steps. First, t-test analysis was used to identify the significant differences between the experimental group and the control group. The analysis revealed: (1 teachers conducting self-development with interactive learning materials were highly motivated to achieve better teacher assessment, (2 teachers with interactive learning materials had higher learning satisfaction. Second, the study further investigated the effect of interactive materials on the relationship between self-regulation processes and learning satisfaction, using moderation analysis. The results showed that interactive materials significantly affect the relationship between motivation for better assessment and learning satisfaction, as well as the relationship between internal motivation and learning satisfaction. These results were complemented by qualitative analysis including interviews and focus group discussions with teachers.

  11. A numeric comparison of variable selection algorithms for supervised learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, G.; Narsky, I.

    2009-01-01

    Datasets in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are often described by dozens or even hundreds of input variables. Reducing a full variable set to a subset that most completely represents information about data is therefore an important task in analysis of HEP data. We compare various variable selection algorithms for supervised learning using several datasets such as, for instance, imaging gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC) data found at the UCI repository. We use classifiers and variable selection methods implemented in the statistical package StatPatternRecognition (SPR), a free open-source C++ package developed in the HEP community ( (http://sourceforge.net/projects/statpatrec/)). For each dataset, we select a powerful classifier and estimate its learning accuracy on variable subsets obtained by various selection algorithms. When possible, we also estimate the CPU time needed for the variable subset selection. The results of this analysis are compared with those published previously for these datasets using other statistical packages such as R and Weka. We show that the most accurate, yet slowest, method is a wrapper algorithm known as generalized sequential forward selection ('Add N Remove R') implemented in SPR.

  12. Pairwise Constraint-Guided Sparse Learning for Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection aims to identify the most informative features for a compact and accurate data representation. As typical supervised feature selection methods, Lasso and its variants using L1-norm-based regularization terms have received much attention in recent studies, most of which use class labels as supervised information. Besides class labels, there are other types of supervised information, e.g., pairwise constraints that specify whether a pair of data samples belong to the same class (must-link constraint) or different classes (cannot-link constraint). However, most of existing L1-norm-based sparse learning methods do not take advantage of the pairwise constraints that provide us weak and more general supervised information. For addressing that problem, we propose a pairwise constraint-guided sparse (CGS) learning method for feature selection, where the must-link and the cannot-link constraints are used as discriminative regularization terms that directly concentrate on the local discriminative structure of data. Furthermore, we develop two variants of CGS, including: 1) semi-supervised CGS that utilizes labeled data, pairwise constraints, and unlabeled data and 2) ensemble CGS that uses the ensemble of pairwise constraint sets. We conduct a series of experiments on a number of data sets from University of California-Irvine machine learning repository, a gene expression data set, two real-world neuroimaging-based classification tasks, and two large-scale attribute classification tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed methods, compared with several established feature selection methods.

  13. SELECTION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR FERMENTATION OF MEAT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylenko S. G.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Principal criteria for the selection of microorganisms with a wide range of biological and technological properties for fermentation of raw meats are considered. Attention is paid to the main groups of microorganisms such as Micrococсus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium which are promising for creation of bacterial preparations. To create bacterial preparations, the basic criteria of selection for microorganisms were determined as follows: the ability of microorganisms to be developed within the specific ecological niche (raw meat materials and their influence on flavor characteristics of the final product under the conditions of intensification of production technologies of meat products. Methods used for search and retrieval of technologically promising strains from different natural sources (fresh meats, minced meats, meat, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables, fruit, brines and mixtures for salting are considered.

  14. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  15. Dynamics of the evolution of learning algorithms by selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo; Caticha, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    We study the evolution of artificial learning systems by means of selection. Genetic programming is used to generate populations of programs that implement algorithms used by neural network classifiers to learn a rule in a supervised learning scenario. In contrast to concentrating on final results, which would be the natural aim while designing good learning algorithms, we study the evolution process. Phenotypic and genotypic entropies, which describe the distribution of fitness and of symbols, respectively, are used to monitor the dynamics. We identify significant functional structures responsible for the improvements in the learning process. In particular, some combinations of variables and operators are useful in assessing performance in rule extraction and can thus implement annealing of the learning schedule. We also find combinations that can signal surprise, measured on a single example, by the difference between predicted and correct classification. When such favorable structures appear, they are disseminated on very short time scales throughout the population. Due to such abruptness they can be thought of as dynamical transitions. But foremost, we find a strict temporal order of such discoveries. Structures that measure performance are never useful before those for measuring surprise. Invasions of the population by such structures in the reverse order were never observed. Asymptotically, the generalization ability approaches Bayesian results

  16. Selective Recovery of Critical Materials from Geothermal Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Halstenberg, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Karamalidis, Athanasios [Anactisis, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Noack, Clint [Anactisis, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2018-03-08

    This project, funded by the DOE Small Business Voucher program, assisted the partner with the development of ion-imprinted adsorbents for the selective extraction of rare earth elements (REE) from geothermal brines. This effort seeks to utilize a currently untapped resource thus diversifying the U. S. REE market. The initial stage of the program focused on the adsorbent developed by partner and optimization of the adsorbent. The adsorbent was based upon an ion imprinted ligand that was copolymerized with a crosslinker to generate the REE selectivity. During this task, the adsorbents were irradiated via electron beam at the NEO Beam Electron Beam Crosslinking Facility (Mercury Plastics, Middlefield, OH) to induce further crosslinking. The irradiation crosslinked adsorbents exhibited no difference in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis suggesting inefficiency in the crosslinking. In the later stage of the effort, a new method was proposed and studied at ORNL involving a new partnership between the partner and a commercial polymer vender. This resulted in a new material being developed which allows the partner to utilize a commercial support and integrate the synthesis into a production-ready product stream. This will enhance the route to commercialization for the partner resulting in a quicker market penetration for the product. The new adsorbent exhibits selectivity for REE over transition metals commonly found within geothermal brines. Further optimization is required for enhanced selectivity, capacity, and intra-lanthanide separations.

  17. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  18. PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek PAWLICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstructural examinations and identification of the fracture type enabled to describe a correlation between strain rate, strain and microstructure.

  19. The Effects of Digital Learning Material on Students' Mathematics Learning in Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Diana P.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Noroozi, Omid; Goei, Sui Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Digital Learning Material (DLM) including instructional clips, online guidance, structuring of content, and a collaboration tool on students' mathematics learning in Dutch vocational education. A pretest-posttest design was used. Apprenticeship students were asked to complete assignments and to discuss them…

  20. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  1. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  2. Exploiting the Dynamics of Soft Materials for Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kohei; Hauser, Helmut; Li, Tao; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2018-06-01

    Soft materials are increasingly utilized for various purposes in many engineering applications. These materials have been shown to perform a number of functions that were previously difficult to implement using rigid materials. Here, we argue that the diverse dynamics generated by actuating soft materials can be effectively used for machine learning purposes. This is demonstrated using a soft silicone arm through a technique of multiplexing, which enables the rich transient dynamics of the soft materials to be fully exploited as a computational resource. The computational performance of the soft silicone arm is examined through two standard benchmark tasks. Results show that the soft arm compares well to or even outperforms conventional machine learning techniques under multiple conditions. We then demonstrate that this system can be used for the sensory time series prediction problem for the soft arm itself, which suggests its immediate applicability to a real-world machine learning problem. Our approach, on the one hand, represents a radical departure from traditional computational methods, whereas on the other hand, it fits nicely into a more general perspective of computation by way of exploiting the properties of physical materials in the real world.

  3. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  4. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  5. Professional Learning and the Materiality of Social Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitalo, Asa

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses professional learning as intrinsic to social practices. It takes its point of departure in a sociocultural notion of mediation and communication in human activity and addresses the constitutive nature of language and artefacts as material-semiotic tools in the social coordination of perspectives and action, meaning-making…

  6. Learning from Fables: Moral Values in Three Selected English Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Mukhlash

    2016-01-01

    Fable is not just a fun story, but it certainly has the moral lesson(s) inside of the storyline. This research tries to portray ethical value(s) in three selected English fable stories as well as to let the readers know that they can learn something from the fables. With this study, the researcher also correlated the value(s) to real life and…

  7. Instance Selection for Classifier Performance Estimation in Meta Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Blachnik

    2017-01-01

    Building an accurate prediction model is challenging and requires appropriate model selection. This process is very time consuming but can be accelerated with meta-learning–automatic model recommendation by estimating the performances of given prediction models without training them. Meta-learning utilizes metadata extracted from the dataset to effectively estimate the accuracy of the model in question. To achieve that goal, metadata descriptors must be gathered efficiently and must be inform...

  8. Design and selection of materials for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast reactors are currently in operation, under construction or under design by a number of countries. The design of sodium cooled fast reactor is covered by French RCC - MR code and ASME code NH. The codes cover rules as regards to materials, design and construction. These codes do not cover the effect of irradiation and environment. Elevated temperature design criteria in nuclear codes are much stringent in comparison to non nuclear codes. Sodium corrosion is not an issue in selection of materials provided oxygen impurity in sodium is controlled for which excellent reactor operating experience is available. Austenitic stainless steels have remained the choice for the permanent structures of primary sodium system. Stabilized austenitic stainless steel are rejected because of poor operating experience and non inclusion in the design codes. Route for improved creep behaviour lies in compositional modifications in 316 class steel. However, the weldability needs to be ensured. For cold leg component is non creep regime, SS 304 class steel is favoured from overall economics. Enhanced fuel burn up can be realized by the use of 9-12%Cr 1%Mo class steel for the wrapper of MOX fuel design, and cladding and wrapper for metal fuel reactors. Minor compositional modifications of 20% cold worked 15Cr-15Ni class austenitic stainless steel will be a strong candidate for the cladding of MOX fuel design in the short term. Long term objective for the cladding will be to develop oxide dispersion strengthened steel. 9%Cr 1%Mo class steel (Gr 91) is an ideal choice for integrated once through sodium heated steam generators. One needs to incorporate operating experience from reactors and thermal power stations, industrial capability and R and D feedback in preparing the technical specifications for procurement of wrought products and welding consumables to ensure reliable operation of the components and systems over the design life. The paper highlights the design approach

  9. Development of the material selection practice - a study exploring articulation of material requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie

    2014-01-01

    indicates that students focus on technical requirements when using the matrix and justifying their selection of materials. This is surprising since the students attend an arts and crafts oriented design school and are encouraged and guided to consider non-technical requirements, as part of the course where...... the matrix is introduced. A possible reason for the undesired behavior could be that students are allowed very freely to define their own matrices, having only little guidance to which requirements to use. A more formal procedure for making the material matrices is therefore proposed. The procedure requires...

  10. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  11. Strategies for selecting effective patient nutrition education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Laura H

    2010-10-01

    Nutrition and diet therapy are at the center of health promotion activities and self-management of chronic diseases. To assist an individual in making informed decisions regarding his or her diet and increase adherence to dietary recommendations or treatments, healthcare professionals must select health information that is appropriate to the client's level of understanding. A systematic approach in the evaluation of patient education material, whether in print or on the World Wide Web, must focus on the information's content, literacy level, graphical displays, layout and typography, motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility. Additional criteria should be evaluated when accessing Web sites and include source, site credibility, conflict of interest, disclaimer, disclosure, navigation, and interactivity information.

  12. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-01-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO 2 , TiO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Al 2 O 3 , to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta 2 O 5 RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy

  13. Material selection and corrosion control practices in petroleum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review briefly the current state of the art and to discuss some of the anticipated future oil and gas drilling and production activities which may challenge the materials selection and corrosion technologies. The current state of art discussions in this paper have been augmented by providing a list of references so that interested engineers may delve into each subject in more detail as desired. The technological areas which appear to require additional input to meet future needs include high strength tubular goods for sour gas service, corrosion resistant high strength alloys, definition of the effects of pressure, temperature, and fluid composition on corrosion behavior, and fatigue properties of various steels in seawater

  14. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  15. Semantic Modelling for Learning Styles and Learning Material in an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasan, Khawla; Chen, Liming; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Various learners with various requirements have led to the raise of a crucial concern in the area of e-learning. A new technology for propagating learning to learners worldwide, has led to an evolution in the e-learning industry that takes into account all the requirements of the learning process. In spite of the wide growing, the e-learning…

  16. Machine learning in materials informatics: recent applications and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, Rampi; Batra, Rohit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho

    2017-12-01

    Propelled partly by the Materials Genome Initiative, and partly by the algorithmic developments and the resounding successes of data-driven efforts in other domains, informatics strategies are beginning to take shape within materials science. These approaches lead to surrogate machine learning models that enable rapid predictions based purely on past data rather than by direct experimentation or by computations/simulations in which fundamental equations are explicitly solved. Data-centric informatics methods are becoming useful to determine material properties that are hard to measure or compute using traditional methods—due to the cost, time or effort involved—but for which reliable data either already exists or can be generated for at least a subset of the critical cases. Predictions are typically interpolative, involving fingerprinting a material numerically first, and then following a mapping (established via a learning algorithm) between the fingerprint and the property of interest. Fingerprints, also referred to as "descriptors", may be of many types and scales, as dictated by the application domain and needs. Predictions may also be extrapolative—extending into new materials spaces—provided prediction uncertainties are properly taken into account. This article attempts to provide an overview of some of the recent successful data-driven "materials informatics" strategies undertaken in the last decade, with particular emphasis on the fingerprint or descriptor choices. The review also identifies some challenges the community is facing and those that should be overcome in the near future.

  17. Transforming physical materials into artefacts – learning in the school’s practice of Sloyd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Illum

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes learning and interaction in the practice of Sloyd [Craft and Design, sw. Slöjd] when pupils in the school’s practice of sloyd work on and transform material into a sloyd object in the Swedish comprehensive school. As an aid in depicting how cultural socialisation and learning in the practice of sloyd in school can be formulated, we make use of video-recorded empirical data from sloyd lessons in comprehensive school. Based on the empirical data collected, it is particularly important to analyse how communication during sloyd work takes place in the form of not only talk but also non-verbal interaction (body language, gestures, mimicry, etc. and other tool-mediated activities. Also of interest is the environment where learning takes place, for example, how the classroom for sloyd is furnished, accessibility, selection of tools and materials. Since only parts of the practice of sloyd have been scientifically described, all the conditions that affect interaction and learning in sloyd classrooms are of importance (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003. Keywords: craft and design, sloyd, classroom research, sociocultural, learning materiality, microanalysis

  18. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vacri, M. L.; Nisi, S.; Cattadori, C.; Janicsko, J.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10-3 counts/keV kg y) at the Qββ. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system

  19. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vacri, M. L., E-mail: divacrim@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, University of L’Aquila, via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Nisi, S., E-mail: nisi@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Cattadori, C., E-mail: cattadori@lngs.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Janicsko, J. [TUM Munich (Germany); Lubashevskiy, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Smolnikov, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); Walter, M. [Physik-Institut, Universitat Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the {sup 76}Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10{sup −3} counts/keV kg y) at the Q{sub ββ}. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system.

  20. Selection of steam generator materials for sodium cooled fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium water heat exchangers are now considered as the stumbling block in the development of liquid metal cooled fast breeders, due to the risk of sodium-water reactions. The selection of the materials for these tube-bundles has been very broad, for the different existing, or in-project, reactors in the world: low alloy 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steels (unstabilized or stabilized); 9 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel; 18 Cr - 10 Ni austenitic stainless steels; alloy 800. On can also add other ferritic steels, as 9 Cr - 2 Mo stabilized, which are studied for this application. In the framework of the E.D.F.-C.E.A. working group a major effort was undertaken to study the characteristics of these various materials with respect to the main criteria governing construction of the tube bundles and their performance in service: mechanical characteristics at high temperature; fabrication and welding; behavior with respect to mass transfer in sodium; carburization and decarburization; corrosion resistance. The main lines and results of this program are described [fr

  1. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials...... teaching encourages and demands constant modernisation of the course and the materials being presented. A consideration of material and process selection for components in a modern product can be a dynamic starting point for a course on materials science and engineering; providing inspiration and showing...... and the processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Further, the current pace of materials product development ensures that using these objects to focus...

  2. Instance Selection for Classifier Performance Estimation in Meta Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Blachnik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate prediction model is challenging and requires appropriate model selection. This process is very time consuming but can be accelerated with meta-learning–automatic model recommendation by estimating the performances of given prediction models without training them. Meta-learning utilizes metadata extracted from the dataset to effectively estimate the accuracy of the model in question. To achieve that goal, metadata descriptors must be gathered efficiently and must be informative to allow the precise estimation of prediction accuracy. In this paper, a new type of metadata descriptors is analyzed. These descriptors are based on the compression level obtained from the instance selection methods at the data-preprocessing stage. To verify their suitability, two types of experiments on real-world datasets have been conducted. In the first one, 11 instance selection methods were examined in order to validate the compression–accuracy relation for three classifiers: k-nearest neighbors (kNN, support vector machine (SVM, and random forest. From this analysis, two methods are recommended (instance-based learning type 2 (IB2, and edited nearest neighbor (ENN which are then compared with the state-of-the-art metaset descriptors. The obtained results confirm that the two suggested compression-based meta-features help to predict accuracy of the base model much more accurately than the state-of-the-art solution.

  3. Selective laser sintering of calcium phosphate materials for orthopedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Goonhee

    Two technologies, Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) and bioceramics are combined in this work to prepare bone replacement implants with complex geometry. SFF has emerged as a crucial technique for rapid prototyping in the last decade. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is one of the established SFF manufacturing processes that can build three-dimensional objects directly from computer models without part-specific tooling or human intervention. Meanwhile, there have been great efforts to develop implantable materials that can assist in regeneration of bone defects and injuries. However, little attention has been focused in shaping bones from these materials. The main thrust of this research was to develop a process that can combine those two separate efforts. The specific objective of this research is to develop a process that can construct bone replacement material of complex geometry from synthetic calcium phosphate materials by using the SLS process. The achievement of this goal can have a significant impact on the quality of health care in the sense that complete custom-fit bone and tooth structures suitable for implantation can be prepared within 24--48 hours of receipt of geometric information obtained either from patient Computed Tomographic (CT) data, from Computer Aided Design (CAD) software or from other imaging systems such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Holographic Laser Range Imaging (HLRI). In this research, two different processes have been developed. First is the SLS fabrication of porous bone implants. In this effort, systematic procedures have been established and calcium phosphate implants were successfully fabricated from various sources of geometric information. These efforts include material selection and preparation, SLS process parameter optimization, and development of post-processing techniques within the 48-hour time frame. Post-processing allows accurate control of geometry and of the chemistry of calcium phosphate, as well as

  4. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  5. Nonlinear machine learning in soft materials engineering and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew

    The inherently many-body nature of molecular folding and colloidal self-assembly makes it challenging to identify the underlying collective mechanisms and pathways governing system behavior, and has hindered rational design of soft materials with desired structure and function. Fundamentally, there exists a predictive gulf between the architecture and chemistry of individual molecules or colloids and the collective many-body thermodynamics and kinetics. Integrating machine learning techniques with statistical thermodynamics provides a means to bridge this divide and identify emergent folding pathways and self-assembly mechanisms from computer simulations or experimental particle tracking data. We will survey a few of our applications of this framework that illustrate the value of nonlinear machine learning in understanding and engineering soft materials: the non-equilibrium self-assembly of Janus colloids into pinwheels, clusters, and archipelagos; engineering reconfigurable ''digital colloids'' as a novel high-density information storage substrate; probing hierarchically self-assembling onjugated asphaltenes in crude oil; and determining macromolecular folding funnels from measurements of single experimental observables. We close with an outlook on the future of machine learning in soft materials engineering, and share some personal perspectives on working at this disciplinary intersection. We acknowledge support for this work from a National Science Foundation CAREER Award (Grant No. DMR-1350008) and the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF #54240-DNI6).

  6. Learning spectrum's selection in OLAM network for analysis cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ning; Wang Peng; Tang Daiquan; Hu Renlan

    2010-01-01

    It uses OLAM artificial neural network to analyze the samples of cement raw material. Two kinds of spectrums are used for network learning: pure-element spectrum and mix-element spectrum. The output of pure-element method can be used to construct a simulate spectrum, which can be compared with the original spectrum and judge the shift of spectrum; the mix-element method can store more message and correct the matrix effect, but the multicollinearity among spectrums can cause some side effect to the results. (authors)

  7. Guidelines for the Development of Instructional Materials Selection Policies. Handbook I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomatsu, Nancy, Ed.

    This manual was developed to assist school district personnel in the development of policies and procedures for selecting instructional materials. The manual describes State of Washington laws and regulations that govern the selection, use, and disposal of instructional materials and presents criteria and guidelines for selecting materials. Also…

  8. Composite materials pipings: selection of basic materials and manufacturing process, quality control during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a summary of the knowledge acquired at the R and D on resins used as composite matrix, the resistance to hydrolysis and mechanical strength of pipings made from these materials, and on quality control during manufacture. The initial targets concerning the material selection, industrial manufacturing and quality control procedures are presented. The paper describes the results obtained concerning the investigation of the damage produced by hydrolysis in polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxides, the influence of temperature, reinforcement and the mechanical characterization of the tubing manufacturing. The performances of the nondestructive testings (radiography, ultrasonic controls, differential interferometry and infrared thermography) used are also reported. The paper ends with a further research and testings programme. (author)

  9. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  10. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs reversal learning while sparing prior learning, new learning and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Carey, Lawrence M; Smith, Alexandra E; Gentry, Meredith; Sluka, Christina M; Corbin, Hannah E; Wu, Jie-En; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-10-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of cancer therapies is frequently undermined by adverse side effects that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment across a variety of domains including memory, learning, and attention. In the current study, the impact of paclitaxel, a taxane derived chemotherapeutic agent, on episodic memory, prior learning, new learning, and reversal learning were evaluated in rats. Neurogenesis was quantified post-treatment in the dentate gyrus of the same rats using immunostaining for 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67. Paclitaxel treatment selectively impaired reversal learning while sparing episodic memory, prior learning, and new learning. Furthermore, paclitaxel-treated rats showed decreases in markers of hippocampal cell proliferation, as measured by markers of cell proliferation assessed using immunostaining for Ki67 and BrdU. This work highlights the importance of using multiple measures of learning and memory to identify the pattern of impaired and spared aspects of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Semantic modelling for learning styles and learning material in an e-learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alhasan, K.; Chen, Liming; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the URI link. Various learners with various requirements have led to the raise of a crucial concern in the area of e-learning. A new technology for propagating learning to learners worldwide, has led to an evolution in the e-learning industry that takes into account all the requirements of the learning process. In spite of the wide growing, the e-learning te...

  12. Evolution and natural selection: learning by playing and reflecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy is more than the simple reproduction of traditional school science knowledge and requires a set of skills, among them identifying scientific issues, explaining phenomena scientifically and using scientific evidence. Several studies have indicated that playing computer games in the classroom can support the development of students’ conceptual understanding about scientific phenomena and theories. Our paper presents a research study where the role of the video game Spore as a learning tool was analysed in a Biology class. An ethnographical perspective served as the framework for the organization and development of a workshop comprised of five sessions with 22 4th grade students, and their Biology teacher. The results show that this video game could become an interesting learning tool to improve students’ understanding of evolution and natural selection. The students could combine their previous knowledge with the academic knowledge obtained though the simulation presented by the video game. To sum up, an attempt has been made to give some empirical guidance about effective approaches to the utilisation of games in classrooms, additionally paying attention to a number of concerns related to the effectiveness of video games as learning tools.

  13. Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P

    2012-06-01

    Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.

  14. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  15. Studies on selected polymeric materials using the photoacoustic spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Hukum

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate—graft—polybisphenol—A-carbonate (PMMA-G-PC) with 50% grafting is synthesized. The graft co-polymerization of methylmethacrylate (0.036 mol · lit −1 ) onto polybisphenol—A-carbonate (0.5 g) in the presence of a redox couple formed from potassium persulphate (40 mol · lit −1 ) and thio-urea (30 mmol · lit −1 ) in aqueous nitric acid (0.18 M, 100 ml) in air at (45±2) °C for 3.0 h. Condensation of (PMMA-G-PC) with N- [p-(carboxyl phenyl amino acetic acid)] hydrazide (PCPH) affords polybisphenol-A-carbonate-graft-polymethylmethacrylate hydrazide (PCGH). The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of (PCGH) are recorded in a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm at a modulation frequency of 22 Hz, and compared with those of pure polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PC), (PMMA-G-PC) and (PCPH). In the present work, a non-destructive and non-contact analytical method, namely the photoacoustic technique, is successfully implemented for optical and thermal characterization of selected polymeric materials. The indigenous PA spectrometer used in the present study consists of a 300-W xenon arc lamp, a lock-in amplifier, a chopper, a (1/8)-m monochromator controlled by computer and a home-made PA cell. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Selective observation of charge storing ions in supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful technique for probing the structure and dynamics of the electrode-electrolyte interface in supercapacitors, as ions inside the pores of the carbon electrodes can be studied separately from bulk electrolyte. However, in some cases spectral resolution can limit the information that can be obtained. In this study we address this issue by showing how cross polarisation (CP) NMR experiments can be used to selectively observe the in-pore ions in supercapacitor electrode materials. We do this by transferring magnetisation from 13 C nuclei in porous carbons to nearby nuclei in the cations ( 1 H) or anions ( 19 F) of an ionic liquid. Two-dimensional NMR experiments and CP kinetics measurements confirm that in-pore ions are located within Ångströms of sp 2 -hybridised carbon surfaces. Multinuclear NMR experiments hold promise for future NMR studies of supercapacitor systems where spectral resolution is limited. Copyright © 2017 University of Cambridge. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How Important Are Student-Selected versus Instructor-Selected Literature Resources for Students' Learning and Motivation in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    In problem-based learning students are responsible for their own learning process, which becomes evident when they must act independently, for example, when selecting literature resources for individual study. It is a matter of debate whether it is better to have students select their own literature resources or to present them with a list of…

  18. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted

  19. The Development of Interactive Mathematics Learning Material Based on Local Wisdom with .swf Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M. K.; Asih, E. C. M.; Jupri, A.

    2018-05-01

    Learning materials used by students and schools in Serang district are lacking because they do not contain local wisdom content. The aim of this study is to improve the deficiencies in learning materials used by students by making interactive materials based on local wisdom content with format .swf. The method in this research is research and development (RnD) with ADDIE model. In making this interactive learning materials in accordance with the stages of the ADDIE study. The results of this study include interactive learning materials based on local wisdom. This learning material is suitable for digital students.

  20. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, L.; Dittmar, H.; Banerjee, R.

    2014-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, l...

  1. Teacher's Ability to Develop Learning Materials Potentially Mathematical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani Hamdani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of learning in the field, the teacher still dominates the conversation while the students as a passive listener. As a result, not only the communication skills of students who are less developed, the understanding of student material is also lacking. Therefore it is necessary to research the ability of teachers in developing learning tools potentially mathematical discourse to improve students' mathematical communication skills. The research method used is descriptive. Research activities include: identification of problems through questionnaires, observation, and interviews; teacher training; teachers develop learning tools; validation; and enhancement of the device by the teacher. The subject of this research is the junior high school mathematics teacher from several districts in the border area of Sambas-Sarawak Regency. The results show that in every learning mathematics there is always a conversation between teachers and students, but rarely use the question "why" and "how". Most teacher-made lesson plans contain scenarios of conversations between teachers and students, but just plain questioning, have not led to a debate between each other so that understanding becomes deeper. Student worksheet made by the teacher in the form of a matter of the ordinary story, rarely load non-routine problem let alone open-ended.

  2. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrab, Mohamed; Al-Shihi, Hafedh; Al-Manthari, Bader

    2015-01-01

    The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning) applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased…

  3. Selection of Learning Media Mathematics for Junior School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Sri Adi; Wahyudin

    2018-01-01

    One of the factors that determine the success of mathematics learning is the learning media used. Learning media can help students to create mathematical abstract mathematics that is abstract. In addition to media, meaningful learning is a learning that is adapted to the students' cognitive development. According to Piaget, junior high school…

  4. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  5. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  6. Lessons learned from material management at Vandellos-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, J.L. Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Declassification Container ' by means of a gamma spectrometry measuring system. On the basis of the experience this paper will describe the lessons learned in material management in Vandellos-I, in the areas of: - Organisation and planning; - Important role of logistics; - Capacity of the different storage areas; - Conservatism of the clearance process; - Cost/effort of Clearance process; - Recycle / Reuse; - Management and traceability of information

  7. Dynamic Educational e-Content Selection Using Multiple Criteria in Web-Based Personalized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Sampson, Demetrios

    This paper focuses on the way a multi-criteria decision making methodology is applied in the case of agent-based selection of offered learning objects. The problem of selection is modeled as a decision making one, with the decision variables being the learner model and the learning objects' educational description. In this way, selection of…

  8. IP-MLI: An Independency of Learning Materials from Platforms in a Mobile Learning using Intelligent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to deliver a monolithic mobile learning system is too inflexible in view of the heterogeneous mixture of hardware and services available and the desirability of facility blended approaches to learning delivery, and how to build learning materials to run on all platforms[1]. This paper proposes a framework of mobile learning system using an intelligent method (IP-MLI . A fuzzy matching method is used to find suitable learning material design. It will provide a best matching for each specific platform type for each learner. The main contribution of the proposed method is to use software layer to insulate learning materials from device-specific features. Consequently, many versions of learning materials can be designed to work on many platform types.

  9. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  10. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance. Keywords: academic needs; academic performance; barriers to learning; ...

  12. Surface Characteristics and Biofilm Development on Selected Dental Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung H. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraoral adjustment and polishing of dental ceramics often affect their surface characteristics, promoting increased roughness and consequent biofilm growth. This study correlated surface roughness to biofilm development with four commercially available ceramic materials. Methods. Four ceramic materials (Vita Enamic®, Lava™ Ultimate, Vitablocs Mark II, and Wieland Reflex® were prepared as per manufacturer instructions. Seventeen specimens of each material were adjusted and polished to simulate clinical intraoral procedures and another seventeen remained unaltered. Specimens were analysed by SEM imaging, confocal microscopy, and crystal violet assay. Results. SEM images showed more irregular surface topography in adjusted specimens than their respective controls. Surface roughness (Ra values were greater in all materials following adjustments. All adjusted materials with the exception of Vitablocs Mark II promoted significantly greater biofilm growth relative to controls. Conclusion. Simulated intraoral polishing methods resulted in greater surface roughness and increased biofilm accumulation.

  13. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  14. Empowering vocational math teachers by using digital learning material (DLM) with workplace assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, D.P.; van Luit, J.E.H.; Goei, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Digital Learning Material (DLM) are fast becoming a key instrument in teaching. The focus on E-learning systems with Digital Learning Material (DLM) is mostly on the medium and resources, instead of on the role of teachers. But like students, teachers also need to professionalize their digital

  15. Design of lightweight multi-material automotive bodies using new material performance indices of thin-walled beams for the material selection with crashworthiness consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xintao; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Ko, Jeonghan

    2011-01-01

    Currently, automotive bodies are constructed usually using a single material, e.g. steel or aluminum. Compared to single-material automotive bodies, multi-material automotive bodies allow optimal material selection in each structural component for higher product performance and lower cost. This paper presents novel material performance indices and procedures developed to guide systematic material selection for multi-material automotive bodies. These new indices enable to characterize the crashworthiness performance of complex-shaped thin-walled beams in multi-material automotive bodies according to material types. This paper also illustrates the application of these performance indices and procedures by designing a lightweight multi-material automotive body. These procedures will help to design a lightweight and affordable body favored by the automotive industry, thus to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact of selected building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowski, B.

    1983-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are a source of external and internal radiation exposure to essentially the entire Polish population. The programme of our studies met two main aspects on radioactivity of building materials: Gamma dose rate and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements in dwellings of various kinds of structure and materials in both industrial and rural districts of Poland. Gamma dose rate measurements were made in about 2200 dwellings and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements - in 750 dwellings. On the basis of these studies the annual effective dose equivalent to the Polish population due to gamma and alpha radiation indoors was estimated to be 0.39 mSv/a and 0.99 mSv/a, respectively. The contribution of external (from gamma) and internal (from alpha) radiation exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials to the total radiation exposure of Polish population was assessed to be 3.6 per cent and 34.2 per cent, respectively. Measurements of about 1500 samples of various kinds of building materials and raw materials were made to determine radionuclide concentrations in them. The highest values were obtained in samples of phosphogypsum, fly ash and slag: potassium concentration ranges up to 36 pCi g -1 (a slag sample), radium - up to 17 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum sample) and thorium - up to 4 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum). On the basis of the results of our studies we came to the conclusion that it was necessary to work out a control system which could protect habitants against enhancement of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

  18. Towards 'selection rules' in the radiation chemistry of molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Inst. of Synthetic Polymetric Materials, Moscow; Moscow State Univ.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are a lot of experimental evidences suggesting that the primary radiation-induced events in organic solids and polymers are highly selective and sensitive to conformation, molecular packing, matrix environment, etc. Nevertheless, specific 'selection rules' in the radiation chemistry of molecules in solids are still not established. This contribution presents a review of our recent studies of the radiation damage in organic molecules in low-temperature matrices and polymers aimed at elucidation of basic physical factors controlling selectivity of the primary chemical events. The following aspects will be analyzed: 1. 'Fine tuning' effects in positive hole trapping in rigid systems containing molecular 'traps' with close ionization energy. 2. Selective chemical bond weakening in ionized molecules: experimental and theoretical results. 3. Matrix-assisted and matrix-controlled chemical reactions of ionized molecules in solid media (including the effect of 'matrix-catalysis'). 4. Effect of excess energy on the fate of ionized molecules in solid matrices: the role of intramolecular and intermolecular relaxation. Finally, the problem of experimental and theoretical simulation of the distribution of the radiation-induced events in complex molecular systems and polymers will be addressed

  19. Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available represent stimuli of interest, and rich feature sets which increase the dimensionality of the space and thus the difficulty of the learning problem. We focus on a multitask reinforcement learning setting, where the agent is learning domain knowledge...

  20. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.

  1. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures

  2. Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials on Selectively Plasma Treated Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir Martijn van Dongen; ir Renee Verkuijlen; Dr Jan Bernards

    2011-01-01

    In manufacturing of organic electronics, inkjet printing as an alternative technique for depositing materials is becoming increasingly important. Aside to the ink formulations challenges, improving the resolution of the printed patterns is a major goal. In this study we will discuss a newly

  3. Recycling of Metals and Materials: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ruth K., Comp.; Castrow, Lee, Comp.

    Recycling of metals and materials has as its purpose the easing of two major environmental crises. First, we re-utilize scarce and non-renewable resources. Second, solid waste disposal problems can be alleviated. Industry has long been concerned with reclaiming its own waste products, and is now beginning to respond to the need for dealing with…

  4. Learning material recommendation based on case-based reasoning similarity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mona; Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    A personalized learning material recommendation is important in any Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is an Artificial Intelligent Algorithm that has been widely used in the development of ITS applications. This study has developed an ITS application that applied the CBR algorithm in the development process. The application has the ability to recommend the most suitable learning material to the specific student based on information in the student profile. In order to test the ability of the application in recommending learning material, two versions of the application were created. The first version displayed the most suitable learning material and the second version displayed the least preferable learning material. The results show the application has successfully assigned the students to the most suitable learning material.

  5. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Bojuwoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.

  6. Feature Selection and Kernel Learning for Local Learning-Based Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2011-08-01

    The performance of the most clustering algorithms highly relies on the representation of data in the input space or the Hilbert space of kernel methods. This paper is to obtain an appropriate data representation through feature selection or kernel learning within the framework of the Local Learning-Based Clustering (LLC) (Wu and Schölkopf 2006) method, which can outperform the global learning-based ones when dealing with the high-dimensional data lying on manifold. Specifically, we associate a weight to each feature or kernel and incorporate it into the built-in regularization of the LLC algorithm to take into account the relevance of each feature or kernel for the clustering. Accordingly, the weights are estimated iteratively in the clustering process. We show that the resulting weighted regularization with an additional constraint on the weights is equivalent to a known sparse-promoting penalty. Hence, the weights of those irrelevant features or kernels can be shrunk toward zero. Extensive experiments show the efficacy of the proposed methods on the benchmark data sets.

  7. Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrotsiou, O; Kotti, K; Dini, E; Kammona, O; Kiparissides, C

    2005-01-01

    Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively

  8. Experimental Observations on Dynamic Response of Selected Transparent Armor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Monolithic single crystal sapphire plates (100×100× 10 mm), from GT Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem , MA, in crystallographically controlled directions...Future Army Applications (2011) The National Academies Press , Washington, D.C. 5. Graff KF (1991) Wave motion in elastic solids, Dover Publications 6...2004) Visualization of impact damage in ceramics using the edge-on impact technique. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 1 (3):235–242 Fig. 38 Selection of a

  9. Improving the sun drying of apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with photo-selective dryer cabinet materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the pre-harvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential post-harvest effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to...

  10. Stuff- The Materials that Shape our World - Experimental Learning Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstein, Pam

    2012-04-30

    Making Stuff is a four-part series that explores how materials changed history and are shaping the future. To further enhance public engagement in and understanding of materials science, the project convened an extensive network of community coalitions across the country that hosted Making Stuff outreach activities and events, science cafes, and educator workshops in their local areas. Department Of Energy funding enabled us to increase the number of communities formally involved in the project, from 10 to 20 community hubs. Department of Energy funding also made it possible to develop a collection of materials science resources, activities and hands-on demonstrations for use in a variety of formal and informal settings, and Making Stuff activities were presented at science conferences and festivals around the country. The design, printing and national dissemination of the Making Stuff afterschool activity guide were also developed with DOE funding, as well as professional webinar trainings for scientists and educators to help facilitate many of the community activities and other online and print materials. Thanks to additional funding from the Department of Energy, we were able to expand the reach and scope of the project's outreach plan, specifically in the areas of: 1) content development, 2) training/professional development, 3) educational activities and 4) community partnerships. This report documents how the following DOE project goals were met: (1) Train scientists and provide teachers and informal educators with resources to engage youth with age appropriate information about materials science; (2) Provide activities and resources to five selected communities with ties to DOE researchers; (3) Increase interest in STEM.

  11. Optimal selection for shielding materials by fuzzy linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Miura, N.; Sugasawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    An application of fuzzy linear programming methods to optimization of a radiation shield is presented. The main purpose of the present study is the choice of materials and the search of the ratio of mixture-component as the first stage of the methodology on optimum shielding design according to individual requirements of nuclear reactor, reprocessing facility, shipping cask installing spent fuel, ect. The characteristic values for the shield optimization may be considered their cost, spatial space, weight and some shielding qualities such as activation rate and total dose rate for neutron and gamma ray (includes secondary gamma ray). This new approach can reduce huge combination calculations for conventional two-valued logic approaches to representative single shielding calculation by group-wised optimization parameters determined in advance. Using the fuzzy linear programming method, possibilities for reducing radiation effects attainable in optimal compositions hydrated, lead- and boron-contained materials are investigated

  12. Pelamis WEC - main body structural design and materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study evaluating the potential use of rolled steel, glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy laminate, and different forms of concrete as primary structural materials for the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as part of a strategy to refine the design by highlighting cost savings for long-term manufacture. Details are given of the drawing up of a load spectrum in order to assess the candidate structures, the choice of glass reinforced plastic, concrete, and steel for further evaluation based on preliminary screening, the assessment of the material requirements for each candidate structure, and cost estimates. The advantages of the use of concrete are discussed and recommendations are presented.

  13. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 C to 270 0 C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270 0 C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs

  14. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs.

  15. Study on Material Selection of Reactor Pressure Vessel of SCWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuli; Luo, Ying; Yin, Qinwei; Li, Changxiang; Xie, Guofu

    This paper first analyzes the feasibility of SA-508 Grade 3 Class 1 Steel as an alternative material for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This kind of steel is limited to be applied in SCWR RPV due to its quenching property, though large forging could be accomplished by domestic manufacturers in forging aspect. Therefore, steels with higher strength and better quenching property are needed for SWCR RPV. The chemical component of SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel is similar to that of SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.1 steel, and more appropriate matching of strength and toughness could be achieved by the adjusting the elements contents, as well as proper control of tempering temperature and time. In light of the fact that Cl.2 steel has been successfully applied to steam generator, it could be an alternative material for SWCR RPV. SA-508 Gr.4N steel with high strength and good toughness is another alternative material for SCWR RPV. But large amount of research work before application is still needed for the lack of data on welding and irradiation etc.

  16. EDUCATEE'S THESAURUS AS AN OBJECT OF MEASURING LEARNED MATERIAL OF THE DISTANCE LEARNING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Aleksandrovich RYBANOV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and control over the process of studying the distance learning course are based on solving the problem of making out an adequate integral mark to the educatee for mastering entire study course, by testing results. It is suggested to use the degree of correspondence between educatee's thesaurus and the study course thesaurus as an integral mark for the degree of mastering the distance learning course. Study course thesaurus is a set of the course objects with relations between them specified. The article considers metrics of the study course thesaurus complexity, made on the basis of the graph theory and the information theory. It is suggested to use the amount of information contained in the study course thesaurus graph as the metrics of the study course thesaurus complexity. Educatee's thesaurus is considered as an object of measuring educational material learned at the semantic level and is assessed on the basis of amount of information contained in its graph, taking into account the factors of learning the thesaurus objects.

  17. Preliminary selection criteria for the Yucca Mountain Project waste package container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for construction of a geologic repository for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Nuclear Waste Management Project (NWMP) has the responsibility for design, testing, and performance analysis of the waste packages. The design is performed in an iterative manner in three sequential phases (conceptual design, advanced conceptual design, and license application design). An important input to the start of the advanced conceptual design is the selection of the material for the waste containers. The container material is referred to as the 'metal barrier' portion of the waste package, and is the responsibility of the Metal Barrier Selection and Testing task at LLNL. The selection will consist of several steps. First, preliminary, material-independent selection criteria will be established based on the performance goals for the container. Second, a variety of engineering materials will be evaluated against these criteria in a screening process to identify candidate materials. Third, information will be obtained on the performance of the candidate materials, and final selection criteria and quantitative weighting factors will be established based on the waste package design requirements. Finally, the candidate materials will be ranked against these criteria to determine whether they meet the mandated performance requirements, and to provide a comparative score to choose the material for advanced conceptual design activities. This document sets forth the preliminary container material selection criteria to be used in screening candidate materials. 5 refs

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  19. Novel Automatic Filter-Class Feature Selection for Machine Learning Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollsen, Morten Gill; Hallam, John; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    With the increased focus on application of Big Data in all sectors of society, the performance of machine learning becomes essential. Efficient machine learning depends on efficient feature selection algorithms. Filter feature selection algorithms are model-free and therefore very fast, but require...... model in the feature selection process. PCA is often used in machine learning litterature and can be considered the default feature selection method. RDESF outperformed PCA in both experiments in both prediction error and computational speed. RDESF is a new step into filter-based automatic feature...

  20. Materials Selection and Their Characteristics as Used in Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.; Vesely, E.; Wells, D.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a program to evaluate six technologies used in Rapid Prototyping (RP) to produce investment casting patterns. In this paper, RP refers to the collective additive fabrication technologies known as Solid Free-Form Fabrication. Such technologies are being used with increasing frequency in manufacturing applications, due in part to their rapidly expanding capabilities to fabricate models from many types of materials. This study used ABS plastic, polycarbonate, TrueForm PM6, epoxy resin, paper, starch, and wax. The baseline model was a semi-complex prototype fuel pump housing, intended for use in the X-33 reusable launch vehicle. All models were shelled in a production- grade colloidal silica ceramic. Primary coats were zircon-base flour with zircon backup, while secondary coats were silica grains with a tabular alumina backup. Each model was shelled in an identical manner, using the same atmospheric conditions and drying times, as well as the same number of layers. Bake-outs and firing cycles were consistent with the leach ability of each material. Preheat and bath temperatures were also kept consistent. All molds were cast in vacuum using a hydrogen-resistant superalloy (NASA- 23) that was developed in-house. The final technical evaluation included detailed measurements of the model and the final casting, in order to determine any dimensional changes caused by different pattern materials, as well as documentation of all defects and any obvious refractory/model reactions. Prototype production costs were estimated for each method and taken into consideration during trade-off analysis.

  1. Is it better to select or to receive? Learning via active and passive hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Douglas B; Gureckis, Todd M

    2014-02-01

    People can test hypotheses through either selection or reception. In a selection task, the learner actively chooses observations to test his or her beliefs, whereas in reception tasks data are passively encountered. People routinely use both forms of testing in everyday life, but the critical psychological differences between selection and reception learning remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that selection learning improves learning performance by enhancing generic cognitive processes related to motivation, attention, and engagement. Alternatively, we suggest that differences between these 2 learning modes derives from a hypothesis-dependent sampling bias that is introduced when a person collects data to test his or her own individual hypothesis. Drawing on influential models of sequential hypothesis-testing behavior, we show that such a bias (a) can lead to the collection of data that facilitates learning compared with reception learning and (b) can be more effective than observing the selections of another person. We then report a novel experiment based on a popular category learning paradigm that compares reception and selection learning. We additionally compare selection learners to a set of "yoked" participants who viewed the exact same sequence of observations under reception conditions. The results revealed systematic differences in performance that depended on the learner's role in collecting information and the abstract structure of the problem.

  2. Materials selection in micromechanical design: an application of the Ashby approach

    OpenAIRE

    Srikar, V.T.; Spearing, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The set of materials available to microsystems designers is rapidly expanding. Techniques now exist to introduce and integrate a large number of metals, alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, and elastomers into microsystems, motivating the need for a rational approach for materials selection in microsystems design. As a step toward such an approach, we focus on the initial stages of materials selection for micromechanical structures with minimum feature sizes greater than 1 /spl mu/m. The vari...

  3. An overview of safety and environmental considerations in the selection of materials for fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.; Piet, S.J.; Seki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Safety and environmental considerations can play a large role in the selection of fusion materials. In this paper, we review the attributes of different structural, plasma facing, and breeding materials from a safety perspective and discuss some generic waste management issues as they relate to fusion materials in general. Specific safety concerns exist for each material that must be dealt with in fusion facility design. Low activation materials offer inherent safety benefits compared with conventional materials, but more work is needed before these materials have the requisite certified databases. In the interim, the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) has selected more conventional materials and is showing that the safety concerns with these materials can be addressed by proper attention to design. In the area of waste management disposal criteria differ by country. However, the criteria are all very strict making disposal of fusion components difficult. As a result, recycling has gained increasing attention. (orig.)

  4. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Mandušić; Lucija Blašković

    2012-01-01

    Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to ...

  5. Using Selective Redundancy and Testing to Optimize Learning from Multimedia Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Carole Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia learning refers to learning from a combination of words and images. In the present dissertation, a multimedia lesson is defined as an animated, narrated educational video that depicts a scientific process--a format of instructional material becoming increasingly common in online, hybrid, and traditional classrooms. The overarching goal of the present research was to investigate how to optimize learning from multimedia lessons using two related theories of multimedia learning (the...

  6. New membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, P.D.; van der Wal, Peter D.; Skowronska-Ptasinska, Maria; van den Berg, Albert; Bergveld, Piet; Sudholter, Ernst; Sudholter, Ernst J.R.; Reinhoudt, David

    1990-01-01

    Several polymeric materials were studied as membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) to overcome the problems related with the use of conventional plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes casted on ISFET gate surfaces. Several acrylate materials,

  7. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  8. Status of international collaborative efforts on selected ITER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.A.; Fabritsiev, S.A.; Mazul, I.V.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the performance of refractory metals, beryllium, and copper alloys, for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) high heat flux structures. High temperature brazing, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), friction welding, explosive bonding, and other methods were explored to join copper alloys to 316 stainless steel for first wall and limiter applications. It is concluded that the main material problems for the ITER high heat flux components are: (a) degradation of properties after the manufacturing cycle (especially for Be/Cu and Cu/stainless steel (SS) joints); (b) helium embrittlement of Be, and Cu, and; (c) radiation-induced loss of fracture toughness for Be, W, and Cu alloys

  9. Decommissioning Strategies Selection for Facilities Using Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husen Zamroni; Jaka Rachmadetin

    2008-01-01

    The facilities using radioactive material that have been stopped operation will require some form of the decommissioning for public and environment safety. The approaches are identified by three decommissioning strategies: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. If a facility undergoes immediate dismantling, most radio nuclides will have no such sufficient time to decay and therefore this strategy may not provide reduction in the worker exposure. A facility that undergoes deferred dismantling may advantage from the radioactive decay of residual radio nuclides during the long term storage period and entombment could be a viable option for other nuclear facilities containing only short lived or limited concentrations of long lived radionuclides. Mostly, only two types of the decommissioning used to be done in the world, immediate and deferred dismantling. (author)

  10. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-01-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking

  11. Updating Classifications of Ceramic Dental Materials: A Guide to Material Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The indications for and composition of today's dental ceramic materials serve as the basis for determining the appropriate class of ceramics to use for a given case. By understanding the classifications, composition, and characteristics of the latest all-ceramic materials, which are presented in this article in order of most to least conservative, dentists and laboratory technicians can best determine the ideal material for a particular treatment.

  12. CREB Selectively Controls Learning-Induced Structural Remodeling of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middei, Silvia; Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia; Pittenger, Christopher; O'Mara, Shane M.; Marie, Helene; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic strength associated with learning is post-synaptically regulated by changes in density and shape of dendritic spines. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is required for memory formation and in vitro dendritic spine rearrangements, but its role in learning-induced remodeling of neurons…

  13. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  15. Application of GRA for Sustainable Material Selection and Evaluation Using LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishna, Kandasamy; Vinodh, Sekar; Sakthi Sanghvi, Vijayaselvan; Deepika, Chinadurai

    2016-07-01

    Material selection is identified as a successful key parameter in establishing any product to be sustainable, considering its end of life (EoL) characteristics. An accurate understanding of expected service conditions and environmental considerations are crucial in the selection of material plays a vital role with overwhelming customer expectations and stringent laws. Therefore, this article presents an integrated approach for sustainable material selection using grey relational analysis (GRA) considering the EoL disposal strategies with respect to an automotive product. GRA, an impact evaluation model measures the degree of similarity between the comparability (choice of material) sequence and reference (EoL strategies) sequence based on the relational grade. The ranking result shows that the outranking relationships in the order, ABS-REC > PP-INC > AL-REM > PP-LND > ABS-LND > ABS-INC > PU-LND > AL-REC > AL-LND > PU-INC > AL-INC. The best sustainable material selected was ABS and recycling was selected as the best EoL strategy with the grey relational value of 2.43856. The best material selected by this approach, ABS was evaluated for its viability using life cycle assessment and the estimated impacts also proved the practicability of the selected material highlighting the focus on dehumidification step in the manufacturing of the case product using this developed multi-criteria approach.

  16. Tunable Impedance Spectroscopy Sensors via Selective Nanoporous Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Small, Leo J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Impedance spectroscopy was leveraged to directly detect the sorption of I 2 by selective adsorption into nanoporous metal organic frameworks (MOF). Films of three different types of MOF frameworks, respectively, were drop cast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 C. The MOF frameworks varied in topology from small pores (equivalent to I 2 diameter) to large pore frameworks. The combination of the chemistry of the framework and pore size dictated quantity and kinetics of I 2 adsorption. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8 impedance. Independent of MOF framework characteristics, all resultant sensors showed high response to I 2 in air. As an example of sensor output, I 2 was readily detected at 25 C in air within 720 s of exposure, using an un-optimized sensor geometry with a small pored MOF. Further optimization of sensor geometry, decreasing MOF film thicknesses and maximizing sensor capacitance, will enable faster detection of trace I 2 .

  17. Selection of suitable e-learning approach using TOPSIS technique with best ranked criteria weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Husam Jasim; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd

    2017-11-01

    This paper compares the performances of four rank-based weighting assessment techniques, Rank Sum (RS), Rank Reciprocal (RR), Rank Exponent (RE), and Rank Order Centroid (ROC) on five identified e-learning criteria to select the best weights method. A total of 35 experts in a public university in Malaysia were asked to rank the criteria and to evaluate five e-learning approaches which include blended learning, flipped classroom, ICT supported face to face learning, synchronous learning, and asynchronous learning. The best ranked criteria weights are defined as weights that have the least total absolute differences with the geometric mean of all weights, were then used to select the most suitable e-learning approach by using TOPSIS method. The results show that RR weights are the best, while flipped classroom approach implementation is the most suitable approach. This paper has developed a decision framework to aid decision makers (DMs) in choosing the most suitable weighting method for solving MCDM problems.

  18. Production of Biofuels from Selected Cellulosic Waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathwa Abdul Kareem Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study four types of cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes (residuals of orange, banana peel, corn residues, and saw dust were used as raw materials. These cellulosic substrates usually have a lot of lignin content which prevents the process of saccharification by microorganisms. Thus pretreatment methods of enzymatic, acid or base with enzymatic treatment and dilute acid followed by autoclaving were necessary to dignify these wastes and to obtain higher reducing sugar yields and hence higher ethanol production. Dilute HCl acid of 1% followed by autoclaving at 121℃ for 30 min proved to give good result where significant amounts of reducing sugars were obtained at the end of the saccharification process. Orange peel proved to give the highest glucose concentration of an average of 6000 mg/l on day 4 of the saccharification process. Fermentation was carried out for the hydrolyzed samples using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The amount of ethanol produced after fermentation was found to be the highest for orange peel having a value of 1300 mg/l after 96h of incubation. As science is proceeding, engineered microorganisms could help to produce sustainable fuels from cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes in the future.

  19. Characterization of hydrotalcite materials for CO2 selective membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuillade, V.C.; Haije, W.G. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The present concern about climate change has urged researchers and engineers all over the world to go and look for ways of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Largescale CO2 emissions occur at power plants burning fossil fuels or e.g. the production of hydrogen from carbonaceous feed. In these cases pre- or post-combustion CO2 capture techniques followed by CO2 storage seems a promising route for reducing emissions. Prerequisite in these processes is the effective separation of CO2 from mixed gaseous process streams. The purpose of this work is to develop CO2 membranes to allow for the combination of natural gas reforming with separation of H2 and CO2 in separation enhanced reactors, i.e. membrane reactors, for carbon-free hydrogen production or electricity generation. This paper describes the materials' properties of hydrotalcites, a promising class of compounds for CO2 membranes. They have already proven their applicability as CO2 sorbent in sorption enhanced reaction processes. It is of fundamental importance to know the structural stability of this compound in the operational window of a chosen membrane reactor prior to any membrane fabrication. To this end, in-situ XRPD and DRIFTS as well as TGA-MS and SEM-EDX measurements have been performed on commercial (Pural) and hydrothermally synthesized homemade samples.

  20. Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G. M.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.

  1. Charged particle and laser irradiation of selected materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, W.E.

    1996-11-01

    The main topics of the present thesis are the processes governing electronic sputtering of insulators and laser ablation of metals and insulators. The sputtering yield for electron bombardment of solid deuterium was investigated using quartz crystal microbalances as the measuring technique. The sputtering yield was measured with varying electron energy and deuterium film thickness. Laser ablation measurements of silver and nickel were carried out using a Nd:YAG laser. The effect of various experimental parameters such as background gas pressure (Ar, N 2 ), position of quartz crystals with respect to target position and the optimal number of laser shots for carrying out the experiments were investigated. The deposition rate was measured with varying laser wavelength and laser fluence. The angular distribution of the ablated material was measured for silver as well. A theoretical model based on the thermal properties of laser interaction with metals was applied in the initial phase of ablation. For the non-thermal processes governing laser interaction with the ablated plasma plume, a model developed by Phipps and Dreyfus was used to interpret the results. Laser ablation measurements of water-ice were carried using a Nitrogen laser. Attempts were made to measure the deposition rate for various the laser wavelengths and energies. (au) 8 tabs., 49 ills., 77 refs

  2. Review of selected dynamic material control functions for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    With the development of Dynamic Special Nuclear Material Accounting and Control systems used in nuclear manufacturing and reprocessing plants, there arises the question as to how these systems affect the IAEA inspection capabilities. The systems in being and under development provide information and control for a variety of purposes important to the plant operator, the safeguards purpose being one of them. This report attempts to judge the usefulness of these dynamic systems to the IAEA and have defined 12 functions that provide essential information to it. If the information acquired by these dynamic systems is to be useful to the IAEA, the inspectors must be able to independently verify it. Some suggestions are made as to how this might be done. But, even if it should not be possible to verify all the data, the availability to the IAEA of detailed, simultaneous, and plant-wide information would tend to inhibit a plant operator from attempting to generate a floating or fictitious inventory. Suggestions are made that might be helpful in the design of future software systems, an area which has proved to be fatally deficient in some systems and difficult in all

  3. Charged particle and laser irradiation of selected materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, W E

    1996-11-01

    The main topics of the present thesis are the processes governing electronic sputtering of insulators and laser ablation of metals and insulators. The sputtering yield for electron bombardment of solid deuterium was investigated using quartz crystal microbalances as the measuring technique. The sputtering yield was measured with varying electron energy and deuterium film thickness. Laser ablation measurements of silver and nickel were carried out using a Nd:YAG laser. The effect of various experimental parameters such as background gas pressure (Ar, N{sub 2}), position of quartz crystals with respect to target position and the optimal number of laser shots for carrying out the experiments were investigated. The deposition rate was measured with varying laser wavelength and laser fluence. The angular distribution of the ablated material was measured for silver as well. A theoretical model based on the thermal properties of laser interaction with metals was applied in the initial phase of ablation. For the non-thermal processes governing laser interaction with the ablated plasma plume, a model developed by Phipps and Dreyfus was used to interpret the results. Laser ablation measurements of water-ice were carried using a Nitrogen laser. Attempts were made to measure the deposition rate for various the laser wavelengths and energies. (au) 8 tabs., 49 ills., 77 refs.

  4. Learning curve tool applications in DOE materials management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will examine the application of learning curve theory, an economic theory that quantifies cost savings over time in a labor intensive process. Learning curve theory has been traditionally applied to a production process. This paper examines the application of learning curve theory in cost estimating of waste characterization in storage at a DOE facility

  5. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  6. Web-Based Learning Materials for Higher Education: The MERLOT Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhun, Emrah

    2004-01-01

    MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a web-based open resource designed primarily for faculty and students in higher education. The resources in MERLOT include over 8,000 learning materials and support materials from a wide variety of disciplines that can be integrated within the context of a larger course.…

  7. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Ossevoort, M.A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive elearning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  8. Effective Use of Distance Education Materials for On-Campus Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David Woollcombe

    1998-01-01

    This study explores the use of distance study materials for resource-based learning in on-campus education. Describes use of the Jevons/Northcott typology for investigating the pedagogical use of distance learning materials, and discusses results of classroom observation, student diaries, lecturer interviews, and student questionnaires.…

  9. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor

    2012-01-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  11. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  12. The Selection of Materials for Roller Chains From The Perspective Of Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Saptono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials for an engineering component is not only requested by its design function and shape, but also the sequence through which it is manufactured. The manufacturing operation of roller chains involves drawing and trimming processes aimed at producing semi-finished chain drives component with a well-standardized dimension. In addition to final combination of properties required by design constraints, the ability of materials to be formed into a desired shape and geometry without failure is also critical. The objective of materials selection should therefore involve additional attributes that are not typically  accommodated by the standard procedure of materials selection. The present paper deals with the selection of materials for roller chains from the perspective of manufacturing process. Ears and un-uniform wall thickness have been identified as a key problem in the mass production of component. Provided all process parameters were established, the  anisotropy factor of materials is critical. Simulative test can be reasonably used to obtain material performance indices that can be added up to the standard procedure of material selection. Of three commercially available steel grades evaluated with regard to the criteria defined, one grade is more suitable for the present objective.

  13. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrante

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  14. You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Uengoer, Metin; Schubö, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning experience on deployment of attention, we combined an associative learning task with a visual search task and measured event-related potentials of the EEG as neural markers of attention deployment. In the learning task, participants categorized stimuli varying in color/shape with only one dimension being predictive of category membership. In the search task, participants searched a shape target while disregarding irrelevant color distractors. Behavioral results showed that color distractors impaired performance to a greater degree when color rather than shape was predictive in the learning task. Neurophysiological results show that the amplified distraction was due to differential attention deployment (N2pc). Experiment 2 showed that when color was predictive for learning, color distractors captured more attention in the search task (ND component) and more suppression of color distractor was required (PD component). The present results thus demonstrate that priority in visual attention is biased toward predictive stimuli, which allows learning experience to shape selection. We also show that learning experience can overrule strong top-down control (blocked tasks, Experiment 3) and that learning experience has a longer-term effect on attention deployment (tasks on two successive days, Experiment 4). © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Application of multi-criteria material selection techniques to constituent refinement in biobased composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Lepech, Michael D.; Billington, Sarah L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biobased composites have the potential to replace certain engineered materials. • Woven reinforcement can provide better material properties in biobased composites. • Short fiber filler can provide lower environmental impact in biobased composites. • Per function, different fibers are desired to lower composite environmental impact. - Abstract: Biobased composites offer a potentially low environmental impact material option for the construction industries. Designing these materials to meet both performance requirements for an application and minimize environmental impacts requires the ability to refine composite constituents based on environmental impact and mechanical properties. In this research, biobased composites with varying natural fiber reinforcement in a poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(β-hydroxyvalerate) matrix were characterized based on material properties through experiments and environmental impact through life cycle assessments. Using experimental results, these biobased composites were found to have competitive flexural properties and thermal conductivity with certain short-chopped glass fiber reinforced plastics. Multi-criteria material selection techniques were applied to weigh desired material properties with greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand, and Eco-Indicator ’99 score. The effects of using different reinforcing fibers in biobased composites were analyzed using the developed selection scheme as a tool for choosing constituents. The use of multi-criteria material selection provided the ability to select fiber reinforcement for biobased composites and showed when it would be more appropriate to use a novel biobased composite or a currently available engineered material

  16. Endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention: Contributions to learning in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lucy C; Thiessen, Erik D; Godwin, Karrie E; Dickerson, John P; Fisher, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    Selective sustained attention is vital for higher order cognition. Although endogenous and exogenous factors influence selective sustained attention, assessment of the degree to which these factors influence performance and learning is often challenging. We report findings from the Track-It task, a paradigm that aims to assess the contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to selective sustained attention within the same task. Behavioral accuracy and eye-tracking data on the Track-It task were correlated with performance on an explicit learning task. Behavioral accuracy and fixations to distractors during the Track-It task did not predict learning when exogenous factors supported selective sustained attention. In contrast, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, fixations to distractors were negatively correlated with learning. Similarly, when endogenous factors supported selective sustained attention, higher behavioral accuracy was correlated with greater learning. These findings suggest that endogenously and exogenously driven selective sustained attention, as measured through different conditions of the Track-It task, may support different kinds of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of appropriates E-learning personalization strategies from ontological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Essalmi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When there are several personalization strategies of E-learning, authors of courses need to be supported for deciding which strategy will be applied for personalizing each course. In fact, the time, the efforts and the learning objects needed for preparing personalized learning scenarios depend on the personalization strategy to be applied. This paper presents an approach for selecting personalization strategies according to the feasibility of generating personalized learning scenarios with minimal intervention of the author. Several metrics are proposed for putting in order and selecting useful personalization strategies. The calculus of these metrics is automated based on the analyses of the LOM (Learning Object Metadata standard according to the semantic relations between data elements and learners’ characteristics represented in the Ontology for Selection of Personalization Strategies (OSPS.

  18. Readability in reading materials selection and coursebook design for college English in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhongshe

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the application of readability in reading materials selection and coursebook design for college English in an EFL context in China. Its aim is to develop rationales which coursebook writers can utilise in selecting materials as texts and as a basis for designing tasks. This study, through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, argues that readability is applicable in the EFL Chinese context, and readability plays a important role in determining...

  19. Selective role for DNMT3a in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Adachi, Megumi; Na, Elisa S; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Methylation of cytosine nucleotides is governed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that establish de novo DNA methylation patterns in early embryonic development (e.g., DNMT3a and DNMT3b) or maintain those patterns on hemimethylated DNA in dividing cells (e.g., DNMT1). DNMTs continue to be expressed at high levels in mature neurons, however their impact on neuronal function and behavior are unclear. To address this issue we examined DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression following associative learning. We also generated forebrain specific conditional Dnmt1 or Dnmt3a knockout mice and characterized them in learning and memory paradigms as well as for alterations in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that experience in an associative learning task impacts expression of Dnmt3a, but not Dnmt1, in brain areas that mediate learning of this task. We also found that Dnmt3a knockout mice, and not Dnmt1 knockouts have synaptic alterations as well as learning deficits on several associative and episodic memory tasks. These findings indicate that the de novo DNA methylating enzyme DNMT3a in postmitotic neurons is necessary for normal memory formation and its function cannot be substituted by the maintenance DNA methylating enzyme DNMT1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Engaging Students On-Line:Does Gender Matter in Adoption of Learning Material Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norziani Dahalan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Education is reforming with the birth of the internet. Learning is not solely based on classroom basis but also through on-line. The revolution of Internet has transformed teaching via face-to-face into virtual teaching. The expansion of teaching deliveries suggests that we need interactive mechanism to accommodate course material for on-line students. However, creating on-line materials requires the conception of on-line instructional design. A suitable online material design will allow learners to engage with learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop their own understanding. In addition, suitable learning material will strengthen learner’s knowledge construction from their short-term memory to long-term memory. The purpose of this paper is to discover the learning material design approach based on gender by evaluating lecturer’s adoption of online material design using Keller’s ARCS model. The sample consisting of 30 lecturers from distance education learning reveals that gender differs in their adoption of learning material design specifically on getting attention of the student. The result also shows that relevance and satisfaction contribute to gender differences in learning material adoption. Limitations of the study and practical implications of these findings discussed.

  1. Integrated shape and material selection for single and multi-performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasveer; Mirjalili, Vahid; Pasini, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The method of shape transformers is extended to torsional stiffness and combined load design. → The method is generalized for multi-criteria selection of shape and material. → Performance charts are presented for single and multi-objective selection of cross-section shape and material. → A four quadrant performance chart is presented to visualize the relation between objective function space and design variable space. -- Abstract: A shape and material selection method, based on the concept of shape transformers, has been recently introduced to characterize the mass efficiency of lightweight beams under bending and shear. This paper extends this method to deal with the case of torsional stiffness design, and generalize it to single and multi-crieria selection of lightweight shafts subjected to a combination of bending, shear, and torsional load. The novel feature of the paper is the useful integration of shape and material to model and visualize multi-objective selection problems. The scheme is centered on concept selection in structural design, and hinges on measures that govern the shape properties of a cross-section regardless of its size. These measures, referred as shape transformers, can classify shapes in a way similar to material classification. The procedure is exemplified by considering torsional stiffness as a constraint. The performance charts are developed for single and multi-criteria to visualize in a glance the whole range of cross-sectional shapes for each material. Each design chart is explained with a brief example.

  2. Selecting Materials on the Iranian Revolution: A Short Bibliography of Materials Now in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    Appropriate for adult reading, 27 books published between 1969 and 1982 are listed in this annotated bibliography for those studying the Iranian Revolution. Works are arranged into two categories: (1) "Background Materials: Islam and Petroleum," which lists basic works that make it easier to place events in Iran within an intelligible…

  3. Keefektifan setting TPS dalam pendekatan discovery learning dan problem-based learning pada pembelajaran materi lingkaran SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning in terms of student achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the student.  This study was a quasi-experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. The research population comprised all Year VIII students of SMP Negeri 1 Yogyakarta. The research sample was randomly selected from eight classes, two classes were elected. The instrument used in this study is the learning achievement test, a test of mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills student questionnaires. To test the effectiveness of setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning, the one sample t-test was carried out. Then, to investigate the difference in effectiveness between the setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning, the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was carried out. The research findings indicate that the setting TPS discovery approach to learning and problem-based approach to learning (PBL is effective in terms of learning achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the students. No difference in effectiveness between setting TPS discovery approach to learning and problem-based learning (PBL in terms of learning achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the students. Keywords: TPS setting in discovery learning approach, in problem-based learning, academic achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the student

  4. The Role of Executive Control of Attention and Selective Encoding for Preschoolers' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Thomas; Krebs, Saskia; Schmid, Corinne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Selectivity in encoding, aspects of attentional control and their contribution to learning performance were explored in a sample of preschoolers. While the children are performing a learning task, their encoding of relevant and attention towards irrelevant information was recorded through an eye-tracking device. Recognition of target items was…

  5. When Average Is Not Good Enough: Students with Learning Disabilities at Selective, Private Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Erickson, Celeste P.; Till, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary…

  6. Lessons learned? Selected public acceptance case studies since Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blee, D. [NAC International, Atlanta Corporate Headquarters, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    This paper will present an overview of the present situation, some recent polling survey information, and then look at lessons learned in terms of selected case studies and some global issues over the 22 years since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. That is quite an ambitious topic but there are some important lessons we can learn from the post-TMI era. (author)

  7. Design and material selection for ITER first wall/blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Gohar, Y.; Janeschitz, G.; Johnson, G.; Kalinin, G.; Lousteau, D.; Onozuka, M.; Parker, R.; Sannazzaro, G.; Tivey, R. [ITER JCT, Garching (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Design and R and D have progressed on the ITER vacuum vessel, shielding and breeding blankets, and the divertor. The principal materials have been selected and the fabrication methods selected for most of the components based on design and R and D results. The resulting design changes are discussed for each system. (orig.) 11 refs.

  8. Design and material selection for ITER first wall/blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Gohar, Y.; Janeschitz, G.; Johnson, G.; Kalinin, G.; Lousteau, D.; Onozuka, M.; Parker, R.; Sannazzaro, G.; Tivey, R.

    1998-10-01

    Design and R&D have progressed on the ITER vacuum vessel, shielding and breeding blankets, and the divertor. The principal materials have been selected and the fabrication methods selected for most of the components based on design and R&D results. The resulting design changes are discussed for each system.

  9. Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongting; Moore, Robert C.

    2004-11-30

    A method, composition, and apparatus for removing contaminant species from an aqueous medium comprising: providing a material to which zirconium has been added, the material selected from one or more of zeolites, cation-exchangeable clay minerals, fly ash, mesostructured materials, activated carbons, cellulose acetate, and like porous and/or fibrous materials; and contacting the aqueous medium with the material to which zirconium has been added. The invention operates on all arsenic species in the form of arsenate, arsenite and organometallic arsenic, with no pretreatment necessary (e.g., oxidative conversion of arsenite to arsenate).

  10. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    There are 101 selected entries in this annotated bibliography of Egyptian materials on education published in 1975. Materials include journal articles, books, and government documents. The bibliography covers the following topics: academic certificates and dissertations, art education, audiovisual aids, camps, civics curricula, conferences and…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This annotated bibliography lists 135 selected educational materials from Egypt covering the period 1976-1977. The materials are drawn from a variety of Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. The entries are organized into 55 categories, including Adolescence; Adult Education; Art Education; Basic…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    There are 108 selected entries in this annotated bibliography of Egyptian materials on education published in 1975. Materials include journal articles, books, and government documents. The bibliography covers the following topics: adolescence, art education, child upbringing, comprehensive schools, curricula, educational change, educational aids,…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    The annotated bibliography identifies 134 selected educational materials from Egypt published during 1977. The materials are drawn from Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. The entries are organized into 54 categories, including Art Education, Arabic Language, Commercial Schools, Curricula,…

  14. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  15. The development of learning material using learning goal orientation approach in digital electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningayu, P.; Anifah, L.; Kholis, N.

    2018-01-01

    Mastery of digital electronics principles is essential for future engineers in the digital era. This article describes the use of simulations in an undergraduate electrical engineering course to promote the adoption of a learning-goal orientation. This study used experimental method. This was done by providing students with a simulation environment which students freely use to experiment with various circuit models. Students were then invited to reflect on how the simulation results compare with results from lab experiments. The module got 82% of positive rating from 28 students and all of them passed in the examination with 81.8 as the average score. Those majority students were motivated by the combination of two learning goals written in the module. Moreover, they also gain the ability to design more complex systems because of their combined experience. Additionally, the module also has been validated and got 83% of reliability. The final product of this research hereafter can be recommended to be used as teaching material.

  16. Perspective: Web-based machine learning models for real-time screening of thermoelectric materials properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultois, Michael W.; Oliynyk, Anton O.; Mar, Arthur; Sparks, Taylor D.; Mulholland, Gregory J.; Meredig, Bryce

    2016-05-01

    The experimental search for new thermoelectric materials remains largely confined to a limited set of successful chemical and structural families, such as chalcogenides, skutterudites, and Zintl phases. In principle, computational tools such as density functional theory (DFT) offer the possibility of rationally guiding experimental synthesis efforts toward very different chemistries. However, in practice, predicting thermoelectric properties from first principles remains a challenging endeavor [J. Carrete et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 011019 (2014)], and experimental researchers generally do not directly use computation to drive their own synthesis efforts. To bridge this practical gap between experimental needs and computational tools, we report an open machine learning-based recommendation engine (http://thermoelectrics.citrination.com) for materials researchers that suggests promising new thermoelectric compositions based on pre-screening about 25 000 known materials and also evaluates the feasibility of user-designed compounds. We show this engine can identify interesting chemistries very different from known thermoelectrics. Specifically, we describe the experimental characterization of one example set of compounds derived from our engine, RE12Co5Bi (RE = Gd, Er), which exhibits surprising thermoelectric performance given its unprecedentedly high loading with metallic d and f block elements and warrants further investigation as a new thermoelectric material platform. We show that our engine predicts this family of materials to have low thermal and high electrical conductivities, but modest Seebeck coefficient, all of which are confirmed experimentally. We note that the engine also predicts materials that may simultaneously optimize all three properties entering into zT; we selected RE12Co5Bi for this study due to its interesting chemical composition and known facile synthesis.

  17. Progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization for efficient and automatic machine learning model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xueqiang; Luo, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning is broadly used for clinical data analysis. Before training a model, a machine learning algorithm must be selected. Also, the values of one or more model parameters termed hyper-parameters must be set. Selecting algorithms and hyper-parameter values requires advanced machine learning knowledge and many labor-intensive manual iterations. To lower the bar to machine learning, miscellaneous automatic selection methods for algorithms and/or hyper-parameter values have been proposed. Existing automatic selection methods are inefficient on large data sets. This poses a challenge for using machine learning in the clinical big data era. To address the challenge, this paper presents progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization, an efficient and automatic selection method for both algorithms and hyper-parameter values. We report an implementation of the method. We show that compared to a state of the art automatic selection method, our method can significantly reduce search time, classification error rate, and standard deviation of error rate due to randomization. This is major progress towards enabling fast turnaround in identifying high-quality solutions required by many machine learning-based clinical data analysis tasks.

  18. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-01-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the

  19. Examining Self Regulated Learning in Relation to Certain Selected Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation is the controlling of a process or activity by the students who are involved in Problem solving in Physics rather than by an external agency (Johnson, 2011). Selfregulated learning consists of three main components: cognition, metacognition, and motivation. Cognition includes skills necessary to encode, memorise, and recall…

  20. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  1. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zaj?c, Ma?gorzata; Czajczy?ska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pa?czyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzy?ski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved fo...

  2. Materials design considerations and selection for a large rad waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormelker, P.R.; Jenkins, C.F.; Burns, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    A new incinerator has been built to process self-generated, low level radioactive wastes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Wastes include protective clothing and other solid materials used during the handling of radioactive materials, and liquid chemical wastes resulting from chemical and waste management operations. The basic design and materials of construction selected to solve the anticipated corrosion problems from hot acidic gases are reviewed. Problems surfacing during trial runs prior to radioactive operations are discussed

  3. Report and Recommendations on Multimedia Materials for Teaching and Learning Quantum Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, B.; Debowska, E.; Arpornthip, T.

    2015-01-01

    An international collaboration of physicists, affiliated with Multimedia Physics for Teaching and Learning (MPTL) and MERLOT, performed a survey and review of multimedia-based learning materials for quantum physics and quantum mechanics. The review process was based on more than a decade of experience with similar topical learning material reviews. A total of approximately 250 items were considered for review and eight were recommended by the reviewers. These are described in this report. Observations about quantum learning resources and multimedia tools are included.

  4. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments.......The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  5. Assessment and selection of materials for ITER in-vessel components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, G.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Dietz, J.; Ioki, K.; Matera, R.; Santoro, R. T.; Tivey, R.; ITER Home Teams

    2000-12-01

    During the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) engineering design activities (EDA) significant progress has been made in the selection of materials for the in-vessel components of the reactor. This progress is a result of the worldwide collaboration of material scientists and industries which focused their effort on the optimisation of material and component manufacturing and on the investigation of the most critical material properties. Austenitic stainless steels 316L(N)-IG and 316L, nickel-based alloys Inconel 718 and Inconel 625, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and two copper alloys, CuCrZr-IG and CuAl25-IG, have been proposed as reference structural materials, and ferritic steel 430, and austenitic steel 304B7 with the addition of boron have been selected for some specific parts of the ITER in-vessel components. Beryllium, tungsten and carbon fibre composites are considered as plasma facing armour materials. The data base on the properties of all these materials is critically assessed and briefly reviewed in this paper together with the justification of the material selection (e.g., effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of materials, effect of manufacturing cycle, etc.).

  6. Assessment and Selection of Materials for Melbourne City Council House 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of material selection in the development and contribution toward environmental excellence in the building project Council House 2 (CH2. The paper focuses on the assessment of material and the strategies used by the design team in CH2to ensure the best environmental result. The paper then goes on to explore in a case study the application of these strategies in the selection and specification of concrete on CH2. The purpose of the paper is to explore the difficulties and rewards of careful research of manufacturers' claims and the relative benefits of different materials. The paper concludes that the process of material selection adopted on this project has increased the education of architects and manufacturers alike as well as being environmentally beneficial.

  7. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  8. Decision method for optimal selection of warehouse material handling strategies by production companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, P.; Tamás, P.; Illés, B.

    2016-11-01

    Adequate establishment and operation of warehouse logistics determines the companies’ competitiveness significantly because it effects greatly the quality and the selling price of the goods that the production companies produce. In order to implement and manage an adequate warehouse system, adequate warehouse position, stock management model, warehouse technology, motivated work force committed to process improvement and material handling strategy are necessary. In practical life, companies have paid small attantion to select the warehouse strategy properly. Although it has a major influence on the production in the case of material warehouse and on smooth costumer service in the case of finished goods warehouse because this can happen with a huge loss in material handling. Due to the dynamically changing production structure, frequent reorganization of warehouse activities is needed, on what the majority of the companies react basically with no reactions. This work presents a simulation test system frames for eligible warehouse material handling strategy selection and also the decision method for selection.

  9. Facile Selective and Diverse Fabrication of Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic-Superhydrophilic and Superamphiphobic Materials from Kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Ma, Xuerui; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Liu, Shanshan; Yao, Yali; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-01-11

    As the starting material, kaolin is selectively and diversely fabricated to the superhydrophobic, superoleophobic-superhydrophilic, and superamphiphobic materials, respectively. The wettability of the kaolin surface can be selectively controlled and regulated to different superwetting states by choosing the corresponding modification reagent. The procedure is facile to operate, and no special technique or equipment is required. In addition, the procedure is cost-effective and time-saving and the obtained super-repellent properties are very stable. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates different changes of kaolin particles surfaces which are responsible for the different super-repellency. The scanning electron microscopy displays geometric micro- and nanometer structures of the obtained three kinds of super-repellent materials. The results show that kaolin has good applications in many kinds of superwetting materials. The method demonstrated in this paper provides a new strategy for regulating and controlling the wettability of solid surfaces selectively, diversely, and comprehensively.

  10. Personalized Recommendation of Learning Material Using Sequential Pattern Mining and Attribute Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa; Ghaznavi Ghoushchi, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Material recommender system is a significant part of e-learning systems for personalization and recommendation of appropriate materials to learners. However, in the existing recommendation algorithms, dynamic interests and multi-preference of learners and multidimensional-attribute of materials are not fully considered simultaneously. Moreover,…

  11. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  12. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  13. Deployment of Mobile Learning Course Materials to Android Powered Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to facilitate mobile teaching and learning by providing an alternative course material deployment method. This article suggests a course material deployment platform for small universities or individual instructors. Different from traditional course material deployment methods, the method discussed deploys course…

  14. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  15. Trip Travel Time Forecasting Based on Selective Forgetting Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time estimation on road networks is a valuable traffic metric. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based method for trip travel time estimation in road networks. The method uses the historical trip information extracted from taxis trace data as the training data. An optimized online sequential extreme machine, selective forgetting extreme learning machine, is adopted to make the prediction. Its selective forgetting learning ability enables the prediction algorithm to adapt to trip conditions changes well. Experimental results using real-life taxis trace data show that the forecasting model provides an effective and practical way for the travel time forecasting.

  16. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of IFE target materials from a safety and environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J.F. E-mail: latkowski1@llnl.gov; Sanz, J.; Reyes, S.; Gomez del Rio, J

    2001-05-21

    Target materials for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs might be selected for a wide variety of reasons including wall absorption of driver energy, material opacity, cost and ease of fabrication. While each of these issues are of great importance, target materials should also be selected based upon their safety and environmental (S and E) characteristics. The present work focuses on the recycling, waste management and accident dose characteristics of potential target materials. If target materials are recycled so that the quantity is small, isotopic separation may be economically viable. Therefore, calculations have been completed for all stable isotopes for all elements from lithium to polonium. The results of these calculations are used to identify specific isotopes and elements that are most likely to be offensive as well as those most likely to be acceptable in terms of their S and E characteristics.

  18. Selection of IFE target materials from a safety and environmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Reyes, S.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-05-01

    Target materials for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs might be selected for a wide variety of reasons including wall absorption of driver energy, material opacity, cost and ease of fabrication. While each of these issues are of great importance, target materials should also be selected based upon their safety and environmental (S&E) characteristics. The present work focuses on the recycling, waste management and accident dose characteristics of potential target materials. If target materials are recycled so that the quantity is small, isotopic separation may be economically viable. Therefore, calculations have been completed for all stable isotopes for all elements from lithium to polonium. The results of these calculations are used to identify specific isotopes and elements that are most likely to be offensive as well as those most likely to be acceptable in terms of their S&E characteristics.

  19. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 21, Materials and processes selection. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the candidate materials and manufacturing processes selected for development of the TPX Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet. Supporting rationale and selection criteria are provided for justification and the materials properties database report is included for completeness. Specific properties for each material selection are included in this document

  1. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  2. Endogenously- and Exogenously-Driven Selective Sustained Attention: Contributions to Learning in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lucy C.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Dickerson, John P.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Selective sustained attention is vital for higher order cognition. Although endogenous and exogenous factors influence selective sustained attention, assessment of the degree to which these factors influence performance and learning is often challenging. We report findings from the Track-It task, a paradigm that aims to assess the contribution of…

  3. Feature selection is the ReliefF for multiple instance learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafra, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Ventura, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction and feature selection in particular are known to be of a great help for making supervised learning more effective and efficient. Many different feature selection techniques have been proposed for the traditional settings, where each instance is expected to have a label. In

  4. Bioactive treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation on titanium materials fabricated by selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology is useful for the fabrication of porous titanium implants with complex shapes and structures. The materials fabricated by SLM characteristically have a very rough surface (average surface roughness, Ra=24.58 µm). In this study, we evaluated morphologically and biochemically the specific effects of this very rough surface and the additional effects of a bioactive treatment on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Flat-rolled titanium materials (Ra=1.02 µm) were used as the controls. On the treated materials fabricated by SLM, we observed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM. No significant differences were observed between the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM in their effects on osteoblast differentiation. We concluded that the very rough surface fabricated by SLM had to undergo a bioactive treatment to obtain a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation.

  5. Development of a material property database on selected ceramic matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Kamala

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites, with fiber/whisker/particulate reinforcement, possess the attractive properties of ceramics such as high melting temperature, high strength and stiffness at high temperature, low density, excellent environmental resistance, combined with improved toughness and mechanical reliability. These unique properties have made these composites an enabling technology for thermomechanically demanding applications in high temperature, high stress and aggressive environments. On a broader scale, CMC's are anticipated to be applicable in aircraft propulsion, space propulsion, power and structures, in addition to ground based applications. However, it is also true that for any serious commitment of the material toward any of the intended critical thermo-mechanical applications to materialize, vigorous research has to be conducted for a thorough understanding of the mechanical and thermal behavior of CMC's. The high technology of CMC'S is far from being mature. In view of this growing need for CMC data, researchers all over the world have found themselves drawn into the characterization of CMC's such as C/SiC, SiC/SiC, SiC/Al203, SiC/Glass, SiC/C, SiC/Blackglas. A significant amount of data has been generated by the industries, national laboratories and educational institutions in the United States of America. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center intends to collect the 'pedigreed' CMC data and store those in a CMC database within MAPTIS (Materials and Processes Technical Information System). The task of compilation of the CMC database is a monumental one and requires efforts in various directions. The project started in the form of a summer faculty fellowship in 1994 and has spilled into the months that followed and into the summer faculty fellowship of 1995 and has the prospect of continuing into the future for a healthy growth, which of course depends to a large extent on how fast CMC data are generated. The 10-week long summer fellowship has concentrated

  6. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space.

  7. DEVELOPING GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING MATERIALS USING MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING APPLICATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEDIA FOR THE STUDENTS CALCULUS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunismi .

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The development research aims to develop guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II by implementing Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. The products to develop are MML media of Calculus II using guided discovery model for students and a guide book for lecturers. The study employed used 4-D development model consisting of define, design, develop, and disseminate. The draft of the learning materials was validated by experts and tried-out to a group of students. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using a descriptive technique and t-test. The findings of the research were appropriate to be used ad teaching media for the students. The students responded positively that the MML media of Calculus II using the guided-discovery model was interestingly structured, easily operated through handphones (all JAVA, android, and blackberry-based handphones to be used as their learning guide anytime. The result of the field testing showed that the guided-discovery learning materials of Calculus II using the Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML application was effective to adopt in learning Calculus II. Keywords: learning materials, guided-discovery, mathematics mobile learning (MML, calculus II PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MODEL GUIDED DISCOVERY DENGAN APLIKASI MATHEMATICS MOBILE LEARNING SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN MAHASISWA MATAKULIAH KALKULUS II Abstrak: Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar matakuliah Kalkulus II model guided discovery dengan aplikasi Mathematics Mobile Learning (MML. Produk yang dikembangkan berupa media MML Kalkulus II dengan model guided discovery untuk mahasiswa dan buku panduan dosen. Model pengembangan menggunakan 4-D yang meliputi tahap define, design, develop, dan dissemination. Draf bahan ajar divalidasi oleh pakar dan diujicobakan kepada sejumlah mahasiswa. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan teknik deskriptif dan uji t. Temuan penelitian

  8. Selection of construction materials for equipment in an experimental reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, R.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is made of the most significant corrosion problems that may be present in different stages of the process in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The influence of different variables is analyzed: concentration of nitric acid and other oxidizing species, temperature, etc., in corrosion of materials of most frequent use in pipings and equipment. The materials are austenitic stainless steels and refractory metals, especially zirconium and its alloys. Both general and localized corrosion phenomena are analyzed for these materials. Selection criteria for the use of adequate material in different components of the plant are also discussed. (author). 32 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Bakar, Zainudin Abu

    2013-12-01

    This review aims to provide an insight into human learning processes by examining the role of cognitive and emotional unconscious processing in mentally integrating visual and verbal instructional materials. Reviewed literature shows that conscious mental integration does not happen all the time, nor does it necessarily result in optimal learning. Students of all ages and levels of experience cannot always have conscious awareness, control, and the intention to learn or promptly and continually organize perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes of learning. This review suggests considering the role of unconscious learning processes to enhance the understanding of how students form or activate mental associations between verbal and pictorial information. The understanding would assist in presenting students with spatially-integrated verbal and pictorial instructional materials as a way of facilitating mental integration and improving teaching and learning performance.

  10. Use of Physics Innovative Device for Improving Students‟ Motivation and Performance in Learning Selected Concepts in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Songalia Sobremisana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was focused on the development and evaluation of physics innovative device in enhancing students’ motivation and performance in learning selected concepts in physics. The Physics innovative device was developed based upon research on student difficulties in learning relevant concepts in physics and their attitudes toward the subject. Basic concepts in mechanics were also made as baselines in the development of the locally-produced Physics innovative learning device. Such learning devices are valuable resources when used either in lecture or demonstration classes. The developmental, descriptive and quasi-experimental research methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness, in terms of motivation and performance, of the innovative device in Physics. The instruments used for the data collection were the Instructional Materials Motivational Scale (IMMS developed by Keller and the students’ performance test. Pretest and posttest mean scores were measured to determine if there is a mean gain score difference between the experimental and control groups. The study revealed that the group taught with the Physics innovative device performed significantly better than those taught in the traditional method and also the use of Physics innovative device generally improved students’ understanding of concepts and led to higher academic achievements. Analysis of the students’ level of motivation showed that their interests were captured, the instructions they received were relevant to their personal goals and motives, their confidence to learn on their own were build-up, and learning for them was rewarding and important. In the four dimensions (ARCS of IMMS students were found to be attentive, confident, and in agreement in using the fun-learning tool having realize its applicability and relevance in learning their Physics lessons. Results of the study disclosed students and teachers consider the novel device acceptable because it is

  11. PENERAPAN INQUIRY BASED LEARNING UNTUK MENGETAHUI RESPON BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATERI KONSEP DAN PENGELOLAAN KOPERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kusmaryono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to know the students' learning responsestoward Inquiry Based Learning method on the materials of Cooperative Concept andManagement. It was a qualitative descriptive approach and the research subjects were32 students of class X IIS 1 at SMA 1 Bae Kudus. The data were collected byobservation, documentation and interview. The results showed that students gavepositive responses toward the application of Inquiry Based Learning method sincestudents’ responses were very high at 85.51%.

  12. To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for which they have been devised? An evaluation in terms of Cronje's (1993) criteria. ... Journal for Language Teaching. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  13. The development of learning materials based on core model to improve students’ learning outcomes in topic of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avianti, R.; Suyatno; Sugiarto, B.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to create an appropriate learning material based on CORE (Connecting, Organizing, Reflecting, Extending) model to improve students’ learning achievement in Chemical Bonding Topic. This study used 4-D models as research design and one group pretest-posttest as design of the material treatment. The subject of the study was teaching materials based on CORE model, conducted on 30 students of Science class grade 10. The collecting data process involved some techniques such as validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The findings were that: (1) all the contents were valid, (2) the practicality and the effectiveness of all the contents were good. The conclusion of this research was that the CORE model is appropriate to improve students’ learning outcomes for studying Chemical Bonding.

  14. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  15. Sex Role Learning: A Test of the Selective Attention Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janice Westlund; Luria, Zella

    This paper reports three studies designed to determine whether children show selective attention and/or differential memory to slide pictures of same-sex vs. opposite-sex models and activities. Attention was measured using a feedback EEG procedure, which measured the presence or absence of alpha rhythms in the subjects' brains during presentation…

  16. Identification of Quality Visual-Based Learning Material for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    It is widely known that the use of visual technology enhances learning by providing a better understanding of the topic as well as motivating students. If all visual-based learning materials (tables, figures, photos, etc.) were equally effective in facilitating student achievement of all kinds of educational objectives, there would virtually be no…

  17. Development of multimedia learning based inquiry on vibration and wave material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeali, H.; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to develop multimedia learning based inquiry that is interesting, easy to understand by students and streamline the time of teachers in bringing the teaching materials as well as feasible to be used in learning the physics subject matter of vibration and wave. This research is a Research and Development research with reference to ADDIE model that is Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Multimedia based learning inquiry is packaged in hypertext form using Adobe Flash CS6 Software. The inquiry aspect is constructed by showing the animation of the concepts that the student wants to achieve and then followed by questions that will ask the students what is observable. Multimedia learning based inquiry is then validated by 2 learning experts, 3 material experts and 3 media experts and tested on 3 junior high school teachers and 23 students of state junior high school 5 of Kendari. The results of the study include: (1) Validation results by learning experts, material experts and media experts in valid categories; (2) The results of trials by teachers and students fall into the practical category. These results prove that the multimedia learning based inquiry on vibration and waves materials that have been developed feasible use in physics learning by students of junior high school class VIII.

  18. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Ferry; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and

  19. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, F.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J.M.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  20. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  1. School Learning Materials on Water Problems of New Mexico and the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethe, Chris; And Others

    Schools typically make no special efforts to prepare students to cope with present and anticipated water problems. Using this as a premise, the objective of this study was to prepare a set of mediated learning packages based upon water problems of New Mexico and the dry regions of the Southwest. These learning materials were prepared and field…

  2. The development of thematic materials using project based learning for elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, M.; Wiryawan, S. A.; Riyadi

    2018-05-01

    Teaching materials is one of the important factors in supporting on learning process. This paper discussed about developing thematic materials using project based learning. Thematic materials are designed to make students to be active, creative, cooperative, easy in thinking to solve the problem. The purpose of the research was to develop thematic material using project based learning which used valid variables. The method of research which used in this research was four stages of research and development proposed by Thiagarajan consisting of 4 stages, namely: (1) definition stage, (2) design stage, (3) development stage, and (4) stage of dissemination. The first stage was research and information collection, it was in form of need analysis with questionnaire, observation, interview, and document analysis. Design stage was based on the competencies and indicator. The third was development stage, this stage was used to product validation from expert. The validity of research development involved media validator, material validator, and linguistic validator. The result from the validation of thematic material by expert showed that the overall result had a very good rating which ranged from 1 to 5 likert scale, media validation showed a mean score 4,83, the material validation showed mean score 4,68, and the mean of linguistic validation was e 4,74. It showed that the thematic material using project based learning was valid and feasible to be implemented in the context thematic learning.

  3. Selection of engineering materials for heat exchangers (An expert system approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Abou-Ali, M.; Bassuni, M.

    1997-01-01

    The materials selection as a part of the design process of the heat exchangers is one of the most important steps in the whole industry. The clear recognition of the service requirements of the different types of the heat exchangers is very important to select the adequate and economic materials to meet such requirements. of course the manufacturer should ensure that failure does not occur in service specially it is one of the main and fetal component of the nuclear reactor, pressurized water type (PWR). It is necessary to know the possible mechanisms of failure. Also the achievement of the materials selection using the expert system approach in the process sequence of heat exchanger manufacturing is introduced. Different parameters and requirements controlling each process and the linkage between these parameters and the final product will be shown. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  5. Evolution of learning and levels of selection: a lesson from avian parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Biran-Yoeli, Inbar

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the evolution of behavior may be better understood as the evolution of the learning mechanisms that produce it, and that such mechanisms should be modeled and tested explicitly. However, this approach, which has recently been applied to animal foraging and decision-making, has rarely been applied to the social and communicative behaviors that are likely to operate in complex social environments and be subject to multi-level selection. Here we use genetic, agent-based evolutionary simulations to explore how learning mechanisms may evolve to adjust the level of nestling begging (offspring signaling of need), and to examine the possible consequences of this process for parent-offspring conflict and communication. In doing so, we also provide the first step-by-step dynamic model of parent-offspring communication. The results confirm several previous theoretical predictions and demonstrate three novel phenomena. First, negatively frequency-dependent group-level selection can generate a stable polymorphism of learning strategies and parental responses. Second, while conventional reinforcement learning models fail to cope successfully with family dynamics at the nest, a newly developed learning model (incorporating behaviors that are consistent with recent experimental results on learning in nestling begging) produced effective learning, which evolved successfully. Third, while kin-selection affects the frequency of the different learning genes, its impact on begging slope and intensity was unexpectedly negligible, demonstrating that evolution is a complex process, and showing that the effect of kin-selection on behaviors that are shaped by learning may not be predicted by simple application of Hamilton's rule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Let's start learning radiation. Supplementary material on radiation for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoko; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Shimada, Mayuka

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been organizing training programs for engineers in Asian countries introducing nuclear technology. In 2012, we launched a course ‘Basic Radiation Knowledge for School Education’ as we thought disseminating accurate knowledge on radiation to school students and public would also be important in those countries after Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station accident. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan published supplemental learning material on radiation for secondary school students and teachers in Japanese in October 2011. Since the learning material is designed to give a clear explanation of radiation and covers various topics, we thought it would also be beneficial for young students in the world if a learning material in English was available. Therefore, we made a new learning material in English using the topics covered in supplemental learning material on radiation in Japanese as a reference. This learning material has been favourably evaluated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and will be widely used as a practical educational tool in many countries around the world through the IAEA. (author)

  7. Universal Design for Learning: Scanning for Alignment in K-12 Blended and Fully Online Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, James D.; Smith, Sean J.; Satter, Allyson L.

    2016-01-01

    In the process of evaluating online learning products for accessibility, researchers in the Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities concluded that most often consultation guides and assessment tools were useful in determining sensory accessibility but did not extend to critical aspects of learning within the Universal Design for…

  8. How motivation and reward learning modulate selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A; Chelazzi, L; Vuilleumier, P

    2016-01-01

    Motivational stimuli such as rewards elicit adaptive responses and influence various cognitive functions. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that stimuli with particular motivational values can strongly shape perception and attention. These effects resemble both selective top-down and stimulus-driven attentional orienting, as they depend on internal states but arise without conscious will, yet they seem to reflect attentional systems that are functionally and anatomically distinct from those classically associated with frontoparietal cortical networks in the brain. Recent research in human and nonhuman primates has begun to reveal how reward can bias attentional selection, and where within the cognitive system the signals providing attentional priority are generated. This review aims at describing the different mechanisms sustaining motivational attention, their impact on different behavioral tasks, and current knowledge concerning the neural networks governing the integration of motivational influences on attentional behavior. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection criteria for container materials at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1989-11-01

    A geological repository has been proposed for the permanent disposal of the nation's high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The containers for this waste must remain intact for the unprecedented service lifetime of 1000 years. A combination of engineering, regulatory, and licensing requirements complicate the container material selection. In parallel to gathering information regarding the Yucca Mountain service environment and material performance data, a set of selection criteria have been established which compare candidate materials to the performance requirements, and allow a quantitative comparison of candidates. These criteria assign relative weighting to varied topic areas such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fabricability, and cost. Considering the long service life of the waste containers, it is not surprising that the corrosion behavior of the material is a dominant factor. 7 refs

  10. Selection of emitter material for application on a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.P.; Frohlich, N.D.; Koehler, F.A.; Ruhkamp, J.D.; Miller, R.G.; McDougal, J.R.; Pugh, B.K.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I. [EGG Mound Applied Technologies Building 88, P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio45343 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems are being considered for long duration space missions due to their predicted high thermal to electrical conversion efficiencies. One critical aspect of these power systems is the selection of an appropriate emitter material which will efficiently radiate the thermal energy generated by the heat source to the photovoltaics. The photovoltaics are {open_quotes}tuned{close_quotes} to convert the infrared wavelengths radiated by the emitter into electrical energy. The emphasis of this paper is on the selection and optimization of an appropriate emitter material which would meet all of the mission requirements. A Kepner Tregoe analysis was performed in order to rank the various candidate refractory materials in relationship to their physical and chemical properties. The results of the analysis and material recommendations are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Material Selection for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a potential alternative to conventional p-n junction photovoltaic devices. The semiconductor thin film plays a crucial role in the working of DSC. This paper aims at formulating a process for the selection of optimum semiconductor material for nanostructured thin film using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. Various possible available semiconducting materials and their properties like band gap, cost, mobility, rate of electron injection, and static dielectric constant are considered and MADM technique is applied to select the best suited material. It was found that, out of all possible candidates, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is the best semiconductor material for application in DSC. It was observed that the proposed results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  12. Omni-directional selective shielding material based on amorphous glass coated microwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababei, G; Chiriac, H; David, V; Dafinescu, V; Nica, I

    2012-01-01

    The shielding effectiveness of the omni-directional selective shielding material based on CoFe-glass coated amorphous wires in 0.8 GHz-3 GHz microwave frequency range is investigated. The measurements were done in a controlled medium using a TEM cell and in the free space using horn antennas, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the composite shielding material can be developed with desired shielding effectiveness and selective absorption of the microwave frequency range by controlling the number of the layers and the length of microwires.

  13. Stitching Circuits: Learning about Circuitry through E-Textile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Glosson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Central to our understanding of learning is the relationship between various tools and technologies and the structuring of disciplinary subject matter. One of the staples of early science education curriculum is the use of electrical circuit toolkits to engage students in broader discussions of energy. Traditionally, these concepts are introduced…

  14. Physical cognition: birds learn the structural efficacy of nest material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ida E; Morgan, Kate V; Bertin, Marion; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    2014-06-07

    It is generally assumed that birds' choice of structurally suitable materials for nest building is genetically predetermined. Here, we tested that assumption by investigating whether experience affected male zebra finches' (Taeniopygia guttata) choice of nest material. After a short period of building with relatively flexible string, birds preferred to build with stiffer string while those that had experienced a stiffer string were indifferent to string type. After building a complete nest with either string type, however, all birds increased their preference for stiff string. The stiffer string appeared to be the more effective building material as birds required fewer pieces of stiffer than flexible string to build a roofed nest. For birds that raised chicks successfully, there was no association between the material they used to build their nest and the type they subsequently preferred. Birds' material preference reflected neither the preference of their father nor of their siblings but juvenile experience of either string type increased their preference for stiffer string. Our results represent two important advances: (i) birds choose nest material based on the structural properties of the material; (ii) nest material preference is not entirely genetically predetermined as both the type and amount of experience influences birds' choices.

  15. Materials Selection And Fabrication Practices For Food Processing Equipment Manufacturers In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baptist Kirabira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industry is one of the fast-growing sub-sectors in Uganda. The industry which is majorly composed of medium and small scale firms depends on the locally developed food processing equipment. Due to lack of effective materials selection practices employed by the equipment manufacturers the materials normally selected for most designs are not the most appropriate ones hence compromising the quality of the equipment produced. This has not only led to poor quality food products due to contamination but could also turn out health hazardous to the consumers of the food products. This study involved the assessment of the current materials selection and fabrication procedures used by the food processing equipment manufacturers with a view of devising best practices that can be used to improve the quality of the food products processed by the locally fabricated equipment. Results of the study show that designers experience biasness and desire to minimize cost compromise the materials selection procedure. In addition to failing to choose the best material for a given application most equipment manufacturers are commonly fabricating equipment with inadequate surface finish and improper weldments. This hinders the equipments ability to meet food hygiene standards.

  16. TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS: THE REVIEWS COURSEBOOKS, GAMES, WORKSHEETS, AUDIO VIDEO FILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Sagung Shanti Sari Dewi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching learning materials (TLM has been widely recognised as one of most important components in language teaching to support the success of language learning. TLM is essential for teachers in planning their lessons, assisting them in their professional duty, and use them as rosources to describe instructions. This writing reviews 10 (ten teaching learning materials in the form of cousebooks, games, worksheets, and audio video files. The materials were chosen randomly and were analysed qualitatively. The discussion of the materials is done individually by presenting their target learners, how they are applied by teachers and students, the aims of the use of the materials, and the role of teachers and learners in different kind of TLM.

  17. Material Selection for Competition–A Case Study for Air Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma A. H. Al Kindi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition is one of the most important challenges that is facing the marketing of industrial products in today's markets. In this research study of the impact of material selection factor for air coolers of different materials is applied. Investigation on the air cooler windows which are part of the body of air coolers is conducted. Corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, strength of material, weight, shape, cost and manufacturing process are the factors that are applied and calculated on three types of materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene. The physical properties of the three mentioned materials are used to calculate Merit Index .The corrosion average, according to Tafel Method depending the corrosion current and adopting contactors for the anodic and cathodic metals behaviors is performed. ANSYS is adopted using the three samples for the selected materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene to measure maximum stress and deflection are measured. Accordingly, the results are compared to choose the best alternative. It is observed that the polypropylene is the best choice depending three factors while the aluminum material is better depending two factors and the galvanized steel is regarded as the best in only one factor, the rest factors are identical when choosing  an alternative material for manufacturing the air cooler windows.

  18. AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING MATERIAL STOCK CONTROL PRACTICE ON SELECTED CONSTRUCTION SITES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adafin, Johnson Kayode; Ayodele, Elijah Olusegun; Daramola, Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the stock control methods utilized by construction firms on construction sites with a view to assessing the factors affecting material stock control practice by construction firms as well as determining the impact of factors affecting material stock control on building project performance. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered on a number of construction professionals and technicians in some randomly selected building constructio...

  19. Aspects for selection of materials and fabrication processes for nuclear component manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernstich, K.

    1980-01-01

    For components of the Nuclear steam supply System of Light Water Reactors an extremely high safety standard is required. These requirements only can be met by adequate selection of materials and fabrication processes and their proper application in combination with strict quality assurance and control measurements. A general overview of the basic aspects to be considered in this connection is presented together with an indication of the present state of art for the main materials and fabrication processes. (author) [pt

  20. A life cycle framework to support materials selection for Ecodesign: A case study on biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, I.; Peças, P.; Henriques, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle framework to support material selection in Ecodesign. • Early design stage estimates and sensitivity analyses based on process-based models. • Sensitivity analysis to product geometry, industrial context and EoL scenarios. • Cost and environmental performance comparison – BDP vs. fossil based polymers. • Best alternatives mapping integrating cost and environmental performances. - Abstract: Nowadays society compels designers to develop more sustainable products. Ecodesign directs product design towards the goal of reducing environmental impacts. Within Ecodesign, materials selection plays a major role on product cost and environmental performance throughout its life cycle. This paper proposes a comprehensive life cycle framework to support Ecodesign in material selection. Dealing with new materials and technologies in early design stages, process-based models are used to represent the whole life cycle and supply integrated data to assess material alternatives, considering cost and environmental dimensions. An integrated analysis is then proposed to support decision making by mapping the best alternative materials according to the importance given to upstream and downstream life phases and to the environmental impacts. The proposed framework is applied to compare the life cycle performance of injection moulded samples made of four commercial biodegradable polymers with different contents of Thermo Plasticized Starch and PolyLactic Acid and a common fossil based polymer, Polypropylene. Instead of labelling materials just as “green”, the need to fully capture all impacts in the whole life cycle was shown. The fossil based polymer is the best economic alternative, but polymers with higher content of Thermo Plasticized Starch have a better environmental performance. However, parts geometry and EoL scenarios play a major role on the life cycle performance of candidate materials. The selection decision is then supported by mapping

  1. The use of selective electrodes for the control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of ion selective electrodes is discussed for the determination of nitrate, chloride and fluoride in several materials used in the fuel cycle. The determination of nitrate and chloride in thorium compounds, the analysis of fluoride and chloride in uranium compounds and the determination of fluoride in crude phosphoric acid are described. The control of fluoride in urine of individuals that handle materials containing fluor and its compounds is also described. (C.L.B.) [pt

  2. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  3. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described

  4. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  5. USING A MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING APPROACH FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    KAMIŞLI ÖZTÜRK, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    Today, there's a wide variety of open and distance learning (ODL) systems around the world. Herein, for lifelong learning how to select an ODL program becomes a critic question for a learner who wants to extent abilities on his/her career path. This is a complex decision problem with interdependent criteria. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a multicriteria decision making methodology  that  reflects  these  interdependencies.  Within &...

  6. Work in the classrooms with European perspective: materials and resources for autonomus learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela RAPOSO RIVAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key principles set forth in the bologna process is to focus teaching on students, by getting involved actively and independently in their learning process and in developing their skills. This requires the use of teaching and learning methods together with materials and resources to motivate and guide them. In this paper, we present three of them, from our experience in adapting the subject of «New Technologies Applied to education» to the ecTs system, which we have found useful for guiding and evaluating the learning process and promote the intended learning. These materials and resources are: «learning guides», the portfolio and the rubric.

  7. An integrated approach to selecting materials for fuel cladding in advanced high-temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangacharyulu, C., E-mail: chary.r@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Guzonas, D.A.; Pencer, J.; Nava-Dominguez, A.; Leung, L.K.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    An integrated approach has been developed for selection of fuel cladding materials for advanced high-temperature reactors. Reactor physics, thermalhydraulic and material analyses are being integrated in a systematic study comparing various candidate fuel-cladding alloys. The analyses established the axial and radial neutron fluxes, power distributions, axial and radial temperature distributions, rates of defect formation and helium production using AECL analytical toolsets and experimentally measured corrosion rates to optimize the material composition for fuel cladding. The project has just been initiated at University of Saskatchewan. Some preliminary results of the analyses are presented together with the path forward for the project. (author)

  8. Theory and learning protocols for the material tempotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Braunstein, Alfredo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks are able to extract information from the timing of spikes. Here we provide new results on the behavior of the simplest neuronal model which is able to decode information embedded in temporal spike patterns, the so-called tempotron. Using statistical physics techniques we compute the capacity for the case of sparse, time-discretized input, and ‘material’ discrete synapses, showing that the device saturates the information theoretic bounds with a statistics of output spikes that is consistent with the statistics of the inputs. We also derive two simple and highly efficient learning algorithms which are able to learn a number of associations which are close to the theoretical limit. The simplest versions of these algorithms correspond to distributed online protocols of interest for neuromorphic devices, and can be adapted to address the more biologically relevant continuous-time version of the classification problem, hopefully allowing the understanding of some aspects of synaptic plasticity. (paper)

  9. Help! (Not-So-Good Materials for Learning to Read).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Minke S.

    1995-01-01

    Many primary adult reading materials used in literacy education reinforce the marginalization of the efforts and intelligence of women. Such representations undermine both female learners and tutors in a field heavily populated by women. (SK)

  10. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry-based Learning Material on Students’ Science Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, E. V.; Poedjiastoeti, S.; Agustini, R.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry-based learning material to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts. This study used Research and Development (R&D) design and was implemented to the 11th graders of Muhammadiyah 4 Senior High School Surabaya in 2016/2017 academic year with one group pre-test and post-test design. The data collection techniques used were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results of this research showed that the students’ science literacy skills are different after implementation of guided inquiry-based learning material. The guided inquiry-based learning material is effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts by getting N-gain score with medium and high category. This improvement caused by the developed learning material such as lesson plan, student worksheet, and science literacy skill tests were categorized as valid and very valid. In addition, each of the learning phases in lesson plan has been well implemented. Therefore, it can be concluded that the guided inquiry-based learning material are effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts in senior high school.

  11. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W.

    2017-01-01

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear “mixed” selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli—and in particular, to combinations of stimuli (

  12. The learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on physiological aspects from teachers's opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Ria Fitriyani; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    The scope of learning continuum at the conceptual knowledge is formulated based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material. The purpose of this study is to develop a learning continuum of specific pedagogical material aspects of physiology targeted for students in primary and secondary education. This research was conducted in Province of Yogyakarta Special Region from October 2016 to January 2017. The method used in this study was survey method. The data were collected using questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Respondents in this study consist of 281 Science/Biology teachers at Public Junior and Senior High Schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region which spread in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunungkidul. The data were taken using a census. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results show the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade VII, VIII, and IX are taught in grade VII, VIII, IX and X on level of C2 (understanding) and the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade X, XI and XII are taught in grade X and XI on level of C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4 (analyzing) based on teachers's opinions. The conclusion is that many teachers refer to the existing curriculum rather than their own original idea for developing learning continuum.

  13. Student Reactions to Learning Theory Based Curriculum Materials in Linear Algebra--A Survey Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Laurel; Vidakovic, Draga; Martin, William O.; Dexter, Scott; Suzuki, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this report we examine students' perceptions of the implementation of carefully designed curriculum materials (called modules) in linear algebra courses at three different universities. The curricular materials were produced collaboratively by STEM and mathematics education faculty as members of a professional learning community (PLC) over…

  14. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isazadeh, Parya; Makui, Selma Mohammad Zadeh; Ansarian, Loghman

    2016-01-01

    The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n = 180) language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred…

  15. Inventory of Innovative Learning Materials in Marine Science and Technology. UNESCO Reports in Marine Science 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adrian F.; Richards, Efrosine A.

    The Inventory of Innovative Learning Materials in Marine Science and Technology includes 32 computer-, 148 video-, 16 film-, and 11 CD-ROM-based entries. They concern materials in biosciences (67), chemistry (5), geosciences (16), physics (23), technology (76) and other (20). This first, initial compilations is conceived as the basis for more…

  16. What's Your Money Worth? Materials Budgets and the Selection and Evaluation of Book and Serial Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses budgets for library materials and how to select and evaluate book and serial vendors. Trends in automation, publishing, and economics that affect both libraries and vendors are discussed; and examples from the University of California at Berkeley that include serials service charges and approval plan discounts are presented. (six…

  17. Listening Diary in the Digital Age: Students' Material Selection, Listening Problems, and Perceived Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports on a group of Taiwanese college students' first-person diary accounts of their private, transactional listening activities outside the classroom. Issues related to students' material selection, listening problems, and perceived usefulness of keeping a listening diary were explored. It was found that most students chose…

  18. Information resources and material selection in bonded restorations among Korean dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhea; Kim, Hae-Young; Cho, Byeong Hoon; Lee, In Bog; Son, Ho Hyun

    2009-12-01

    To elucidate how dentists access knowledge sources when choosing adhesive agents for bonded restoration and whether these resources influenced the selection of materials. A national survey was carried out involving dentists in South Korea. The questionnaire included the status of the operator, clinical techniques, and materials. A total of 12,193 e-mails were distributed, 2632 were opened by recipients, and 840 responses were collected. For primary information resources in material selection, 55.8% (n = 469) of the responders mentioned continuing education. This selection criteria varied according to the working status of the clinician (p choice of bonding system was influenced by of the length of the career (p < 0.0001), and the preferred bonding systems differed according to the source of the information (p = 0.035). The popular bonding systems were not ranked according to the bonding strategy, but a preference was found for specific brands or manufacturers. To decrease the confusion of clinicians related to the selection of bonding materials, evidence-based guidelines need to be comprehensibly organized and efficiently approached in clinics.

  19. The experimentation of LC7E learning model on the linear program material in terms of interpersonal intelligence on Wonogiri Vocational School students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinah; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Husodo, B.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of learning model on student achievement in terms of interpersonal intelligence. The compared learning models are LC7E and Direct learning model. This type of research is a quasi-experimental with 2x3 factorial design. The population in this study is a Grade XI student of Wonogiri Vocational Schools. The sample selection had done by stratified cluster random sampling. Data collection technique used questionnaires, documentation and tests. The data analysis technique used two different unequal cell variance analysis which previously conducted prerequisite analysis for balance test, normality test and homogeneity test. he conclusions of this research are: 1) student learning achievement of mathematics given by LC7E learning model is better when compared with direct learning; 2) Mathematics learning achievement of students who have a high level of interpersonal intelligence is better than students with interpersonal intelligence in medium and low level. Students’ mathematics learning achievement with interpersonal level of intelligence is better than those with low interpersonal intelligence on linear programming; 3) LC7E learning model resulted better on mathematics learning achievement compared with direct learning model for each category of students’ interpersonal intelligence level on linear program material.

  20. The experimentation of LC7E learning model on the linear program material in terms of interpersonal intelligence on Wonogiri vocational school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinah; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Husodo, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of learning model on student achievement in terms of interpersonal intelligence. The compared learning models are LC7E and Direct learning model. This type of research is a quasi-experimental with 2x3 factorial design. The population in this study is a Grade XI student of Wonogiri Vocational Schools. The sample selection had done by stratified cluster random sampling. Data collection technique used questionnaires, documentation and tests. The data analysis technique used two different unequal cell variance analysis which previously conducted prerequisite analysis for balance test, normality test and homogeneity test. he conclusions of this research are: 1) student learning achievement of mathematics given by LC7E learning model is better when compared with direct learning; 2) Mathematics learning achievement of students who have a high level of interpersonal intelligence is better than students with interpersonal intelligence in medium and low level. Students' mathematics learning achievement with interpersonal level of intelligence is better than those with low interpersonal intelligence on linear programming; 3) LC7E learning model resulted better on mathematics learning achievement compared with direct learning model for each category of students’ interpersonal intelligence level on linear program material.

  1. Feedback-based probabilistic category learning is selectively impaired in attention/hyperactivity deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Goldfarb, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former. These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear. Significantly, feedback-based procedural learning is hypothesized to be disrupted in ADHD because of the involvement of striatal DA in this type of learning. In order to test this assumption, we employed two variants of a probabilistic category learning task known from the neuropsychological literature. Feedback-based (FB) and paired associate-based (PA) probabilistic category learning were employed in a non-medicated sample of ADHD participants and neurotypical participants. In the FB task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of the response. In the PA learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without receiving an overt response or corrective feedback. In both tasks, participants were trained across 150 trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without a presentation of the outcome or corrective feedback. Results revealed an interesting disassociation in which ADHD participants performed as well as control participants in the PA task, but were impaired compared with the controls in the FB task. The learning curve during FB training differed between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability to incrementally learn by feedback is selectively disrupted in ADHD participants. These results are discussed in relation to both

  2. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  3. Multi-level gene/MiRNA feature selection using deep belief nets and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Yousri, Noha A; Ismail, Mohamed A; El-Makky, Nagwa M

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the most discriminative genes/miRNAs has been raised as an important task in bioinformatics to enhance disease classifiers and to mitigate the dimensionality curse problem. Original feature selection methods choose genes/miRNAs based on their individual features regardless of how they perform together. Considering group features instead of individual ones provides a better view for selecting the most informative genes/miRNAs. Recently, deep learning has proven its ability in representing the data in multiple levels of abstraction, allowing for better discrimination between different classes. However, the idea of using deep learning for feature selection is not widely used in the bioinformatics field yet. In this paper, a novel multi-level feature selection approach named MLFS is proposed for selecting genes/miRNAs based on expression profiles. The approach is based on both deep and active learning. Moreover, an extension to use the technique for miRNAs is presented by considering the biological relation between miRNAs and genes. Experimental results show that the approach was able to outperform classical feature selection methods in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by 9%, lung cancer by 6% and breast cancer by around 10% in F1-measure. Results also show the enhancement in F1-measure of our approach over recently related work in [1] and [2].

  4. Digital Repositories of Learning Material as a Support Tool for Knowledge Management and Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: For some years, digital repositories are emerging as a de facto standard service for storing, preserving and disseminate knowledge: academic, scientific information and, more recently, primary research data of institutions. Some of the digital repositories host also collections of material classified as learning objects; some others are created to manage only learning objects (LO), as the Learning Objects Digital Repositories, or were built to function as learning objects aggregators. The term “learning object” itself is involving different types of structures, organization and complexity. This paper will show how digital repositories, metadata standards and semantic web technologies can be valuable tools for managing educational content, which can contribute to build a learning and knowledge driven organization. (author

  5. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications

  6. Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Nazimek, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate samples of protective clothing fabrics. The sorption materials were investigated and selected with an assumption that they should have a high recovery coefficient for biologically active substances, used as active ingredients in crop protection agents, at a presumed, acceptably high level. The selected substances were determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (dichlorvos, cypermethrin and 2,4-D) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (carbofuran). The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type unwoven cloth had high recovery coefficients for all 4 active ingredients proposed for the study. The highest recovery coefficient, -.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the 3 remaining substances were lower: .89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and .84 for dichlorvos.

  7. Selective Preparation of trans-Carveol over Ceria Supported Mesoporous Materials MCM-41 and SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman F. Salakhutdinov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-modified mesoporous silica materials MCM-41 and SBA-15, namely 32 wt % Ce–Si–MCM-41, 16 wt % Ce–H–MCM-41 and 20 wt % Ce–Si–SBA-15, were prepared, characterized and studied in the selective preparation of trans-carveol by α-pinene oxide isomerization. The characterizations of these catalysts were performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and FTIR pyridine adsorption. Selective preparation of trans-carveol was carried out in the liquid phase in a batch reactor. The activity and the selectivity of catalyst were observed to be influenced by their acidity, basicity and morphology of the mesoporous materials. The formation of trans-carveol is moreover strongly influenced by the basicity of the used solvent and in order to achieve high yields of this desired alcohol it is necessary to use polar basic solvent.

  8. Embracing Service-Learning Opportunities: Student Perceptions of Service-Learning as an Aid to Effectively Learn Course Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Mueller, Jenna L.; Littlefield, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Educators are aware of the benefits of service learning such as retention or application of course concepts. Students enrolled in courses with a service learning assignment may not be aware of the benefits or may not view the assignment as beneficiary. This study examined student perceptions of service learning to determine if students'…

  9. E-learning Materials Development: Applying and Implementing Software Reuse Principles and Granularity Levels in the Small

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Arman

    2010-01-01

    E-learning materials development is typically acknowledged as an expensive, complicated, and lengthy process, often producing materials that are of low quality and difficult to adaptand maintain. It has always been a challenge to identify proper e-learning materials that can be reused at a reasonable cost and effort. In this paper, software engineering reuse principlesare applied to e-learning materials development process. These principles are then applied and implemented in a prototype that...

  10. Optimal Channel Selection Based on Online Decision and Offline Learning in Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a channel selection strategy with hybrid architecture, which combines the centralized method and the distributed method to alleviate the overhead of access point and at the same time provide more flexibility in network deployment. By this architecture, we make use of game theory and reinforcement learning to fulfill the optimal channel selection under different communication scenarios. Particularly, when the network can satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the online decision algorithm based on noncooperative game can help each individual sensor node immediately select the optimal channel. Alternatively, when the network cannot satisfy the requirements of energy and computational costs, the offline learning algorithm based on reinforcement learning can help each individual sensor node to learn from its experience and iteratively adjust its behavior toward the expected target. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposal and also prove that higher system throughput can be achieved by our channel selection strategy over the conventional off-policy channel selection approaches.

  11. BIM-Based Decision Support System for Material Selection Based on Supplier Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Akanmu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a delicate process, typically hinged on a number of factors which can be either cost or environmental related. This process becomes more complicated when designers are faced with several material options of building elements and each option can be supplied by different suppliers whose selection criteria may affect the budgetary and environmental requirements of the project. This paper presents the development of a decision support system based on the integration of building information models, a modified harmony search algorithm and supplier performance rating. The system is capable of producing the cost and environmental implications of different material combinations or building designs. A case study is presented to illustrate the functionality of the developed system.

  12. The Choice Method of Selected Material has influence single evaporation flash method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Sumijanto; Nurul L, Siti

    2000-01-01

    The final objective of this research is to design the mini scale of desalination installation. It has been started from 1997/1998 and has been doing for this 3 years. Where the study on the assessment of various desalination system has been done in the first year and thermodynamic in the second year. In this third year, literatully study on material resistance from outside pressure has been done. The number of pressure for single evaporator flashing method is mainly depend on the temperature that applied in that system. In this paper, the configuration stage, the choice method of selecting material for main evaporator vessel, tube, tube plates, water boxes, pipework, and valves for multistage flash distillation will be described. The choice of selecting material for MSF is base on economical consideration, cheap, high resistance and easy to be maintained

  13. MATERIALS AND (LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON MONTESSORI CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  14. Using Android-Based Educational Game for Learning Colloid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, S.; Anjani, R.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This research is based on the importance of the development of student’s chemical literacy on Colloid material using Android-based educational game media. Educational game products are developed through research and development design. In the analysis phase, material analysis is performed to generate concept maps, determine chemical literacy indicators, game strategies and set game paths. In the design phase, product packaging is carried out, then validation and feasibility test are performed. Research produces educational game based on Android that has the characteristics that is: Colloid material presented in 12 levels of game in the form of questions and challenges, presents visualization of discourse, images and animation contextually to develop the process of thinking and attitude. Based on the analysis of validation and trial results, the product is considered feasible to use.

  15. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  16. How learning might strengthen existing visual object representations in human object-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brants, Marijke; Bulthé, Jessica; Daniels, Nicky; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2016-02-15

    Visual object perception is an important function in primates which can be fine-tuned by experience, even in adults. Which factors determine the regions and the neurons that are modified by learning is still unclear. Recently, it was proposed that the exact cortical focus and distribution of learning effects might depend upon the pre-learning mapping of relevant functional properties and how this mapping determines the informativeness of neural units for the stimuli and the task to be learned. From this hypothesis we would expect that visual experience would strengthen the pre-learning distributed functional map of the relevant distinctive object properties. Here we present a first test of this prediction in twelve human subjects who were trained in object categorization and differentiation, preceded and followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Specifically, training increased the distributed multi-voxel pattern information for trained object distinctions in object-selective cortex, resulting in a generalization from pre-training multi-voxel activity patterns to after-training activity patterns. Simulations show that the increased selectivity combined with the inter-session generalization is consistent with a training-induced strengthening of a pre-existing selectivity map. No training-related neural changes were detected in other regions. In sum, training to categorize or individuate objects strengthened pre-existing representations in human object-selective cortex, providing a first indication that the neuroanatomical distribution of learning effects depends upon the pre-learning mapping of visual object properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Teacher Learning Supports in High School Biology Curricular Programs to Inform the Design of Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Delgado, Cesar; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Krajcik, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Reform efforts have emphasized the need to support teachers' learning about reform-oriented practices. Educative curriculum materials are one potential vehicle for promoting teacher learning about these practices. Educative curriculum materials include supports that are intended to promote both student "and" teacher learning. However, little is…

  18. Secure relay selection based on learning with negative externality in wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xiao, Liang; Kang, Shan; Chen, Guiquan; Li, Yunzhou; Huang, Lianfen

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate relay selection into a Chinese restaurant game. A secure relay selection strategy is proposed for a wireless network, where multiple source nodes send messages to their destination nodes via several relay nodes, which have different processing and transmission capabilities as well as security properties. The relay selection utilizes a learning-based algorithm for the source nodes to reach their best responses in the Chinese restaurant game. In particular, the relay selection takes into account the negative externality of relay sharing among the source nodes, which learn the capabilities and security properties of relay nodes according to the current signals and the signal history. Simulation results show that this strategy improves the user utility and the overall security performance in wireless networks. In addition, the relay strategy is robust against the signal errors and deviations of some user from the desired actions.

  19. Corrosion of Selected Materials in Boiling Sulfuric Acid for the Nuclear Power Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Han Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chul; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2007-01-01

    Iodine sulfur (IS) process is one of the promising processes for a hydrogen production by using a high temperature heat generated by a very high temperature gas cooled reactor(VHTR) in the nuclear power industries. Even though the IS process is very efficient for a hydrogen production and it is not accompanied by a carbon dioxide evolution, the highly corrosive environment of the process limits its application in the industry. Corrosion tests of selected materials were performed in sulfuric acid to select appropriate materials compatible with the IS process. The materials used in this work were Fe-Cr alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, Fe-Si alloys, Ni base alloys, Ta, Ti, Zr, SiC, Fe-Si, etc. The test environments were 50 wt% sulfuric acid at 120 .deg. C and 98 wt% at 320 .deg. C. Corrosion rates were measured by using a weight change after an immersion. The surface morphologies and cross sectional areas of the corroded materials were examined by using SEM equipped with EDS. Corrosion behaviors of the materials were discussed in terms of the chemical composition of the materials, a weight loss, the corrosion morphology, the precipitates in the microstructure and the surface layer composition

  20. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  1. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials.

  2. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Janeczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials.

  3. Characterization of rich in calcium materials using X-ray selective absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guereca, G.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    For Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence Technique (FRX), the analysis of materials rich in one or two elements may present some difficulties due to high counting rates and saturation effects in X-ray detectors. In this case, it is possible to use selective absorbers in order to reduce the intensity of the major elements with low attenuation for the X-rays of other elements of the material. Using selective absorbers, the detection limits and the sensitivity are increased. For rich Ca materials (shells, bone, teeth and stucco, for instance), the high intensity of Ca X-rays interferes with the detection of lighter and heavier elements. Cl, Ar and Ag compounds are good candidates for Ca selective absorbers, but only Ag and Ar may have a practical absorber thickness. A selective absorber for Ca X-rays using a combination of thin Ag films and a flux of Ar and He was tested at the external beam setup of the Tandem Pelletron Accelerator for PIXE measurements. The improvement on elements detection on bone and colored stucco is shown. (Author) 8 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  4. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyes. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypek, G. [West Australian Biogeochemistry Centre, John de Laeter Centre of Mass Spectrometry, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia); Sadler, R. [School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia); Paul, D. [Department of Civil Engineering (Geosciences), Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Forizs, I. [Institute for Geochemical Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers are highly precise, but not accurate instruments. Therefore, results have to be normalized to one of the isotope scales (e.g., VSMOW, VPDB) based on well calibrated reference materials. The selection of reference materials, numbers of replicates, {delta}-values of these reference materials and normalization technique have been identified as crucial in determining the uncertainty associated with the final results. The most common normalization techniques and reference materials have been tested using both Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate aspects of error propagation during the normalization of isotope data. The range of observed differences justifies the need to employ the same sets of standards worldwide for each element and each stable isotope analytical technique. (author)

  5. Material radioassay and selection for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, LIBPhys, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Sivers, M. von [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics; Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Scotto Lavina, L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    The XENON1T dark matter experiment aims to detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) through low-energy interactions with xenon atoms. To detect such a rare event necessitates the use of radiopure materials to minimize the number of background events within the expected WIMP signal region. In this paper we report the results of an extensive material radioassay campaign for the XENON1T experiment. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques, systematic measurements of trace radioactive impurities in over one hundred samples within a wide range of materials were performed. The measured activities allowed for stringent selection and placement of materials during the detector construction phase and provided the input for XENON1T detection sensitivity estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  6. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, enhances inhibition of prepotent responding and spatial reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Holden D.; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings indicate treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) facilitates behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a learned response pattern. The present experiment investigated whether acute treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram, affects behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a naturally-biased response pattern (elevated conflict test) and/or reversal of a learned response pattern (spatial reversal learning). An additional experiment was carried out to determine whether escitalopram, at doses that affected behavioral flexibility, also reduced anxiety as tested in the elevated plus-maze. In each experiment, Long-Evans rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or escitalopram (0.03, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to behavioral testing. Escitalopram, at all doses tested, enhanced acquisition in the elevated conflict test, but did not affect performance in the elevated plus-maze. Escitalopram (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) did not alter acquisition of the spatial discrimination, but facilitated reversal learning. In the elevated conflict and spatial reversal learning test, escitalopram enhanced the ability to maintain the relevant strategy after being initially selected. The present findings suggest that enhancing serotonin transmission with a SSRI facilitates inhibitory processes when conditions require a shift away from either a naturally-biased response pattern or a learned choice pattern. PMID:22219222

  7. Deep Learning Questions Can Help Selection of High Ability Candidates for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, Jane; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Stein, John

    2009-01-01

    Selection of students for places at universities mainly depends on GCSE grades and predictions of A-level grades, both of which tend to favour applicants from independent schools. We have therefore developed a new type of test that would measure candidates' "deep learning" approach since this assesses the motivation and creative thinking…

  8. Training Self-Regulated Learning Skills with Video Modeling Examples: Do Task-Selection Skills Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…

  9. Learning by Exporting or Self Selection? Which Way for the Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show some significant differences between exporters and non exporters. The results also show some evidence for learning-by-doing hypothesis and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. On the policy front the paper calls for more focus on improving exports in order for Kenya ...

  10. Problem Solving-based Learning Materials on Fraction for Training Creativity of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhitama, Y. N.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop problem solving based learning materials on fraction for training creativity of elementary school students. Curriculum 2006 states that mathematics should be studied by all learners starting from elementary level in order for them mastering thinking skills, one of them is creative thinking. To our current knowledge, there is no such a research topic being done. To promote this direction, we initiate by developing learning materials with problem solving approach. The developed materials include Lesson Plan, Student Activity Sheet, Mathematical Creativity Test, and Achievement Test. We implemented a slightly modified 4-D model by Thiagajan et al. (1974) consisting of Define, Design, Development, and Disseminate. Techniques of gathering data include observation, test, and questionnaire. We applied three good qualities for the resulted materials; that is, validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The results show that the four mentioned materials meet the corresponding criteria of good quality product.

  11. Radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on selected organic materials for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.; Szeless, B.; Tavlet, M.

    1997-01-01

    Future multi-TeV particle accelerators like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will use superconducting magnets in which organic materials will be exposed to high radiation levels at temperatures as low as 2 K. A representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations, epoxy resins and composites were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of a nuclear reactor. Depending on the type of materials, the integrated radiation doses varied between 180 kGy and 155 MGy. During irradiation, the samples were kept close to the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen, i.e. at 80 K, and thereafter stored in liquid nitrogen and transferred at the same temperature into the testing device for measurement of tensile and flexural strength. Tests were carried out on the same materials at similar dose rates at room temperature, and the results are compared with the ones obtained at cryogenic temperature. They show that within the selected dose range, a number of organic materials are suitable for use in radiation fields of the LHC at cryogenic temperature

  12. Selection of contact bearing couple materials for hip prosthesis using finite element analysis under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arirajan, K. A.; Chockalingam, K.; Vignesh, C.

    2018-04-01

    Implants are the artificial parts to replace the missing bones or joints in human anatomy to give mechanical support. Hip joint replacement is an important issue in orthopaedic surgery. The main concern limiting the long-run success of the total hip replacement is the limited service life. Hip replacement technique is widely used in replacing the femur head and acetabular cup by materials that are highly biocompatible. The success of the artificial hip replacement depends upon proper material selection, structure, and shape of the hip prosthesis. Many orthopaedic analyses have been tried with different materials, but ended with partial success on the application side. It is a critical task for selecting the best material pair in the hip prosthesis design. This work develops the finite element analysis of an artificial hip implant to study highest von Mises stress, contact pressure and elastic strain occurs for the dissimilar material combination. The different bearing couple considered for the analysis are Metal on Metal, Metal on Plastic, Metal on Ceramic, Ceramic on Plastic, Ceramic on Ceramic combinations. The analysis is carried out at different static positions of a human (i.e) standing, sitting. The results reveals that the combination with metal in contact with plastic (i.e) Titanium femoral head paired with Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene acetabular cup reduces maximum von Mises stress and also it gives lowest contact pressure than other combination of bearing couples.

  13. Selection and evaluation of inner material candidates for Spanish high level radioactive waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Francesc; Dies, Javier; Sevilla, Manuel; Pablo, Joan de; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Miralles, Lourdes; Martinez-Esparza, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste canister for long term storage. The preliminary repository design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, corrosion allowing steel canisters and glass bead filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event, which becomes an issue of major importance once the container is finally breached by corrosion and flooded by groundwater. In the first place, a complete set of requirements have been devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection; resulting in a compilation of demands significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other similar work found in literature, including over 20 requirements and some other general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or material families (cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine) have been chosen and examined in detail, extracting some relevant conclusions. Either cast iron, borosilicate glass, spinel or depleted uranium are considered to look quite promising for the mentioned purpose. (authors)

  14. Selection of materials using multi-criteria decision-making methods with minimum data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Chakraborty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Selection of material for a specific engineering component, which plays a significant role in its design and proper functioning, is often treated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem where the most suitable material is to be chosen based on a given set of conflicting criteria. For solving these MCDM problems, the designers do not generally know what should be the optimal number of criteria required for arriving at the best decisive action. Those criteria should be independent to each other and their number should usually limit to seven plus or minus two. In this paper, five material selection problems are solved using three common MCDM techniques to demonstrate the effect of number of criteria on the final rankings of the material alternatives. It is interesting to observe that the choices of the best suited materials solely depend on the criterion having the maximum priority value. It is also found that among the three MCDM methods, the ranking performance of VIKOR (Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija Kompromisno Resenje method is the best.

  15. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  16. Results of radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on some selected organic materials for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbacher, H.; Szeless, B.; Tavlet, M.; Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Future multi-TeV particle accelerators like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will use superconducting magnets where organic materials will be exposed to high radiation levels at temperatures as low as 2 K. A representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations, and epoxy-type impregnated resins were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of a nuclear reactor. Depending on the type of materials, the integrated radiation doses varied between 180 kGy and 155 MGy. During irradiation, the samples were kept close to the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen i.e. ∼ 80 K and thereafter stored in liquid nitrogen and transferred at the same temperature into the testing device for measurement of tensile and flexural strength. Tests were carried out on the same materials at similar dose rates at room temperature, and the results were compared with those obtained at cryogenic temperature. They show that, within the selected dose range, a number of organic materials are suitable for use in the radiation field of the LHC at cryogenic temperature. (orig.)

  17. Windscale inquiry. A selected list of material based on the DOE/DTp library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, C M [comp.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted.

  18. REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2017-03-01

    The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.

  19. Development of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Hermanto, Didik

    2017-08-01

    This research is a developmental research of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at ninth grade students. This study is aimed to produce a good probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools. The subjects were IX-A students of MTs Model Bangkalan. The stages of this development research used 4-D development model which has been modified into define, design and develop. Teaching learning tools consist of lesson plan, students' worksheet, learning teaching media and students' achievement test. The research instrument used was a sheet of learning tools validation, a sheet of teachers' activities, a sheet of students' activities, students' response questionnaire and students' achievement test. The result of those instruments were analyzed descriptively to answer research objectives. The result was teaching learning tools in which oriented to probabilistic thinking of probability at ninth grade students which has been valid. Since teaching and learning tools have been revised based on validation, and after experiment in class produced that teachers' ability in managing class was effective, students' activities were good, students' responses to the learning tools were positive and the validity, sensitivity and reliability category toward achievement test. In summary, this teaching learning tools can be used by teacher to teach probability for develop students' probabilistic thinking.

  20. STEM LEARNING IN MATERIAL OF TEMPERATURE AND ITS CHANGE TO IMPROVE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaeroningtyas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the improvement of students’ scientific literacy after STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM Model on temperature and its changes material. The research was conducted in SMP Negeri (State Junior High School 1 Bumiayu in the academic year 2015/2016. The method used was quasi-experimental design with The Matching Only - pretest posttest control group design. This study used two group of experiment group of students who learned the material with STEM learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM, while the control group students learned with non-STEM learning. The analysis showed that the students' scientific literacy in experiment group is better than control group. The conclusion that can be drawn is STEM learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM on temperature and its changes material can improve students’ scientific literacy.

  1. Porous glasses as a host of luminescent materials, their applications and site selective determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisfeld, Renata, E-mail: renata.reisfeld@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Jasinska, Bozena [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowsskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Levchenko, Viktoria [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Gorgol, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowsskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Saraidarov, Tsiala; Popov, Inna [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Antropova, Tatiana [I. V. Grebenshchikov Institute of the Chemistry of Silicates, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nab. Makarova, 2, Liter B, Saint-Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, Ewa [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, W. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-01-15

    The site selective distribution of pore sizes in pure porous glasses and glasses doped by a luminescent colorant is determined by luminescent spectroscopy, SEM, SAXS and PALS. The potential applications of the studied materials as environmental and biological sensors are outlined. We suggest how luminescent porous glasses doped by complexes of Gd can act as solid scintillators in tracing elementary particles like neutrino. - Highlights: • Porous glasses are a medium for large number of luminescent materials. • Size distribution of empty and filled pores is studied. • The validity of data obtained by different methods is analyzed.

  2. Factors in the selection of broiler tube materials for a civil fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyzack, C; Chitty, A

    1975-07-01

    This paper briefly considers some of the factors which must be balanced in the selection of a boiler tube material for a Civil Fast Reactor. The merits and possible demerits of low alloy ferritic steels and the austenitic Alloy 800 are compared with respect to waterside corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, fabrication and weldability and possible effects of exposure to the sodium environment under normal and fault conditions. It is pointed out that although there is operational experience of most of the materials in boiler superheater applications there is little or none in evaporative regimes. (author)

  3. Results of radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on some selected organic materials for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlet, M.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the near future, particle accelerators and detectors as well as fusion reactors will operate at cryogenic temperatures. At temperatures as low as 2 K, the organic materials used for the insulation of the superconducting magnets and cables will be exposed to high radiation levels. In this work, a representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations and epoxy-type-impregnated resins were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of nuclear reactors, both at ambient and cryogenic temperatures, and were subsequently mechanically tested. The results show that the radiation degradation is never worse in a cryogenic fluid than it is in usual ambient conditions. (author)

  4. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  5. The study of selective property of college student’s learning space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Mizuki; Matsumoto, Yuji; Naka, Ryusuke

    2018-05-01

    These days, college students study not only at places designed for learning such as libraries in colleges, but also cafes in downtown while the number of facilities for learning run by colleges is increasing. Then I have researched facilities in college and those in downtown to find selective properties of college students’ learning space. First, I found by questionnaire survey that students chose “3rd place” such as cafes and fast food shops, second to their houses and libraries in college. Next, I found “psychological factor” were also affected their choice. Furthermore, they studied different subjects at different places. In experiments, I researched how effectively they studied each subject at every place. The results show that I find that places you like and places where learning efficiency is good are different. They learned the least effective at “3d place” regardless of what they learned. The result of how long they kept high-level intellectual activity at each place shows that they could work on the study with more motivation at their favorite place and 3rd place. On the other hand, at the 2nd place, they could study rather effectively, but could not keep concentration and motivation for a long time. In this way, college students have 2 patterns of choosing learning space.

  6. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  7. Effect of material selection and background impurity on interface property and resulted CIP-GMR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xilin; Morrone, Augusto; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Kief, Mark; Ostrowski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of background base pressure, wafer-transferring time between process modules, and stack layer material selection on the current-in-plane giant magneto-resistive (CIP-GMR) interface properties and the resulted CIP-GMR performance. Experimental results showed that seed layer/AFM interface, AFM/pinned layer (PL) interface, pinned layer/Ru interface, and reference layer (RL)/Cu spacer interface are among the most critical ones for a CIP-GMR device. By reducing the background impurity level (water moisture and oxygen), optimizing the wafer process flow sequence, and careful stack-layer material selection, such critical interfaces in a CIP-GMR device can be preserved. Consequently, a much robust GMR performance control can be achieved.

  8. Corrosion test plan to guide canister material selection and design for a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Ballou, L.B.

    1983-11-01

    Corrosion rates and the mode of corrosion attack form a most important basis for selection of canister materials and design of a nuclear waste package. Type 304L stainless steel was selected as the reference material for canister fabrication because of its generally excellent corrosion resistance in water, steam and air. However, 304L may be susceptible to localized and stress-assisted forms of corrosion under certain conditions. Alternative alloys are also investigated; these alloys were chosen because of their improved resistance to these forms of corrosion. The fabrication and welding processes, as well as the glass pouring operation for defense and commercial high-level wastes, may influence the susceptibility of the canister to localized and stress forms of corrosion. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. Material Selection for Cable Gland to Improved Reliability of the High-hazard Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchuk, S. P.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Deeva, V. S.; Vashchuk, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    The sealed cable glands (SCG) are available to ensure safest connection sheathed single wire for the hazard production facility (nuclear power plant and others) the same as pilot cable, control cables, radio-frequency cables et al. In this paper, we investigate the specifics of the material selection of SCG with the express aim of hazardous man-made facility. We discuss the safe working conditions for cable glands. The research indicates the sintering powdered metals cables provide the reliability growth due to their properties. A number of studies have demonstrated the verification of material selection. On the face of it, we make findings indicating that double glazed sealed units could enhance reliability. We had evaluated sample reliability under fire conditions, seismic load, and pressure containment failure. We used the samples mineral insulated thermocouple cable.

  10. Impact of Virtual Patients as Optional Learning Material in Veterinary Biochemistry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorgen, Christin; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y; Branitzki-Heinemann, Katja; Kankofer, Marta; Mándoki, Míra; Adler, Martin; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2018-01-01

    Biochemistry and physiology teachers from veterinary faculties in Hannover, Budapest, and Lublin prepared innovative, computer-based, integrative clinical case scenarios as optional learning materials for teaching and learning in basic sciences. These learning materials were designed to enhance attention and increase interest and intrinsic motivation for learning, thus strengthening autonomous, active, and self-directed learning. We investigated learning progress and success by administering a pre-test before exposure to the virtual patients (vetVIP) cases, offered vetVIP cases alongside regular biochemistry courses, and then administered a complementary post-test. We analyzed improvement in cohort performance and level of confidence in rating questions. Results of the performance in biochemistry examinations in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were correlated with the use of and performance in vetVIP cases throughout biochemistry courses in Hannover. Surveys of students reflected that interactive cases helped them understand the relevance of basic sciences in veterinary education. Differences between identical pre- and post-tests revealed knowledge improvement (correct answers: +28% in Hannover, +9% in Lublin) and enhanced confidence in decision making ("I don't know" answers: -20% in Hannover, -7.5% in Lublin). High case usage and voluntary participation (use of vetVIP cases in Hannover and Lublin >70%, Budapest learning could be extended and generated cases should be shared across veterinary faculties.

  11. Machine learning etudes in astrophysics: selection functions for mock cluster catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajian, Amir; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Bond, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making mock simulated catalogs is an important component of astrophysical data analysis. Selection criteria for observed astronomical objects are often too complicated to be derived from first principles. However the existence of an observed group of objects is a well-suited problem for machine learning classification. In this paper we use one-class classifiers to learn the properties of an observed catalog of clusters of galaxies from ROSAT and to pick clusters from mock simulations that resemble the observed ROSAT catalog. We show how this method can be used to study the cross-correlations of thermal Sunya'ev-Zeldovich signals with number density maps of X-ray selected cluster catalogs. The method reduces the bias due to hand-tuning the selection function and is readily scalable to large catalogs with a high-dimensional space of astrophysical features

  12. Machine learning etudes in astrophysics: selection functions for mock cluster catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, Amir; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Bond, J. Richard, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Making mock simulated catalogs is an important component of astrophysical data analysis. Selection criteria for observed astronomical objects are often too complicated to be derived from first principles. However the existence of an observed group of objects is a well-suited problem for machine learning classification. In this paper we use one-class classifiers to learn the properties of an observed catalog of clusters of galaxies from ROSAT and to pick clusters from mock simulations that resemble the observed ROSAT catalog. We show how this method can be used to study the cross-correlations of thermal Sunya'ev-Zeldovich signals with number density maps of X-ray selected cluster catalogs. The method reduces the bias due to hand-tuning the selection function and is readily scalable to large catalogs with a high-dimensional space of astrophysical features.

  13. Goal selection versus process control while learning to use a brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S.; Rose, Minn L.; He, Bin

    2011-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to accomplish a task without requiring motor output. Two major control strategies used by BCIs during task completion are process control and goal selection. In process control, the user exerts continuous control and independently executes the given task. In goal selection, the user communicates their goal to the BCI and then receives assistance executing the task. A previous study has shown that goal selection is more accurate and faster in use. An unanswered question is, which control strategy is easier to learn? This study directly compares goal selection and process control while learning to use a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI. Twenty young healthy human subjects were randomly assigned either to a goal selection or a process control-based paradigm for eight sessions. At the end of the study, the best user from each paradigm completed two additional sessions using all paradigms randomly mixed. The results of this study were that goal selection required a shorter training period for increased speed, accuracy, and information transfer over process control. These results held for the best subjects as well as in the general subject population. The demonstrated characteristics of goal selection make it a promising option to increase the utility of BCIs intended for both disabled and able-bodied users.

  14. Betsy Pugel, Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Betsy Pugel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfacesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and ...

  15. Iodine-labelling of albumin and fibrinogen and application in selecting implantable material-titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fangyan; Zhou Meiying; Zhang Feng

    1998-01-01

    Human serum albumin and fibrinogen were successfully labelled with 125 I. The labelled proteins were further applied to carry out a background study on the selection of the blood-compatible materials. The protein adsorption of four kinds of titanium oxide film was determined and compared. It was found that Sample B can adsorb more albumin and less fibrinogen than other three samples and hold the adsorbed albumin most stably

  16. ELT Materials: The Key to Fostering Effective Teaching and Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Núñez Pardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article aims at providing teachers with an overview for materials development, taking into account the experience gained by two teachers in the English Programme of the School of Education at Universidad Externado de Colombia in Bogotá. This experience has helped us achieve better teaching and learning conditions for our university students in their quest to learn a foreign language. This paper addresses the issue of the role of teachers as textbook developers, and how they can meet materials development demands by integrating a clear conceptualisation and set of principles as well as their essential components.

  17. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, Barbara H.; Richins, William D.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  18. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills : A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately assess their own performance on a learning task and use this assessment for the selection of a new learning task. Evidence suggests, however, that students have difficulties with accurate self-assessment and task

  19. An Elementary Overview of the Selection of Materials for Service in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The process for selecting materials for use in oxygen or oxygen-enriched environments is one that continues to be investigated by many industries due to the importance to those industries of oxygen systems. There are several excellent resources available to assist oxygen systems design engineers and end-users, with the most comprehensive being ASTM MNL-36, Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Handbook for Design, Operation and Maintenance, 2nd Edition. ASTM also makes available several standards for oxygen systems. However, the ASTM publications are extremely detailed, and typically designed for professionals who already possess a working knowledge of oxygen systems. No notable resource exists, whether an ASTM or other organizational publication, which can be used to educate engineers or technicians who have no prior knowledge of the nuances of oxygen system design and safety. This paper will fill the void for information needed by organizations that design or operate oxygen systems. The information in this paper is not new information, but is a concise and easily understood summary of selecting materials for oxygen systems. This paper will serve well as an employee s first introduction to oxygen system materials selection, and probably the employee s first introduction to ASTM.

  20. Generation IV and transmutation materials (GETMAT) project: First assessment of selected results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Concetta; Serrano, Marta; Gessi, Alessandro; Henry, Jean; Malerba, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Generation IV and Transmutation Material (GETMAT) project has been initiated within the 7. EURATOM framework programme with the objective to support the development of innovative reactor designs. Emphasis has been put on the investigation, both in the theoretical and experimental domains, of selected material properties that are cross-cutting among the various Generation IV and Transmutation systems. The selection of the properties to be investigated has been performed by identifying relevant conditions of key components as cores and primary systems. Moreover, taking into account the envisaged conditions of these components it turned out that innovative materials might be a better choice with respect to conventional nuclear grade steels. Therefore, ODS alloys and 9-12 Cr Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) steels have been selected as reference for the GETMAT project. The R and D activities have been focused on basic characterisation of ODS alloys produced ad hoc for the project and on an extensive PIE programme of F/M steels irradiated in previous programmes. Finally, first principle modelling studies to explain irradiation hardening and embrittlement of F/M alloys were an additional important task. The objective of this manuscript is to make a first assessment of the results obtained within GETMAT. (authors)

  1. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. lita

    2002-11-01

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method. The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely: • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged. Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  2. Selective bilateral amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys fail to disrupt object reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-01-31

    Neuropsychological studies in nonhuman primates have led to the view that the amygdala plays an essential role in stimulus-reward association. The main evidence in support of this idea is that bilateral aspirative or radiofrequency lesions of the amygdala yield severe impairments on object reversal learning, a task that assesses the ability to shift choices of objects based on the presence or absence of food reward (i.e., reward contingency). The behavioral effects of different lesion techniques, however, can vary. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of selective, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala in rhesus monkeys on object reversal learning. For comparison, we tested the same monkeys on a task known to be sensitive to amygdala damage, the reinforcer devaluation task. Contrary to previous results based on less selective lesion techniques, monkeys with complete excitotoxic amygdala lesions performed object reversal learning as quickly as controls. As predicted, however, the same operated monkeys were impaired in making object choices after devaluation of the associated food reinforcer. The results suggest two conclusions. First, the results demonstrate that the amygdala makes a selective contribution to stimulus-reward association; the amygdala is critical for guiding object choices after changes in reward value but not after changes in reward contingency. Second, the results implicate a critical contribution to object reversal learning of structures nearby the amygdala, perhaps the subjacent rhinal cortex.

  3. Feature selection and multi-kernel learning for adaptive graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-20

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a popular part-based representation technique, does not capture the intrinsic local geometric structure of the data space. Graph regularized NMF (GNMF) was recently proposed to avoid this limitation by regularizing NMF with a nearest neighbor graph constructed from the input data set. However, GNMF has two main bottlenecks. First, using the original feature space directly to construct the graph is not necessarily optimal because of the noisy and irrelevant features and nonlinear distributions of data samples. Second, one possible way to handle the nonlinear distribution of data samples is by kernel embedding. However, it is often difficult to choose the most suitable kernel. To solve these bottlenecks, we propose two novel graph-regularized NMF methods, AGNMFFS and AGNMFMK, by introducing feature selection and multiple-kernel learning to the graph regularized NMF, respectively. Instead of using a fixed graph as in GNMF, the two proposed methods learn the nearest neighbor graph that is adaptive to the selected features and learned multiple kernels, respectively. For each method, we propose a unified objective function to conduct feature selection/multi-kernel learning, NMF and adaptive graph regularization simultaneously. We further develop two iterative algorithms to solve the two optimization problems. Experimental results on two challenging pattern classification tasks demonstrate that the proposed methods significantly outperform state-of-the-art data representation methods.

  4. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Lan; Yao, Kexin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Material selection for elastic energy absorption in origami-inspired compliant corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, Sean S; Delimont, Isaac L; Howell, Larry L; Fullwood, David T

    2014-01-01

    Elastic absorption of kinetic energy and distribution of impact forces are required in many applications. Recent attention to the potential for using origami in engineering may provide new methods for energy absorption and force distribution. A three-stage strategy is presented for selecting materials for such origami-inspired designs that can deform to achieve a desired motion without yielding, absorb elastic strain energy, and be lightweight or cost effective. Two material indices are derived to meet these requirements based on compliant mechanism theory. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the effects of the material stiffness in the Miura-ori tessellation on its energy absorption and force distribution characteristics compared with a triangular wave corrugation. An example is presented of how the method can be used to select a material for a general energy absorption application of the Miura-ori. Whereas the focus of this study is the Miura-ori tessellation, the methods developed can be applied to other tessellated patterns used in energy absorbing or force distribution applications. (paper)

  6. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  7. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  8. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables

  9. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  10. Inquiry and Blended Learning Based Learning Material Development for Improving Student Achievement on General Physics I of Mathematics and Natural Science of State University of Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlan; Sinulinggga, Karya; Siagian, Henok

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine if inquiry and blended learning based materials can improve student's achievement. The learning materials are: book, worksheet, and test, website, etc. The type of this research is quasi experiment using two-group pretest posttest design. The population is all students of first year who take general physics…

  11. The analysis of mathematics teachers' learning on algebra function limit material based on teaching experience difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'rufi, Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the analysis of mathematics teachers' learning on algebra function limit material based on teaching experience difference. The purpose of this study is to describe the analysis of mathematics teacher's learning on limit algebraic functions in terms of the differences of teaching experience. Learning analysis focused on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of teachers in mathematics on limit algebraic functions related to the knowledge of pedagogy. PCK of teachers on limit algebraic function is a type of specialized knowledge for teachers on how to teach limit algebraic function that can be understood by students. Subjects are two high school mathematics teacher who has difference of teaching experience they are one Novice Teacher (NP) and one Experienced Teacher (ET). Data are collected through observation of learning in the class, videos of learning, and then analyzed using qualitative analysis. Teacher's knowledge of Pedagogic defined as a knowledge and understanding of teacher about planning and organizing of learning, and application of learning strategy. The research results showed that the Knowledge of Pedagogy on subject NT in mathematics learning on the material of limit function algebra showed that the subject NT tended to describe procedurally, without explaining the reasons why such steps were used, asking questions which tended to be monotonous not be guiding and digging deeper, and less varied in the use of learning strategies while subject ET gave limited guidance and opportunities to the students to find their own answers, exploit the potential of students to answer questions, provide an opportunity for students to interact and work in groups, and subject ET tended to combine conceptual and procedural explanation.

  12. Reexamination of the source material of acid igneous rocks, based on the selected Sr isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Shuto, Kenji; Gorai, Masao

    1975-01-01

    The relation between the ages and the initial strontium isotopic compositions obtained from acid igneous rocks by the whole-rock isochron method is re-examined, on the basis of the selected data. The points based on the data having high values of standard deviation (on the isochrons) show considerable scattering. This is probably ascribed to admixture of sialic materials, or secondary alteration and other geologic causes. The points based on the data having lower values of standard deviation (sigma value: 0.0001 - 0.0019), on the other hand, are evidently plotted within a narrow region just above the presumed Sr evolutional region of the source material of oceanic tholeiites. It is noteworthy that the former region meets the latter region at an earlier stage of the evolutional history of the earth (about 40 x 10 8 yrs. ago or older). It may be conceivable that the former region is the Sr evolutional region of the source material of acid igneous rocks. Considering from the inclination of the above Sr evolutional region, the source material of most of acid igneous rocks may possibly be a certain basic material, chemically similar to the continental tholeiitic basalts or basaltic andesites. On the other hand, the source material of a few acid igneous rocks with low initial strontium isotopic ratios may be a certain basic material resembling the oceanic tholeiites. Another possibility is that these acid igneous rocks and oceanic tholeiites may have been formed, under different physical conditions, directly from a certain common source material presumably of peridotitic composition. (auth.)

  13. An Adaptive Learning Based Network Selection Approach for 5G Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Networks will continue to become increasingly heterogeneous as we move toward 5G. Meanwhile, the intelligent programming of the core network makes the available radio resource be more changeable rather than static. In such a dynamic and heterogeneous network environment, how to help terminal users select optimal networks to access is challenging. Prior implementations of network selection are usually applicable for the environment with static radio resources, while they cannot handle the unpredictable dynamics in 5G network environments. To this end, this paper considers both the fluctuation of radio resources and the variation of user demand. We model the access network selection scenario as a multiagent coordination problem, in which a bunch of rationally terminal users compete to maximize their benefits with incomplete information about the environment (no prior knowledge of network resource and other users’ choices. Then, an adaptive learning based strategy is proposed, which enables users to adaptively adjust their selections in response to the gradually or abruptly changing environment. The system is experimentally shown to converge to Nash equilibrium, which also turns out to be both Pareto optimal and socially optimal. Extensive simulation results show that our approach achieves significantly better performance compared with two learning and non-learning based approaches in terms of load balancing, user payoff and the overall bandwidth utilization efficiency. In addition, the system has a good robustness performance under the condition with non-compliant terminal users.

  14. Unweaving Misconceptions: Guided Learning, Simulations, and Misconceptions in Learning Principles of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…

  15. Bowtie filters for dedicated breast CT: Analysis of bowtie filter material selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontson, Kimberly, E-mail: Kimberly.Kontson@fda.hhs.gov; Jennings, Robert J. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 and Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: For a given bowtie filter design, both the selection of material and the physical design control the energy fluence, and consequently the dose distribution, in the object. Using three previously described bowtie filter designs, the goal of this work is to demonstrate the effect that different materials have on the bowtie filter performance measures. Methods: Three bowtie filter designs that compensate for one or more aspects of the beam-modifying effects due to the differences in path length in a projection have been designed. The nature of the designs allows for their realization using a variety of materials. The designs were based on a phantom, 14 cm in diameter, composed of 40% fibroglandular and 60% adipose tissue. Bowtie design #1 is based on single material spectral matching and produces nearly uniform spectral shape for radiation incident upon the detector. Bowtie design #2 uses the idea of basis-material decomposition to produce the same spectral shape and intensity at the detector, using two different materials. With bowtie design #3, it is possible to eliminate the beam hardening effect in the reconstructed image by adjusting the bowtie filter thickness so that the effective attenuation coefficient for every ray is the same. Seven different materials were chosen to represent a range of chemical compositions and densities. After calculation of construction parameters for each bowtie filter design, a bowtie filter was created using each of these materials (assuming reasonable construction parameters were obtained), resulting in a total of 26 bowtie filters modeled analytically and in the PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation environment. Using the analytical model of each bowtie filter, design profiles were obtained and energy fluence as a function of fan-angle was calculated. Projection images with and without each bowtie filter design were also generated using PENELOPE and reconstructed using FBP. Parameters such as dose distribution, noise uniformity

  16. Bowtie filters for dedicated breast CT: Analysis of bowtie filter material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontson, Kimberly; Jennings, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For a given bowtie filter design, both the selection of material and the physical design control the energy fluence, and consequently the dose distribution, in the object. Using three previously described bowtie filter designs, the goal of this work is to demonstrate the effect that different materials have on the bowtie filter performance measures. Methods: Three bowtie filter designs that compensate for one or more aspects of the beam-modifying effects due to the differences in path length in a projection have been designed. The nature of the designs allows for their realization using a variety of materials. The designs were based on a phantom, 14 cm in diameter, composed of 40% fibroglandular and 60% adipose tissue. Bowtie design #1 is based on single material spectral matching and produces nearly uniform spectral shape for radiation incident upon the detector. Bowtie design #2 uses the idea of basis-material decomposition to produce the same spectral shape and intensity at the detector, using two different materials. With bowtie design #3, it is possible to eliminate the beam hardening effect in the reconstructed image by adjusting the bowtie filter thickness so that the effective attenuation coefficient for every ray is the same. Seven different materials were chosen to represent a range of chemical compositions and densities. After calculation of construction parameters for each bowtie filter design, a bowtie filter was created using each of these materials (assuming reasonable construction parameters were obtained), resulting in a total of 26 bowtie filters modeled analytically and in the PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation environment. Using the analytical model of each bowtie filter, design profiles were obtained and energy fluence as a function of fan-angle was calculated. Projection images with and without each bowtie filter design were also generated using PENELOPE and reconstructed using FBP. Parameters such as dose distribution, noise uniformity

  17. Ultrahigh and Selective SO2 Uptake in Inorganic Anion-Pillared Hybrid Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xili; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Lifeng; Krishna, Rajamani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Bao, Zongbi; Wu, Hui; Ren, Qilong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Xing, Huabin

    2017-07-01

    The efficient capture of SO 2 is of great significance in gas-purification processes including flue-gas desulfurization and natural-gas purification, but the design of porous materials with high adsorption capacity and selectivity of SO 2 remains very challenging. Herein, the selective recognition and dense packing of SO 2 clusters through multiple synergistic host-guest and guest-guest interactions by controlling the pore chemistry and size in inorganic anion (SiF 6 2- , SIFSIX) pillared metal-organic frameworks is reported. The binding sites of anions and aromatic rings in SIFSIX materials grasp every atom of SO 2 firmly via S δ+ ···F δ- electrostatic interactions and O δ- ···H δ+ dipole-dipole interactions, while the guest-guest interactions between SO 2 molecules further promote gas trapping within the pore space, which is elucidated by first-principles density functional theory calculations and powder X-ray diffraction experiments. These interactions afford new benchmarks for the highly efficient removal of SO 2 from other gases, even if at a very low SO 2 concentration. Exceptionally high SO 2 capacity of 11.01 mmol g -1 is achieved at atmosphere pressure by SIFSIX-1-Cu, and unprecedented low-pressure SO 2 capacity is obtained in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i (4.16 mmol g -1 SO 2 at 0.01 bar and 2.31 mmol g -1 at 0.002 bar). More importantly, record SO 2 /CO 2 selectivity (86-89) and excellent SO 2 /N 2 selectivity (1285-3145) are also achieved. Experimental breakthrough curves further demonstrate the excellent performance of these hybrid porous materials in removing low-concentration SO 2 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Aidy, A.; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  19. Needs Analysis of the English Writing Skill as the Base to Design the Learning Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenri Ampa Andi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research used a descriptive method. It was aimed at identifying students’ learning needs for the English writing skill as the base for designing the learning materials. Writing skill covered the analysis of the types of paragraph, types of text, the components of writing and paragraph development. The subjects of the research were the fourth semester students that consisted of 330 students. The samples were taken 15 % randomly, so the number of samples was 50 students. The research used a questionnaire as the instrument to get responses from the students about their learning needs. The results showed that the learning needs for the writing skills coped with the types of paragraph development, the types of text, and components of writing skill. The types of paragraph development included the ways by definition (79.7%, classification (67.0%, listing (59.3%, cause effect (47.7%, example (47.3%, and comparison (45.7%. The types of text consisted of description (66.0%, news items (59.7%, narration (58.7%, discussion (56.7%, recount (57.0%, and exposition (50.7%. The components of writing skill contained structure (79.6%, vocabulary (79.4%, content (62.0%, organisation (53.6% and mechanic (34.0%. The implication of the findings would be the base of teaching and learning process, especially in designing the learning materials for the English writing skill.

  20. The Socio-Materiality of Learning Practices and Implications for the Field of Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of digital information technologies in education has become commonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories that explicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In this paper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitioners alike by working as a…

  1. Standard Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the standard test methods available for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of interlayer materials used in multi-ply aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 Interlayer materials are used to laminate glass-to-glass, glass-to-plastic, and plastic-to-plastic. Interlayer materials are basically transparent adhesives with high-quality optical properties. They can also serve as an energy absorbing medium, a fail-safe membrane to contain cockpit pressure and to prevent entry of impact debris; a strain insulator to accommodate different thermal expansion rates of members being laminated and as an adherent to prevent spalling of inner surface ply material fragments. The relative importance of an interlayer characteristic will be a function of the prime use it serves in its particular application. 1.3 This guide, as a summary of various methods in Section 2, is intended to facilitate the selection of tests that can be applied to interlayer materials. 1.4 The test methods list...

  2. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanoparticle Nanoframework as a Highly Selective Separation Material for Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbo; Wu, Lidong; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; He, Weijing; Yang, Junhua; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2017-11-03

    Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed. The specificity of the nanocomposite was evaluated in the separation of 6 aflatoxin congeners (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin M2) from 23 other biotoxins (including, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and deoxynivalenol). The results indicated that this material was specific for separating aflatoxin congeners. The synthesized material was further validated by determining the recovery (77.6-105.0%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.05-0.21 μg kg -1 ), and precision (1.5-11.8%), and was then successfully applied to the separation of aflatoxins from real-world maize, wheat and rice samples.

  3. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, Mohd Hazwan Syafiq; Salaam, Hadi Abdul; Taha, Zahari

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified

  4. Dual-Material Electron Beam Selective Melting: Hardware Development and Validation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam selective melting (EBSM is an additive manufacturing technique that directly fabricates three-dimensional parts in a layerwise fashion by using an electron beam to scan and melt metal powder. In recent years, EBSM has been successfully used in the additive manufacturing of a variety of materials. Previous research focused on the EBSM process of a single material. In this study, a novel EBSM process capable of building a gradient structure with dual metal materials was developed, and a powder-supplying method based on vibration was put forward. Two different powders can be supplied individually and then mixed. Two materials were used in this study: Ti6Al4V powder and Ti47Al2Cr2Nb powder. Ti6Al4V has excellent strength and plasticity at room temperature, while Ti47Al2Cr2Nb has excellent performance at high temperature, but is very brittle. A Ti6Al4V/Ti47Al2Cr2Nb gradient material was successfully fabricated by the developed system. The microstructures and chemical compositions were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Results showed that the interface thickness was about 300 μm. The interface was free of cracks, and the chemical compositions exhibited a staircase-like change within the interface.

  5. Selection Criteria and Methods for Testing Different Surface Materials for Contact Frying Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya

    Inner surfaces of industrial process equipment for food are often coated to give the surfaces particular properties with respect to adhesion and cleanability. Existing coating materials (PTFE (Teflon®) or silicone based polymers) suffer from drawbacks when used in contact frying, because these co...... surface materials for contact frying processes. The surfaces selected for this purpose cover a wide spectrum of materials that range from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), aluminium (Al Mg 5754), PTFE......, an experimental rig has been constructed which enabled a controlled fouling of different coatings on steel and aluminium substrates under realistic frying conditions. A subjective rating procedure was employed for screening different surfaces according to their non-stick properties when used for frying of a model...... defects and surface roughness play a significant role. The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by performing abrasive wear experiments. The ceramic coatings: TiAlN and ZrN were found to show the best wear resistance properties. The experiments also revealed the poor wear resistance of stainless...

  6. Piezoelectric materials selection for sensor applications using finite element and multiple attribute decision-making approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the selection and performance evaluation of a variety of piezoelectric materials for cantilever-based sensor applications. The finite element analysis method is implemented to evaluate the relative importance of materials properties such as Young's Modulus (E, piezoelectric stress constants (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based sensor applications. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to assign weights to the properties that are studied for the sensor structure under study. A technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the performance of the piezoelectric materials in the context of sensor voltage outputs. The ranking achieved by the TOPSIS analysis is in good agreement with the results obtained from finite element method simulation. The numerical simulations show that K0.5Na0.5NbO3–LiSbO3 (KNN–LS materials family is important for sensor application. Young's modulus (E is most influencing material's property followed by piezoelectric constant (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based piezoelectric sensor applications.

  7. Cost-driven materials selection criteria for redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmello, Rylan; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Smith, Kyle C.

    2016-10-01

    Redox flow batteries show promise for grid-scale energy storage applications but are presently too expensive for widespread adoption. Electrolyte material costs constitute a sizeable fraction of the redox flow battery price. As such, this work develops a techno-economic model for redox flow batteries that accounts for redox-active material, salt, and solvent contributions to the electrolyte cost. Benchmark values for electrolyte constituent costs guide identification of design constraints. Nonaqueous battery design is sensitive to all electrolyte component costs, cell voltage, and area-specific resistance. Design challenges for nonaqueous batteries include minimizing salt content and dropping redox-active species concentration requirements. Aqueous battery design is sensitive to only redox-active material cost and cell voltage, due to low area-specific resistance and supporting electrolyte costs. Increasing cell voltage and decreasing redox-active material cost present major materials selection challenges for aqueous batteries. This work minimizes cost-constraining variables by mapping the battery design space with the techno-economic model, through which we highlight pathways towards low price and moderate concentration. Furthermore, the techno-economic model calculates quantitative iterations of battery designs to achieve the Department of Energy battery price target of 100 per kWh and highlights cost cutting strategies to drive battery prices down further.

  8. Application of adobe flash media to optimize jigsaw learning model on geometry material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, P.; Imam, S.; Ikrar, P.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the effectiveness of the application of adobe flash media for jigsaw learning model on geometry material. In this study, the modified jigsaw learning with adobe flash media is called jigsaw-flash model. This research was conducted in Surakarta. The research method used is mix method research with exploratory sequential strategy. The results of this study indicate that students feel more comfortable and interested in studying geometry material taught by jigsaw-flash model. In addition, students taught using the jigsaw-flash model are more active and motivated than the students who were taught using ordinary jigsaw models. This shows that the use of the jigsaw-flash model can increase student participation and motivation. It can be concluded that the adobe flash media can be used as a solution to reduce the level of student abstraction in learning mathematics.

  9. Framework for the Development of OER-Based Learning Materials in ODL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Khor Ean; Hung, Chung Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the framework for the development of OER-based learning materials "TCC121/05 Programming Fundamentals with Java" for ODL learners in Wawasan Open University (WOU) using three main development phases mainly: creation, evaluation and production phases. The proposed framework has further been tested on ODL learners to…

  10. Active Learning and Just-in-Time Teaching in a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…

  11. Costs and Benefits of Vendor Sponsored Learning Materials in Information Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for qualified information technology professionals remains high despite downturns in the economy. It is imperative to provide students with a curriculum that provides a broad foundation in information technology knowledge, skills, and abilities. Students also need access to specialized technologies and learning materials to develop the…

  12. Functions, Use and Effects of Embedded Support Devices in Printed Distance Learning Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To support distance learning, printed materials for the course are enriched with embedded support devices (ESD) such as schemes, illustrations, examples, questions, or margin texts. Results of 3 studies involving 900 Dutch university students indicated that students used and appreciated ESD, and that they led to better study results. (SLD)

  13. On design-oriented research and digital learning materials in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The context of the research described in this thesis is formed by a number of research projects that were aimed at the design, development, implementation, use and evaluation of innovative digital learning materials. Most of these projects were carried out mainly within Wageningen University. In

  14. The Curriculum Material Center's Vital Link to Play and Learning: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madray, Amrita; Catalano, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Many educational theorists who study child development concur that the importance of play related materials in schools, homes and libraries is vital to the concept of play and learning. As academic librarians responsible for information literacy, and as the education liaison for the management and collection development of the instructional…

  15. Material Enactments of Identities and Learning in Everyday Community Practices: Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberton, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an upsurge of interest in applying actor-network theory (ANT) to educational research and analysis. This article presents an account of how an ANT analysis of socio-material practices with a focus on objects can bring informal learning and identity formation to view. It is based on a doctoral study of the everyday…

  16. Brush and learn : transforming tooth brushing behavior through interactive materiality, a design exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, M.; Stienstra, J.T.; Dijkstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    To counteract the increased tendency in skill learning addressing our cognitive abilities we discuss an opportunity on how performance skills can be trained by means of inherent feed forward through interactive materiality. We address this approach in the context of designing an interactive

  17. Does Transformational Leadership Encourage Teacher’s Use of Digital Learning Materials?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Acker, Frederik; Kreijns, Karel; Van Buuren, Hans

    2018-01-01

    To gain insight into how to promote teachers’ use of digital learning materials (DLMs) in their pedagogical practices we adopted the Integrated Model of Behavior Prediction to investigate the relationships between organizational and teacher related variables. A representative sample of 772 teachers

  18. Stock selection of high-dose-irradiation-resistant materials for filter press under high-dose irradiation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru; Hara, Kouji; Yamashita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    In a volume reduction process for the decontamination of contained soil, the performance degradation of a filter press is expected owing to material deterioration under high-dose irradiation. Eleven-stock selection of candidate materials including polymers, fibers and rubbers for the filter press was conducted to achieve a high performance of volume reduction of contaminated soil and the following results were derived. Crude rubber and nylon were selected as prime candidates for packing, diaphragm and filter plate materials. Polyethylene was also selected as a prime candidate for the filter cloth material. (author)

  19. PENGEMBANGAN LKS DENGAN MODEL DISCOVERY LEARNING PADA MATERI IRISAN DUA LINGKARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisman Nizar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at (1producing a valid and practical LKS (Student Worksheet in discovery learning model in two circles intersection material in class XI, and (2 to find out the potential effect toward the learning outcomes from the development of LKS with discovery learning model in two circles intersections material in class XI MIA. The design ofthis research is a developmental study. The subjects of this research were 33 students of XI MIA 1 SMA N 1 Indralaya in academic year 2015/2016. The data collecting technique used were observation, test, and interview. The result of the researches were : (1 This research produced a valid and practical LKS with discovery learning model in two circles intersections material in class XI MIA withsome characteristics such as, (a Contain the operational steps of discovery learning model, (b Help students in finding the concept of two circles intersections model. (c Make students active in learning. Being valid can be seen from the results of validator assessment, where the validator comments on the first prototype of LKS from content, construct, and language. Being practical can be seen from the results of  small group try out, in which it was based on analysis of the answer sheets of students, it was found that students were able to complete each steps there and students’ comments obtained from the sheets that stated the LKS given was easy to be done by students. (2 The developed LKS consisted of potential effect toward the learning outcomes from cognitive (knowledge, affective (attitude, and psychomotor (skill. In the cognitive domain 81.81% of students got score > 65, in the affective domain all of the students had shown an attitude of honesty and responsiveness shown by observations during LKS usage, as well as in the of psychomotor domain skills all of students had good skill that seen from the result of students performance.

  20. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materialsSelection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different