WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected west european

  1. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  2. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  3. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  4. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  5. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1998-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  7. Secondary markets for transmission rights in the North West European Market. Position Paper of the North West European Market Parties Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haaster, G.

    2006-06-01

    The most important way to acquire cross border transmission rights in the North West European electricity market is through explicit auctions. Although market driven flexibility and therefore efficiency can be further enhanced. One way to this is to introduce a secondary market for transmission rights. In this paper the North West European Market Parties Platform (NWE MPP) proposes a model that is developed and preferred by the market parties. The paper will provide a converging contribution to the congestion management discussions in the North Western European region

  8. North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  9. Gas Transport Services. West European Gas Transmission Tariff Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1999, the Dutch gas transmission company, Gastransport Services (GTS), has commissioned an independent consultant to prepare reports comparing gas transportation tariffs across Western Europe on an annual basis. This report describes the tariffs in force at 1 February 2006. The previous report was published in May 2005, and reported on the tariffs which were in force at 1 January 2005. Since then several companies have published revised carriage arrangements, or have adjusted their tariffs (e.g. to reflect inflation, or for other reasons). In this report we compare the GTS tariff with the transportation tariffs in eleven other countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This means that all West European countries with Third Party Access to gas transmission systems (except Finland) are covered in this report. In this main part of the report, we concentrate on showing charts which illustrate the comparisons of tariffs, at various distances, volumes and load factors. This gives an overall picture of the tariffs offered by each company, rather than concentrating on particular cases. The detailed calculations for each of the 45 cases are shown in the Appendix to this report, and the conclusions from the cases are shown in a colour-coded chart in the Summary and Conclusions.

  10. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Selected Southeast European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajh, Edo; Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Budak, Jelena; Davcev, Ljupco; Ateljevic, Jovo; Ognjenovic, Kosovka

    2018-01-01

    What (did we do)? A comparative study on the antecedents of EI among young people (students of economics and business) in four selected South East European countries (Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and BiH). Why? Entrepreneurship is positively associated with higher economic development. Analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurship is an obligation...(Grilo and Irigoyen, 2006), because: knowledge of the determinants is crucial for development of better education systems and se...

  11. [Euthanasia: legal comparison in selected European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with the subject of euthanasia (all its forms) and other end-of-life decisions, such as assisted suicide, withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatments. Among other things, the article will also deal with the issue of the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request. Based on an empirical historical method, the article compares the various selected legal orders. From this analysis, it draws some conclusions that have an impact on ethical discourse. First of all, the terminology is defined in the article, which is very important in this area. Further, German law is being analysed, with emphasis on Nazi Germany. On that basis, the so-called reductio ad Hitlerum argument is rejected. Research continues and is followed by another states, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. By analysing them, the following ethical arguments used in euthanasia debates are examined: the argument of a slippery slope and the argument of respect for autonomy. Finally, the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the Pretty case is also analysed. On this case, we can demonstrate, how insufficient is argument of human dignity. The last part is dedicated to the Czech Republic and its legal order. Firstly, it focuses on the history of the legal regulation of euthanasia, but the main part deals with the current legal situation. In addition to the recent state of affairs, the bill of Death with dignity act is also being examined. At the end of the article it is pointed out that the Czech regulation is insufficient and changes are necessary. However, the proposed bill of Death with dignity act is not the right way to follow. Rather, it may be wise to adopt an amendment to the Penal Code that would introduce the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request.Key words: assisted suicide - euthanasia - Homicide by the Victims Request - medical futility - withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatment.

  12. Go West: The Western Balkans towards European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ninka, Eniel

    2005-01-01

    When we talk about the Balkans we think of war, suffering, ethnic cleansing and hatred. And up to a rather recent point in time this was not a misleading idea. Unfortunately, this has been the reality in the Balkans. If one tries to imagine the map of the European Union in 2007 something would come in front of the eyes. An area in the Balkan Peninsula washed by the Adriatic Sea and circulated by Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Slovenia, all of them EU Member States. The Union has alrea...

  13. East-West European economic integration: Difficult to reach target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Manca, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy sector of Western Europe is now undergoing a slow growth period due largely to the socio-economic upheavals of East and West German unification and the political-economic restructuring of the countries making up Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper evidences this fact by tabling and commenting on 1991-1992 coal, petroleum, natural gas and electric power production/consumption/export statistical data representing energy sector activities in the former COMECON member countries. The poor performance of these countries can be attributed to the effects of energy market liberalization, the restructuring of utility assets, limited production capacities and inflation. It is estimated that the adjustment time to reach economic parity with Western nations will be long but that the waiting period could be shortened through the implementation of technology transfer and financial cooperation programs with the more prosperous countries capable of providing the investment capital and know-how needed for the restructuring of production systems and resource development

  14. Recent Development of Municipal Finance in Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Peter; Kaltschütz, Anita; Nam, Chang Woon

    2004-01-01

    The idea of fiscal decentralisation has become increasingly fashionable world-wide. In some developed countries the systems of intergovernmental finance have evolved gradually and each country has unique features. Transition countries on different continents have had differing reasons and motivations for such reforms. More recently, the acknowledgement of subsidiarity as the basic principle for the European Un-ion, the introduction of the West German federal system in the eastern part of the ...

  15. Habitat use in south-west European skinks (genus Chalcides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Escoriza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Congeneric species of reptiles frequently exhibit partitioning in terms of their use of habitats or trophic resources in order to reduce competition. In this study, we investigated habitat use by two species of European skinks: Chalcides bedriagai and Chalcides striatus, based on 49 records from southern France, Spain, and Portugal. Methods We measured three levels of niche descriptors: macroscale (climate, topography, and substrate, mesoscale (plant associations, and microscale (vegetation cover and shelters. We assessed the associations between these environmental descriptors and the occurrence of the skinks. Results Our results showed that the two species occupied opposite extremes of the ecological gradient i.e., C. bedriagai in semi-arid environments and C. striatus in temperate-oceanic environments, but there was broad ecological overlap in transitional climates at all of the habitat scales examined. This overlap was demonstrated by the presence of syntopy in geographically distant sites with different environmental characteristics. Discussion The morphological differences between the two species, and possibly their different use of microhabitats, might favor this mesoscale overlap between congeneric species, which is relatively unusual in Mediterranean lizards.

  16. West-European books in Bessarabia: ways of distribution and government oversight (1812-1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Emilciuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addressing the issue of the circulation of West-European books in Bessarabia we analyzed especially archival sources, mainly the Fund 2 - The Office of the Governor of Bessarabia, of the National Archive of Republic of Moldova, which contains relevant information on ways of distribution of West-European literature and governmental measures adopted in order to prevent the public access to the works which violated the Russian law of censorship. The cases we review in the article prove the fact that French, German or English literature was insufficiently distributed in the Russian Empire, and that's why Romanian Principalities, or Hapsburg Empire were an attractive source of purchasing it. From the analysis of the titles filled in the customs-blanks that were sent to Censorship Committee for Foreign Books in Sankt Petersburg, we noticed that the most West-European books reaching Bessarabia were literary and encyclopedic writings that were brought for the purpose of recreational reading and/ or the completing of personal libraries. But there were also cases when West-European books were brought for scientific and professional purposes. In conclusion, we can say that West-European books circulated in Bessarabia due to predilection of local society for the French and German literature. Of course in addition to these arguments, it is to be reminded that southern Bessarabia was colonized by Germans, Swiss, Polish, Bulgarians, etc., something which definitely generated greater demand for this kind of literature. Being a border province Bessarabia had multiple ways of penetrations of western writings, either by terrestrial ways, from the Habsburg Empire or Romanian Principalities, or by sea - from the rest of Europe. Also very close to Bessarabia there was situated the city port of Odessa, a cosmopolitan center of the Russian Empire's international trade on the Black Sea. However, we shall mention that the Russian government control, meant to prevent

  17. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FROM POLAND’S VIEWPOINT. SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona M. Pawlas

    2014-01-01

    It has been ten years since Poland joined the European Union in May 2004. Integration with the EU structures resulted in considerable economic, social and political advantages. On the other hand membership in the EU created new challenges for Poland, the Polish companies and the Polish citizens. The paper reviews selected issues of Poland’s integration with the European Union with special focus on net financial effect of membership, competitiveness of Polish goods on single European market, p...

  18. 'SANDANSKI-2': European east-west coordination meeting on nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertzen, W. von; Kalpakchieva, R.

    2001-01-01

    'Sandanski-2' is a European East-West Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Science, which took place on the 5-9 May 2001 in the town of Sandanski, Bulgaria. It is the second meeting of this type. Here we present the motivations for holding this meeting, its scientific programme, the list of participants, as well as a short summary of the scientific and executive issues, which were presented by 66 reports. At the meeting 115 scientists from 17 European countries, the USA, Japan and JINR were present. Complete information on the Meeting is available on a CD and can also be found under the address: http://www.sandanski.ru/

  19. Ecologies of Ideologies: Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our exp...

  20. A cryptic mitochondrial DNA link between North European and West African dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Song, Jiao-Jiao; Olaogun, S Charles; Sanke, Oscar J; Yin, Ting-Ting; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Lichoti, Jacqueline K; Agwanda, Bernard R; Dawuda, Philip M; Murphy, Robert W; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-03-20

    Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D. None of the African dogs exhibits a matrilineal contribution from the African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster). The genetic signal of a recent demographic expansion is detected in Nigerian dogs from West Africa. The analyses of mitochondrial genomes reveal a maternal genetic link between modern West African and North European dogs indicated by sub-haplogroup D1 (but not the entire haplogroup D) coalescing around 12,000 years ago. Incorporating molecular anthropological evidence, we propose that sub-haplogroup D1 in West African dogs could be traced back to the late-glacial dispersals, potentially associated with human hunter-gatherer migration from southwestern Europe. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertő, I.; Bakucs, Z.; Bojnec, S.; Latruffe, L.

    2017-01-01

    The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian) and West (French) European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  2. East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertő, I.; Bakucs, Z.; Bojnec, S.; Latruffe, L.

    2017-09-01

    The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian) and West (French) European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  3. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  4. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  5. Standardization in library and information science in selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Standardization plays an important role in library and information science (LIS), because it gives rules to identify, classify, access, select, exploit, communicate, exchange and preserve information. Standards are developed by national, European and international organizations. The objective of the study is to present the situation of standardization in library and information science in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. The research covered Technical Committees that take the problems of LIS, their cooperation with European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The second part of the study is an analysis of LIS standards published in the last 10 years. Data on published documents were gathered from online standards directories. The documents were searched using International Classification for Standards. Retrieved standards were analyzed for their origin and status. The research illustrates the changes in the national standardization, most popular topics and the growing importance of international cooperation in standardization.

  6. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants. PMID:29046613

  7. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants.

  8. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyhia Belhabib

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of European Union (EU and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1 and China (2.3 million t•year(-1 report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s. The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime

  9. Hegemonic Decline, West European Unification, and the Future Structure of the Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Bornschier

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper queries the applicability of hegemonic cycle theories to the emerging structure in the core of the world political economy and argues that we are likely, following this period of relative decline in American hegemony, to witness the emergence of hegemonic social practices in the absence, however, of a hegemonic state. Contrasting new beginnings with past patterns, we will suggest arguments why history will not be repeated. Drawing on our research on the Single European Act (SEA, we argue that the bargain struck between the Commission of the European Union and West European transnational corporations, which culminated in the SEA, represents more than a decisive step towards economic and political union. We see it, more significantly, as embodying Europe's response to its declining position through an attempt to articulate a new societal model capable of successfully replacing the disarticulated post-WWII Keynesian social-welfare model, and of competing with the Japanese and American societal models. In the future, it is very unlikely that power among the actors in the Triad will be so unevenly distributed as to permit the rise of a new hegemonic state. While it would seem, judging from historical experience, that the presence of a hegemonic state was functionally necessary for the establishment of hegemonic social practices in the core, we argue that another mechanism has now moved to the forefront. Due to pressures generated through increasing economic globalization, linked to demands associated with the quest for legitimacy on the part of democratic governments, we foresee, following a period of increased economic competition, the convergence of social practices around a single societal model.

  10. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  11. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypic divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: the effects of migratory and foraging behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available Divergent selection and local adaptation are responsible for many phenotypic differences between populations, potentially leading to speciation through the evolution of reproductive barriers. Here we evaluated the morphometric divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting in order to determine the extent of local adaptation relative to two important selection pressures often associated with speciation in birds: migration and diet. We show that, as expected by theory, migratory E. s. schoeniclus had longer and more pointed wings and a slightly smaller body mass than the resident subspecies, with the exception of E. s. lusitanica, which despite having rounder wings was the smallest of all subspecies. Tail length, however, did not vary according to the expectation (shorter tails in migrants probably because it is strongly correlated with wing length and might take longer to evolve. E. s. witherbyi, which feed on insects hiding inside reed stems during the winter, had a very thick, stubby bill. In contrast, northern populations, which feed on seeds, had thinner bills. Despite being much smaller, the southern E. s. lusitanica had a significantly thicker, longer bill than migratory E. s. schoeniclus, whereas birds from the UK population had significantly shorter, thinner bills. Geometric morphometric analyses revealed that the southern subspecies have a more convex culmen than E. s. schoeniclus, and E. s. lusitanica differs from the nominate subspecies in bill shape to a greater extent than in linear bill measurements, especially in males. Birds with a more convex culmen are thought to exert a greater strength at the bill tip, which is in agreement with their feeding technique. Overall, the three subspecies occurring in Western Europe differ in a variety of traits following the patterns predicted from their migratory and foraging behaviours, strongly suggesting that these birds have became locally adapted through natural selection.

  13. Cooperation between West and East German gas transmission companies - an example of collaboration with Eastern European gas suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geweke, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the future, it can be assumed there will be a new quality of co-operation between the East and the West. The tremendous growth in demand for natural gas in Europe necessitates the development of new, increasingly distant gas resources. The investment required can not be raised by a few countries on their own. A strategy is needed for all states integrated in the European natural gas transmission system. Due to their geographic location, Eastern and Southern European countries have a key role to play. Central Europe will become the heart of the international natural gas business. Then the future co-operation between East and Western Europe must be taken into account. An important prerequisite for equal partners in the European gas industry will be coordination, if natural gas is to continue to make a growing contribution to an environmentally compatible and efficient energy supply in all European states and beyond. (orig.)

  14. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    in 1993. Foale has conducted extravehicular activities from both the Space Shuttle and the Russian Mir space station. Grunsfeld has two previous spaceflights to his credit. For Nicollier, who was selected by ESA in 1978 in the first group of European astronauts, it will be the fourth flight into space, more than any other European astronaut to date. Prior to taking part in the first Hubble servicing mission in December 1993, he was a mission specialist on the August 1992 STS-46 mission during which Eureca - the European retrievable experiment platform - was deployed and the first Tethered Satellite System test flight conducted. In February 1996 he participated in STS-75, which carried the US Microgravity Payload experiments and the second flight test of the Tethered Satellite System. Nicollier, who is delighted and honoured to be reassigned to a Hubble servicing mission, points out: "obviously, it makes sense to take advantage of our previous training and mission-specific experience to increase the likelihood of success, but it will nevertheless be a complex and demanding flight. 'Routine' is a word that has no place in astronaut's vocabulary." With three previous space missions, Nicollier is thoroughly experienced in the operation of the Shuttle's robotic arm and the procedures associated with meeting, capturing and redeploying free-flying platforms from the US Space Shuttle. Regular contacts with European development engineers ensure that Nicollier's experience from the Shuttle missions will also flow into the development of European elements for the International Space Station, most notably the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the European Robotic Arm. "Together with the selection of Pedro Duque for the STS-95 mission in October this year, and others we confidently expect in the future, the selection of Claude Nicollier, who is one of ESA's most experienced astronauts, is a clear signal of the high esteem in which NASA holds high professional skills and human

  15. Big Data and Insurance: Advantageous Selection in European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976 argued that people signal their risk profile through their insurance demand, i.e. individuals with a high risk profile would buy insurance as much as they can, while people who are not going to buy any insurance are the ones with a lower risk profile. This issue is commonly known as adverse selection. Even if their prediction seems to work quite well in a lot of different markets, Cutler et al. (2008 proved that there exist some insurance markets in United States in which the expected result is completely different. In the wake of this study, we provide empirical evidences that there are some European insurance markets in which the low risk profile agents are the ones who buy more insurance.

  16. Modelling temporal and spatial dynamics of benthic fauna in North-West-European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Bruggeman, Jorn; Artioli, Yuri; Butenschön, Momme; Blackford, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Benthic zones of shallow shelf seas receive high amounts of organic material. Physical processes such as resuspension, as well as complex transformations mediated by diverse faunal and microbial communities, define fate of this material, which can be returned to the water column, reworked within sediments or ultimately buried. In recent years, numerical models of various complexity and serving different goals have been developed and applied in order to better understand and predict dynamics of benthic processes. ERSEM includes explicit parameterisations of several groups of benthic biota, which makes it particularly applicable for studies of benthic biodiversity, biological interactions within sediments and benthic-pelagic coupling. To assess model skill in reproducing temporal (inter-annual and seasonal) dynamics of major benthic macrofaunal groups, 1D model simulation results were compared with data from the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) benthic survey. The benthic model was forced with organic matter deposition rates inferred from observed phytoplankton abundance and model parameters were subsequently recalibrated. Based on model results and WCO data comparison, deposit-feeders exert clear seasonal variability, while for suspension-feeders inter-annual variability is more pronounced. Spatial distribution of benthic fauna was investigated using results of a full-scale NEMO-ERSEM hindcast simulation of the North-West European Shelf Seas area, covering the period of 1981-2014. Results suggest close relationship between spatial distribution of biomass of benthic faunal functional groups in relation to bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions and organic matter supply. Our work highlights that it is feasible to construct, implement and validate models that explicitly include functional groups of benthic macrofauna. Moreover, the modelling approach delivers detailed information on benthic biogeochemistry and food-web at spatial and temporal scales that are unavailable

  17. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  18. HOUSING MARKETS IN SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gostkowska-Drzewicka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the changes taking place in housing markets in selected European countries and in the USA. The basic research period covers the years 1998-2009. However, wherever availability of data allowed so, we covered with our research also the years 1963-2010. The development of domestic housing markets is determined both by specific features of local markets and by macroeconomic factors influencing the economic situation. The availability of capital to finance investment is of primary importance for the changes taking place in housing markets. This factor can be expressed by the volume of mortgage debt related to GDP and inflation and the level of interest rates on mortgage loans. The evaluation of the changes occurring in domestic housing markets was based on the identification of such structural characteristics as: the volume of the housing stock, the number of ready-to-use flats, the number of issued building permits, the indices of housing prices, and the number of transactions concerning purchase of flats or houses.

  19. System driven technology selection for future European launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Ramusat, G.; Sirbi, A.; Bouilly, Th.; Lavelle, F.; Cardone, T.; Fischer, H.; Appel, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of the next generation launcher activity at ESA, a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach have been performed for the identification of promising technologies and alternative conception of future European launch vehicles. The top-down approach consists in looking for system-driven design solutions and the bottom-up approach features design solutions leading to substantial advantages for the system. The main investigations have been focused on the future launch vehicle technologies. Preliminary specifications have been used in order to permit sub-system design to find the major benefit for the overall launch system. The development cost, non-recurring and recurring cost, industrialization and operational aspects have been considered as competitiveness factors for the identification and down-selection of the most interesting technologies. The recurring cost per unit payload mass has been evaluated. The TRL/IRL has been assessed and a preliminary development plan has been traced for the most promising technologies. The potentially applicable launch systems are Ariane and VEGA evolution. The main FLPP technologies aim at reducing overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen propellants, propellant management subsystems, elements significantly reducing fabrication and operational costs, avionics, pyrotechnics, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of the system driven approach allows creating performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost. This paper outlines the process of technology down selection using a system driven approach, the accomplishments already achieved in the various technology fields up to now, as well as the potential associated benefit in terms of competitiveness factors.

  20. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like...

  1. Dietary exposure to selected Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in four European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Herzke, D.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at

  2. A European regional analysis of selected food consumption statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines different European regions of food culture. It does so by analyzing statements about food attitudes and food consumption from a general, commercial life style survey. The data were collected in 1989 through 20.000 interviews in European countries broken down into 80 regions. T...... for more advanced statistical analysis, this paper should definitely be regarded as a work progress paper, incomplete as it is....

  3. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  4. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Bray, L.A.; Pope, J.M.; Carl, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100), and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper will summarize the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process. 4 figures, 2 tables

  5. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  6. Undermining the West from within: European populists, the US and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssogelos, Angelos

    2010-01-01

    Populist parties of the Right and Left are on the rise in Western Europe, but little has been said about their foreign policy positions. This article outlines the basic elements of the positions of some important radical Right and Left populist parties on transatlantic relations, NATO, European security and EU–Russia relations. An examination of these positions reveals that European populist parties of the Right and Left are united by a common aversion to the ongoing modernisation and liberal...

  7. Coping with Capital Inflows; Experiences of Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    David Vávra; Inci Ötker; Barry Topf; Zbigniew Polanski

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the experiences of a number of European countries in coping with capital inflows. It describes the nature of the inflows, their implications for macroeconomic and financial stability, and the policy responses used to cope with them. The experiences suggest that as countries become more integrated with international financial markets, there is little room to regulate capital flows effectively. The most effective ways to deal with capital inflows would be to deepen the financ...

  8. Labor force participation, unemployment and occupational attainment among immigrants in West European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gorodzeisky

    Full Text Available The present paper examines modes of immigrants' labor market incorporation into European societies with specific emphasis on the role played by immigrant status (i.e. first-generation immigrants, immigrant descendants and native born without migrant background, region of origin, and gender. The data were obtained from the European Union Labour Forces Survey 2008 Ad-Hoc Module for France, Belgium, UK and Sweden. In order to supplement the results from the country-specific analysis, we replicated the analysis using pooled data from the five rounds of the European Social Survey conducted between 2002 and 2010, for nine 'old immigration' Western European countries together. The analysis centered on two aspects of incorporation: labor force status and occupation. Multinominal, binary logistic as well as linear probability regression models were estimated. The findings suggest that in all countries non-European origin is associated with greater disadvantage in finding employment not only among first-generation immigrants, but also among sons and daughters of immigrants (i.e. second-generation. Moreover, the relative employment disadvantage among immigrant men of non-European origin is especially pronounced in the second-generation. The likelihood of attaining a high-status job is influenced mostly by immigrant status, regardless of region of origin and gender. The results of the study reveal that patterns of labor force incorporation vary considerably across origin groups and across generations. The patterns do not vary as much across countries, despite cross-country differences in welfare state regimes, migration integration policy and composition of migration flows.

  9. Practice of using the educational facilities in some West-European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    1995-01-01

    A review deals with results on using multifunctional educational facilities, choice of their optimal number with simulation of NPP sites in European countries. The role of instructors, the content of educational program, tasks of individual retraining are considered. Cost benefit analysis is made. 5 refs

  10. Russia and the West After the Ukrainian Crisis: European Vulnerabilities to Russian Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Persian Gulf suppliers, for instance, has been an important factor in U.S. policy in this part of the world.2 .In light of the economic importance...Union. The ability of the United King - dom to secure favorable bilateral agreements with the European Union and other nations, including the United

  11. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    this School -- especially in the SDP under David Owen’s leadership -- in raising the nuclear threshold in Europe by strengthening conventional...ConrolDEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTORS US European Commnand ATTN: ECJ-3 Grumman-CTEC. Inc ATTM: ECJ-5 ATTN: S. Shrier us National Military

  12. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  13. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  14. AMM15: a new high-resolution NEMO configuration for operational simulation of the European north-west shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer A.; O'Dea, Enda; Holt, Jason; Polton, Jeff; Hewitt, Helene T.; Furner, Rachel; Guihou, Karen; Brereton, Ashley; Arnold, Alex; Wakelin, Sarah; Castillo Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the next-generation ocean forecast model for the European north-west shelf, which will become the basis of operational forecasts in 2018. This new system will provide a step change in resolution and therefore our ability to represent small-scale processes. The new model has a resolution of 1.5 km compared with a grid spacing of 7 km in the current operational system. AMM15 (Atlantic Margin Model, 1.5 km) is introduced as a new regional configuration of NEMO v3.6. Here we describe the technical details behind this configuration, with modifications appropriate for the new high-resolution domain. Results from a 30-year non-assimilative run using the AMM15 domain demonstrate the ability of this model to represent the mean state and variability of the region.Overall, there is an improvement in the representation of the mean state across the region, suggesting similar improvements may be seen in the future operational system. However, the reduction in seasonal bias is greater off-shelf than on-shelf. In the North Sea, biases are largely unchanged. Since there has been no change to the vertical resolution or parameterization schemes, performance improvements are not expected in regions where stratification is dominated by vertical processes rather than advection. This highlights the fact that increased horizontal resolution will not lead to domain-wide improvements. Further work is needed to target bias reduction across the north-west shelf region.

  15. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 31 (2014), pii=20867 ISSN 1560-7917 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * mosquitoes * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.722, year: 2014 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20867

  16. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  17. Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Novoa, J.C.; Pontevedra, X.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several selective dissolution methods were used to differentiate Al forms in 12 soils formed from volcanic materials (64 andic, vitric and organic horizons) in Iceland, Azores (Portugal), Tenerife (Spain) and Italy. The soils differ in many properties because of differences in parent materials,

  18. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...

  19. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Carl, D.E.; Pope, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95, Ionsiv is a trademark of Union Carbide Company), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100, Duolite is a registered trademark of Diamond Shamrock Co) and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungsthC acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process

  20. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  1. Population growth, accessibility spillovers and persistent borders: Historical growth in West-European municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Koomen, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Lack of cross-border transport supply has repeatedly been blamed for the fact that national borders limit spatial interaction and, consequently, the growth of border regions. This study applies an accessibility approach to investigate for most municipalities in ten countries in mainland West Europe if foreign transport supply is lagging behind, and if population growth in these municipalities has been affected by the limits that national borders have imposed on market access. To do so, data describing historical population changes and road networks between 1961 and 2011 have been used. The results show that in the study area, cross-border transport accessibility was not at a disadvantage in 1961 and has since then grown even more than domestic accessibility. However, municipal population growth has depended almost exclusively on domestic market access. Processes of economic international integration in the study area are found to coincide with the growth of cross-border accessibility, but do not have a clear coincidence with the effects of cross-border accessibility on population growth.

  2. Direct and Indirect Factors Influencing Selection of Birthing Attendants in Gunungsari, West Lombok (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Aryaniti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aims to determine the direct and indirect factors influencing the selection of birth attendants in Gunungsari subdistrict, West Lombok.Methods: This study was cross-sectional with a purposively selected sample of 27 mothers giving birth assisted by non-health professionals. Samples of those assisted by health professionals were taken by means of proportional systematic random sampling in Gunungsari and Penimbung health centers, respectively 29 of 916 and 14 of 437. Exogenous factors were maternal education levels, attendance to ANC classes, knowledge levels regarding to birthing attendants, maternal attitude, family support, and access to facilities. Birth attendant selection was the endogenousfactor. Data were collected by means of interviews. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential analysis with path analysis by linear regression.Results: The majority of respondents were 21-25 years old (87.4% , housewives (47.14% had educat ion under high school (65.72% and were married (88.57%. Family support had a direct influence in decision making with a coefficient of 0.534 and 35.54% influence overall. Attendance to ANC classes in addition to family support had anindirect influence with a coefficient of 0.520 and 34.78% influence overall. Family support had a direct influence and the factor of attendance to ANC classes and family support has an indirect effect with the overall effect of 70.32%.Conclusion: The presence of the husband/family was needed in ANC class, through an implementation of schedule agreement.Keywords: family support, ANC class, birth attendants, path analysis, West Lombok

  3. Atmospheric Dynamics Leading to West European Summer Hot Temperatures Since 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Alvarez-Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer hot temperatures have many impacts on health, economy (agriculture, energy, and transports, and ecosystems. In Western Europe, the recent summers of 2003 and 2015 were exceptionally warm. Many studies have shown that the genesis of the major heat events of the last decades was linked to anticyclonic atmospheric circulation and to spring precipitation deficit in Southern Europe. Such results were obtained for the second part of the 20th century and projections into the 21st century. In this paper, we challenge this vision by investigating the earlier part of the 20th century from an ensemble of 20CR reanalyses. We propose an innovative description of Western-European heat events applying the dynamical system theory. We argue that the atmospheric circulation patterns leading to the most intense heat events have changed during the last century. We also show that the increasing temperature trend during major heatwaves is encountered during episodes of Scandinavian Blocking, while other circulation patterns do not yield temperature trends during extremes.

  4. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    –50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30...

  5. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  6. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fehling

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA, of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community, and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone. Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi

  7. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Severo-Zapad Rossii v kontekste obshheevropejskoj integracii [North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  9. Assimilation of ocean colour to improve the simulation and understanding of the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Brewin, Robert; Skakala, Jozef; Sursham, David; Ford, David

    2017-04-01

    Shelf-seas and coastal zones provide essential goods and services to humankind, such as fisheries, aquaculture, tourism and climate regulation. The understanding and management of these regions can be enhanced by merging ocean-colour observations and marine ecosystem simulations through data assimilation, which provides (sub)optimal estimates of key biogeochemical variables. Here we present a range of applications of ocean-colour data assimilation in the North West European shelf-sea. A reanalysis application illustrates that assimilation of error-characterized chlorophyll concentrations could provide a map of the shelf sea vulnerability to oxygen deficiency, as well as estimates of the shelf sea uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the last decade. The interannual variability of CO2 uptake and its uncertainty were related significantly to interannual fluctuations of the simulated primary production. However, the reanalysis also indicates that assimilation of total chlorophyll did not improve significantly the simulation of some other variables, e.g. nutrients. We show that the assimilation of alternative products derived from ocean colour (i.e. spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and phytoplankton size classes) can overcome this limitation. In fact, these products can constrain a larger number of model variables, which define either the underwater light field or the structure of the lower trophic levels. Therefore, the assimilation of such ocean-colour products into marine ecosystem models is an advantageous novel approach to improve the understanding and simulation of shelf-sea environments.

  10. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  11. Non-Formal Education in International Comparison: Patterns of Participation and Investment in Selected European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE) in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and…

  12. Estimation of selected seasonal streamflow statistics representative of 1930-2002 in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Regional equations and procedures were developed for estimating seasonal 1-day 10-year, 7-day 10-year, and 30-day 5-year hydrologically based low-flow frequency values for unregulated streams in West Virginia. Regional equations and procedures also were developed for estimating the seasonal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency harmonic-mean flows and the 50-percent flow-duration values. The seasons were defined as winter (January 1-March 31), spring (April 1-June 30), summer (July 1-September 30), and fall (October 1-December 31). Regional equations were developed using ordinary least squares regression using statistics from 117 U.S. Geological Survey continuous streamgage stations as dependent variables and basin characteristics as independent variables. Equations for three regions in West Virginia-North, South-Central, and Eastern Panhandle Regions-were determined. Drainage area, average annual precipitation, and longitude of the basin centroid are significant independent variables in one or more of the equations. The average standard error of estimates for the equations ranged from 12.6 to 299 percent. Procedures developed to estimate the selected seasonal streamflow statistics in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia that have independent variables within the limits of the stations used to develop the regional equations: drainage area from 16.3 to 1,516 square miles in the North Region, from 2.78 to 1,619 square miles in the South-Central Region, and from 8.83 to 3,041 square miles in the Eastern Panhandle Region; average annual precipitation from 42.3 to 61.4 inches in the South-Central Region and from 39.8 to 52.9 inches in the Eastern Panhandle Region; and longitude of the basin centroid from 79.618 to 82.023 decimal degrees in the North Region. All estimates of seasonal streamflow statistics are representative of the period from the 1930 to the 2002 climatic year.

  13. Epidemiology of Eimeria species in selected broiler farms of Khoy suburb, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is an economically-important disease of poultry production industry worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different Eimeria species in the farmed broilers of Khoy city, West Azarbaijan, North West Iran. A total of 26 broiler farms of different production capacities were arbitrarily selected and examined in 2013. In each of the farms, Litters of two broilers farms were randomly sampled twice a week and examined. The intensity of infection with each of the Eimeria species was assessed on the basis of number of oocysts per gram of litter using Clayton-Lane and McMaster methods. Eimeria species diversity was determined by using oocyst sporulation technique in 2% potassium dichromate solution. Results indicated that 23.08% (6/26 of the broiler farms were infected with Eimeria oocysts. The maximum litter infection rate (7.5×103 was observed in fifth week of the rearing period. The litter infection rate was significantly correlated with kinds of water dispenser, feeder, ventilation, and density. The litters were infected with five Eimeria species; E. maxima (32.67% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. mitis (24% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. acervulina (18% in 5 farms (19.23%, E. tenella (14.67% in 4 farms (15.38%, and E. necatrix (10.67% in 3 farms (11.58%. Results of this study uncovered high rates of litter infection with various Eimeria species in the studied farms, suggesting the establishment of firm health management strategies in the region.

  14. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  15. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Speirs, Douglas C.; Sabatino, Alessandro; Heath, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Seabed sediment mapping is important for a wide range of marine policy, planning and scientific issues, and there has been considerable national and international investment around the world in the collation and synthesis of sediment datasets. However, in Europe at least, much of this effort has been directed towards seabed classification and mapping of discrete habitats. Scientific users often have to resort to reverse engineering these classifications to recover continuous variables, such as mud content and median grain size, that are required for many ecological and biophysical studies. Here we present a new set of 0.125° by 0.125° resolution synthetic maps of continuous properties of the north-west European sedimentary environment, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the northern limits of the North Sea and the Faroe Islands. The maps are a blend of gridded survey data, statistically modelled values based on distributions of bed shear stress due to tidal currents and waves, and bathymetric properties. Recent work has shown that statistical models can predict sediment composition in British waters and the North Sea with high accuracy, and here we extend this to the entire shelf and to the mapping of other key seabed parameters. The maps include percentage compositions of mud, sand and gravel; porosity and permeability; median grain size of the whole sediment and of the sand and the gravel fractions; carbon and nitrogen content of sediments; percentage of seabed area covered by rock; mean and maximum depth-averaged tidal velocity and wave orbital velocity at the seabed; and mean monthly natural disturbance rates. A number of applications for these maps exist, including species distribution modelling and the more accurate representation of sea-floor biogeochemistry in ecosystem models. The data products are available from https://doi.org/10.15129/1e27b806-1eae-494d-83b5-a5f4792c46fc.

  16. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabed sediment mapping is important for a wide range of marine policy, planning and scientific issues, and there has been considerable national and international investment around the world in the collation and synthesis of sediment datasets. However, in Europe at least, much of this effort has been directed towards seabed classification and mapping of discrete habitats. Scientific users often have to resort to reverse engineering these classifications to recover continuous variables, such as mud content and median grain size, that are required for many ecological and biophysical studies. Here we present a new set of 0.125° by 0.125° resolution synthetic maps of continuous properties of the north-west European sedimentary environment, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the northern limits of the North Sea and the Faroe Islands. The maps are a blend of gridded survey data, statistically modelled values based on distributions of bed shear stress due to tidal currents and waves, and bathymetric properties. Recent work has shown that statistical models can predict sediment composition in British waters and the North Sea with high accuracy, and here we extend this to the entire shelf and to the mapping of other key seabed parameters. The maps include percentage compositions of mud, sand and gravel; porosity and permeability; median grain size of the whole sediment and of the sand and the gravel fractions; carbon and nitrogen content of sediments; percentage of seabed area covered by rock; mean and maximum depth-averaged tidal velocity and wave orbital velocity at the seabed; and mean monthly natural disturbance rates. A number of applications for these maps exist, including species distribution modelling and the more accurate representation of sea-floor biogeochemistry in ecosystem models. The data products are available from https://doi.org/10.15129/1e27b806-1eae-494d-83b5-a5f4792c46fc.

  17. Selected indicators of the seniors tourist activity in Poland and in others european countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Parzych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work was taken an issues of the tourist activity of the older people. For this purpose was used the statistics of Eurostat and from the Statistic Yearbook “ Tourism in polish households” The analysis shows the polish older people more seldom partcipate in the tourist traffic comparing to the west european countriwes older people. The main characteristics shows low level of the polish older people’s tourist activity. They seldom participate in tourism. They most often go to their families form shortterm stays or for holiday.They prefer travels in the summer months. Most often opolish older people independently organizae their journeys and use the overnight accomodation in the houses of their friends and relatives. They most often go to the cities, coastal resorts and others mountain and lakeshore resorts. Besides it polsih older people prefer passive behaviours in their free time as reding books, watching television and listening to the radio and resting.

  18. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Kissi-Twum, Abena Adomah; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Addo, Phyllis; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ngoutane Mfopa, Alvine; Fekam Boyom, Fabrice; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-04-13

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA). The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts.

  19. Selection of the treatment method for the West Valley alkaline supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Leonard, I.M.

    1987-02-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), th PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8d-2 will be partially decontaminated before encapsulation in the final glass form. This report discusses selection of a method for removing Cs-137, the major radioactive ion in the supernatant. Methods considered were: (1) electrodialysis; (2) hyperfiltration; (3) precipitation with ferrocyanide, NaTPB, or PTA; (4) organic ion exchange using Cs-100 or a biologically derived media; (5) chelation using DeVoe/Holbein compostions; and (6) inorganic ion exchange using Durasil, natural zeolities, IE-95 or IE-96 media. Several different methods of using inorganic ion exchange media were also reviewed including (1) four columns with elution, and (2) two, three, or four columns without elution. After the careful evaluation of experimental data with all process constraints taken into account, the inorganic exchange media IE-96 (Linde Ionsiv IE-96 synthetic zeolite) was chosen for WVDP cesium recovery. IE-96 was chosen for the following reasons: high sorption rate, a decontamination factor (DF) over 1000, excellent exchange capacity at WVDP conditions, compatability with the glass formers used for borosilicate glass in direct melter feed applications, and a history of successful application in radio chemical seperation for waste streams. 34 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs

  20. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA. The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts.

  1. Genome-wide single-generation signatures of local selection in the panmictic European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J. M.; Jacobsen, M. W.; Als, Thomas Damm

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide data allow identifying adaptive variation and footprints of directional selection. Using a large SNP data set from 259 RAD-sequenced European eel individuals (glass eels) from eight locations between 34 and 64oN, we examined the patterns...... of genome-wide genetic diversity across locations. We tested for local selection by searching for increased population differentiation using FST-based outlier tests and by testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables. The overall low genetic differentiation...... with single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection acting on glass eels. After screening 50 354 SNPs, a total of 754 potentially locally selected SNPs were identified. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including calcium signalling, neuroactive ligand...

  2. Fishery-induced selection for slow somatic growth in European eel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available Both theoretical and experimental studies have shown that fishing mortality can induce adaptive responses in body growth rates of fishes in the opposite direction of natural selection. We compared body growth rates in European eel (Anguilla anguilla from three Mediterranean stocks subject to different fishing pressure. Results are consistent with the hypotheses that i fast-growing individuals are more likely to survive until sexual maturity than slow-growing ones under natural conditions (no fishing and ii fishing can select for slow-growing individuals by removing fast-growing ones. Although the possibility of human-induced evolution seems remote for a panmictic species like such as the European eel, further research is desirable to assess the implications of the intensive exploitation on this critically endangered fish.

  3. Food production in Poland, compared to selected European Union Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesińska-Kowal, Joanna; Drabarczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the food sector in Poland during 2008-2012, compared to selected European Union Member States, and to define the factors affecting growth of the sector under consideration. The structure of sold production of the Polish food industry and the levels of food production in Europe are presented in the paper. Discussion covers quantitative fluctuations in the number of businesses and production value of food products, as well as employment and salaries ...

  4. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Živčicová; Kristína Bulková; Tatiana Masárová

    2017-01-01

    The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB). The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey r...

  5. A comparison of U.S. and European methods for accident scenario, identificaton, selection and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Djerassi, H.; Lampin, I.

    1989-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the varying methods used to identify and select accident-initiating events for safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Initiating events are important in that they define the extent of a given safety analysis or PRA. Comprehensiveness in identification and selection of initiating events is necessary to ensure that a thorough analysis is being performed. While total completeness cannot ever be realized, inclusion of all safety significant events can be attained. The European approach to initiating event identification and selection arises from within a newly developed Safety Analysis methodology framework. This is a functional approach, with accident initiators based on events that will cause a system or facility loss of function. The US method divides accident initiators into two groups, internal accident initiators into two groups, internal and external events. Since traditional US PRA techniques are applied to fusion facilities, the recommended PRA-based approach is a review of historical safety documents coupled with a facility-level Master Logic Diagram. The US and European methods are described, and both are applied to a proposed International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER) Magnet System in a sample problem. Contrasts in the US and European methods are discussed. Within their respective frameworks, each method can provide the comprehensiveness of safety-significant events needed for a thorough analysis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae...... into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. Results: We used two sets...... of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome...

  7. Ground-Water-Quality Data for Selected Wells in the Beaver Creek Watershed, West Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Shannon D

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, began an investigation of the quality of ground water in the Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee...

  8. The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts. West European Television Channels and Polish Audiences during the System Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Wasiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows symbolized by Tutti Frutti and music video available with MTV Europe.

  9. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  10. Evaluating Forecasting Models for Unemployment Rates by Gender in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Dumičić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment can be considered as one of the main economic problems. The aim of this article is to examine the differences in male and female unemployment rates in selected European countries and to predict their future trends by using different statistical forecasting models. Furthermore, the impact of adding a new data point on the selection of the most appropriate statistical forecasting model and on the overall forecasting errors values is also evaluated. Male and female unemployment rates are observed for twelve European countries in the period from 1991 to 2014. Four statistical forecasting models have been selected and applied and the most appropriate model is considered to be the one with the lowest overall forecasting errors values. The analysis has shown that in the period from 1991 to 2014 the decreasing trend of unemployment rates in the short-run is forecasted for more Eastern Balkan than the EU-28 countries. An additional data point for male and female unemployment rates in 2014 led to somewhat smaller forecasting errors in more than half of the observed countries. However, the additional data point does not necessarily improve forecasting performances of the used statistical forecasting models.

  11. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  13. Finite seismic source parameters inferred from stopping phases for selected events of West Bohemia 2000 swarm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Petr; Růžek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 435-447 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120805; GA ČR GAP210/10/1728 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : finite seismic source * stopping phases * West Bohemia earthquke swarm Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  14. Estimating the contribution of mortality selection to the East–West German mortality convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Tobias; Missov, Trifon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Before German reunification, old-age mortality was considerably higher in East Germany than West Germany but converged quickly afterward. Previous studies attributed this rapid catch-up to improved living conditions. We add to this discussion by quantifying for the first time the impact

  15. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena; Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  16. Ecology of West Nile Fever across four European countries: Review of weather profiles, vector population dynamics and vector control response

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) represents a serious burden to human and animal health because of its capacity to cause large unforeseen epidemics. Until 2004, only lineage 1 and 3 WNV strains had been found in Europe. Lineage 2 strains were initially isolated in 2004 (Hungary), again in 2008 (Austria), and f...

  17. Non-Formal Education in International Comparison: Patterns of Participation and Investment in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kaufmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation focuses on participation and related investment patterns in job related non-formal education (NFE in selected European countries. Broadening previous research formats of NFE are distinguished by investment including financial and time investments by employers, employees and public authorities. By this, company-sponsored and individual-financed NFE are distinguished sharply and cases with shared investment between employers and employees (co-financed NFE and between employers, employees and public funding (co-financed pooled NFE are accounted for, additionally. For explaining participation in NFE supply and demand models are referred to. Hypotheses on cross-country differences for investment in NFE refer to the Varieties-of-Capitalism approach and countries are selected representing different varieties of capitalism (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Spain, France, UK. Analyses are based on data of the Adult Education Survey (AES 2011/12.

  18. A PANEL REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL RELEVANCE IN SELECTED SCANDINAVIAN AND SE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kokotovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of human capital relevance to economic growth is becoming increasingly important taking into account its relevance in many of the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN. This paper conducted a panel regression analysis of selected SE European countries and Scandinavian countries using the Granger causality test and pooled panel regression. In order to test the relevance of human capital on economic growth, several human capital proxy variables were identified. Aside from the human capital proxy variables, other explanatory variables were selected using stepwise regression while the dependant variable was GDP. This paper concludes that there are significant structural differences in the economies of the two observed panels. Of the human capital proxy variables observed, for the panel of SE European countries only life expectancy was statistically significant and it had a negative impact on economic growth, while in the panel of Scandinavian countries total public expenditure on education had a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth. Based upon these results and existing studies, this paper concludes that human capital has a far more significant impact on economic growth in more developed economies.

  19. Territories and energy transition: from the European Metropolis of Lille and the Pays de Fayence to the potential of Ouarzazate and the West African Economic and Monetary Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates territorial energy decentralization. It advocates the greater involvement of territories in the energy transition. Should this evolution be driven from the top by global, European and national decisions and targets, which are then transposed in the territories? Would it be better for territories to initiate local sustainable projects, which can then be approved on a regional and national level and then aggregated? How can inter-communal and regional levels increase their influence in energy and climate matters? How do regional schemes and plans interact with local planning documents? Is territorial Energy Independence feasible, and is it compatible with solidarity? The methodology is based on analysis of the corpus, statistical computation and field work. The field work was conducted in four different spatial typologies: the new European Metropolis of Lille, an urban space, the Pays de Fayence, a Southern France rural space, Ouarzazate, Morocco, a desert space and the West African Economic and Monetary Union. These different typologies have allowed us to draw a vertical line guiding the research conducted given the evolving context post-COP 21, the new European Commission initiatives and the 2015 French laws on territorial organization and energy transition. These factors are grouped into three pairs to interpret the results on France's carbon constraints, the Mediterranean region and Africa, which will only be subject to carbon constraints when the COP 21 Paris agreement has entered into force. (author) [fr

  20. Evidence for natural selection at the melanocortin-3 receptor gene in European and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiuchi, Issei

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is increasing steadily in worldwide prevalence and is known to cause serious health problems in association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including hypertension, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. According to the thrifty gene hypothesis, the natural selection of obesity-related genes is important during feast and famine because they control body weight and fat levels. Past human adaptations to environmental changes in food supply, lifestyle, and geography may have influenced the selection of genes associated with the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and energy. The melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) is associated with obesity, with MC3R-deficient mice showing increased fat mass. MC3R variations are also linked with childhood obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we aimed to uncover evidence of selection at MC3R. We performed a three-step method to detect selection at MC3R using HapMap population data. We used Wright's F statistics as a measure of population differentiation, the long-range haplotype test to identify extended haplotypes, and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to detect selection at MC3R. We observed high population differentiation between European and African populations at two MC3R childhood obesity- and insulin resistance-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3746619 and rs3827103) using Wright's F statistics. The iHS revealed evidence of natural selection at MC3R. These findings provide evidence for natural selection at MC3R. Further investigation is warranted into adaptive evolution at T2DM- and obesity-associated genes.

  1. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  2. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  3. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 4. Portuguese Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    in U.S. military planning , the West has to face growing threats in the peripheral zones, namely in those that are essential to the supply of raw...to a re-definition of U.S. strategic planning . In accordance with the ’Maritime strategy" of deployment from the U.S. territory of important military...Socialist Party, and the editor of the Communist daily, O’Diario, Miguel Urbano Rodriques. Neutralist doctrines are abundantly expressed in Liber 25

  4. A Study of Household Energy Consumption and Road Trafin Bra_ov, Using West-European Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Meer, Erwin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the project were reflected in the research question which was formulated as: "What type of methodologies applicable to end-use household energy-consumption, environmental awareness, and road-traffic analysis are suitable to apply in Eastern-European cities and households, under which

  5. Syn-kinematic palaeogeographic evolution of the West European Platform: correlation with Alpine plate collision and foreland deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    Sequence stratigraphic correlations indicate that intermittent changes of the kinematic far-field stress-field regimes, and the associated geodynamic re-organisations at the plate-tectonic contacts of the African, Apulian, Iberian and European plates, affected the Tertiary palaeogeographic evolution

  6. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Živčicová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB. The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey results revealed stress and working hours to be statistically significant factors that can be seen as obstacles in the WLB and fulfilling family duties for many Slovaks. The survey also shows that the given sample of Slovak respondents performed much worse in the criteria of stress and lack of time results than the European average according to the Eurofond survey. The results could be partly influenced by the fact that the survey participants were mostly employed in the social sector.

  7. Archean and proterozoic in the West-European Hercynian chain: isotopic geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) and U-Pb geochronology on zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrot, C.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology on zircons in the immersed granulites of the Bay of Biscay: U-Pb geochronology on zircons, Nd isotopic geochemistry, Sr isotopic geochemistry, common Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and rare earth data on minerals, comparison with other European granulites, comparison with West-Africa, study of Archean and proterozoic in the Hercynian chain. The second part reports the study of the U-Pb geochronology on zircon in the Cadomian, and the third part addresses the Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of some Cadomian granitoid, and the crust contamination in different regions [fr

  8. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors is summarized along with technical descriptions of the plants. Included in the report are the AVR Experimental Pebble Bed Reactor, the Dragon Reactor, AGR Reactors, and the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR). The study demonstrates that the European experience has been favorable and forms a good foundation for the development of Advanced High Temperature Reactors

  9. Towards the Story of the Parishes’ Reunion of the West European Exarchate with the Moscow Patriarchy in Post-War Years (1945–1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostriukov Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the circumstances of the consolidation of parishes of Russian tradition in the West European exarchate with the Moscow Patriarchy in 1945. The author has analyzed the subsequent circumstances that assisted the parties with the rupture of relations in 1946. On the basis of the documents the author has drawn the conclusion about the primary fragility of the first consolidation that was hasty made, nonmetering specific jurisdictional features of the West European exarchate. Serious problems on the way to unity have arisen in August, 1945, when the representative of the Moscow Patriarchy, metropolitan Nicolay (Jarushevich, had arrived to Paris. Objections against the consolidation have run as follows: the Church in the USSR continued to be in enslavement by the atheistic government. Despite the arguments of association’s opponents, metropolitan Evlogy has agreed to be the part of the Moscow Patriarchy. The next months the positions of the opponents have become stronger because of metropolitan Evlogy who remained the exarch of both Ecumenical and Moscow Patriarchs. In February, 1946 at the ceremony of ordination, bishop Nikon (Greve has sworn not to Moscow, but to the Constantinople patriarch. The decree of the Presidium of the Supreme council of the USSR from June, 14th, 1945 about citizenship that was granted to Russian emigrants in France became the serious strike on the unity. In the Exarchate the delimitation between those who has accepted the Soviet citizenship and those who has refused has begun. Thus the diocesan council, being afraid of freedom’s infringement, prepared a soil for the future separation from the Moscow Patriarchy. In July, 1946 the diocesan council made the memorandum that the policy of the further rapprochement with the USSR and the Moscow Patriarchy threatened the Exarchate with split. After metropolitan Evlogy’s death the division became the accomplished fact.

  10. Reconnaissance sediment budget for selected watersheds of West Maui, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Falinski, Kim A.; Callender, Tova

    2016-01-12

    Episodic runoff brings suspended sediment to the nearshore waters of West Maui, Hawaiʻi. Even small rainfalls create visible plumes over a few hours. We used mapping, field experiments, and analysis of recent (July 19–20, 2014) and historic rainfall to estimate sources of land-based pollution for two watersheds in West Maui: Honolua, and Honokōwai. Former agricultural fields and some unimproved roads are plausible sources for polluted runoff, but have saturated hydraulic conductivities greater than the 10–15 millimeters per hour (mm/hr) rainfalls of July 2014. These fields and roads showed minor evidence for storm runoff, and could not have contributed substantially to July 2014 plume generation. Since 1978, rain at intensities capable of causing runoff from former agricultural fields sustained for 1–2 hours is also rare; such intensities have 2–5 year recurrence rates in the north, and greater than 25 year recurrence rates to the south near Lahaina. Streambanks now eroding into historic terraces of sands, silts, and clays are a more plausible source. Although past large storms contributed to sediment loading, annual plume generation is now caused by smaller rainfalls eroding these near-stream legacy deposits. Treatments of former agricultural fields, roads, and reserve forests are consequently not likely to measurably affect sediment pollution from smaller, more frequent storms. Increased runoff from the development of West Maui has the potential to exacerbate sediment plumes from such storms unless there is an effective strategy to reduce bank erosion. Uncertainties in the extent and erosion rate of historic terraces, however, limit our ability to plan mitigation.

  11. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Lopes, Marcos S; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Frantz, Laurent A F; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W M; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-12-22

    Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and recombination frequency. However, regions with an excess or absence of Asian haplotypes (AS) contained genes that were previously identified as phenotypically important such as FASN, ME1, and KIT. Therefore, the Asian alleles are thought to have an effect on phenotypes that were historically under selection. We aimed to estimate the effect of AS in introgressed regions in Large White pigs on the traits of backfat (BF) and litter size. The majority of regions we tested that retained Asian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) showed significantly increased BF from the Asian alleles. Our results suggest that the introgression in Large White pigs has been strongly determined by the selective pressure acting upon the introgressed AS. We therefore conclude that human-driven hybridization and selection contributed to the genomic architecture of these commercial pigs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Natural gas market - Market opening in Switzerland and a selection of European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.; Worm, H.; Spielmann, Ch.; Finger, M.

    2007-02-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the situation in Switzerland and Europe as far as the liberalisation of the natural gas market is concerned. Comparisons are made between the situation for natural gas and electricity markets. The report discusses the economical and technical characteristics of the gas business such as gas sources, transport, storage and trading as well as the associated investment risks. The gas and electricity supply systems are compared from the supply and demand viewpoints and as far as trading and the increasing of efficiency are concerned. The Swiss gas market is compared with those of selected European countries. Market structures and regulatory aspects are examined and the resulting effects on the market and gas prices are reviewed. The effects of market opening are discussed from both the supplier and consumer points of view

  13. Estimating Selected Streamflow Statistics Representative of 1930-2002 in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    Regional equations and procedures were developed for estimating 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 30-day 2-year; 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 30-day 5-year; and 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 30-day 10-year hydrologically based low-flow frequency values for unregulated streams in West Virginia. Regional equations and procedures also were developed for estimating the 1-day, 3-year and 4-day, 3-year biologically based low-flow frequency values; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency harmonic-mean flows; and the 10-, 25-, 50-, 75-, and 90-percent flow-duration values. Regional equations were developed using ordinary least-squares regression using statistics from 117 U.S. Geological Survey continuous streamflow-gaging stations as dependent variables and basin characteristics as independent variables. Equations for three regions in West Virginia - North, South-Central, and Eastern Panhandle - were determined. Drainage area, precipitation, and longitude of the basin centroid are significant independent variables in one or more of the equations. Estimating procedures are presented for determining statistics at a gaging station, a partial-record station, and an ungaged location. Examples of some estimating procedures are presented.

  14. The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard Raphaelle H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America has been associated with high mortality in the native avifauna and has raised concerns about the long-term impact of WNV on bird populations. Here, we present results from a longitudinal analysis of annual counts of six bird species, using North American Breeding Bird Survey data from ten states (1994 to 2010. We fit overdispersed Poisson models to annual counts. Counts from successive years were linked by an autoregressive process that depended on WNV transmission intensity (annual West Nile neuroinvasive disease reports and was adjusted by El Niño Southern Oscillation events. These models were fit using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results Model fit was mostly excellent, especially for American Crows, for which our models explained between 26% and 81% of the observed variance. The impact of WNV on bird populations was quantitatively evaluated by contrasting hypothetical count trajectories (omission of WNV with observed counts. Populations of American crows were most consistently affected with a substantial cumulative impact in six of ten states. The largest negative impact, almost 60%, was found in Illinois. A regionally substantial decline was also seen for American Robins and House Sparrows, while the other species appeared unaffected. Conclusions Our results confirm findings from previous studies that single out American Crows as the species most vulnerable to WNV infection. We discuss strengths and limitations of this and other methods for quantifying the impact of WNV on bird populations.

  15. Comparison of base flows to selected streamflow statistics representative of 1930-2002 in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Base flows were compared with published streamflow statistics to assess climate variability and to determine the published statistics that can be substituted for annual and seasonal base flows of unregulated streams in West Virginia. The comparison study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management. The seasons were defined as winter (January 1-March 31), spring (April 1-June 30), summer (July 1-September 30), and fall (October 1-December 31). Differences in mean annual base flows for five record sub-periods (1930-42, 1943-62, 1963-69, 1970-79, and 1980-2002) range from -14.9 to 14.6 percent when compared to the values for the period 1930-2002. Differences between mean seasonal base flows and values for the period 1930-2002 are less variable for winter and spring, -11.2 to 11.0 percent, than for summer and fall, -47.0 to 43.6 percent. Mean summer base flows (July-September) and mean monthly base flows for July, August, September, and October are approximately equal, within 7.4 percentage points of mean annual base flow. The mean of each of annual, spring, summer, fall, and winter base flows are approximately equal to the annual 50-percent (standard error of 10.3 percent), 45-percent (error of 14.6 percent), 75-percent (error of 11.8 percent), 55-percent (error of 11.2 percent), and 35-percent duration flows (error of 11.1 percent), respectively. The mean seasonal base flows for spring, summer, fall, and winter are approximately equal to the spring 50- to 55-percent (standard error of 6.8 percent), summer 45- to 50-percent (error of 6.7 percent), fall 45-percent (error of 15.2 percent), and winter 60-percent duration flows (error of 8.5 percent), respectively. Annual and seasonal base flows representative of the period 1930-2002 at unregulated streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged locations in West Virginia can be estimated using previously published

  16. The analysis of the regional self-governing units forests in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lišková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identification, analysis, description and comparison of the regional self-governing units (RSGU forests in selected European countries. The analysis deals not only with forests in the ownership of basic regional self-governing units such as villages but also with forests of higher regional self-governing unit such as regions or federated states. The identification and description of this type of ownership is not overly published in the Czech Republic. The published foreign overall studies and summaries state mainly the division into forests in public and private ownership. This article is created on the basis of the selection of relevant information sources according to corresponding key words. The methods of analysis of available literary sources, conspectus, comparison and interpretation were used to deal with the topic. The quantity of information is higher and more available within basic regional self-governing units than with higher regional self-governing units. On the basis of obtained information it can be stated that the share of forest ownership in the observed countries varies ranging from zero share in the ownership to fifty per cent share in Germany.

  17. THE SAVINGS-TRADE-FISCAL GAP MODEL: APPLICATION IN SELECTED WEST AFRICAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efayena Oba Obukohwo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With most African economies experiencing adverse economic misalignment in recent times, the need of enhancing the growth process cannot be overemphasized. Using a typical Savings-Trade-Fiscal Gap Model, the paper employed panel data estimation method to examine the impact of savings, trade and fiscal gap on economic growth of 15 West African countries. The paper finds a negative relationship between net trade and economic growth, while savings and government expenditure impacts positively on economic performance. The paper thus, among recommended that it is appropriate for all countries to eliminate fiscal dominance from monetary policy-making, reduce public debt and establish institutions that promote and encourage counter-cyclical fiscal policy, develop their financial systems, establish credibility in fiscal and monetary policy-making as well as encourage trade.

  18. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iheonu, E. E.; Akingbade, F.O A.; Ocholi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.4 0 N, Long. 2.3 0 E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  19. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb$_{3}$Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic...

  20. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours - a survey of women's experiences in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesińska-Sawicka, Małgorzata; Nagórska, Małgorzata

    2018-03-14

    Pregnancy, a special period in a woman's life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of planning pregnancy and substance abuse during pregnancy were investigated. In about a half (50.3%) of respondents the pregnancy was planned. The highest percentage of mothers who planned pregnancy was recorded in Poland and Bulgaria (about 76%). By contrast, in Germany the proportion of mothers who planned pregnancy was the lowest (46.2%). Surprisingly, they became pregnant despite very frequent use of birth control (96.7%). On average, 17.3% of respondents disclosed that they drank alcohol or coffee, smoked cigarettes or used psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. Among women who did not plan to be pregnant, the use of stimulants was recorded more often. However, pregnancy planning only slightly inclined women to stop the consumption of stimulants. Attendance at antenatal classes did not have any significant effect on the use of stimulants.

  1. Fossil-fuel dependence and vulnerability of electricity generation: Case of selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the diversity of fuel mix for electricity generation in selected European countries and investigates how the fuel bill has changed as a share of GDP between 1995 and 2005. The drivers of fuel-dependence-related vulnerability are determined using Laspeyres index decomposition. A 'what-if' analysis is carried out to analyse the changes in the vulnerability index due to changes in the drivers and a scenario analysis is finally used to investigate the future vulnerability in the medium term. The paper finds that the British and the Dutch electricity systems are less diversified compared to three other countries analysed. The gas dependence of the Dutch and Italian systems made them vulnerable but the vulnerability increased in all countries in recent years. Gas price and the level of dependence on gas for power generation mainly influenced the gas vulnerability. The United Kingdom saw a substantial decline in its coal vulnerability due to a fall in coal price and coal dependence in electricity generation. The scenario analysis indicates that UK is likely to face greater gas vulnerability in the future due to increased gas dependence in electricity generation and higher import dependence.

  2. Selection of reference soils for chemicals testing in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, G.; Hertling, T.; Schmotz, W.; Vetter, L.; Fraenzle, M.; Geissler, S.; Knabe, I.; Maass, R.; Struckmeyer, A.; Heinrich, U.

    1991-01-01

    Based on an multivariate statistical evaluation of binary and metric data relating to the soil cover of the European Community five regionally representative reference soils (EURO-Soils) have been identified for chemicals testing in the EC. The soil material sampled at representative localities in Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France and Germany was treated and prepared according to OECD Test Guideline 106 and analysed in detail. The homogenised specimens were subject to an EC-wide ring test to evaluate the feasibility of the modified guideline and to validate the physical-chemical amenability of the reference soils for sorption tests. The results proved the validity of the soils selected for assessing the potential behaviour of new chemicals in soil on the basis of a comparative evaluation of the individual test results obtained. In the light of this parametric assessment potential test soils were subsequently identified in the individual EC Member States which correspond as far as possible to the above reference soils in terms of both taxonomy and sorption-relevant properties. (orig.). 164 refs., 30 tabs., 24 figs [de

  3. Financial Innovation and Sustainable Development in Selected Countries in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunsho M. Ajide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial innovation has given a new trend to modern financial system and its importance has been widely recognized. This study investigated the effect of financial innovation augmented with bank competition on sustainable development in eight West African countries. Data were sourced from World Bank development indicators from years 2000-2013. We used two proxies of competitions, two proxies of financial innovations and regressed them on a growth indicator as well as development indicator with other control variables. Using panel data estimations, our results confirmed that an increase in banking efficiency driven by competition and financial innovation would improve economic growth and development. While the two proxies of competition were significant, the financial innovations were not significant; one displayed a negative, while the other exhibited a positive relationship with development. These results revealed the differential effects of different financial innovations adopted in the financial system. That is, the growth effect of financial innovation is sensitive to the choice of proxy. A reduction in demand for money caused by financial innovations could deter economic growth and development. This is because individuals would move away from more liquid assets to less liquid assets. On the other hand, financial innovations could potentially lead to an increase in money demand if payment systems improve and individual’s demand for more liquid assets is channeled to productive sectors. We therefore concluded that policies which would drive competition and efficiency in the banking industry as well as financial innovation should be introduced to ensure effective functioning of the financial system.

  4. West Nile Virus: High Transmission Rate in North-Western European Mosquitoes Indicates Its Epidemic Potential and Warrants Increased Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelke J Fros

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a highly pathogenic flavivirus transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. In North America (NA, lineage 1 WNV caused the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease to date, while a novel pathogenic lineage 2 strain circulates in southern Europe. To estimate WNV lineage 2 epidemic potential it is paramount to know if mosquitoes from currently WNV-free areas can support further spread of this epidemic.We assessed WNV vector competence of Culex pipiens mosquitoes originating from north-western Europe (NWE in direct comparison with those from NA. We exposed mosquitoes to infectious blood meals of lineage 1 or 2 WNV and determined the infection and transmission rates. We explored reasons for vector competence differences by comparing intrathoracic injection versus blood meal infection, and we investigated the influence of temperature. We found that NWE mosquitoes are highly competent for both WNV lineages, with transmission rates up to 25%. Compared to NA mosquitoes, transmission rates for lineage 2 WNV were significantly elevated in NWE mosquitoes due to better virus dissemination from the midgut and a shorter extrinsic incubation time. WNV infection rates further increased with temperature increase.Our study provides experimental evidence to indicate markedly different risk levels between both continents for lineage 2 WNV transmission and suggests a degree of genotype-genotype specificity in the interaction between virus and vector. Our experiments with varying temperatures explain the current localized WNV activity in southern Europe, yet imply further epidemic spread throughout NWE during periods with favourable climatic conditions. This emphasizes the need for intensified surveillance of virus activity in current WNV disease-free regions and warrants increased awareness in clinics throughout Europe.

  5. Selected Organizational Factors Affecting Performance of Professional Nurses in North West Bank Governmental Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulth, Ahida Saleem; Sayej, Sumaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organizational factors are considered to be the cornerstone in achieving psychological and professional security at work, which in turn are positively reflected in job performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to assess of selected organizational factors (workload, available recourses and…

  6. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  7. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  8. Governance beyond the European Consensus on Development: What Drives EU Aid Selectivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of the ‘European Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the quality of governance in

  9. Studies on Lyme disease incidence rates in selected groups of forestry workers in West Pomerania, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data collected by sanitary-epidemiological stations in 2005–2014 were analyzed to determine the incidence rates of borreliosis Lyme disease in the West Pomerania group of workers exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: It was assumed that an adequate comparison of official epidemiological data with the data concerning the number of exposed people, is an indispensable condition for assessing properly the trend in Lyme disease incidence rates, concerning at the same time a real scale of occupational exposure. The study covered a selected group of forestry workers, i.e., white-collar staff employed in different units of the State Forests National Forest Holding with their seats in West Pomerania. The aim of the research was to process and analyze the data on workers employed in the forest sector and their positions, requested from district sanitary-epidemiological stations. Results: In the years concerned 282 cases of the occupational disease were recorded mainly in the groups of forest rangers, junior foresters and forest service inspectors. The values of the incidence factor exhibit high variability with the major share of cases recorded in the years 2008–2010 that accounted for 61.8% of the total occurrences concerned. The incidence in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 amounted to 2418, 2828 and 2646 cases per 100 000 employees, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that previously published information about the incidence of Lyme disease in the agriculture, forestry and hunting sector, did not fully illustrate a real scale of occupational risk. Med Pr 2017;68(2:211–220

  10. Fluoride Uptake Profiles of Selected European Toothpastes into Hard Tissues and Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joel; Schneiderman, Eva; Farmer, Teresa; Zsiska, Marianne

    2017-09-01

    To compare the fluoridating potential of selected European toothpastes using a combination of enamel, dentin, and plaque in vitromodels. Four in vitromodels were included: 1) Enamel Fluoride (F) Uptake (EFU); 2) Dentin F Uptake (DFU); 3) Enamel Solubility Reduction (ESR); and 4) Plaque F Uptake (PFU). A core set of marketed products was included in all studies, plus a standard toothpaste (1100 ppm F as NaF/silica) and placebo control (the PFU study did not include a placebo control). Test dentifrices: [A] Fluocaril® Bi-Fluoré 250 (1500 ppm F as NaF+1000 ppm F as SMFP); [B] LacerAnticaries (2500 ppm F as SMFP); [C] Elmex® Caries Professional™ (1450 ppm F as SMFP+1.5% arginine); [D] Colgate® Triple Action (1450 ppm F as SMFP); [E] Placebo (0 ppm F); and [F] standard toothpaste (1100 ppm as NaF/silica). In all studies (EFU, DFU, ESR, and PFU), assessments were compared for each pair using the Tukey-Kramer HSD test (p F = B = C = D > E; DFU: A > F = B = C = D = E; PFU: A = B > F = C = D). In demineralization prevention, the Fluocaril dentifrice [A] also provided the greatest benefit (ESR: A = F = C = B = D > E). In all studies that included a placebo control, all of the F-containing dentifrices performed better than the placebo control. While these results demonstrate that all of the marketed products tested provide effective anticaries benefits, the Fluocaril Bi-Fluoré 250 dentifrice consistently delivered unsurpassed performance. It delivered the highest level of F to plaque, provided greater measures of efficacy in both remineralization and inhibition of demineralization, and delivered substantial improvement in fluoridation of dentin, suggesting the potential for delivering both coronal and root caries benefits.

  11. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  12. Organic carbon sequestration under selected land use in Padang city, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulnafatmawita; Yasin, S.

    2018-03-01

    Organic carbon is a potential element to build biomass as well as emitting CO2 to the atmosphere and promotes global warming. This research was aimed to calculate the sequestered Carbon (C) within a 1-m soil depth under selected land use from 6 different sites in Padang city, Indonesia. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from several horizons until 100 cm depth at each location. Soil parameters observed were organic carbon (OC), bulk density (BD), and soil texture. The result showed that soil OC content tended to decrease by the depth at all land use types, except under rice field in Kurao-Nanggalo which extremely increased at >65 cm soil depth with the highest carbon stock. The soil organic carbon sequestration from the highest to the lowest according to land use and the location is in the following order mix garden- Kayu Aro > mix garden- Aie Pacah > Rangeland- Parak Laweh >seasonal farming- Teluk Sirih > rice field- Kampuang Jua.

  13. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  14. Food selectivity of perch (Perca fluviatilis L. ) in acidified lakes on the west coast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B

    1972-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine presumed changes in the food composition of perch in lakes subjected to recent acidification, which emanates from sulfuric acid in the precipitation. The material analyzed (825 preserved specimens from 49 different lakes) was collected by the Fishery Board. These lakes represent a great variability in terms of pH. The perch were divided into four size groups and the stomach contents of each specimen was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicate that fish, which make up the bulk of food for adult perch, are replaced by various invertebrates at a decreasing pH. With a moderate decrease the water hog-louse (Asellus aquaticus) appears of major importance, whereas its place is taken by Corixa bugs in the most acidified lakes. These latter invertebrates are normally absent in the food of adult perch. Also, plankton accounts for a substantial share of the stomach contents. The reasons for these changes are manifold, but two factors are primarily discussed in this paper, viz. the effect of the acidification on the prey populations and the elimination of certain species by selective predation in a normal lake.

  15. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to gr...

  16. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours – a survey of women’s experiences in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lesińska-Sawicka; Małgorzata Nagórska

    2018-01-01

    Pregnancy, a special period in a woman’s life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of pla...

  17. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish.

  18. Selected papers from the 11th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdeghini, Carlo; Putti, Marina

    2014-04-01

    The 11th edition of the European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS) was held in Genoa (15-19 September 2013) and registered the participation of more than one thousand attendants from over 40 countries. During the conference seven plenary lectures, 23 invited, and 203 oral contributions and 550 posters have been presented, all focused on recent developments in the field of superconductivity applications. This issue of Superconductor Science Technology is a collection of some of the plenary and invited contributions. Moreover, the winners of the EUCAS prizes (the electronics prize dedicated to the memory of Antonio Barone), and the most significant oral contributions selected by the 125 chairs involved in the organization, have been invited to submit their papers. The remaining papers presented at the conference will be published in the Journal Physics Conference Series, edited by S Farinon, G Lamura, A Malagoli and I Pallecchi. The papers have been organized into the four traditional topics of interest of EUCAS, namely materials, wires and tapes, large scale applications, and electronics. The plenary lectures on these four topics have been collected: Potential of iron-based superconductors for practical materials in the future (J Shimoyama), Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges (J Obradors), Challenges and status of ITER conductor production (A Devred), and the Impact of superconducting devices in imaging in neuroscience (G L Romani). We hope that this issue will let you taste the flavours, hear the sounds and see the colours of this exciting EUCAS edition. The very large participation in EUCAS 2013 has allowed debates on a wide range of topics, starting from the most basic studies on emergent materials up to the new developments in electronics and large scale applications. A round table on HTS Conductors was experimented for the first time gathering material scientists, wire manufacturers and device builders in a stimulating

  19. RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS USING SNYDER AND SCS SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH METHODS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RIVERS IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Adebayo Salami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of runoff hydrographs for selected rivers in Ogun-Osun river catchment, south west, Nigeria using Snyder and Soil Conservation Service (SCS methods of synthetic unit hydrograph to determine the ordinates. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS curve Number method was used to estimate the excess rainfall from storm of different return periods. The peak runoff hydrographs were determined by convoluting the unit hydrographs ordinates with the excess rainfall and the value of peak flows obtained by both Snyder and SCS methods observed to vary from one river watershed to the other. The peak runoff hydrograph flows obtained based on the unit hydrograph ordinate determined with Snyder method for 20-yr, 50-yr, 100-yr, 200-yr and 500-yr, return period varied from 112.63m3/s and 13364.30m3/s, while those based on the SCS method varied from 304.43m3/s and 6466.84m3/s for the eight watersheds. However, the percentage difference shows that for values of peak flows obtained with Snyder and SCS methods varies from 13.14% to 63.30%. However, SCS method is recommended to estimate the ordinate required for the development of peak runoff hydrograph in the river watersheds because it utilized additional morphometric parameters such as watershed slope and the curve number (CN which is a function of the properties of the soil and vegetation cover of the watershed.

  20. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  1. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  2. The shadow economy: a relevant factor for investment decisions in selected European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sovereign risk indicators has a key role for the investment decisions. We were witnesses of inaccurate ratings before the last economic crisis, which altered significantly the results expected by many investors. Thus, we propose an improved rating estimation justifying the insertion of new variables, specifically, the shadow economy as a percentage of the GDP. We find that by taking it into account, the credit rating estimation improves. Our estimation assigns a higher sovereign risk to the new European Union member states, whereas the old European Union member states see their sovereign risk decreased.

  3. Price risk perceptions and management strategies in selected European food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion T.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural prices in European food markets have become more volatile over the past decade exposing agribusinesses to risk and uncertainty. This study goes beyond the farm stage and explores through interviews the price risk perceptions and management strategies in multiple stages of the food

  4. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, agricultural economic importance, or both. An analysis was made of the current knowledge on the risk of occurrence and transmission of these diseases among companion animals, and from companion animals to man (zoonoses) or to livestock. The literature was scanned for risk assessments for these diseases. Studies were classified as import risk assessments (IRAs) or risk factor analyses (RFAs) in endemic areas. For those pathogens that are absent from Europe, only IRAs were considered; for pathogens present throughout Europe, only RFAs were considered. IRAs were identified for seven of the eight diseases totally or partially absent from Europe. IRAs for classical rabies and alveolar echinococcosis found an increased risk for introduction of the pathogen into officially disease-free areas as a consequence of abandoning national rules and adopting the harmonized EU rules for pet travel. IRAs for leishmaniosis focused on risk associated with the presence of persistently infected dogs in new geographical areas, taking into consideration the risk of disease establishment should a competent vector arise. IRAs for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and West Nile fever indicated that the likelihood of introduction via companion animals was low. IRAs for bluetongue paid no attention to the risk of introduction via companion animals, which was also the case for IRAs for foot-and-mouth disease, the only disease considered to be absent from Europe. RFAs dealing with the risk factors for

  5. Disparity in dental attendance among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the USA and selected European countries. The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents≥51 years of age. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental-care coverage, and of oral and general health status, on dental-care use. We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified according to social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified according to welfare state regime or according to the presence or absence of social health insurance. The findings of this study suggest that income and education have a stronger, and more persistent, correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that: (i) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared with relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding; and that (ii) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Quality assessment of some selected brands of anti malarial drugs used in Ghana: A case study of Agona West Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, Aquisman Ebenezer

    2016-07-01

    The availability of numerous brands of artesunate in our drug market today places clinicians and pharmacists in a difficult situation of choice of a suitable brand or the possibility of alternative use. Fake artesunate could compromise the hope that ACT (artemisinin combination therapy) offers for malaria control in Africa. In this study, quality of some selected brands of anti - malarial drugs used in the communities of Agona west Municipality, Ghana was determined. Blister or packs of anti – malarial tablets were randomly sampled. The Protocols of the International Pharmacopeia and Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab were used to assess the quality of anti – malarial tablets per blister pack manufactured by Bliss Gvs Pharma Ltd. India, Letap Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. Ghana and Guilin Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. China and sold in chemical sales outlets at the farming communities of Agona West Municipality, Ghana. The identification test was used to confirm the presence of active ingredients in the tablets. A confirmatory test for the active ingredient was achieved with artesunate (ICRS 1302) reference standards and Gsunate reference standard (ICRS4061). The friability test was used to confirm the hardness of the tablets to determine the drug ability to withstand abrasion in packaging, handling and shipping. The disintegration test was used to confirm the time required for the tablets to disintegrate into particles. Titrimetric analysis confirmed the amount of artesunate found in tablets.The results of the study are as follows for Artesunate by GPCL, LPL and Gsunate by BGPL; the identification test confirmed the presence of the active ingredient in all the brands. Based on the International Pharmacopoeia acceptable range of 1 to 15 min for genuine artesunate per tablet, 93.75 % of field selected artesunate blister pack tablets manufactured by GPCL passed the disintegration test and 6.25% failed. Also 85.57% of the sampled artesunate blister pack manufactured by

  7. When the Chinese met the West: A Review of the Dissemination and Influence of Indian, Arabic and European Astronomy and Astrology in the Imperial China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunli

    2012-09-01

    In traditional Chinese ideology, the tianwen (Celestial Patterns) and lifa (Calendar) are important matters in the legitimization and maintenance of a regime. From very early times, astrology and astronomy became a crucial element in statecraft and establishments were always installed in the government to take care of these matters, which formed a tradition very scrupulously observed and documented by every Chinese dynasty without substantial interruption in thousands of years. A special system consisting of astrology and astronomy was developed and kept on developing on its own track. Such a long and well established tradition did not prevent China from receiving, though sometimes with reluctance and selection, arts and knowledge in astronomy and astrology from outside that might supplement and enhance the indigenous ones. This talk will give a survey on the history of the Chinese reception of astronomical and astrological knowledge from ``the West'', namely, India in the 7th to 10th centuries, Arabic area in the 13th to 15th centuries and Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries. Except tracing down the cultural impacts of the new knowledge from outside, I will concentrate on how the new knowledge was appropriated by Chinese governments, as well as by Chinese astronomers and astrologers.

  8. Barriers to oral health across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John

    2017-06-01

    In this review we consider oral-health access among older adults within and between the USA and various European countries with regard to possible primary financial and modifiable secondary non-financial factors. For older adults, the likelihood of using dental services has been associated, in the health literature, with a multiplicity of factors. These factors are traditionally classified into predisposing, enabling and need categories, and can be further classified into modifiable and non-modifiable subcategories. This raises the question of which single factor or group of factors has the most influence in keeping older adults from seeking care, and how these influences might differ between the USA and various other (European) countries. As it turns out, there is variation in the magnitude of effects across certain measurable potential barriers, but generally it takes a combination of characteristics associated with non-use to have a substantial impact. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. EUROPEAN UNION POLICY-MAKING ON ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchberger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary: This article uses the recently issued report on civil law rules on robotics by the European Parliament’s Committee on Legal Affairs as an anchoring point. After a brief overview of the topic’s socio-economical background, it contains an attempt to define and explain artificial intelligence. By examining the role of autonomous machines in the workforce, it gives an overview of the most pressing questions the future of labour might bring. One closely connected issue is the ...

  10. Quantifying Projected Heat Mortality Impacts under 21st-Century Warming Conditions for Selected European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Baccini, Michela; Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Wolf, Tanja; Paunovic, Elizabet; Menne, Bettina

    2017-07-05

    Under future warming conditions, high ambient temperatures will have a significant impact on population health in Europe. The aim of this paper is to quantify the possible future impact of heat on population mortality in European countries, under different climate change scenarios. We combined the heat-mortality function estimated from historical data with meteorological projections for the future time laps 2035-2064 and 2071-2099, developed under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. We calculated attributable deaths (AD) at the country level. Overall, the expected impacts will be much larger than the impacts we would observe if apparent temperatures would remain in the future at the observed historical levels. During the period 2071-2099, an overall excess of 46,690 and 117,333 AD per year is expected under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively, in addition to the 16,303 AD estimated under the historical scenario. Mediterranean and Eastern European countries will be the most affected by heat, but a non-negligible impact will be still registered in North-continental countries. Policies and plans for heat mitigation and adaptation are needed and urgent in European countries in order to prevent the expected increase of heat-related deaths in the coming decades.

  11. EAC Working Group for Archaeological Archives, A European View of Selecting for Archaeological Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Duncan H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issues around selecting for archaeological archives, including the reasons for doing so, how selection fit into a project and the methodological framework. The context is ‘Making Choices’, a project of the Europae Archaeologiae Consilium that is looking at how all choices are made across archaeological practice, while the foundations are provided by existing standards for archiving and for selection.

  12. Bibliographic analysis of scientific research on selected topics in public health nutrition in West Africa: Review of articles published from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Wilson, Shelby E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Few countries in West Africa have the capacity for carrying out advanced training in nutrition and public health. To provide additional information on current regional applied nutrition research capacity and productivity, we analysed peer-reviewed articles on key public health nutrition topics that were published from 1998 to 2008. Using MEDLINE/PubMed, the following terms were searched: 'breast feeding', 'infant nutrition physiology' (comprising complementary feeding and weaning), 'protein energy malnutrition', 'nutrition and infection', 'vitamin A', 'iodine', 'zinc' and 'overweight', each linked with the term 'Western Africa'. In total, 412 unique articles (37±6 articles per year) were identified. Most research focused on infant and young child feeding practices, selected micronutrient deficiencies, and the emerging problem of overweight and obesity. The primary author of nearly half (46%) the publications was located in an institution outside of West Africa. Most articles were published in English (90%), and nearly half of all articles (41%) were cross-sectional studies. Our findings indicate that few peer-reviewed research studies are being published on key public health topics in the West African region, considering the magnitude of nutrition problems in this region. New approaches are needed to encourage and support research capacity and output in West Africa.

  13. E-commerce Analysis in selected European Union Countries: Position of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnoga, Nataša; Slišković, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Computer and mobile technology, Internet use and e-commerce have grown enormously in recent years. The main aim of this paper was to analyse the e-commerce of Croatia, the European Union (EU) countries and the post-transition EU countries. Due to technological progress, the paper among other things, analyses the trend of online purchase at the Croatian and the EU level. The analysis revealed the presence of a linear trend. Furthermore, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were u...

  14. Urban sprawl and growth management - drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2016-01-01

    Urban growth management has become a common term to circumscribe strategies and tools to regulate urban land use in metropolitan areas. It is particularly used to counteract negative impacts of urban sprawl but also to frame future urban development. We discuss recent challenges of urban growth...... in 6 European and 2 US American city-regions. The paper compares the urban development focusing on a quantification of drivers and effects of urban growth and a qualitative analysis of the applied urban growth management tools. We build our analysis on findings from the EU-FP6 project PLUREL...

  15. Tramadol can selectively manage moderate pain in children following European advice limiting codeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Calligaris, Lorenzo; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-11-01

    The European Medicine Agency recommendations limiting codeine use in children have created a void in managing moderate pain. We review the evidence on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profile of tramadol, a possible substitute for codeine. Tramadol appears to be safe in both paediatric inpatients and outpatients. It may be appropriate to limit the current use of tramadol to monitored settings in children with risk factors for respiratory depression, subject to further safety evidence. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Humic substances elemental composition of selected taiga and tundra soils from Russian European North-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodygin Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of Russian European North were investigated in terms of stability and quality of organic matter as well as in terms of soils organic matter elemental composi­tion. Therefore, soil humic acids (HAs, extracted from soils of different natural zones of Russian North-East were studied to characterize the degree of soil organic matter stabilization along a zonal gradient. HAs were extracted from soil of different zonal environments of the Komi Republic: south, middle and north taiga as well as south tundra. Data on elemental composition of humic acids and fulvic acids (FAs extracted from different soil types were obtained to assess humus formation mechanisms in the soils of taiga and tundra of the European North-East of Russia. The specificity of HAs elemental composition are discussed in relation to environmental conditions. The higher moisture degree of taiga soils results in the higher H/C ratio in humic substances. This reflects the reduced microbiologic activity in Albeluvisols sods and subsequent conser­vation of carbohydrate and amino acid fragments in HAs. HAs of tundra soils, shows the H/C values decreasing within the depth of the soils, which reflects increasing of aromatic compounds in HA structure of mineral soil horizons. FAs were more oxidized and contains less carbon while compared with the HAs. Humic acids, extracted from soil of different polar and boreal environments differ in terms of elemental composition winch reflects the climatic and hydrological regimes of humification.

  18. Comparison of selected approaches to finance renewable energy projects in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, O.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies. However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting for 8-15% of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with an economic potential are only partly exploited. The FIRE research project financed partly in the JOULE program analyses and compares the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practice recommendations so that renewable energy depolyments will occur at a faster rate. FIRE addresses to politicians, to potential investors and to project-developers. (orig./RHM)

  19. Patterns and drivers of land use change in selected European rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; van der Sluis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    concerns are less dominant and many landscape and land use changes are undertaken to improve public goods or fulfil personal and family ambitions and values. This paper investigates the patterns of farm-level land use changes that occurred between 2002 and 2012 in three different landscape regions...... with their engagement in land use changes. Common to all areas is that agricultural production is under pressure due to physical or socio-economic challenges. The results indicate that relatively more nature or landscape features have been added by landowners than removed by them in the six study areas. Furthermore......, the analysis revealed that full-time landowners were responsible for the largest proportion of landscape change and that the areas involved differed greatly. The analysis also underlined the variety of European landscapes, as many landscape activities exhibited strong geographical patterns. A multivariate...

  20. The analysis of the sustainable mobility level in selected European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaston-Ciulkin, A.

    2016-07-01

    Transport needs have to be met through efficient and integrated usage of existing transport infrastructure and urban space together with actions taken in order to reduce traffic congestion by reducing the number and length of travels by car and reducing the demand for the travelling. The expected effect of these actions is the less noise, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The article presents the proposal of the indicator for measuring the degree of sustainable mobility based on the example of European Union cities. The presented method for determining the level of sustainable mobility has been inspired by different researches and it is based on a study of different sub-indicators used for measuring the degree of sustainability of the modal split. (Author)

  1. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A de; Costa, F B [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences; and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  2. Estimation of finite seismic source parameters for selected events of the West Bohemia year 2008 seismic swarm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Petr; Růžek, Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 403-421 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1728 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia year 2008 seismic swarm * finite seismic source * stopping phases * stress drop Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  3. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N [Eurotec West A/S (DK); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H [Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK); Rasmussen, Soeren [SamRas (DK)

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  4. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  5. Vocational Guidance and Counselling for Young People and Adults in the European Community. Findings of a Conference (Berlin, West Germany, December 7-8, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heinz J., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document reports on a conference centered around three topics: vocational guidance in the Member States of the European Community (EC), the "Europeanization" of vocational guidance, and approaches to cross-frontier vocational guidance. Among the recommendations of the conference participants are the following: the tasks of…

  6. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  7. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten Erik

    2017-01-01

    FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe. By...

  8. Use of wind energy in selected European countries -- Legislation and promotion incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langraf, B.; Kellner, T.

    2000-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the strategies for the promotion of the use of wind energy used in various countries in Europe. The three main types of promotion - fixed-tariff purchase of renewable energy, call-for-tender systems and the trading of green energy certificates - are described. An appendix illustrates these three types of promotion with their advantages and disadvantages. The ambitious European Union guidelines on the proposed raising of the proportion of renewable energy are reviewed and the commercial implications in terms of increased turnover are looked at. The effects of electricity market liberalisation are examined, particularly in the fixed-tariff purchasing area. The situation in Switzerland, where much less effort is being made to promote renewable energy sources, is reviewed and the dangers of being left behind in the worldwide market for economic and ecological energy technology are stressed. The report is concluded with recommendations for Switzerland on how existing regulations can be improved and how the market for electricity from renewable sources can be opened

  9. High level radioactive waste management policies and reflections of citizens' opinions in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2002-01-01

    This report considered on policy decision aiming at practice of landfill disposal and process at disposal site forward practice of high level radioactive wastes (HLWs) disposal by adopting Finland and Sweden, for examples among European countries showing their own efforts, to attempt to absorb some instructions for Japan planning to promote practice of unique process in future. As a result performing information collection and analysis at a center of surveys at sites, conclusion shown as follows were obtained: (1) Characteristics of nuclear policy decision making at Finland are confirmation of decision making based on decision in principle (DiP) procedure, participation of nations, especially congress, and high reliability of citizens to social systems. (2) At Oskarshamn in Sweden, positive efforts and decision making on disposal site problem are progressed as results of leading by local assembly, construction planning on decision making competence on HLWs, and planning preparation on presence of troubles and decision with responsibility to citizens. (3) As when promoting disposal site process, failure of loss on reliability relation brings large time and economical losses, for its success conditions, it was proposed that psychological refusal feelings of residents at sites on nuclear energy were small, the sites had some capacities and well-informed capable of understanding and judging on nuclear troubles, and decision not only present facility and trouble proposing construction, but also through discussion on future images for local society. (G.K.)

  10. Visualization of Operational Performance of Grid-Connected PV Systems in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Bhavya Kausika

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of operational performance of small-sized residential PV systems, connected to the grid, in the Netherlands and some other European countries over three consecutive years. Web scraping techniques were employed to collect detailed yield data at high time resolution (5–15 min from a large number (31,844 of systems with 741 MWp of total capacity, delivering data continuously for at least one year. Annual system yield data was compared from small and medium-sized installations. Cartography and spatial analysis techniques in a geographic information system (GIS were used to visualize yield and performance ratio, which greatly facilitates the assessment of performance for geographically scattered systems. Variations in yield and performance ratios over the years were observed with higher values in 2015 due to higher irradiation values. The potential of specific yield and performance maps lies in the updating of monitoring databases, quality control of data, and availability of irradiation data. The automatic generation of performance maps could be a trend in future mapping.

  11. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifinger, M; Hiligsmann, M; Ramiro, S; Watson, V; Severens, J L; Fautrel, B; Uhlig, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Jacques, P; Detert, J; Canas da Silva, J; Scirè, C A; Berghea, F; Carmona, L; Péntek, M; Keat, A; Boonen, A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with moderate disease activity. Treatments differed in five attributes: efficacy (improvement and achieved state on disease activity), safety (probability of serious adverse events), patient's preference (level of agreement), medication costs and cost-effectiveness (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)). A Bayesian efficient design defined 14 choice sets, and a random parameter logit model was used to estimate relative preferences for rheumatologists across countries. Cluster analyses and latent class models were applied to understand preference patterns across countries and among individual rheumatologists. Responses of 559 rheumatologists from 12 European countries were included in the analysis (49% females, mean age 48 years). In all countries, efficacy dominated treatment decisions followed by economic considerations and patients' preferences. Across countries, rheumatologists avoided selecting a treatment that patients disliked. Latent class models revealed four respondent profiles: one traded off all attributes except safety, and the remaining three classes disregarded ICER. Among individual rheumatologists, 57% disregarded ICER and these were more likely from Italy, Romania, Portugal or France, whereas 43% disregarded uncommon/rare side effects and were more likely from Belgium, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden or UK. Overall, European rheumatologists are willing to trade between treatment efficacy, patients' treatment preferences and economic considerations. However, the degree of trade-off differs between countries and among individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  12. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Legal in some European countries and US states, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia remain under debate in these and other countries. The aim of the study was to examine numbers, characteristics, and trends over time for assisted dying in regions where these practices are legal: Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. This was a systematic review of journal articles and official reports. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies, from inception to end of 2012. We searched the websites of the health authorities of all eligible countries and states for reports on physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia and included publications that reported on cases of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia. We extracted information on the total number of assisted deaths, its proportion in relation to all deaths, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals assisted to die. A total of 1043 publications were identified; 25 articles and reports were retained, including series of reported cases, physician surveys, and reviews of death certificates. The percentage of physician-assisted deaths among all deaths ranged from 0.1%-0.2% in the US states and Luxembourg to 1.8%-2.9% in the Netherlands. Percentages of cases reported to the authorities increased in most countries over time. The typical person who died with assistance was a well-educated male cancer patient, aged 60-85 years. Despite some common characteristics between countries, we found wide variation in the extent and specific characteristics of those who died an assisted death.

  13. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  14. Child Abuse, Risk in Male Partner Selection, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization of Women of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Torres, Andrea; Rodríguez, Francisco J

    2018-06-05

    The revictimization of women during the life cycle has attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years. In this study, we examined the relationship between the experience of child abuse and the subsequent victimization by a male partner in adulthood. Specifically, we proposed that childhood abuse experiences negatively affect the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in adulthood. Thus, some female victims of child abuse are more likely to select potentially abusive intimate male partners. Data from 23,863 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union who were living with their partners at the time of the study were used. We investigated the association between child abuse, partner's adherence to traditional gender roles, and general violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) results indicated that child abuse is positively related to the partner's traditional gender role and general violence, which in turn predict IPV. Countries' level of human development was found to affect this process. We found support for the hypothesis that child abuse is related to IPV partially because it influences partner selection in adulthood. Thus, when they become adults, girls abused in childhood tend to select partners who are either traditional or generally violent. There is a persistent influence of social structural conditions (i.e., country's human development) throughout this process.

  15. Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Kanitz, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Burri, Reto; Gaigher, Arnaud; Roulin, Alexandre; Goudet, Jérôme

    2014-11-01

    Gradients of variation--or clines--have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Multiple selective events at the PRDM16 functional pathway shaped adaptation of western European populations to different climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliarello, Andrea; De Fanti, Sara; Giuliani, Cristina; Abondio, Paolo; Serventi, Patrizia; Sarno, Stefania; Sazzini, Marco; Luiselli, Donata

    2017-12-30

    Several studies highlighted the role of climate in shaping many human evolutionary processes. This occurred even in relatively recent times, having affected various human phenotypic traits, among which metabolic processes that orchestrate absorption and accumulation of substances to maintain energy homeostasis, that is critical for the survival of individuals in high energy-expenditure environments. To date, most researches have focalized on detection of climatic influence on SNPs' frequency in populations exposed to extreme environmental conditions or by comparing variation patterns between populations from different continents. In this study, we instead explored the genetic background of distinct western European human groups at loci involved in nutritional and thermoregulation processes, to test whether patterns of differential local adaptation to environmental conditions could be appreciated also at a lower geographical scale. Taking advantage from the 1000 Genomes Project data, genetic information for 21 genes involved in nutritional and thermoregulation processes was analysed for three western European populations. The applied Anthropological Genetics methods pointed to appreciable differentiation between the examined groups especially for the PRDM16 gene. Moreover, several neutrality tests suggested that balancing selection has acted on different regions of the gene in people from Great Britain, as well as that more recent positive selection could have also targeted some PRDM16 SNPs in Finn and Italian populations. These series of adaptive footprints are plausibly related to climate variability in both ancient and relatively recent times. Since this locus is involved in thermoregulation mechanisms and adipogenesis, local adaptations mediated by a pathway related to the brown adipose tissue activity could have evolved in response to changing cold temperature exposures of such populations.

  17. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion: The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods...

  18. Does the committee peer review select the best applicants for funding? An investigation of the selection process for two European molecular biology organization programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available Does peer review fulfill its declared objective of identifying the best science and the best scientists? In order to answer this question we analyzed the Long-Term Fellowship and the Young Investigator programmes of the European Molecular Biology Organization. Both programmes aim to identify and support the best post doctoral fellows and young group leaders in the life sciences. We checked the association between the selection decisions and the scientific performance of the applicants. Our study involved publication and citation data for 668 applicants to the Long-Term Fellowship programme from the year 1998 (130 approved, 538 rejected and 297 applicants to the Young Investigator programme (39 approved and 258 rejected applicants from the years 2001 and 2002. If quantity and impact of research publications are used as a criterion for scientific achievement, the results of (zero-truncated negative binomial models show that the peer review process indeed selects scientists who perform on a higher level than the rejected ones subsequent to application. We determined the extent of errors due to over-estimation (type I errors and under-estimation (type 2 errors of future scientific performance. Our statistical analyses point out that between 26% and 48% of the decisions made to award or reject an application show one of both error types. Even though for a part of the applicants, the selection committee did not correctly estimate the applicant's future performance, the results show a statistically significant association between selection decisions and the applicants' scientific achievements, if quantity and impact of research publications are used as a criterion for scientific achievement.

  19. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim
    To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by statistically derived character species.

    Location
    North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,

  20. Comparison of curricula in radiation technology in the field of radiotherapy in selected European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaszczyk, A.; Bogusz-Czerniewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation technology is a discipline of medical science which deals with diagnostics, imaging and radiotherapy, that is treatment by ionizing radiation. Aim: To present and compare the existing curricula of radiation technology in selected EU countries. Materials and methods: The research work done for the purpose of the comparative analysis was based on the methods of diagnostic test and document analysis. Results: The comparison of curricula in selected countries, namely Austria, France, the Netherlands and Poland, showed that admission criteria to radiation technology courses are varied and depend on regulations of respective Ministries of Health. The most restrictive conditions, including written tests in biology, chemistry and physics, and psychometric test, are those in France. Contents of basic and specialist subject groups are very similar in all the countries. The difference is in the number of ECT points assigned to particular subjects and the number of course hours offered. The longest practical training is provided in the Netherlands and the shortest one in Poland. The duration of studies in the Netherlands is 4 years, while in Poland it is 3 years. Austria is the only country to offer extra practical training in quality management. Conclusion: Graduates in the compared EU countries have similar level of qualifications in the fields of operation of radiological equipment, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, foreign language and specialist terminology in the field of medical and physical sciences, general knowledge of medical and physical sciences, and detailed knowledge of radiation technology. (authors)

  1. THE INFLATION IMPACT OF SELECTED EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERS ON POLISH INFLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Czaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at determining the inflation influence between Poland and selected EU member states. Although for some time the general inflation level in those countries was definitely controllable, the problem seems to be returning. That is why in this article, using the model of Vector AutoRegression (VAR and Granger causality test, we are attempting to determine inflation influences on Poland. The study confirmed the impact of the selected countries on Polish inflation, expressed the general HICP index. However, in the case of Germany, the method has not proved the existence of such interactions. For this reason, it is made an attempt to clarify the reasons for non-compliance findings with data showing Germany as a Polish main trading partner for more than two decades. The authors try to show that lack of influence can be seen in the excessive generality of the main HICP index and predict that the chosen method confirm the effect of foreign trade indices in the HICP.

  2. EUROGAS long-term outlook on natural gas demand and supply up to 2020. The approach of the West European gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.

    1997-01-01

    Eurogas is the European Union of the Natural Gas Industry. Since 1994, it has been publishing a booklet presenting the main figures describing natural gas industry in Europe with a view to supporting its positions in the debates taking place with European and international institutions. This paper is presenting the results of the Eurogas outlook updated in 1996, it is based on input from the national members of Eurogas. (au)

  3. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Panel Data Analysis of Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BEŞKAYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of economic and political factors on the choice of exchange rate regimes. In order to achieve this goal, we apply for Binary Choice Panel Probit Model to examine the relationships between exchange rate regimes and financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democracy. Our data covers the period of 1980-2013 for the selected EU countries, namely, Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Denmark, England, Sweden and Italy. Estimation results demonstrates that the choice of fixed exchange rate regime become disadvantageous and flexible exchange rate turn out to be the right choice as financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democratization increases.

  5. Assessment of Deep Seated Geothermal Reservoirs in Selected European Sedimentary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemach, Pierre; Antics, Miklos

    2014-05-01

    Europe at large enjoys a variety of sedimentary environments. They most often host dependable geothermal reservoirs thus favouring the farming of hot fluids, within the low to medium enthalpy range, among which geothermal district heating (GDH) and combined heat and power (CHP) undertakings hold a dominant share. Three selected reservoir settings, addressing carbonate and clastic deposits, the Central part of the Paris Basin, the Southern Germany Molasse Basin in the Münich area and the Netherland Basin respectively will be presented and the exploratory, modeling and development strategies discussed accordingly. Whereas 2D (reprocessed) and 3D seismics have become a standard in matching the distinctive (reef facies, an echelon faulting, carbonate platform layering) features of a deep buried karst and a key to drilling success in the Molasse Basin, thus emphasizing a leading exploratory rationale, the Netherland and Paris Basin instead benefit from a mature data base inherited from extensive hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, with concerns focused on reservoir modeling and sustainable management issues. As a result the lessons learned from the foregoing have enabled to build up a nucleus of expertise in the whole chain from resource identification to reservoir assessment and market penetration. The seismic risk, indeed a sensitive though somewhat emotional issue, which is requiring special attention and due microseismic monitoring from the geothermal community will also be commented.

  6. Mortality selection during the 2003 European heat wave in three-spined sticklebacks: effects of parasites and MHC genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinski Manfred

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological interaction strength may increase under environmental stress including temperature. How such stress enhances and interacts with parasite selection is almost unknown. We studied the importance of resistance genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II in 14 families of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus exposed to their natural macroparasites in field enclosures in the extreme summer of 2003. Results After a mass die-off during the 2003-European heat wave killing 78% of 277 experimental fish, we found strong differences in survival among and within families. In families with higher average parasite load fewer individuals survived. Multivariate analysis revealed that the composition of the infecting parasite fauna was family specific. Within families, individuals with an intermediate number of MHC class IIB sequence variants survived best and had the lowest parasite load among survivors, suggesting a direct functional link between MHC diversity and fitness. The within family MHC effects were, however, small compared to between family effects, suggesting that other genetic components or non-genetic effects were also important. Conclusion The correlation between parasite load and mortality that we found at both individual and family level might have appeared only in the extraordinary heatwave of 2003. Due to global warming the frequency of extreme climatic events is predicted to increase, which might intensify costs of parasitism and enhance selection on immune genes.

  7. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  8. A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in Europeans implicates two loci shaped by recent positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicholson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL study of the (1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H NMR metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by (1H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10(-11selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%-64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from

  9. The status of IT service management in health care - ITIL® in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbst, Alexander; Hackl, Werner O; Blomer, Roland; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2011-12-21

    Due to the strained financial situation in the healthcare sector, hospitals and other healthcare providers are facing an increasing pressure to improve their efficiency and to reduce costs. These trends challenge health care organizations to introduce innovative information technology (IT) based supportive processes. To guarantee that IT supports the clinical processes perfectly, IT must be managed proactively. However, until now, there is only very few research on IT service management especially on ITIL® implementations in the health care context. The current study aims at exploring knowledge about and acceptance of IT service management (especially ITIL®) in hospitals in Austria and its neighboring regions Bavaria (Germany), Slovakia, South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. Therefore highly standardized interviews with the respective head of information technology (CIO, IT manager) were conducted for selected hospitals from the different regions. In total 75 hospitals were interviewed. Data gathered was analyzed using descriptive statistics and where necessary methods of qualitative content analysis. In most regions, two-thirds or more of the participating IT managers claim to be familiar with the concepts of IT service management and of ITIL®. IT managers expect from ITIL® mostly better IT services, followed by an increased productivity and a reduction of IT cost. But only five hospitals said to have implemented at least parts of ITIL®, and eight hospitals stated to be planning to do this in the next two years. When it comes to ITIL®, Switzerland and Bavaria seem to be ahead of the other countries. There, the highest levels of knowledge, the highest number of implementations or plans of an implementation as well as the highest number of ITIL® certified staff members were observed. The results collected through this study indicate that the idea of IT services and IT service management is still not widely recognized in hospitals in the countries and regions

  10. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezi, Emiliano; Leal, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) was held from 15-18 May, 2012 in Seville, Spain. The event was organized by the Universidad de Sevilla with the support of the European Workgroup on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (EWG-MCTP). MCTP2012 followed two successful meetings, one held in Ghent (Belgium) in 2006 (Reynaert 2007) and one in Cardiff (UK) in 2009 (Spezi 2010). The recurrence of these workshops together with successful events held in parallel by McGill University in Montreal (Seuntjens et al 2012), show consolidated interest from the scientific community in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning. The workshop was attended by a total of 90 participants, mainly coming from a medical physics background. A total of 48 oral presentations and 15 posters were delivered in specific scientific sessions including dosimetry, code development, imaging, modelling of photon and electron radiation transport, external beam radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, brachitherapy and hadrontherapy. A copy of the programme is available on the workshop's website (www.mctp2012.com). In this special section of Physics in Medicine and Biology we report six papers that were selected following the journal's rigorous peer review procedure. These papers actually provide a good cross section of the areas of application of MC in treatment planning that were discussed at MCTP2012. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) and Wagner et al (2013) present the results of their work in small field dosimetry. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) studied field size and detector dependent correction factors for diodes and ion chambers within a clinical 6MV photon beam generated by a Siemens linear accelerator. Their modelling work based on the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc codes and experimental measurements revealed that unshielded diodes were the best choice for small field dosimetry because of their independence from the electron beam spot size and correction factor close to unity. Wagner et al (2013

  11. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  12. Application of remote sensing data and geographic information system (GIS) in the selection of a NPP potential site in west Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Kurnia Anzhar; Bansyah Kironi; June Mellawati

    2015-01-01

    Potential site selection on spatial basis which applied throughout the coast of West Kalimantan has been performed by adding additional criteria compare to the criteria used in 2014. The objective of research is to get the potential site of nuclear power plants (NPP) in the coastal areas of West Kalimantan Province based on the applicable criteria. Research methods include collecting of primary data, interpretation of remote sensing data, and weighting analysis based on SIG. The research results obtained six of potential site for NPP, i e., Air Besar Village Kendawangan Sub-district Ketapang Regency (first rank), Sie Village Simpang Hilir Sub-district Kayong Regency (second rank), Sungai Kanan Village Muara Sub-district Ketapang Regency (third rank), Sungai Nanjung Village Matan Sodascorbate Ketapang Regency (fourth rank), Kendawangan Kanan Village Kendawangan Sub-district Ketapang Regency (fifth rank) dan Sungai Nanjung Village Matan Sub-district Ketapang Regency, Matang Village Paloh Sub-district, Sambas Regency (sixth rank). Analysis of land suitability showed that all potential has met the general and specific criteria, among other things because it is not a peat and far away from the settlements. (author)

  13. Employment in the research and development sector in selected countries of the European Union and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turczak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine how particular factors affect the diversity of countries in terms of the number of employees in the research and development (R&D sector compared with the number of their overall populations. Two factors are analysed in the study: the proportion of employment in the R&D sector to the total number of people employed (i.e. the factor showing the importance given to R&D in the country concerned and the proportion of the total number of people employed to the number of inhabitants aged 15 and more (i.e. the employment rate. The logarithmic method has been used to assess the impact of deviations of these factors on the deviation of employment in the R&D sector in relation to the number of inhabitants. The causal analysis has allowed for answering the question of how each factor affects the variable in the selected twenty-six countries of the European Union and the world, i.e. what are the direction and strength of the influence. The results obtained for Poland are compared with those received for other countries covered by the analysis and the final conclusions are drawn on this basis.

  14. Self-exclusion as a harm minimization strategy: evidence for the casino sector from selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    As the international gambling market continues to expand, determining effective approaches to prevent gambling-related problems becomes increasingly important. Despite a lack of in-depth research into its benefits, self-exclusion is one such measure already in use around the world in various sectors of the gambling industry. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the effectiveness of self-exclusion schemes in the casino sector in selected European countries. A written survey yielded a sample of N = 152 (self)-excluded gamblers. In addition to this cross-section analysis, a small sub-group (n = 31) was monitored over time by means of follow-up surveys carried out 1, 6, and 12 month(s) after the exclusion agreement came into force. The results reveal that the self-excluded individuals are typically under a great deal of strain and show a relatively pronounced willingness to change. However, this largely reaches its peak at the time the decision to self-exclude is made. From a longitudinal perspective, various parameters indicate a clear improvement in psychosocial functioning; a favorable effect that also starts directly after the exclusion agreement was signed. Finally, considering theoretical and empirical findings, possibilities for optimizing (self-)exclusion schemes will be discussed.

  15. Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Goytia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to which legal rules governing flood defense infrastructure in a selection of European countries (England, France, Sweden, and The Netherlands allow for response and adaptation to change and uncertainty. Although there is evidence that the legal rules on the development of new infrastructure require that changing conditions be considered, the adaptation of existing infrastructure is a more complicated matter. Liability rules fail to adequately address damages resulting from causes external to the action or inaction of owners and managers, in particular extreme events. A trend toward clearer, and in some cases, increased public powers to ensure the safety of flood defense infrastructure is observed. The paper concludes that legal rules should ensure not only that decisions to build flood defenses are based on holistic and future-oriented assessments, but also that this is reflected in the implementation and operation of these structures.

  16. The Aspects of Managing Risks in Connection with the Internationalization of Smes from Selected Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Toulová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient domestic demand and increasing competition force small and medium‑sized enterprises (SMEs to engage in internationalization process and enter to foreign markets. This process, however, carries risks that should be appropriate managed. In order to identify similarities and differences in the approach of SMEs from selected Central European countries towards managing these risks and find out whether perception of risks differ based on domestic country of the SMEs, questionnaire survey among Czech, Slovak, German, Austrian and Poland SMEs was performed in 2014. It was found that more Austrian and German SMEs, compared to Czech, Slovak and Polish SMEs, do not apply any method of risk analysis but are more focused on some form of protection in international operations. As the most common form was identified payment in advance. It was also found that Austrian and German SMEs prefer to use bank products rather that conclude long‑term contracts or verify the credibility of their foreign business partners used by Czech, Slovak and Poland SMEs. Based on statistical testing, significant differences appeared in risk perception of SMEs from different countries. Especially perception of market risks, transportation risks and risk of natural disasters.

  17. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours – a survey of women’s experiences in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lesińska-Sawicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy, a special period in a woman’s life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of planning pregnancy and substance abuse during pregnancy were investigated. In about a half (50.3% of respondents the pregnancy was planned. The highest percentage of mothers who planned pregnancy was recorded in Poland and Bulgaria (about 76%. By contrast, in Germany the proportion of mothers who planned pregnancy was the lowest (46.2%. Surprisingly, they became pregnant despite very frequent use of birth control (96.7%. On average, 17.3% of respondents disclosed that they drank alcohol or coffee, smoked cigarettes or used psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. Among women who did not plan to be pregnant, the use of stimulants was recorded more often. However, pregnancy planning only slightly inclined women to stop the consumption of stimulants. Attendance at antenatal classes did not have any significant effect on the use of stimulants.

  18. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  19. United States Service Academy Admissions: Selecting for Success at the Military Academy/West Point and as an Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    American, 1st team All-Area selection in baseball/ softball , basketball, or football) and athletic rating of either 1 or 2 in the sport in which honors...are received or a CFA score greater than 650. 800 1st team All-Area selection in a single sport (other than baseball/ softball , basketball, or...football). Captain of baseball/ softball , basketball or football team. Team captain in two or more sports (other than baseball/ softball , basketball, or

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmer...

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann...

  2. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmer...

  3. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zi...

  4. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Infectious Diseases/Immunology"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmer...

  5. Do birds of a feather flock together? The variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J V

    2000-03-01

    Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.

  6. Normative Power vs. Political Interest: EU Aid Selectivity beyond the European Consensus on Development, 2008-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of the ‘European Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the

  7. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  8. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to grave. The environmental impact criteria which were studied were acidification, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources – elements, depletion of abiotic resources - fossil fuels, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition to comparing the four countries in terms of these individual impacts, the overall environmental impact scores for all countries were calculated, once with equal weights for all impacts and once with weights which were determined by acquiring the stakeholder opinions via an online questionnaire. In both cases, Poland turned out to have the highest environmental impact due to the high share coal in the electricity mix, and Turkey came second after Poland. Equal-weight-analysis returned Denmark as the country with the cleanest electricity generation infrastructure whereas stakeholder-weight-analysis results showed that it was France who had the lowest environmental impact. This result was attributed to the high weight of global warming potential and France’s nuclear-energy-based electricity generation system has a very low global warming potential when compared to other three countries. It was concluded that the prospective addition of nuclear energy, solar energy, and clean coal technologies into Turkey’s electricity mix shall reduce the overall environmental impact of electricity

  10. MHC-Dependent Mate Selection within 872 Spousal Pairs of European Ancestry from the Health and Retirement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS. First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications, and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice.

  11. Geochemical Investigation of Selected Elements in an Agricultural Soil: Case Study in Sumani Watershed West Sumatera in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geochemical study of agricultural soil and river sediments along Sumani watershed, West Sumatra in Indonesia. We examined the distribution and abundances of 16 elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr, Si, Ti, Fe Ca, and P in vegetable soil, sawah soil =and river sediment sample, to evaluate the factors controlling their abundances, possible sources, and environmental implications. Average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr at vegetable (1 soil were 38, 88.3, 38.7, 3, 8, 101, 96, 98, 87, 31 and 218 mg kg-1 , 26, 39.05, 8.8, 13.5, 31, 231.5, 37, 19, 78, 16 and 303.5 mg kg-1 at sawah soil (3, 4 and 30, 61.6, 35.7, 9, 22, 294, 65, 12, 78, 14 and 232 mg kg-1 at river sediment (2, respectively. The concentration of Pb, Rb, Th and Zr at upland vegetables, V and Zr at sawah soil and river sediment were mostly two time Sumatra BCSCST or BCC in several samples. Enrichment factor values showed low to moderate enrichment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Rb, Ce and Zr, whereas Th showed significant contamination at vegetables soil, suggesting contributions from anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic contributions of most metals mainly originate from natural processes. However, Pb, Ce, Th and Zr ranges of 527–108, 41-89, 66-117 and 35-100%, respectively, at Vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment confirm their anthropogenic contribution. Factor analysis and correlation matrices suggested that elevated metal concentrations at agricultural soil in Sumani watershed might be controlled by pH, CEC, Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Deposition of metals at vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment might be controlled by non-ferrous metal (i.e., aluminosilicates, sediment grain size, or source rock composition (andesite, alluvial fan, undifferentiated volcanic material, granite and gneiss.

  12. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Three bankfull channel characteristics?cross-sectional area, width, and depth?were significantly correlated with drainage area in regression equations developed for two regions in West Virginia. Channel characteristics were determined from analysis of flow measurements made at 74 U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times bankfull flow between 1911 and 2002. Graphical and regression analysis were used to delineate an 'Eastern Region' and a 'Western Region,' which were separated by the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces. Streams that drained parts of both provinces had channel characteristics typical of the Eastern Region, and were grouped with it. Standard error for the six regression equations, three for each region, ranged between 8.7 and 16 percent. Cross-sectional area and depth were greater relative to drainage area for the Western Region than they were for the Eastern Region. Regression equations were defined for streams draining between 46.5 and 1,619 square miles for the Eastern Region, and between 2.78 and 1,354 square miles for the Western Region. Stream-gaging stations with two or more cross sections where flow had been measured at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times the 1.5-year flow showed poor replication of channel characteristics compared to the 95-percent confidence intervals of the regression, suggesting that within-reach variability for the stream-gaging stations may be substantial. A disproportionate number of the selected stream-gaging stations were on large (drainage area greater than 100 square miles) streams in the central highlands of West Virginia, and only one stream-gaging station that met data-quality criteria was available to represent the region within about 50 miles of the Ohio River north of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Many of the cross sections were at bridges, which can change channel shape. Although the data discussed in this report may not be

  13. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hifinger, M.; Hiligsmann, M.; Ramiro, S.; Watson, V.; Severens, J. L.; Fautrel, B.; Uhlig, T.; van Vollenhoven, R.; Jacques, P.; Detert, J.; Canas da Silva, J.; Scirè, C. A.; Berghea, F.; Carmona, L.; Péntek, M.; Keat, A.; Boonen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with

  14. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: Selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masae; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (jiko-kettei). These debates usually focus on whether this 'foreign' concept is appropriate in a Japanese context, as the dominant Japanese discourse stereotypes the Japanese as making decisions in a harmonious manner. Both in public debates and in academic writing on abortion, the idea that the West is devoid of harmonious collectivism is often presented in an uncritical manner. In this article, we argue that the notion of 'self-determination' is borrowed from 'reverse Orientalist' and Occidentalist discourses that portray Westerners as individualistic or ego-centric and the Japanese as collectivist. The concept of 'self-determination' was remolded and projected onto Japanese public and academic debates on abortion. The relevance of this concept lies in the ways in which dichotomous views of 'Japan as harmonious' versus 'the West as individualistic' influence guidelines concerning prenatal testing and its daily practice. By critically analyzing the narratives of policy-makers and academic studies on self-determination and prenatal testing, this study traces these polarizing views back to the processes of national identity formation. These processes underlie political debates and academic work associated with the search for 'Japanese-ness'. This article further demonstrates that policy-makers' criticism of self-determination in prenatal testing derives from gender bias, which is also related to issues of Japanese identity. This article is based on both archival and field research materials collected between 1997 and 2008. We also refer to interviews with medical doctors, policy-makers, journalists, counselors, nurses, participants in various social movements and

  15. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part III. Investigation of European standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry A; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90 cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP=8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP=18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN=0.014+0.375×PPNIOSH (adjusted R2=0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods

  16. Through Student Eyes: Perceptions and Aspirations of Students from the Armenian State Agrarian University and Selected European Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; Briers, Gary E.; Navarro, Maria; Peake, Jason; Parr, Brian; Ter-Mkrtchyan, Ani; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research compared attributes of students enrolled in the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU) with university students from 30 European countries (EFMD) about graduate study policy issues. A cross-national comparative design used a survey questionnaire to explore contextual, social and cultural phenomena. Samples included 801 ASAU and…

  17. Sovereign debt and corporate capital structure: The evidence from selected European countries during the Gglobal Financial and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent Global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. Moreover, the sovereign debt as an essential element of government macroeconomic policy influences the financial performances of the companies and their future development and growth. The capital structure and financing decisions represent one of the most significant parts of company’s financial policy and its key to financial strength. There are a lot of external factors influencing the capital structure; however, due to the European debt crisis the aim of this study is to indicate the influence of sovereign debt on capital structure of the private held companies in different European countries. This study examines the evidence from European developed countries and emerging markets for the period 2005–2012, in order to compare the level of its impact on the capital structure according to the countries’ specifics. We find that after Global Financial Crisis the sovereign debt has tendency to increase in all investigated countries. Greece and Italy have the highest level of debt and it exceeds their Gross Domestic Product (GDP. In addition to that, the Czech Republic has the lowest level of sovereign debt to GDP, but at the same time the corporate capital structure exceeds 100%. The sovereign debt levels are strongly and statistically significantly correlated with each other, however, Hungarian debt has weaker relation with other countries. The findings also show the integration and interdependence of European countries. Moreover, Hungarian, Czech and German private sectors are the most depended on the level of sovereign debt.

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 22nd European Neonatal Workshop; Siena (Italy; Carthusia Pontiniani; June 15-18, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 22nd European Neonatal Workshop • Siena (Italy • Carthusia Pontiniani • June 15th-18th, 2014Guest Editor: Giuseppe BuonocoreABS 1. Incidence and risk factors of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in infants less than 32 weeks of gestation • G. Mitsiakos, A. Papageorgiou; Montreal (Canada ABS 2. Cord blood concentrations of the myokine irisin in fetal macrosomia • D.D. Briana, T. Boutsikou, M. Boutsikou, S. Baka, A. Marmarinos, D. Hassiakos, D. Gourgiotis, A. Malamitsi-Puchner; Athens (Greece ABS 3. Asynchronous chest compressions improve survival in a neonatal piglet model of asphyxial cardiac arrest • N. Iacovidou, A. Aggelina, A. Papalois, A. Douvanas, P. Pliatsika, T. Xanthos; Athens (Greece ABS 4. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV congenital infection. Implementation of a screening program during pregnancy • I. Dorronsoro, M. Lopez-Azorin, M. Caballero, J. García-Flores, M. Recio, A. Pellicer, F. Cabañas; Madrid (Spain ABS 5. Steps forward the BiAR-COH method in autoregulation analysis: assessment of causality • J. Riera, F. Cabañas, J.J. Serrano, M.C. Bravo, P. López-Ortego, L. Sánchez, R. Madero, A. Pellicer; Madrid and Zaragoza (Spain ABS 6. Comparison of delivery room care in three countries: There are many ways of skinning a cat • S. Walter, B. Simma, J. van Vonderen, A.B. te Pas, H. Küster; Göttingen (Germany, Feldkirch (Austria and Leiden (The Netherlands ABS 7. Diaphragmatic function in convalescent preterm infants with chronic lung disease • G. Dimitriou, A. Vervenioti, S. Fouzas, P. Pelekouda; Patras (Greece ABS 8. Stem/progenitors in the newborn kidney: an undiscovered resource to prevent kidney failure later in life? • G. Faa, C. Gerosa, A. Sanna, M. Puddu, D. Fanni, V. Fanos; Cagliari (Italy ABS 9. Placental histological patterns and oxidative stress in the offspring • S. Perrone, S. Negro, M.S. Cori, M.G. Alagna, P. Toti, M.S. Toti, C. Felici, M. Longini, M.L. Tataranno, G

  19. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  20. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  1. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Sawdetuo Hien

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC and biological cotton (BC growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75% and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%. The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests

  2. HTA programme response to the challenges of dealing with orphan medicinal products: Process evaluation in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicod, Elena; Annemans, Lieven; Bucsics, Anna; Lee, Anne; Upadhyaya, Sheela; Facey, Karen

    2017-03-28

    Challenges commonly encountered in HTA of orphan medicinal products (OMPs) were identified in Advance-HTA. Since then, new initiatives have been developed to specifically address issues related to HTA of OMPs. This study aimed to understand why these new HTA initiatives in England, Scotland and at European-level were established and whether they resolve the challenges of OMPs. The work of Advance-HTA was updated with a literature review and a conceptual framework of clinical, regulatory and economic challenges for OMPs was developed. The new HTA programmes were critiqued against the conceptual framework and outstanding challenges identified. The new programmes in England and Scotland recognise the challenges identified in demonstrating the value of ultra-OMPs (and OMPs) and that they require a different process to standard HTA approaches. Wider considerations of disease and treatment experiences from a multi-stakeholder standpoint are needed, combined with other measures to deal with uncertainty (e.g. managed entry agreements). While approaches to assessing this new view of value of OMPs, extending beyond cost/QALY frameworks, differ, their criteria are similar. These are complemented by a European initiative that fosters multi-stakeholder dialogue and consensus about value determinants throughout the life-cycle of an OMP. New HTA programmes specific to OMPs have been developed but questions remain about whether they sufficiently capture value and manage uncertainty in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selecting SNPs informative for African, American Indian and European Ancestry: application to the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L

    2016-05-04

    The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased

  4. The current mexican outlook of scientific cooperation with selected countries inside APEC: China, South Korea, Latin America and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico the Law on International Cooperation for Development came into force in 2011. The main objective of this instrument was to create a legal framework for all the cooperation activities in Mexico, such as International Scientific Cooperation. In order to understand this emerging process, it is necessary to analyze the current status of Scientific Cooperation between Mexico and other countries and regions in the world. Mexico has cooperation agreements and contracts at bilateral, trilateral and multilateral levels, which also include the subject Research & Development (R & D –a key indicator of the economic competitiveness of a country–. The analysis includes relevant countries for Mexico, such as China, South Korea and other countries within Apec, Latin America and the European Union. We therefore try to give an overview of the current situation and of potential medium- term prospects.

  5. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  6. European League against rheumatism - selected presentation and poster a highlights June 11th to 13th 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Martin

    2014-02-01

    The heterogeneous pathology of many autoimmune diseases warrants the continual discovery and development of new drugs. Drawing on selected oral presentations and selected poster displays, this article highlights some new developments in the pharmacological validation of molecular targets implicated in inflammatory autoimmune disease and may be of direct importance to scientists working in this field. This report describes the current state of the pharmacology of selected drugs and targets which may have utility in modulating immune function and autoimmune inflammatory disease. Many new molecules are progressing through clinical development for the treatment of rheumatological diseases. The value of the basic nonclinical and clinical research presented is to further pharmacological knowledge of the molecule, better understand the benefit-risk associated with clinical development and to assist in supporting the potential position of a new drug in the current treatment paradigm.

  7. Assessment of Information and Communication Technology for Selective Dissemination of Information and Current Awareness Services: A Case Study of University Libraries in the South-West Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturday U. Omeluzor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To assess the use of information and communication technology (ICT for selective dissemination of information (SDI and current awareness services (CAS in university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria. Methods – A descriptive research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to a population consisting of 379 librarians, with 353 usable questionnaires retrieved. Results – Findings revealed that most university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria do not use ICT in delivery of SDI and CAS. It is evident in this study that despite the known positive effects of ICT in library services, traditional methods were predominantly used for SDI and CAS to the library users. The study revealed that erratic Internet services, insufficient training, inadequate ICT skills, and low support for ICT were hindrances towards ICT use for SDI and CAS. Conclusions – The integration of ICT features in library services for the delivery of CAS and SDI has been a challenge in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. Only a few libraries and a low percentage of librarians had adopted the use of ICT in the delivery of CAS and SDI, while a larger number of libraries resorted to the use of traditional methods. The level of ICT literacy among the librarians in this study is low, as a higher percentage of librarians did not have adequate ICT skill to use available online resources on the Internet and other ICT tools to deliver SDI and CAS in South-West, Nigeria. This is not unconnected to the fact that the training and technical support received by the librarians is inadequate, and the level of support that academic libraries received from their university managements in South-West Nigeria in terms of funding for ICT development is inadequate, which led to low Internet services.

  8. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  9. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF LAKES MANAGEMENT IN POLISH WATER LAW RELATED TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLISH AND EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSZELEWSKI M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of water resources has got significant social and economic dimension. For this reason, it is an essential element of almost every national law, European Union law, and also international law in a broad sense. Legislative authority, during legislature process, should allway s balance private and public interests to adopt compromised solutions. Furthermore these solutions must be determined mostly by hydrology to be appropriate to the nature of waters and environment. Because of mentioned issues, it is very undesirable state of affairs when law simply does not fit to the object of its regulation. In Water Law Act of 2001 Polish legislator classifies lakes, depending upon the type of watercourse (natural or man-made flowing into or out of the lake, among either flowing water or stagnant one. This regulation is against hydrological classification of lakes. Moreover this legal act introduces different treatment of dammed lakes in the context of public access to the lakeshores. Indicated problems have got significant impact on many aspects such as ownership of lakes, obligations of the owners of the lakes, lakes and environmental protection and, mentioned above, right to public acces to the lakes.

  10. Use of wind energy in selected European countries -- Legislation and promotion incentives; Windenergienutzung in ausgewaehlten europaeischen Laendern: Gesetzgebung und Foerdermassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.; Kellner, T.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the strategies for the promotion of the use of wind energy used in various countries in Europe. The three main types of promotion - fixed-tariff purchase of renewable energy, call-for-tender systems and the trading of green energy certificates - are described. An appendix illustrates these three types of promotion with their advantages and disadvantages. The ambitious European Union guidelines on the proposed raising of the proportion of renewable energy are reviewed and the commercial implications in terms of increased turnover are looked at. The effects of electricity market liberalisation are examined, particularly in the fixed-tariff purchasing area. The situation in Switzerland, where much less effort is being made to promote renewable energy sources, is reviewed and the dangers of being left behind in the worldwide market for economic and ecological energy technology are stressed. The report is concluded with recommendations for Switzerland on how existing regulations can be improved and how the market for electricity from renewable sources can be opened.

  11. Estimation of parameters of finite seismic source model for selected event of West Bohemia year 2008 seismic swarm-methodology improvement and data extension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2015), s. 935-947 ISSN 1383-4649 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia 2008 seismic swarm * finite seismic source * stopping phases Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  12. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  13. Variation in Linked Selection and Recombination Drive Genomic Divergence during Allopatric Speciation of European and American Aspens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2016-07-01

    Despite the global economic and ecological importance of forest trees, the genomic basis of differential adaptation and speciation in tree species is still poorly understood. Populus tremula and Populus tremuloides are two of the most widespread tree species in the Northern Hemisphere. Using whole-genome re-sequencing data of 24 P. tremula and 22 P. tremuloides individuals, we find that the two species diverged ∼2.2-3.1 million years ago, coinciding with the severing of the Bering land bridge and the onset of dramatic climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Both species have experienced substantial population expansions following long-term declines after species divergence. We detect widespread and heterogeneous genomic differentiation between species, and in accordance with the expectation of allopatric speciation, coalescent simulations suggest that neutral evolutionary processes can account for most of the observed patterns of genetic differentiation. However, there is an excess of regions exhibiting extreme differentiation relative to those expected under demographic simulations, which is indicative of the action of natural selection. Overall genetic differentiation is negatively associated with recombination rate in both species, providing strong support for a role of linked selection in generating the heterogeneous genomic landscape of differentiation between species. Finally, we identify a number of candidate regions and genes that may have been subject to positive and/or balancing selection during the speciation process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Comparison of training and competition opportunities in leisure time among people with intellectual disabilities in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Francova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leisure time activities are important for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID Table tennis (TT seems to be the most suitable and accessible activity in relation to motor skills and low financial requirements. The aim of the project was to investigate the opportunities for the TT training and competition among individuals with ID in the following European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, England, and Hungary. Those countries regularly participate in international TT events organized by Inas. The coaches of the mentioned countries were questioned about the TT training process of persons with ID during their leisure time. The survey was completed by 4 coaches (3 male and 1female, who work at various levels (from the lowest level in sports clubs to the top level in national teams in each country. The research findings showed that all of the surveyed couches practiced trainings frequency two times per week. In addition to national games, all the countries organize competitions at regional levels and par¬ti¬ci¬pa¬te in international events. The data reveal that training camps lasting from 5 to 14 days per year are organized in all the sur¬veyed countries. The survey found certain training options, which correspond more to the standard of the recreational sport than to the standard of the top-level sport. A positive finding was the possibility of training with the intact population, which may be con¬si¬de¬red as an important phenomenon of social inclusion.

  15. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Ethics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Ethics"ABS 1. THE DELIVERY OF BAD NEWS: A ONE OR 2-STEP APPROACH? THE CASE FOR TRISOMY 21 • M.S. Schimmel, M.Y. Kassirer, H.M. TowersABS 2. NEONATAL ORGAN DONATION: A POTENTIAL NEW DONOR SOURCE FOR CELL AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION • C. Jorns, E. Henckel, G. Nowak, A. Karadagi, T. Kjellin, E. Bluhme, Ö. Jynge, M. Hending, A. Croon, M. Söderström, B. Fischler, A. Nemeth, R. Gramignoli, S. Strom, E. Ellis, B. HallbergABS 3. HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS’ AND PARENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD PARENTAL AUTONOMY AND THE BEST INTEREST OF THE EXTREME PRETERM INFANT: A NATIONAL STUDY IN SWITZERLAND • M. Hendriks, H. Bucher, S. Klein, R. Baumann-Holzle, J. Streuli, J. FauchèreABS 4. CHANGING PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS IN TRISOMIES – A POTENTIAL ETHICAL DILEMMA FOR NEONATOLOGISTS? • E. Simons, P. Nath, P. ParthasarathyABS 5. INGEBORG SYLLM-RAPOPORT (1912-2017 – AN EXEMPLARY LIFE FOR CHILDREN AND PAEDIATRICS • H. Sallmon, R.R. Wauer, C.C. RoehrABS 6. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSES OF PARENTAL COUNSELING AND DECISION MAKING FOR EXTREME PRETERM BIRTH IN A TERTIARY DUTCH PERINATAL CENTER • E. de Booij, J

  16. Preferences of people with disabilities on wheelchairs in relation to forest trails for recreational in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the survey on the preferences of disabled people in wheelchairs for selected features recreational trails in the woods. The study was conducted in 2015, including a sample of 130 people older than 18 years, in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia (52 interviews in Poland, 21 in the Czech Republic and 57 in Slovakia. Respondents were interviewed both at the premises of the organisation as well as by email. The questions in the survey were designed to determine the preferences of the respondents in terms of recreational trails in the forests concerned: the optimal length of the route, recreational and educational points along the distribution routes of and usability of different types of forest roads. The results show that there is quite a lot of differences between the preferences of respondents from each of the analysed countries. Respondents from the Poland and Slovakia prefer shorter routes for recreation in forests, with a greater incidence of recreational and educational points along the route, whilst respondents in the Czech Republic prefer far longer routes, with a relatively larger distance between recreational points. In all the analysed countries, people with disabilities attributed highest usefulness to asphalt surfaces, concrete surfaces or surfaces made of cobblestones. The surface evaluated lowest for usability was made of wood.

  17. Selected Contributions of the 4th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis. Environmental Applications (SPEA 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malato Rodriguez, S.; Gernjak, W.; Pereze Pena, J.; Dona Rodriguez, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In developed countries, the importance of water as a resource and problems derived from its scarcity has led to growing social and legislative demands. As a consequence, in the last 30 years, new fields of research have opened in a search for more efficient water treatment methods. This is the case of the advanced oxidation techniques (AOTs) and their application to nonbiodegradable contaminants, which can otherwise be removed from water, but not eliminated. Fast development of research in this field has encouraged chemists, chemical engineers and related professionals to meet and debate their findings and plan new strategies for the future, working toward evermore efficient methods of wastewater treatment wherever needed. The same can be said of gaseous effluents, as emission limits for organic air pollution become stricter. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pose an environmental and health threat, which can be treated by adsorption, incineration, condensation, etc., or be completely destroyed by chemical methods, such as the very promising gas-phase photocatalytic air pollution treatment. The SPEA Meetings have been held against this background, particularly this fourth one, where scientists assembled to present and debate their latest achievements in low-cost treatment technologies for wastewater, gaseous effluents and polluted soils. This Special Issue of Catalysis Today was compiled from the scientific reports generated by the congress, and includes a selection of some of the most interesting work presented at the meeting. The 34-member Scientific Committee were from 11 different countries (Argentina, Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA). One hundred and thirty-five delegates from 22 different countries attended the congress (representing 368 authors). One hundred and thirty-eight communications were presented, 45 oral presentations and 93 posters. Three plenary lectures, one round table and two poster

  18. Ebola virus disease in West Africa: outbreak or epidemic?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gboyega Ogunbanjo

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Control and Prevention, the European Commission and the. Economic ... active public health surveillance system in place to respond to infectious ... it takes approximately eight hours for a flight from Abidjan,. Ivory Coast, West ...

  19. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Perinatal Pharmacology and Anesthesia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Perinatal Pharmacology and Anesthesia"ABS 1. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOPAMINE CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN NEONATES: INCUBATORS VERSUS COT • K. Kirupakaran, H. Rabe, B. PatelABS 2. IBUPROFEN PHARMACOGENETIC STUDY IN HUMAN MILK SAMPLES • V. Rigourd, C. Verstyuft, J.F. Méritet, P. Seraissol, B. De Villepin, A. Amirouche, R. SerreauABS 3. EFFECT OF POSTNATAL CORTICOSTEROID ON BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE THERMOGENESIS IN NEONATAL RAT • Y.-S. Chang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. TsaiABS 4. URINARY 17-α-HYDROXY-PROGESTERONE AS A POTENTIAL MARKER OF NEONATAL PAIN • M. Brasseler, T. HoehnABS 5. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES AIMING FOR RATIONAL DRUG DOSING IN PRETERM NEONATES: THE DINO STUDY • R.B. Flint, S. Völler, R. de Groot, D. Liem, P. Andriessen, P. Degrauewe, I. Reiss, D. Burger, D. Tibboel, C.A.J. Knibbe, S.H.P. Simons and DINO Research groupABS 6. VENO-ARTERIAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEM­BRANE OXYGENATION IMPAIRS ACETYL­CHOLINE-INDUCED CONTRACTION IN NEONATAL PORCINE CORONARY ARTERIES • L. Provitera, G. Cavallaro, G. Raffaeli, I. Amodeo, S. Gulden, G. Zuanetti, V

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Perinatal Practices"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Perinatal Practices"ABS 1. VACUUM EXTRACTION AND RISK OF NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY • D. Rossetti, A.S. Laganà, G. Valenti, B. Chiofalo, S. Butticè, G. Sanpietro, A.M.C. Rapisarda, F. Sapia, M. Noventa, A. Vitagliano, S.G. VitaleABS 2. ELECTIVE CAESAREAN SECTION AND RES­PIRATORY MORBIDITIES IN TERM INFANTS • P. Mallya, S. GargABS 3. RISK FACTORS AND OUTCOME IN PRE­VIABLE PPROM AND CURRENT TREATMENT PRACTICE • A. van Gennip, E.E.M. Mulder, R.M. Brohet, J. van Eyck, R.A. van LingenABS 4. ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN PRETERM INFANTS: ONLINE SURVEY TO INFORM SCORING OF A CLINICIAN-REPORTED OUTCOMES (CLINRO TOOL • M. Turner, I. Hansen-Pupp, J. Higginson, R. Ward, M. Vanya, E. Flood, E. Schwartz, H. Doll, A. Tocoian, A. Mangili, N. Barton, S. SardaABS 5. INFANTS AND MATERNAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY H1N1 INFECTION NEEDING ECMO THERAPY: A UK ECMO CENTRE EXPERIENCE • N. Singh, J. Behrsin, F. Siddiqui, R. Porter, M. Charlton, A. Akuma, S. MittalABS 6. THE ASSOCIATION OF NEONATAL MORBIDITIES AND MORTALITY OF PRETERM INFANTS WITH

  2. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  3. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.fraile@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: javier.ferreiro@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.martinezc@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.jimenez@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  4. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  5. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  8. A study on self concept and adjustment of auxiliary nursing and midwifery (revised) students in a selected school of nursing, Purulia, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ruby; Mukhopadhyay, Asiah; Mallik, Sarmila; Sarkar, Sharmila; Debnath, Ashis; Patra, Paramita

    2012-07-01

    Nursing students are exposed to different types of stress, with which they have to make adjustments. Self concept Influences their capability of adjustment. The study was done to find out the levels of self concept in different dimensions and levels of adjustment in different spheres of the auxiliary nursing and midwifery (revised) [ANM(R)] students, to find out the association between their self concept and adjustment with different sociodemographic factors and to assess the correlation between self concept and adjustment of these students. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the ANM(R) students of School of Nursing, Purulia, West Bengal from October 2008 to January 2009 with sample size 50. Chi-square test was done to find out statistical association. Majority of students (64%) had self concept above average category (145-192). Considering levelsof adjustment, majority of the students (56%) fell in the above average category (5572). Mean score of adjustment was highest in the health dimension (9.96) and lowest in the area of education (6.88). No significant association was found between self concept and age, education and family income. The associations of marital status and type of family with self concept are statistically significant. No significant association was found between adjustment and sociodemographic characteristics. Positive correlation was found between self concept and adjustment (correlation co-efficient r = 0.6109). This study has various implications for nursing administration, nursing education, nursing practice and nursing research.

  9. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  10. A Mainly Circum-Mediterranean Origin for West Eurasian and North African mtDNAs in Puerto Rico with Strong Contributions from the Canary Islands and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zabala, Héctor J; Nieves-Colón, María A; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan C

    2017-04-01

    Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin. Median-joining haplotype networks were constructed using hypervariable regions 1 and 2 sequences from various reference populations in search of shared haplotypes. A posterior probability analysis was performed to estimate the percentage of possible origins across wide geographic regions for the entire sample set and for the most common haplogroups on the island. Principal component analyses were conducted to place the Puerto Rican mtDNA set within the variation present among all reference populations. Our study shows that up to 38% of West Eurasian and North African mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico most likely migrated from the Canary Islands. However, most of those haplotypes had previously migrated to the Canary Islands from elsewhere, and there are substantial contributions from various populations across the circum-Mediterranean region and from West African populations related to the modern Wolof and Serer peoples from Senegal and the nomad Fulani who extend up to Cameroon. In conclusion, the West Eurasian mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Ricans is geographically diverse. However, haplotype diversity seems to be low, and frequencies have been shaped by population bottlenecks, migration waves, and random genetic drift. Consequently, approximately 47% of mtDNAs of West Eurasian and North African ancestry

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pharmacology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Pharmacology”ABS 1. BABY SKIN CARE PRODUCTS • P. Doro, R. Abraham, D. Agoston, J. Balog, R.Z. CsomaABS 2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PREDICT IN-HOSPITAL NATURAL WEIGHT CHANGES IN TERM NEONATES • S. Kasser, M. Wilbaux, C. De Angelis, H. Rickenbacher, N. Klarer, J.N. Van Den Anker, M. Pfister, S. WellmannABS 3. IMPROVING PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN THE NEONATE – A PRACTICAL GUIDELINE • H. Reigstad, D. Moster, I. Grønlie, A. BlystadABS 4. INVOLUTION OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME AFTER BEVACIZUMAB TREATMENT • Y.-S. Chang, P.-N. Tsao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chou, W.-S. Hsieh, P.-T. YehABS 5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND OFF-LABEL/UNLICENSED DRUG USE IN HOSPITALISED CHILDREN. EREMI STUDY • K.A. Nguyen, Y. Mimouni, A. Lajoinie, N. Paret, S. Malik, L. El-Amrani, L. Milliat-Guittard, C. Carcel, A. Portefaix, A.M. Schott, T. Vial, B. KassaiABS 6. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF OFF-LABEL AND UNLICENSED DRUGS USE AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN • N. David, K.A. Nguyen, Y. Mimouni, A. Lajoinie, S. Malik, B. KassaiABS 7. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF PROPOFOL SEDATION

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Hematology and Bilirubin"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Hematology and Bilirubin"ABS 1. PROLONGED JAUNDICE SCREENING: FULL BLOOD COUNT (FBC OR NO FBC! • N. Storring, R. Doherty, V. PonnusamyABS 2. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON BREAST MILK JAUNDICE • N. Koksal, O. Bagcı, H. Ozkan, I. Varal, P. DoganABS 3. LABORATORY FINDINGS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE NEWBORN ADMITTED DUE TO HEMATEMESIS OR BLOODY STOOL IN 11 YEARS • I. Hokuto, Y. Ito, T. Mori, S. KomachiABS 4. AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF CYANOSIS: SEVERE METHEMOGLOBINEMIA IN A PRETERM INFANT WITH SEPSIS • F. Bakar, M. BerberABS 5. THE INFLUENCE OF INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION ON THE OUTCOMES OF NEWBORNS WITH SEVERE HEMOLYTIC DISEASE • E. Balashova, O. Bystrykh, T. Fedorova, O. Ionov, A. Kirtbaya, D. Sharafutdinova, V. Zubkov, D. Degtyarev, O. Horoshkeeva, N. Fedorova, N. Tetruashvili, K. Kostukov, N. KaretnikovaABS 6. PATCHED SKIN BILIRUBIN ASSAY TO MONITOR EXTREMELY PRETERM NEONATES UNDERGOING PHOTOTHERAPY • D. De Luca, V. Dell’OrtoABS 7. A PRETERM MODEL OF HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA-INDUCED CEREBELLAR DYSFUNCTION • C.F. Bearer, M. He, J.F. Watchko, J.M. Simard, N. Tang

  13. European Seminar on the Development of the Competencies of Trainers and Organizers of Training Programmes for SMES (Berlin, West Germany, June 7-8, 1989). CEDEFOP Flash 7/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, A.

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a 2-day conference on training in small and medium businesses in the European Economic Community. Some of the topics discussed by the speakers include distance learning and the importance of training for owners and managers of small and medium enterprises. A series of guides that have been prepared to…

  14. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.; Sleeboom-Faulkner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination

  15. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Epidemiology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Epidemiology”ABS 1. A PERFORMANCE INDICATOR FOR THE PROLONGATION OF GESTATIONAL AGE • N. LackABS 2. LATE PRETERM NEONATES AND CAUSES OF ADMISSION TO THE NICU • S. Arayici, G. Kadioglu Simsek, B. Say, E. Alyamac Dizdar, N. Uras, F.E. Canpolat, S.S. OguzABS 3. INCIDENCE AND OUTCOMES OF METABOLIC DISORDERS IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • O. Dobush, D. Dobryanskyy, Z. Salabay, O. Detsyk, O. Novikova, Y. KuzminovABS 4. MATERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE INFANT’S VITAMIN D STATUS • H. Hauta-alus, E. Holmlund-Suila, M. Enlund-Cerullo, J. Rosendahl, S. Valkama, O. Helve, H-M. Surcel, O. Mäkitie, S. Andersson, H. ViljakainenABS 5. THE HIGH PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN A LARGE NUMBER OF PREGNANT WOMEN AND RELATED FACTORS IN ANKARA, TURKEY • G. Kadioglu Simsek, F. E. Canpolat, S. Arayici, G. Kanmaz Kutman, H.I. Yakut, Ö. Moraloğlu, B. ÖzkanABS 6. SNAPPE-II: A VALUABLE PREDICTOR OF ADVERSE OUTCOMES IN PREMATURITY • P. Costa-Reis, R. Monteiro, M. Abrantes, P. Costa, A. Graça, C. MonizABS 7. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL AND FETAL 25OHD AND INFANT SIZE AND ADIPOSITY AT BIRTH, 6 MONTHS AND 2 YEARS OF AGE • M

  16. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  17. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  18. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"ABS 1. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND THE PLATELET MASS INDEX IN PRETERM INFANTS • M. Kara, İ. Caner, K.Ş. Tekgündüz, İ. Polat, H. KeskinABS 2. DIAGNOSIS OF DIGEORGE SYNDROME: THE CONTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR GENETICS • Y. Halleb, H. Hadj-Abdallah, S. Nouri, A. Touati, M. Bellallah, J. Mathlouthi, N. Mahdhaoui, H. Sboui, A. Saad, D. H’midaABS 3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SIZE OF PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND CO-MORBIDITIES • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 4. EFFICACY OF MEDICAL TREATMENT IN CLOSING PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN ELBW INFANTS • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 5. ACETAMINOPHEN FOR CLOSING PDA. SHOULD IT BE A FIRST LINE THERAPEUTIC OPTION? • I. Tofé, M.D. Ruiz, M.P. Jaraba, M.V. Rodriguez, R.L. Rueda, M.D. Ordoñez, M.J. ParragaABS 6. PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS WITH HEMODYNAMIC REPERCUSSION IN VERY LOW WEIGHT PRETERM INFANTS TREATED WITH ORAL IBUPROFEN PRESENTS A HIGH RATE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M.M. Lourenço, E. Sacramento, F. Carmona, C. Calixto, F. Martin-Celini, G.H. Seribelli, W.A. Gonçalves-FerriABS 7

  20. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekiya O. Abdulmalik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S1 lines derived from the original (C0 and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well-watered (WW conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C0, C1, C2, C3 were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga, improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S1 lines from 114 in C0 to 124 in C3. The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  1. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Rekiya O; Menkir, Abebe; Meseka, Silvestro K; Unachukwu, Nnanna; Ado, Shehu G; Olarewaju, Joseph D; Aba, Daniel A; Hearne, Sarah; Crossa, Jose; Gedil, Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S 1 lines derived from the original (C 0 ) and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S 1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C 0 , C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga , improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S 1 lines from 114 in C 0 to 124 in C 3 . The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  2. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future and past) (Swift, 2004). In West Greenlandic the future...... is unmarked and past time reference can be marked if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future......Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic Unlike European languages tense in the West Greenlandic (WG) language is not marked in the inflection, but it is marked by derivational affixes (henceforth affixes). The West Greenlandic language belongs to Inuit-languages, (Iñupiaq (Alaska...

  3. Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Traoré, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amy......AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs...... the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.......08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus...

  4. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  5. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR RESEARCHERS AND THE CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RECRUITMENT OF RESEARCHERS IN THE SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR ROMANIAN ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina GICA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the Human Resources Management became a very important area of activity, which brought relevant changes to the human resources approach in terms of place and role within the Romanian R&D entities. Also, HR proved its importance through the solutions offered for personnel allocation in order to achieve the entities’ objectives and, meanwhile, it supported the employees’ aspirations. At present, although promoted a series of regulations on the status of the researcher, both, national and European level, as the main human resource in the establishment of RDI, to the research staff are imposed in most cases the general rules of human resources management. Starting with the strengthening of the concept of European Research Area - ERA, the European Commission adopted the "European Charter for Researchers" and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. These documents are addressed to researchers and to public and private sector employers. Also, are considered key elements of EU policy researchers, to make careers more attractive, being considered vital for economic growth strategy and increase the number of employees of RDI. Human resource development requires good knowledge and understanding of their particular role to the organization. Researchers, regardless of hierarchy or job name, are the key resource of RDI entities (universities, institutes, NGOs, SMEs that ensure their survival, development and competitive success. The evolution of knowledge-based companies needs to improve relations between knowledge and development. Knowledge is a necessary tool to meet economic needs and an important component of sustainable development at European level. European Research Area concept was launched at the Lisbon European Council meeting in March 2000, but true recognition began in 2007 with the launch of the European Commission's Green Paper on ERA. In 2008 the Council set in motion the Ljubljana process to improve

  8. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Epidemiology and Networks"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Epidemiology and Networks"ABS 1. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 2. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 3. APPLYING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES TO PREDICT BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT (VLBW INFANTS. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY • Y.J. Lin, C.H. Lin, Y.C. Lin, Y.S. Chang, C.C. Huang, K.I. TsouABS 4. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES AND ATTENTION AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE OFFSPRING • C.C. Bach, Z. Liew, N.B. Matthiesen, T.B. Henriksen, B.H. Bech, E.A. Nohr, E.C. Bonefeld-Jørgensen, J. OlsenABS 5. MORTALITY, MORBIDITY AND SHORT-TERM RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY OUTCOMES IN EXTREME PRETERM NEONATES: A 5 YEAR STUDY • H. Jarvis, M. Sdobnikovs, J. William, F. Dean, P. SatodiaABS 6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX IN EARLY PREGNANCY AND INCIDENCE OF CEREBRAL PALSY • S. Johansson, E. Villamor, K. Tedroff, M. Peterson, M. Neovius, G. Petersson, S

  9. Uniting the Divided Continent. The Estonian National Committee of the European Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Heikkilä

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the exiled Estonian politicians in the European Movement in the early Cold War period. The ultimate goal of exiled Estonians was to restore their state’s independence. In order to promote this, Estonian leaders sought connections with Western leaders. The European Movement was the only organisation involving actors from both the East and the West, and this corresponded to the Estonian discourse on Europe as a whole. Therefore, the European Movement was appreciated, although its limited opportunities for decisive actions were also recognised. East and West European interest in the European Movement declined as West European integration rapidly intensified through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC and particularly after the January 1952 Eastern European Conference in London. By 1957, disappointment in the inability of European unification to help regain Estonian independence became evident.

  10. Selection of vegetation indices for mapping the sugarcane condition around the oil and gas field of North West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saepuloh, Asep; Handoyo Harsolumakso, Agus

    2018-05-01

    Selection of vegetation indices in plant mapping is needed to provide the best information of plant conditions. The methods used in this research are the standard deviation and the linear regression. This research tried to determine the vegetation indices used for mapping the sugarcane conditions around oil and gas fields. The data used in this study is Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The standard deviation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 27 samples has resulted in the six highest standard deviations of vegetation indices, termed as GRVI, SR, NLI, SIPI, GEMI and LAI. The standard deviation values are 0.47; 0.43; 0.30; 0.17; 0.16 and 0.13. Regression correlation analysis on the 23 vegetation indices with 280 samples has resulted in the six vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, VARI, LAI and SIPI. This was performed based on regression correlation with the lowest value R2 than 0,8. The combined analysis of the standard deviation and the regression correlation has obtained the five vegetation indices, termed as NDVI, ENDVI, GDVI, LAI and SIPI. The results of the analysis of both methods show that a combination of two methods needs to be done to produce a good analysis of sugarcane conditions. It has been clarified through field surveys and showed good results for the prediction of microseepages.

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Circulation, Macro- and Microcirculation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Circulation, Macro- and Microcirculation"ABS 1. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC MARKERS FOR PREDICTION OF RESISTANCE TO INOTROPIC THERAPY IN NEWBORNS WITH ARTERIAL HYPOTENSION • D. Kryuchko, A. Donnikov, E. Baibarina, I. Nikitina, O. Ionov, D. DegtyarevABS 2. GUT AND CEREBRAL OXYGENATION FROM BIRTH TO SIX WEEKS OF LIFE IN PRETERM INFANTS: WHAT IS NORMAL? • C. Howarth, T. Leung, J. Banerjee, J. Morris, N. AladangadyABS 3. CHANGES OF NT-PROBNP CONCENTRATION WITHIN THE FIRST WEEK OF LIFE IN PRETERM NEWBORNS WITH BIRTH WEIGHT ≤ 1,200 G • T. Talar, E. Gulczyńska, B. Cyranowicz, J. MollABS 4. RESISTANCE INDEX (RI OF ARTERIA CEREBRI ANTERIOR AND CEREBRAL OXYGENATION IN PRETERM INFANTS • N. Baik-Schneditz, B. Urlesberger, B. Schwaberger, L. Mileder, N. Höller, G. PichlerABS 5. THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL MEDICATION ON CLOSURE OF THE DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN THE PREMATURE NEWBORN • W.P. de Boode, J. van Drongelen, M.J.A. RaaymakersABS 6. INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL HYPOXIA AND REMOTE ISCHEMIC POSTCONDITIONING ON NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE EXPRESSION IN NEWBORN PIGLET HEART CHAMBERS • H. Kierkegaard, K.J. Kyng, B

  12. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  13. Differences in habitat selection of male and female megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) to the west of Ireland. A result of differences in life-history strategies between the sexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, H. D.; McGrath, D.; Lordan, C.; Harlay, X.

    2010-11-01

    The sex ratio in the catches of megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) varied systematically with depth on three independent trawl survey series off the west coast of Ireland. Female megrim dominated the shallow catches, while males were more common in catches from deeper waters. The size difference between the sexes alone cannot explain this pattern because it remained evident when fish length was taken into account. Therefore size-specific habitat preferences or size-selective fishing mortality cannot fully explain the observed trend in the sex ratio of megrim. Female megrim grow to a larger size, at a faster rate than males and it is likely that their differences in habitat preferences are related to this. Shallower waters are warmer during the growing season and are likely to provide better conditions for fast growth. An understanding of the mechanisms behind these patterns is an important consideration in the management and conservation of this fish stock, which might be particularly vulnerable because the commercial landings are to a large extent dominated by female megrim.

  14. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  15. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  16. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 452 (2017), č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Hibernation * Overwintering * Culex pipiens * Anopheles maculipennis * Culiseta annulata * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  17. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  18. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pulmonology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Pulmonology”ABS 1. URINE NEUTROPHIL GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN AS A MARKER OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA AND RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY IN PRETERM NEONATES • H. Ergin, T. Atilgan, M. Dogan, O.M.A. Ozdemir, C. YeniseyABS 2. LUNG COMPLIANCE AND LUNG ULTRASOUND DURING POSTNATAL ADAPTATION IN HEALTHY NEWBORN INFANTS • L. Süvari, L. Martelius, C. Janér, A. Kaskinen, O. Pitkänen, T. Kirjavainen, O. Helve, S. AnderssonABS 3. PRE-DISCHARGE RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES IN SMALL-FOR-GESTATIONAL-AGE AND APPROPRIATE-FOR-GESTATIONAL-AGE VERY PRETERM INFANTS • A. Matic, A. RistivojevicABS 4. THE EFFECT OF CHANGING OXYGEN SATURATION TARGET RANGE ON COMPLIANCE IN OXYGEN SATURATION TARGETING IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT • H.A. van Zanten, S. Pauws, E.C.H. Beks, B.J. Stenson, E. Lopriore, A.B. te PasABS 5. BINASAL PRONG VERSUS NASAL MASK FOR APPLYING CPAP TO PRETERM INFANTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL • B. Say, G. Kanmaz, S.S. OguzABS 6. TRAINING AND RAISING AWARENESS IMPROVES COMPLIANCE IN OXYGEN SATURATION TARGETING IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT • H.A. van Zanten, S. Pauws, E.C.H. Beks, B.J. Stenson, E

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Other”ABS 1. TELEMEDICINE IN NEONATAL HOMECARE • K.G. Holm, A. Brodsgaard, G. Zachariassen, J. ClemensenABS 2. ACCEPTABILITY OF PARENT REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES FOR ROUTINE FOLLOW-UP IN LATE/MODERATELY PRETERM INFANTS • N. Armstrong, S. Johnson, E.M. BoyleABS 3. INTERNATIONAL CARE PRACTICES AROUND AN INFANT’S DEATH IN THE NICU; A SURVEY STUDY • C.M.C. van den Berg, K. Alferink, J.M. Latour, N. Valkenburg, M. van DijkABS 4. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION OVER TIME, IN MOTHERS OF VERY PRETERM BORN CHILDREN • M. Jeukens-Visser, M. Husson, D. Meijssen, M. Flierman, P. van Schie, K. Koldewijn, A. Wassenaer-van LeemhuisABS 5. LONGITUDINAL CHANGE OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE EXPERIENCED OVER TIME BY MOTHER WITH LATE PRETERM INFANT • L.Y. Tsai, S.C. Mu, Y.L. Chen, Y.L. Guo, P.C. ChenABS 6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY LEVELS AND CLINICAL PRACTICE SKILLS AMONG STUDENTS OF PEDIATRIC NURSING LECTURE • A.S. Kurt, F.T. Arslan, S. Özkan, R. Çelen, D.A. ÇakırABS 7. ACCURACY OF SMARTPHONES FOR REVIEWING TRANSMITTED IMAGES OF NEONATAL X-RAYS • T. Vasko, M. Westberg, J.A. Dawson, L.S. Owen, M. Thio, R. Bhatia, S. Donath

  1. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  2. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1966-01-01

    In this preliminary investigation attention was paid to pollen morphology of West-European species of the Rosaceae. Some new terms were used like fastigium, endocingulus etc. The terminology of Iversen and Troels-Smith has been followed in addition to improvements by Erdtman. A key is given to the

  3. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2015

  4. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  5. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Brain & Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Brain & Development”ABS 1. SEPARATE EFFECTS OF LOW PATERNAL AND MATERNAL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ON RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN 4-YEAR-OLD BOYS AND GIRLS • S. de Jong, M.R. Potijk, A.E. den Heijer, S.A. Reijneveld, A.F. Bos, J.M. KerstjensABS 2. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PATERNAL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN PRETERM AND TERM-BORN CHILDREN AT AGE 4 • S. de Jong, J.M. Kerstjens, A.E. den Heijer, A.F. Bos, S.A. Reijneveld, M.R. PotijkABS 3. NEUROPROTECTION BY NEURONAL OVEREXPRESSION OF THE SMALL GTPase-Ras IN HYPEROXIA-INDUCED NEONATAL BRAIN INJURY • M. Serdar, K. Kempe, J. Herz, R. Herrmann, B.S. Reinboth, R. Heumann, A. Ehrkamp, U. Felderhoff-Mueser, I. BendixABS 4. REFERENCE RANGES FOR CEREBRAL TISSUE OXYGEN INDEX (cTOI IN NEONATES DURING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL TRANSITION AFTER BIRTH • N. Baik, B. Urlesberger, B. Schwaberger, G. Schmölzer, A. Avian, L. Mileder, G. PichlerABS 4. REFERENCE RANGES FOR CEREBRAL TISSUE OXYGEN INDEX (cTOI IN NEONATES DURING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL TRANSITION AFTER BIRTH • N. Baik, B. Urlesberger, B. Schwaberger, G. Schmölzer, A. Avian, L. Mileder, G. PichlerABS 6. N

  6. LiDAR Remote Sensing of Forest Structure and GPS Telemetry Data Provide Insights on Winter Habitat Selection of European Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ewald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of GPS-Telemetry and resource selection functions is widely used to analyze animal habitat selection. Rapid large-scale assessment of vegetation structure allows bridging the requirements of habitat selection studies on grain size and extent, particularly in forest habitats. For roe deer, the cold period in winter forces individuals to optimize their trade off in searching for food and shelter. We analyzed the winter habitat selection of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a montane forest landscape combining estimates of vegetation cover in three different height strata, derived from high resolution airborne Laser-scanning (LiDAR, Light detection and ranging, and activity data from GPS telemetry. Specifically, we tested the influence of temperature, snow height, and wind speed on site selection, differentiating between active and resting animals using mixed-effects conditional logistic regression models in a case-control design. Site selection was best explained by temperature deviations from hourly means, snow height, and activity status of the animals. Roe deer tended to use forests of high canopy cover more frequently with decreasing temperature, and when snow height exceeded 0.6 m. Active animals preferred lower canopy cover, but higher understory cover. Our approach demonstrates the potential of LiDAR measures for studying fine scale habitat selection in complex three-dimensional habitats, such as forests.

  7. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Ries, Ludwig; Petermeier, Hannes; Steinbacher, Martin; Gómez-Peláez, Angel J.; Leuenberger, Markus C.; Schumacher, Marcus; Trickl, Thomas; Couret, Cedric; Meinhardt, Frank; Menzel, Annette

    2018-03-01

    Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS) based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany), Sonnblick (Austria), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Izaña (Spain), Schauinsland (Germany), and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany). Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT) conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  8. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany, Sonnblick (Austria, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, Izaña (Spain, Schauinsland (Germany, and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany. Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  9. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  10. Patients' intention to consume prescribed and non-prescribed medicines: A study based on the theory of planned behaviour in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekis, A; Bertsias, A; Moschandreas, J; Petelos, E; Papadakaki, M; Tsiantou, V; Saridaki, A; Symvoulakis, E K; Souliotis, K; Papadakis, N; Faresjö, T; Faresjö, A; Martinez, L; Agius, D; Uncu, Y; Sengezer, T; Samoutis, G; Vlcek, J; Abasaeed, A; Merkouris, B; Lionis, C

    2018-02-01

    Polypharmacy has a significant impact on patients' health with overall expenditure on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines representing a substantial burden in terms of cost of treatment. The aim of this study, which was conducted within the framework of a European Project funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme and was entitled OTC-SOCIOMED, was to report on possible determinants of patient behaviour regarding the consumption of medicines, and particularly OTCs, in the context of primary care. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was designed and implemented in well-defined primary healthcare settings in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Malta and Turkey. Patients completed a questionnaire constructed on the basis of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which was administered via face-to-face interviews. The percentage of patients who had consumed prescribed medicines over a 6-month period was consistently high, ranging from 79% in the Czech Republic and 82% in Turkey to 97% in Malta and 100% in Cyprus. Reported non-prescribed medicine consumption ranged from 33% in Turkey to 92% in the Czech Republic and 97% in Cyprus. TPB behavioural antecedents explained 43% of the variability of patients' intention to consume medicines in Malta and 24% in Greece, but only 3% in Turkey. Subjective norm was a significant predictor of the intention to consume medicines in all three countries (Greece, Malta and Turkey), whereas attitude towards consumption was a significant predictor of the expectation to consume medicines, if needed. This study shows that parameters such as patients' beliefs and influence from family and friends could be determining factors in explaining the high rates of medicine consumption. Factors that affect patients' behavioural intention towards medicine consumption may assist in the formulation of evidence-based policy proposals and inform initiatives and interventions aimed at increasing the appropriate use of medicines

  11. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  12. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  13. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  14. Inverse European Latitudinal Cline at the timeless Locus of Drosophila melanogaster Reveals Selection on a Clock Gene: Population Genetics of ls-tim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Vanin, Stefano; Costa, Rodolfo; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-02-01

    The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography. From population analyses of ls-tim frequencies collected on the eastern side of the Iberian Peninsula, we show that ls-tim frequencies are inverted compared with those in Italy. This pattern is consistent with a scenario of directional selection rather than latitude-associated balancing selection. Neutrality tests further reveal the signature of directional selection at the ls-tim site, which is reduced a few kb pairs either side of ls-tim. A reanalysis of allele frequencies from a large number of microsatellite loci do not demonstrate any frequent ls-tim-like spatial patterns, so a general demographic effect or population expansion from southeastern Italy cannot readily explain current ls-tim frequencies. Finally, a revised estimate of the age of ls-tim allele using linkage disequilibrium and coalescent-based approaches reveals that it may be only 300 to 3000 years old, perhaps explaining why it has not yet gone to fixation. ls-tim thus provides a rare temporal snapshot of a new allele that has come under selection before it reaches equilibrium.

  15. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  16. Are Africans, Europeans, and Asians Different "Races"? A Guided-Inquiry Lab for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Genetic Diversity and Preparing Them to Study Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Leonard, Mary J.; Snodgrass, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    Many students do not recognize that individual organisms within populations vary, and this may make it difficult for them to recognize the essential role variation plays in natural selection. Also, many students have weak scientific reasoning skills, and this makes it difficult for them to recognize misconceptions they might have. This paper…

  17. The test chemical selection procedure of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods for the EU Project ReProTect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Patricia; Pellizzer, Cristian; Stummann, Tina C; Hareng, Lars; Bremer, Susanne

    2010-08-01

    The selection of reference compounds is crucial for a successful in vitro test development in order to proof the relevance of the test system. This publication describes the criteria and the selection strategy leading to a list of more than 130 chemicals suitable for test development within the ReProTect project. The presented chemical inventory aimed to support the development and optimization of in vitro tests that seek to fulfill ECVAM's criteria for entering into the prevalidation. In order to select appropriate substances, a primary database was established compiling information from existing databases. In a second step, predefined selection criteria have been applied to obtain a comprehensive list ready to undergo a peer review process from independent experts with industrial, academic and regulatory background. Finally, a peer reviewed chemical list containing 13 substances challenging endocrine disrupter tests, additional 50 substances serving as reference chemicals for various tests evaluating effects on male and female fertility, and finally 61 substances were identified as known to provoke effects on the early development of mammalian offspring. The final list aims to cover relevant and specific mode/site of actions as they are known to be relevant for various substance classes. However, the recommended list should not be interpreted as a list of reproductive toxicants, because such a description requires proven associations with adverse effects of mammalian reproduction, which are subject of regulatory decisions done by involved competent authorities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deciding about Design Quality : Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity,

  19. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E.; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the

  20. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.; Mielck, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia

  1. Portal vein thrombosis complicating appendicitis | Ayantunde | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  2. Encephalocele and associated skull defects | Komolafe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  3. A selection of recent achievements and future challenges in safeguards R and D as identified by the European safeguards research and development association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, W.A.M.; Sevini, F.; Bril, L.V.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.G.A.; Goncalves, J.G.M.; Peerani, P.; Autrusson, B.; Boella, M.; Martikka, E.; Toivonen, H.; Mayer, K.; Rezniczek, A.; Richard, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Weh, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the year of its 40. anniversary, ESARDA can look back on a wealth of achievements in the European safeguards area, to which its members have substantially contributed. Also today, ESARDA is more active then ever, both due to an extended partnership (with many new members joining in recent years) and a pro-active attitude to tackle new and upcoming issues through its many Working Groups. ESARDA constitutes today of 9 working groups: Non Destructive Analysis (NDA), Destructive Analysis (DA), Containment and Surveillance (C/S), Verification Technologies and Methodologies (VTM), Implementation of Safeguards (IS), Nuclear Material Accounting and Control Audit Group (NMACAG), Training and Knowledge Management (TKM), Editorial Committee (EDC) and the newly established Novel technologies and approaches (NT/NA). The Fuel Fabrications Plants WG has recently been stopped and part of the activities possibly moved into IS WG. Most of these working groups organise regular meetings in which they discuss the progress, achievements, problems, challenges and future needs for R and D. They jointly work out solutions to problems and stay abreast of the latest safeguards R and D aspects. This paper will provide an overview of some most relevant recent achievements of the ESARDA Working Groups and will provide an insight in the challenges identified for safeguards R and D in the near and medium term future. (authors)

  4. Detection of Herpesvirus anguillae (AngHV-1) in European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) originating from northern Poland-assessment of suitability of selected diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Thuc; Jin, Yeonhwa; Kiełpińska, Jolanta; Bergmann, Sven M; Lenk, Matthias; Panicz, Remigiusz

    2017-11-01

    The Community Action Plan requests EU member states to implement measures that ensure the recovery of the severely depleted European eel stocks. One of the main threats is posed by Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1) leading to increased mortality in both wild and farmed eels. Following recommendations of the OIE to minimize the risk of obtaining false-negative results, the main aim of the study was to optimize diagnostic methods for AngHV-1 detection using conventional PCR, nested PCR and in situ hybridization assay. While 53.3% of the individual organ samples were tested positive for AngHV-1 by PCR, the additional virus analysis via nested PCR revealed that the actual prevalence was 93.3%. In the cell cultivation passages, a cytopathic effect was hardly found in the first two rounds. In the third passage onto cell cultures, a lytic CPE was detected. The identification and confirmation of the viruses obtained from cell cultures as well as directly from the organ tissues were proceeded by PCR, nested PCR and sequencing of the PCR products. While no positive signal was detectable in the first round by PCR using samples from the third cell culture passages, the nested PCR provided weak but visible positive signals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  6. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  7. The effect of selected ovulation-inducing preparations on post-stripping mortality and reproductive indicators of farmed European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Turek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effects of hormonal preparations (Gonazon™ and Supergestran containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the course of reproduction of farmed grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. broodstock and their post-stripping mortality was performed at the hatchery in spring 2009. Four-year-old marked grayling females (n = 80 were randomly divided into four groups. The fish were intramuscularly injected with Supergestran at a dose of 30 μg·kg-1 body weight (Group 1, with GonazonTM at a dose of 30 μg·kg-1 (Group 2 and with saline 0.9% NaCl (Group 3, while fish of Group 4 were left without treatment (control group. No effect of treatment on the total number of ovulated females (70–80% was found at the end of the stripping period. Slightly higher (non-significant percentage of ovulated fish in the first stripping time (3 days post injection was observed in fish treated with Gonazon. The 30-days post-ovulatory mortality remained unaffected by hormone treatments in all groups. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were found in the fertilization rate of egg samples from the first stripping time. The highest fertilization rate (98.6% was found in fish treated with Supergestran, lower fertilization rates (61% and 65% in fish treated with saline and control, respectively, and the lowest fertilization rate (39% in fish treated with Gonazon. Other reproductive indicators remained unaffected by treatment in all groups. Based on our results, Supergestran is the most suitable preparation for the enhancing of artificial reproduction efficiency of farmed European grayling in fishery practice. The study brings important information about artificial reproduction of grayling broodstocks reared in controlled conditions.

  8. Natural gas market - Market opening in Switzerland and a selection of European Union countries; Erdgasmarkt Schweiz. Ermittlung des Bedarfs einer Marktoeffnung aus der Sicht der Akteure und Analyse der Marktoeffnung in ausgewaehlten EU-Laendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.; Worm, H.; Spielmann, Ch. [Plaut Economics, Regensdorf (Switzerland); Finger, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the situation in Switzerland and Europe as far as the liberalisation of the natural gas market is concerned. Comparisons are made between the situation for natural gas and electricity markets. The report discusses the economical and technical characteristics of the gas business such as gas sources, transport, storage and trading as well as the associated investment risks. The gas and electricity supply systems are compared from the supply and demand viewpoints and as far as trading and the increasing of efficiency are concerned. The Swiss gas market is compared with those of selected European countries. Market structures and regulatory aspects are examined and the resulting effects on the market and gas prices are reviewed. The effects of market opening are discussed from both the supplier and consumer points of view.

  9. European studies on occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Frasch, G.

    2005-01-01

    sectors and work subcategories for the years 1995 - 2000 use as far as possible an internationally comparable system of work categories and dose intervals. One major aim of this 10-years time series is to document how occupational radiation exposure in Europe changed after the implementation of the new dose limits by the Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM. Since 1997 the following ESOREX studies have been executed: ESOREX WEST (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom), part I + part II (1995); ESOREX EAST (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia), part I + part II (1997); ESOREX 2000, update of part I + part II (1995-2000). At present ESOREX 2005 is executed with an update of part I + part II (2001-2005). The presentation will give an overview of the ESOREX studies already performed and provide selected results on European level (e.g. dose distribution for main occupational sectors such nuclear industry, general industry, medicine, natural exposure). The presentation will be also focused to the comparison of different approaches in the participating countries to control and register occupational radiation exposure, e.g. central dose registration, categorization of workers, official dosemeters, use of the shielding apron. (author)

  10. SELECTING THE DIRECTION FOR TECHNICAL RE-EQUIPMENT OF THE TPP OIL-GAS BLOCKS OF 300 MW CAPACITY IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EAST-EUROPEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    -equipment of the TPPs in the countries of the East-European region in the medium term is going to follow the way of reconstruction/modernization of the 300 MW-capacity power-block equipment and prolongation of the specified operation life.

  11. Therapeutic implications of selecting the SCORE (European versus the D'AGOSTINO (American risk charts for cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giné-Garriga Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No comparisons have been made of scales estimating cardiovascular mortality and overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study objectives were to assess the agreement between the Framingham-D'Agostino cardiovascular risk (CVR scale and the chart currently recommended in Europe (SCORE with regard to identification of patients with high CVR, and to describe the discrepancies between them and the attendant implications for the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Methods A total of 474 hypertensive patients aged 40–65 years monitored in primary care were enrolled into the study. CVR was assessed using the Framingham-D'Agostino scale, which estimates the overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk, and the SCORE chart, which estimates the cardiovascular mortality risk. Cardiovascular risk was considered to be high for values ≥ 20% and ≥ 5% according to the Framingham-D'Agostino and SCORE charts respectively. Kappa statistics was estimated for agreement in classification of patients with high CVR. The therapeutic recommendations in the 2007 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention were followed. Results Mean patient age was 54.1 (SD 7.3, and 58.4% were males. A high CVR was found in 17.5% using the SCORE chart (25.3% males, 6.6% females and in 32.7% using the D'Agostino method (56.9% males, 12,7% females. Kappa coefficient was 0.52, and increased to 0.68 when the high CVR threshold was established at 29% according to D'Agostino. Hypertensive patients with high SCORE and non-high D'Agostino (1.7% were characterized by an older age, diabetes, and a lower atherogenic index, while the opposite situation (16.9% was associated to males, hyperlipidaemia, and a higher atherogenic index. Variables with a greater weight in discrepancies were sex and smoking. A 32.0% according to SCORE and 33.5% according to D'Agostino would be candidates to receive antihypertensive treatment, and 15.8% and

  12. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

  13. Education of Ethnic Minorities; Comments on the Consultative Document Issued by the Department of Education & Science on the Report on the West Indian Community Issued by the Select Committee on Race Relations & Immigration. Occasional Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This paper presents the Commission's views on the scope of a proposed inquiry into the educational underachievement of West Indian children and into other aspects of the education of ethnic minority children in general. Objectives and suggestions for meeting these objectives in the proposed inquiry are outlined. These include: (1) basic skills in…

  14. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  15. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  16. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  17. The response to selection for broad male response to female sex pheromone and its implications for divergence in close-range mating behavior in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droney, David C; Musto, Callie J; Mancuso, Katie; Roelofs, Wendell L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-12-01

    Coordinated sexual communication systems, seen in many species of moths, are hypothesized to be under strong stabilizing natural selection. Stabilized communication systems should be resistant to change, but there are examples of species/populations that show great diversification. A possible solution is that it is directional sexual selection on variation in male response that drives evolution. We tested a component of this model by asking whether 'rare' males (ca. 5 % of all males in a population) of the European corn borer moth (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, that respond to the sex pheromones of both ECB and a different Ostrinia species (O. furnacalis, the Asian corn borer, ACB), might play an important role in diversification. We specifically tested, via artificial selection, whether this broad male response has an evolvable genetic component. We increased the frequency of broad male response from 5 to 70 % in 19 generations, showing that broad-responding males could be important for the evolution of novel communication systems in ECB. We did not find a broader range of mating acceptance of broad males by females of the base population, however, suggesting that broad response would be unlikely to increase in frequency without the involvement of other factors. However, we found that ECB selection-line females accepted a broader range of courting males, including those of ACB, than did females of the base population. Thus, a genetic correlation exists between broad, long-range response to female sex pheromone and the breadth of female acceptance of males at close range. These results are discussed in the context of evolution of novel communication systems in Ostrinia.

  18. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  19. European gas market developments. Opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.

    1998-09-01

    The paper is based on two studies conducted by ECN, namely a study entitled 'An analysis of the West-European gas market: a company approach' and another entitled 'Developments of gas markets across Europe' to be published in November 1998. The paper addresses the past driving factors responsible for the increasing share of gas in the EU energy demand. Furthermore it very briefly discusses the rising dependency of the European Union (EU) on gas imports from non-EU sources such as Russia and the expected gas-to-gas competition in a large number of EU countries in the next decades. 25 refs

  20. Phytogeographical relations in the North West European heath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, de J.T.

    1967-01-01

    The water economy, the mineral content of the soil, and human influence are the principal ecological factors governing the variation of the heath vegetation of a limited region. Sloping of the surface is also an important factor. In hilly country it is of a twofold nature: on the one hand the

  1. Towards a Drought Policy in North-West European Regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This chapter proposes a comparative approach of the drought governance context in the six regions studied. In sum, the governance context for drought resilience policies and measures in most of the regions studied can be regarded to currently be “intermediate”. The implementation of the governance

  2. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  3. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  4. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  5. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  6. Warehouse site selection in an international environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan ŠKERLIČ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changed conditions in the automotive industry as the market and the production are moving from west to east, both at global and at European level, require constant adjustment from Slovenian companies. The companies strive to remain close to their customers and suppliers, as only by maintaining a high quality and streamlined supply chain, their existence within the demanding automotive industry is guaranteed in the long term. Choosing the right location for a warehouse in an international environment is therefore one of the most important strategic decisions that takes into account a number of interrelated factors such as transport networks, transport infrastructure, trade flows and the total cost. This paper aims to explore the important aspects of selecting a location for a warehouse and to identify potential international strategic locations, which could have a significant impact on the future operations of Slovenian companies in the global automotive industry.

  7. An Examination of the Use of Lists of Recent Publications Found in Selected Journals in British and European History for Collection Development and Current Awareness by Librarians and Historians: A Master's Paper for the M.S. in L.S. Degree, July, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sallie H.

    This master's paper examines the use, by historians and librarians, of lists of recent publications, bibliographies, and reviews appearing in selected British and European history journals. Part 1 contains: (1) an introduction; (2) background information; (3) a literature review; (4) the problem statement; (5) a definition of terms; and (6) the…

  8. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  9. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  10. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  11. Calculated shielding factors for selected European houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1984-12-01

    Shielding factors for gamma radiation from activity deposited on structures and ground surfaces have been calculated with the computer model DEPSHIELD for single-family and multi-storey buildings in France, United Kingdom and Denmark. For all three countries it was found that the shielding factors for single-family houses are approximately a factor of 2 - 10 higher that those for buildings with five or more storeys. Away from doors and windows the shielding factors for French, British, and Danish single-family houses are in the range 0.03 - 0.1, 0.06 - 0.4, and 0.07 - 0.3, respectively. The uncertainties of the calculations are discussed and DEPSHIELD-results are compared with other methods as well as with experimental results. (author)

  12. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  13. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  14. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  15. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  16. Science's disparate responsibilities: Patterns across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlgaard, Niels

    2018-04-01

    It is a distinctive feature of European science policy that science is expected to meet economic and broader societal objectives simultaneously. Science should be governed democratically and take significant responsibilities towards the economy, the political system and civil society, but the coherency of these multiple claims is underexplored. Using metrics that emerge from both quantitative and qualitative studies, we examine the interrelatedness of different responsibilities at the level of countries. A total of 33 European Union member states and associated countries are included in the analysis. We find no trade-off between economic and broader societal contributions. Europe is, however, characterised by major divisions in terms of the location of science in society. There is a significant East-West divide, and Europe appears to be far from accomplishing an integrated European Research Area.

  17. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  18. EUROPEAN CULTURE: A REASSESSMENT OF THE IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZĂR LUDMILA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive migration to the EU, violent challenges in European capitals and internal conflicts raise not only political, but also cultural issues. The values of the European civilization are challenged by the new communication and informational technologies, at the EU level, as well as at the national and individual level. Europe is deeply marked by the globalization phenomenon and its consequences require to be addressed from a new perspective. West European vulnerabilities appear in the foreground and some people try to doubt the fundamental identity marks of the European society. In fact, as far back as the end of the last century, Edgar Morin proposed the dialogic principle to conceive Europe, merely because the dialogic ‘is at the heart of European identity, and not one or another of its elements or moments’. Under the current conditions, the European identity becomes fluid, ever-changing, whilst preserving the ‘hard core’ of values centred on the cultural dimension, characterized by diversity and openness for intercultural dialogue.

  19. East-west collaboration in nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram von, Oertzen

    2002-01-01

    The Sandarski-2 meeting on east-west collaborations in nuclear sciences was held in May 2001 in Bulgaria with 115 participants from 17 European countries, Usa, Japan and Russia (Dubna). The scientific included 66 oral contributions. During the last decade Eastern Europe has undergone substantial political and economic changes. These changes have had a decisive impact on the scientific community in these countries, because the support for basic and applied science has decreased dramatically due to the collapse of economic systems. It should noted that there are still good resources: experimental installations, technical and scientific manpower and a well trained human intellectual reserve but conditions differ strongly from one institute to another. Many national and European institutions have set up support programs for the funding of local activities for scientists in their eastern institutions or by funding collaborations between eastern and western scientists. Many highly specialized eastern scientists work now in Europe, the Usa and Japan but the brain drain from the poorest eastern countries is a real problem. One recommendation put forward at this meeting is the creation of European structures for the support of scientists in their eastern home institutions in such a way that they can return and continue to work at home. (A.C.)

  20. Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Lukáčová, L.; Halouzka, Jiří; Širůček, P.; Januška, J.; Přecechtělová, J.; Procházka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 323-324 ISSN 0393-2990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * CNS infection * Flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2006

  1. Is the east-west power bridge economic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    At the latest conference of the East-West Energy Bridge project in Warsaw on October 24-25, 1995, the majority opinion concluded that the vast trans-European hvdc network proposed for operation in 2010 could be economically financed and operated in spite of reservations by some German utilities. Anatoliy Dyakov, president of the Russian UPS (Unified Power System), recently said that Russia would shortly start building the line from Smolensk to Kaliningrad as the first stage of this project. (author)

  2. Pneumatization and otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit before European colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, L T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size of the pneuma...

  3. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-10

    elements, based on the somewhat naive belief that political authority would necessarily follow. The first idea was to create a European embryo while...and their own destiny ? [Answer] The language of true solidarity in dealing wit* diffIcultles including what this entails in terms of personal

  4. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences...... for defence industrial autarchy. When cross-national armament projects were derailed, this could be attributed to political efforts of national defence industrial champions favouring purely domestic projects. As former national champions join pan-European defence groups, their preferences are likely modified......-border defence industry consolidation will be analysed. Procurement bias is assessed in two industry segments characterised by pervasive consolidation....

  5. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  6. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  7. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  8. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"ABS 1. DETRIMENTAL MUCOSAL EFFECT OF IBUPROFEN IN THE IMMATURE HUMAN INTESTINE • E. Tremblay, E. Ferretti, M.-P. Thibault, D. Grynspan, K.M. Burghardt, M. Bettolli, C. Babakissa, E. Levy, J.-F. Beaulieu; Research Consortium on Child Intestinal InflammationABS 2. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALPROTECTIN LEVELS IN MECONIUM AND VITAMIN D STATUS IN CORD BLOOD: ASSOCIATION WITH INTESTINAL DISTRESS DURING NEONATAL PERIOD • S.H. Park, W.H. Kim, Y.M. LeeABS 3. COMPARISON OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN LEVELS ACCORDING TO FEEDING KINDS IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • J.H. Park, N.H. Lee, S.Y. Shin, C.S. Kim, S.L. Lee, W.M. LeeABS 4. NEONATAL MORBIDITY OF EXTREME PRETERM INFANTS BEFORE AND AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF A DONOR HUMAN MILK BANK AT THE PERINATAL CENTER GROßHADERN • V. Lieftüchter, M. Kujawa, A. Schuze, A.W. Flemmer, S. Herber-JonatABS 5. IS NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY A RELIABLE TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE GUT PERFUSION IN PRETERM INFANTS? • J. Banerjee, T.S. Leung, N. AladangadyABS 6. EARLY BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF NECROTIZING

  9. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...

  10. Virtual Models of European Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2003-01-01

    The study provides a detailed report on the current and possible future use of ICT by European universities for educational and organisational purposes. The report presents: • A general description of the current situation regarding the use of ICT in EU universities in both the educational...... and the organisational setting. • An in-depth study of selected institutions through case studies. • A future-oriented analysis. • A set of recommendations for future action....

  11. European Capitals of Culture: A “soft power” resource for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sianos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using English-language newspaper articles retrieved from digital repositories, this paper examines the cultural asymmetrical encounter between Western and Eastern Europe after 1989. It argues that due to the rise of the Iron Curtain after 1948 and the post-war progress of the Western European integration project after 1950, the idea of “Europe” was confined to the West until 1989. After 1989, however, the Eastern European nations were free to “return to Europe”, and in order to do so they followed the “reference model” of the West. The paper takes the institution of the European Capital of Culture (ECOC as a case study and demonstrates how both Western and Eastern European cities used the ECOC title as a gateway to modernity, why it acquired an extra functionality in the East as a stage where they could showcase their “European” credentials, and how it gradually developed into one of the E.U.’s “soft power” resources.

  12. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  13. Advertising and the Consumerism Movement in Europe: The Case of West Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Samiee; John K Ryans

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, European countries have faced an ever increasing levels of activities by consumerists. Much of this activity is aimed at regulating and controlling advertising. This article examines the views of advertising industry and corporate advertising executives toward this movement in two neighboring European countries: West Germany and Switzerland. Results show that even though these countries have different levels of advertising regulation, the executives in both countries hold gen...

  14. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  15. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  16. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  17. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  18. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  20. Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (coleoptera, dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K Drotz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate

  1. Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (coleoptera, dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotz, Marcus K; Brodin, Tomas; Nilsson, Anders N

    2010-02-03

    The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate isolation barriers between

  2. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  3. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  4. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  5. Heart failure complicating tetralogy of Fallot | Ogunkunle | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  6. Penile fracture in a patient with stuttering priapism | Badmus | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  7. Solar retinopathy in Benin City, Nigeria | Ukponmwan | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  8. The current status of psychotherapy | Gureje | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  9. Spinal cord injuries in Ilorin, Nigeria | Solagberu | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. Hepatitis B virus in Nigerians with Lichen planus | Daramola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  11. Artisanal mining of gold with mercury in Ghana | Donkor | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  12. Introduction: The West Asian and North African uprisings and the limits of liberal governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullin, C.; Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2015-01-01

    This special section brings together scholars working in divergent disciplines and locations. By focusing on agency and politics from below in addition to the structural and discursive contexts that condition wider relations between the West Asian and North African (WANA) region and the European

  13. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in

  14. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, E. (Evelien); Mollers, M. (Madelief); Smit, P.W. (Pieter W.); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); A. Timen (Aura)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable

  15. West Nile Virus positive blood donation and subsequent entomological investigation, Austria, 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  16. Co-circulation of Usutu virus and West Nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 520 (2015), s. 520 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Culex modestus * Usutu virus * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Arbovirus * Surveillance * Mosquitoes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  17. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  18. Recent migration developments in the European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of international migration in relationship to the recent economic situation in member countries of the European Union using quantitative methods including cluster analysis. The number of immigration in Europe has declined since the start of the global recession. The main reason was the decrease of demand in many sectors of the national economy, for instance the demand for retail and construction workers. Despite the drop in new immigration, labour markets of the EU countries were hit very severely. Unemployment rates in the most of European countries increased much more in the category of migrants than among natives. Despite the general decline in immigration in Europe during the economic crisis, the number of immigrants employed in educational sector and health care has increased. Also the number of female immigrants has been growing. The cluster analysis uses a multidimensional variable that includes GDP, unemployment, inflation rate and also net migration. We can distinguish two main clusters in 2010. The majority of highly developed West European countries are a part of the first cluster; the second cluster includes the group of post-communist countries. The latter countries form two sub-groups. A relatively independent sub-cluster is formed by some of the EU15 countries that were hit by the financial crisis the most. In general, the main two clusters illustrate that the economic division of established and new member countries of the European Union is still present.

  19. Developments in the European methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry

  20. Nuclear waste management, a European task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1989-01-01

    The coming into force of the Single European Act on July 1, 1987, which is to stepwise create a truly frontierless internal market of the European Community up to the year 1992, will have an effect also on the nuclear waste management sector. The goals of the energy policy and fuel cycle policy of the FRG, however, will not be changed by this. The contribution in hand discusses in particular some problems encountered at the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, namely nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. Activities in this branch of nuclear industry for more than ten years already have been a joint, European task. Spent fuel elements from West German reactors have been sent for reprocessing to facilities in France and in Great Britain, for example. The task of spent fuel reprocessing in the eyes of the author has a dimension exceeding the scope of the European single market: cooperation in this field for years has been including Switzerland and Sweden, for example, and is likely to include in future some countries of the Eastern Bloc. (orig.) [de

  1. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  2. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  3. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  4. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”ABS 1. TRANSITIONAL CHANGES IN CEREBRAL BLOOD VOLUME OF TERM AND PRETERM INFANTS WITH AND WITHOUT RESPIRATORY SUPPORT AFTER BIRTH • B. Schwaberger, G. Pichler, A. Avian, C. Binder-Heschl, N. Baik, B. UrlesbergerABS 2. HEMATOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN THE FIRST 72 HOURS OF LIFE IN SMALL-FOR-GESTATIONAL-AGE PRETERM NEWBORNS • A. Matic, A. RistivojevicABS 3. THE ANTICOAGULANT ACTION OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • E. Neary, N. McCallion, B. Kevane, K. Egan, M. Cotter, F. Ni AinleABS 4. SURVIVAL AFTER CARDIAC ARREST IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT • E. Foglia, R. Langeveld, L. Heimall, A. Deveney, A. Ades, E. JensenABS 5. A PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS SEVERITY SCORE INCORPORATING MARKERS OF HAEMODYNAMIC SIGNIFICANCE AND LEFT VENTRICLE DIASTOLIC FUNCTION PREDICTS CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • A.T. James, J.D. Corcoran, P. Dicker, O. Franklin, Y.N. Elsayed, J. Ting, A. Sehgal, A. Malikawi, A. Harabor, A.S. Soraisham, P.J. McNamaraABS 6. A STUDY TO VALIDATE THE DURATION OF ASSESSMENT OF BASELINE NIRS VALUES IN PRETERM BABIES WITH ECHOCARDIOGRAPHICALLY

  5. A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaresque, Patricia; Bowden, Georgina R.; Adams, Susan M.; Leung, Ho-Yee; King, Turi E.; Rosser, Zoë H.; Goodwin, Jane; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Richard, Christelle; Millward, Ann; Demaine, Andrew G.; Barbujani, Guido; Previderè, Carlo; Wilson, Ian J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men. Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. Taken with evidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makes Europe a prime example of how technological and cultural change is linked with the expansion of a Y-chromosomal lineage, and the contrast of this pattern with that shown by maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA suggests a unique role for males in the transition. PMID:20087410

  6. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  7. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  8. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  9. European Identity through Space Space Activities and Programmes as a Tool to Reinvigorate the European Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina

    2013-01-01

    Space activities are one particularly visible area, where Europe can shape its identity. This publication investigates the effect space activities have already had on building a European “spirit” (e.g. through European missions or European astronauts). It also looks into the effects that activities labelled “national” have on the emergence of a European identity. Based on this analysis, the book's intention is to identify creative ways and means for how to further use space for shaping the European identity. For this purpose the focus is not only on policy analysis but also on expertise from the fields of cultural science and the arts in order to tap their creative potential and also their theoretical approaches to the topic. Selecting this theme provides ESPI with another opportunity to develop its trans-disciplinary approach.

  10. The DACCIWA 2016 radiosonde campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas H.; Maranan, Marlon; Knippertz, Peter; Ngamini, Jean-Blaise; Francis, Sabastine

    2017-04-01

    Operational upper-air stations are very sparsely distributed over West Africa, resulting in the necessity to enhance radiosonde observations for the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) experimental period during June-July 2016. Building on the AMMA (African Monsoon - Multidisciplinary Analyses) experience, existing infrastructures, as well as human networks, the upper air network was successfully augmented to a spatial density that is unprecedented for southern West Africa. Altogether, more than 750 experimental radiosondes were launched at seven stations in three countries along the Guinea Coast. From its outset, the DACCIWA radiosonde campaign had three pillars: (a) enhancing soundings at operational or quiescent AMMA radiosonde stations; (b) launching sondes at DACCIWA supersites and two additional DACCIWA field sites; and (c) collecting standard and - if possible - high-resolution data from other operational RS stations. In terms of (a), it was found during preparing recce visits to West Africa, that the AMMA-activated stations of Cotonou (Benin) and Abuja (Nigeria) were operational though almost "invisible" on the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Teleconnection System (GTS). These and other AMMA legacies facilitated the implementation of enhanced, four-times daily soundings at Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou and Parakou (both Benin). Two well-instrumented DACCIWA ground sites at Kumasi (Ghana) and Savé (Benin) performed 06 UTC soundings, being enhanced to four-times daily ascents during fifteen Intensive Observing Periods (IOPs). In addition, research staff and students from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and African partners conducted up to five-times daily soundings at Lamto (Ivory Coast) and Accra (Ghana). Almost all of the experimental DACCIWA ascents were submitted to the GTS in real time and assimilated at least at three European numerical weather prediction centres that helped to improve their

  11. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union; Stand der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom hinsichtlich des Radonschutzes in ausgewaehlten Mitgliedstaaten der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  12. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  13. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  14. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  15. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  16. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  17. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  18. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  19. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  20. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  1. Abortion in the light of case-law of the European Court of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    Thesis: Abortion in the light of case law of European Court of Human Rights This thesis focuses on the legal regulation of abortion in selected European countries in order to find single European standard. It concentrates primarily on issues of assessing violations of particular articles of the Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms by the European Court of Human Rights or former European Commission of Human Rights in relation to specific cases associated with abortion. Abortion ...

  2. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  3. European R and D co-ordinate programme on structural integrity of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Combescure, A.; Acker, D.; Corsi, F.; Martelli, A.; Vinzens, K.; Angerbauer, A.

    1989-01-01

    After a period of development of medium size prototype plants, PFR in United Kingdom, Phenix in France and SNR 300 in West Germany, and the build up of the large size prototype plant Super Phenix in France by the European Consortium, NERSA, Belgium, France, Italy, United Kingdom and West Germany decided to join their efforts in order to pursue the development of LMFBR nuclear power plants. This paper presents the European Research and Development coordinated program in the field of structural integrity of fast breeder reactors with its organization, its objectives, its programs and the resources allocated for development. (author)

  4. The Death of the West: An alternative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, David; Basten, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about the 'Death of the West', a demise threatened by the low level of reproduction in Western countries. That fate is contrasted unfavourably with the rapid growth of the populations and economies of less developed countries, and the prospect of the numerical and political marginalization of the formerly dominant developed world. We believe that trends in European fertility have been misunderstood and that, with effort and some pain, their consequences for age structure are manageable. Many European societies also enjoy the advantages of demographic and social maturity, the resilience of established consensual democratic institutions, the rule of law, and civil society. The sizes of China and India raise problems of resource sustainability and vulnerability to climate change. China risks falling into a low-fertility trap, reinforced by urban working conditions unfriendly to family formation. Traditional patriarchal and familist cultures may depress fertility rates to unhelpfully low levels in other less developed countries.

  5. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Infectious Diseases/Immunology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Infectious Diseases/Immunology"ABS 1. UPTAKE OF PERTUSSIS AND INFLUENZA VACCINES IN PREGNANCY • A. Saso, B. Donaldson, B. KampmannABS 2. THE FREQUENCY OF MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN (MBL DEFICIENCY IN PREMATURE BABIES AND THE EFFECT ON LONG TERM MORBIDITIES • H. Ozkan, P.Dogan, N. Koksal, B. Oral, O. Bagcı, I. VaralABS 3. SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY AND CONTINUED BREASTFEEDING: REPORT OF 5 OWN MOTHER’S MILK DONATION (OMM AT THE REGIONAL ILE DE FRANCE MILK BANK • V. Rigourd, D. Moshous, J.F. Méritet, M. Nicloux, C. Hovhannisyan, M. Dorsi, T. Hachem, P. Frange, A. Lapillonne, J.F. MagnyABS 4. MATERNAL CONTRIBUTION TO NEONATAL MICROBIOTA • R.S. Procianoy, L.F. Roesch, A.L. Corso, V. Mai, R.C. SilveiraABS 5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER IN REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL BURDEN IN A NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU • Ch. Petropoulou, E. Kouskouni, P. Efstathiou, H. Bouza, Z. Manolidou, K. Karageorgou, A. Efstathiou, M. LogothetisABS 6. ANTIBIOTIC EXPOSURE IN NEONATES AND IMPACT ON GUT MICROBIOTA AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW • J. Fjalstad, E

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"ABS 1. REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS IN NICU – A QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT • D.A. Al Masri, B. Ofoegbu, L. Yahya, K. Catroon, A. Saliba, H. IbrahimABS 2. PRETERM INFANTS WITH MEDICAL COM­PLEXITY: IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE RESOURCE USE, FAMILY EMPLOYMENT AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES • D. Nassel, C. Chartrand, M.-J. Doré-Bergeron, M. Ballantyne, F. Lefebvre, T.M. LuuABS 3. BREAST MILK DONATION IN THE MUSLIM POPULATION • S. Jebali, E. Ayachi, R. Terki Hassaine, A. Giuseppi, D. Vaiman, S. Brunet, V. RigourdABS 4. CORE OUTCOMES IN NEONATOLOGY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS • J. Webbe, N. Modi, C. Gale, on behalf of the COIN Steering GroupABS 5. A PILOT STUDY ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A FAMILY-CENTERED CARE INTERVENTION IN PRETERM INFANTS IN CHINA • R. Zhang, R. Huang, X. Gao, X. Peng, L. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, J. LatourABS 6. TO DETERMINE HOW MANY MOTHERS OF PRETERM BABIES, WHO WERE DELIVERED BETWEEN 24 AND 34 WEEKS GESTATION AND WERE ADMITTED TO NEONATAL UNIT AT ST. MARY’ S HOSPITAL, DID NOT RECEIVE ANTENATAL STEROIDS • A. Arunoday, A. Manou

  7. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Nutrition and gastroenterology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Nutrition and gastroenterology”ABS 1. NEONATAL ANTIBIOTICS IN PRETERM INFANTS AND RISK OF ALLERGIC DISEASES LATER IN LIFE • E. Westerbeek, A. van Zwol, L. Carstens, R. van ElburgABS 2. FRENOTOMY FOR TONGUE-TIE IN NEWBORN INFANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW • J.E. O’Shea, J.P. Foster, S.E. Jacobs, C.P.F. O’Donnell, D.A. Todd, P.G. DavisABS 3. EARLY FORMULA MAY HELP SUPPORT LONG-TERM BREASTFEEDING • Z. Stranak, J. Kolarova, M. CernaABS 4. COMPARISON OF DRY BLOOD SPOT AMINO ACID PROFILES BETWEEN PRETERM INFANTS AT TERM POSTMENSTRUAL AGE AND HEALTHY TERM NEWBORNS • C. Balcells, M. Izquierdo-Renau, M. Molero, C. Sierra, R. Artuch, I. Iglesias-PlatasABS 5. VARIABILITY IN BONE MARKERS PROFILE OF NEWBORNS AND THEIR MOTHERS AFTER DHA SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREGNANCY • L. Serrano López, M. Peña Caballero, E. Martín Álvarez, J. Diaz Castro, N. Najarabille, J.J. Ochoa, J.A. Hurtado SuazoABS 6. A SYNBIOTIC MIXTURE OF scGOS/lcFOS AND BIFIDOBACTERIUM BREVE M-16V IS ABLE TO RESTORE THE DELAYED COLONIZATION OF BIFIDOBACTERIA SPP. IN C-SECTION DELIVERED INFANTS • M.C. Chua, C. Chew, A. Goh, W.C. Chiang, R. Rao1, C. Lay, K

  8. Class-related health inequalities are not larger in the East: a comparison of four European regions using the new European socioeconomic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, T. A.; Kunst, A. E.; Judge, K.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The article investigates whether people in Eastern Europe have larger health inequalities than their counterparts in three West European regions (North, Central and the South). METHODS: Data were obtained for 63,754 individuals in 23 countries from the first (2002) and second (2004)

  9. Class-related health inequalities are not larger in the East : A comparison of four European regions using the new European socioeconomic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); K. Judge; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The article investigates whether people in Eastern Europe have larger health inequalities than their counterparts in three West European regions (North, Central and the South). Methods: Data were obtained for 63 754 individuals in 23 countries from the first (2002) and

  10. The Rise of the Information Society amongst European Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the information society discourse in the European Union in relation to the European Commission's eLearning programmes, based on selected academics' conceptualisation of the term. It reveals a mixed picture of the perceptions that academics have of the information society in their respective countries. The findings indicate…

  11. Editorial European conference on integrated optics (ECIO'10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue contains a selection of extended papers from the Fifteenth European Conference on Integrated Optics held on 7-9 April 2010. The First European Conference on Integrated Optics in the series was held in London, UK thirty years ago, and the conference has been held biannually across

  12. Problems And Prospects Of The European Regional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dymova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last few decades, the system of international relations continues to change. One of the key components of the emerging international order is the European regional order, which currently goes through deep transformations associated with changes of the international system and structural reconstruction of the European communities. The formation of the European regional system is a complex international political process, which is based on various political, social, economic, cultural, historical and other factors. Since the end of the World war II the European Union constitutes a political and institutional basis of relations both between member states and with the rest of the world. However, today the European Union runs through a systemic crisis embodied by ongoing economic and financial downturn as well as a crisis of socio-political structures and models of governance that now threaten the existence of the Union itself. Institutional problems are aggravated against the background of crises in highly sensitive areas such as economy and security, as well as uncertainties in the external international environment. All these factors undermine the ability of the EU to play a decisive role in building a European regional order. The emphasis is shifting towards particular countries, with the greater potential in shaping the international agenda and giving an effective response to modern challenges and threats. Building a stable architecture of the European security system is one of the essential conditions of the European regional order, however contradicting approaches of the parties acknowledge that political and ideological barriers between the East and the West continue to exist. In the context of increasing security threats transatlantic partnership does not lose the relevance though the tough course of the US and its desire to reinforce its leadership in Europe often meets the extreme disapproval on the part of the Europeans. Russian

  13. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  14. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  15. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  16. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  17. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  18. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  19. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  20. Review: Ingrid Miethe, Claudia Kajatin & Jana Pohl (Eds. (2004. Geschlechterkonstruktionen in Ost und West. Biografische Perspektiven [Gender Constructions in East and West. Biographical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This reader contains analyses of gender constructions in East and West Germany from biographical perspectives. It is based on narrative interviews with women and men living in the former East and West. By means of case reconstructions and case comparisons the authors reveal how individuals deal actively with specific societal gender roles. Historical differences between women's movement and feminism in East Germany versus West Germany are knowledgeably described. The book offers a very complex and multilayered theoretical and empirical construction of gender in its diverse dimensions, but men's biographies and men's studies remain marginalized. Men's movements as well as the gay rights movement are blind spots. The gendering of work and the context of European unification are emphasized. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602353

  1. A Philosophical reflection on European integration : Aristotelian subsidiarity versus Kantian universalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bielskis, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to show how contemporary Aristotelian political philosophy can be utilised in our reflections on European integration. It argues that changes in international relations after the end of the Cold War and a growing cultural divide between Europe and the US makes Europe's Western identity untenable. Through a brief philosophical sketch of the history of 'the West' it argues that Europe needs to return to its European rather than Western roots. The philosophical emphasis on nation...

  2. Shoreline Changes on the Wave-Influenced Senegal River Delta, West Africa: The Roles of Natural Processes and Human Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sadio , Mamadou; Anthony , Edward ,; Diaw , Amadou ,; DUSSOUILLEZ , Philippe; FLEURY , Jules; Kane , Alioune; Almar , Rafael; Kestenare , Élodie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The Senegal River delta in West Africa, one of the finest examples of " wave-influenced " deltas, is bounded by a spit periodically breached by waves, each breach then acting as a shifting mouth of the Senegal River. Using European Re-Analysis (ERA) hindcast wave data from 1984 to 2015 generated by the Wave Atmospheric Model (WAM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we calculated longshore sediment transport rates along the spit. We also ...

  3. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  4. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  5. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  6. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  7. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  8. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  9. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  10. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  11. Cover Crops in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sasakawa Global 2000 — Bénin, 04 BP 1091, Cotonou, Benin ..... and West African farmers have been remarkably creative with GMCCs, developing and ...... Journal d'agriculture tropicale et de botanique appliquée, 4(5). ...... political; the best approach is therefore thought to be to accept this limitation and work with it.

  12. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  13. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  14. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  16. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  17. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  18. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  19. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  20. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  1. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  2. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  3. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  4. East-West gradient in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J.; Pedersen, N; Cukovic-Cavka, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Eastern Europe. The reasons for these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD in Europe exists. DESIGN: A prospective, uniformly diagnosed...... treatment as rescue therapy. Of all European CD patients, 20% received only 5-aminosalicylates as induction therapy. CONCLUSIONS: An East-West gradient in IBD incidence exists in Europe. Among this inception cohort-including indolent and aggressive cases-international guidelines for diagnosis and initial...

  5. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  7. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephanie M; Brault, Aaron C; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D; Bowen, Richard A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron E E

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains' virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe.

  8. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (CKD) in 2002 was a landmark event.1 This is because CKD is a global ... determination procedure provide us with ... Also, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis .... kidney disease: a position statement ... European Renal Association Section I.

  9. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  10. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The F ST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE EASTERN-EUROPEAN AUTO SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Ovidiu CINADE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Car-building industry territorial reconfiguration in Europe is the result of several rounds of company delocations from origin countries to emergent countries. Such rounds have been limited by the gradual opening of the national countries, as well as by changes in East European ideology and politics. Hence, about the end of the 90’s, European car-building industry shows considerable disparity, East to West. In the car-building companies’ vision, East-European car-building development potential is basically sustained by both the car low penetration rate, and the low labor cost. On the long term run, gradual valorizing of the East-european trading, with increasing labor costs, may read as a wearing thin of the competitive advantage in car-building industries, as well as problem issues of novel territory attractiveness needing permanent boosting. Country-to-country comparative analysis indicates that competitive advantage of car-building has not gone down in all of the West-European States. Competitive advantage of the West-European car-building industry increases, which can be explained, in part, by adequate strategies, as both labor costs, and cars penetration rate, go up.

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"ABS 1. PREVALENCE OF BREASTFEEDING AT 6 MONTHS IN SICK NEONATES • S. Kositamongkol, K. MoungsuwanABS 2. ROLE OF BREAST MILK AND FECAL MICROBIAL CONTENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF BREAST MILK JAUNDICE • N. Koksal, O. Bagcı, H. Ozkan, I. Varal, P. DoganABS 3. VARIABILITY IN THE PROTEIN AND FAT CONTENT OF THE DONOR HUMAN MILK SUPPLY REVEALED BY MID-INFRARED SPECTROMETER ANALYSIS: A FIRST STEP TOWARDS PREVENTING DISRUPTION OF “PERINATAL PROGRAMMING” • V. Rigourd, Z. Assaf, A. Lapillonne, J.F. MagnyABS 4. BOVINE COLOSTRUM FOR PRETERM INFANTS IN THE FIRST DAYS OF LIFE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT TRIAL • S.M. Juhl, X. Ye, P. Zhou, Y. Li, E.O. Iyore, L. Zhang, P. Jiang, J.B. van Goudoever, G. Greisen, P.T. SangildABS 5. PROTEIN AND CALORIC DEFICIT DURING THE NEONATAL PERIOD IN INFANTS WITH BIRTH WEIGHT LESS THAN 1,500 G AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE ADOLESCENCE • A. Dinerstein, C. Solana, R. Nieto, M. Casale, R. Conti, M. Moiron, F. GeneralABS 6. EFFECTS OF EXCLUSIVE DONOR HUMAN MILK FEEDING IN A SHORT PERIOD AFTER BIRTH ON

  13. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  14. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura...... 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring...

  15. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  16. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  17. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  18. Processes underpinning development and maintenance of diversity in rice in West Africa: Evidence from combining morphological and molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp.) from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component

  19. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  20. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  1. Skill Content of Intra-European Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeddies, Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the international division of labor has expanded rapidly in the wake of European integration. In this context, especially Western European high-wage countries should have specialized on (human-capital intensively manufactured goods and should have increasingly sourced labor-intensively manufactured goods, especially parts and components, from Eastern European low wage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful to the lower-qualified workforce in high-wage countries, the opening up of Eastern Europe is often considered as a vital reason for increasing unemployment of the lower-qualified in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue by analyzing the skill content of Western European countries’ bilateral trade using input-output techniques in order to evaluate possible effects of international trade on labor demand. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies have been considered, allowing for vertical product differentiation. In this case, skill content of bilateral exports and imports partially differs substantially, especially in bilateral trade between Western and Eastern European countries. According to the results, East-West trade should be harmful particularly to the medium-skilled in Western European countries.

  2. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"ABS 1. HOW SAFE IS NASAL CANNULAE OXYGEN THERAPY DURING NEONATAL TRANSPORT? • A. Brunton, J. O’Shea, A. JacksonABS 2. WEANING PREMATURE INFANTS FROM NASAL CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE – CURRENT PRACTICE IN GERMANY • A. Kidszun, C. Arnold, J. Winter, C. Whybra-Trümpler, E. MildenbergerABS 3. TIMING OF KEY EVENTS IN NEONATAL RE­SUSCITATION • A. Heathcote, J. Jones, P. ClarkeABS 4. COMPARING NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION METHODS IN RESPIRATORY SUPPORT OF PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES • A.S. Farhat, A. Mohammadzadeh, G.A. Mamuri, R. Saeidi, S. NoorizadehABS 5. PREDICTORS AND OUTCOMES OF CONTINU­OUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE AND NA­SAL HIGH-FLOW TREATMENT FAILURE IN PRE­TERM INFANTS: A SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF A RANDOMIZED TRIAL • B. Manley, C. Roberts, D. Frøisland, L. Doyle, P. Davis, L. OwenABS 6. NEONATAL NON-INVASIVE RESPIRATORY SUPPORT APPROACH: A TWO COUNTRIES COMPARISON • I. Bresesti, S. Zivanovic, G. Lista, C. RoehrABS 7. PREDICTORS OF EARLY CPAP FAILURE IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PRETERM

  3. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neurology and Follow-up"ABS 1. PRETERM BIRTH AND THE TIMING OF PUBERTY • E. James, C. Wood, H. Nair, T. WilliamsABS 2. NEONATAL PAIN, OPIOID AND ANAESTHETIC EXPOSURE; WHAT REMAINS IN THE HUMAN BRAIN AFTER THE WHEELS OF TIME? • G.E. van den Bosch, D. Tibboel, J.C. de Graaff, H. El Marroun, A. van der Lugt, T. White, M. van DijkABS 3. DEPRESSION DURING PREGNANCY AND DNA METHYLATION CHANGES IN CORD BLOOD • A.-C. Viuff, G. Sharp, D. Raj, K.J. Kyng, L.H. Pedersen, T.B. Henriksen, C.L. ReltonABS 4. PREVENTION OF CEREBRAL PALSY: FEASIBILITY OF UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD STEM CELLS AND UMBILICAL CORD MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS • H. Shintaku, M. Nabetani, T. Hamazaki, S. Kusuda, M. Tamura, S. Watabe, M. Hayakawa, Y. Sato, M. Tsuji, A. Taguchi, H. Ichiba, O. Akira, R. Mori, A.Taki, T. Mukai, T. Nagamura-InoueABS 5. NO GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN FETAL CORPUS CALLOSUM THICKNESS: IN-UTERO MRI STUDY • R. Bercovitz, R. Achiron, C. Hoffmann, A. AchironABS 6. NEUROMOTOR PROFILE OF HIGH-RISK INFANTS AT TERM OR NEAR TERM • I. Ereno, W.Y. TehABS 7. THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY

  4. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  5. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. A Dedicated Issue: Biotechnology in Europe and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    multidisciplinary scientific Other fermented foods, yeasts, vinegar effort to achieve industrial and environmental applica- PASTEUR ERA, 1865-1940...of developing the technology. technology lies in the fermentation industry, and it is the large corporations who are developing and exploiting West...organic acids is considered to be the leading European country in bio- via fermentation . In the postwar period, these strengths technology, followed

  6. The Influence and Enlightenment of Confucian Cultural Education on Modern European Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfu

    2009-01-01

    Confucianism, not only is the core of Chinese cultural educational thoughts but its influence has been identified in the West by the European scholars. And with the impact of Confucianism civilization, the theological authority in the Dark Ages wavered. The human-based ideas of Confucianism that people are the foundation of the country, the…

  7. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.

  8. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and

  9. The common coot as sentinel species for the presence of West Nile and Usutu flaviviruses in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Šikutová, Silvie; Jedličková, Petra; Sitko, J.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, October (2015), s. 159-161 ISSN 0034-5288 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Usutu virus * Common coot * Fulica atra * Surveillance * Mosquito -borne viruses * Culex spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2015

  10. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  11. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  12. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)

  13. The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, D.

    1977-01-01

    The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal was set up within the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (now the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) on 20th December 1957 under the Convention on Security Control. Seven independent judges are appointed for five years by decision of the Council of the Organisation; if the Tribunal includes no judge of the nationality of a party in a dispute submitted to it, the Government concerned may select an additional judge in that case. The Tribunal is competent in matters of security control, third party liability and activities of one of the Organisation's joint undertakings. At the request of any Government party to the Security Control Convention, to the Eurochemic Convention or to the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention it may be convened to resolve any dispute concerning the interpretation or application thereof. While the Tribunal has not yet been called upon to exercise its judgment it is nonetheless an important and necessary instrument for Member States engaged in nuclear activities at international level. (NEA) [fr

  14. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  15. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  17. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  18. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  19. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  20. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  1. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  2. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  3. Global patterns of diversity and selection in human tyrosinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudjashov, Georgi; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    Global variation in skin pigmentation is one of the most striking examples of environmental adaptation in humans. More than two hundred loci have been identified as candidate genes in model organisms and a few tens of these have been found to be significantly associated with human skin pigmentation in genome-wide association studies. However, the evolutionary history of different pigmentation genes is rather complex: some loci have been subjected to strong positive selection, while others evolved under the relaxation of functional constraints in low UV environment. Here we report the results of a global study of the human tyrosinase gene, which is one of the key enzymes in melanin production, to assess the role of its variation in the evolution of skin pigmentation differences among human populations. We observe a higher rate of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the European sample consistent with the relaxation of selective constraints. A similar pattern was previously observed in the MC1R gene and concurs with UV radiation-driven model of skin color evolution by which mutations leading to lower melanin levels and decreased photoprotection are subject to purifying selection at low latitudes while being tolerated or even favored at higher latitudes because they facilitate UV-dependent vitamin D production. Our coalescent date estimates suggest that the non-synonymous variants, which are frequent in Europe and North Africa, are recent and have emerged after the separation of East and West Eurasian populations.

  4. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  5. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  6. European biofuel policies in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuijl, E.; Deurwaarder, E.P.

    2006-05-01

    Despite the benefits of the production and use of biofuels in the fields of agriculture, security of energy supply and the environment, in India and surrounding countries, the barriers to the use of biofuels are still substantial. The project ProBios (Promotion of Biofuels for Sustainable Development in South and South East Asia) aims at promoting biofuels in the view of sustainable development in the Southern and South eastern Asian countries. The first stage of this project concerns a study, which will provide a thorough review of the complicated and sector-overarching issue of biofuels in India and surrounding countries. This report describes past experiences with the policy context for a selection of EU countries, with the purpose of identifying conclusions from the European experience that may be valuable for Indian and South East Asian policy makers and other biofuels stakeholders

  7. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  8. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  9. Future Hegemonic Rivalry Between China and the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Weede

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a unipolar distribution of power. The United States reigns supreme. Russia's economic power will remain insufficient to underwrite a renewed attempt to establish global leadership. While the European Community still commands sufficient resources for exercising global leadership, it lacks the political foundation for unitary action. Moreover, the European addiction to the welfare state undermines European competitiveness. Japan is too much of a "trading state" and unlikely to become a first-rate military power, before she is overtaken by China in economic size. So, count Russia, Europe and Japan out as conceivable challengers to United States hegemony. China is the only plausible candidate. Its economic growth rate is nothing less than spectacular. Moreover, the Chinese government seems capable of extracting the necessary resources for waging a hegemonic rivalry from a society that is likely to remain quite poor for at least another generation. There are a number of conceivable scenarios for the emerging American-Chinese relationship. The future will depend on the relative speed of the American decline and the rise of China as well as on the openness of the global economy. The more open the global economy, the better the prospects for rising per capita incomes in China become, the better the prospects for some mellowing or even democratization of the Chinese regime. Only if the West sticks together under American leadership and if creeping capitalism in China leads to creeping democratization later, is hegemonic rivalry likely to remain benign and peaceful.

  10. West German alternatives for reducing reliance on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence in general and the US doctrinal concept of mutual assured destruction as well as the common strategic understanding of mutual vulnerability, codified by the SALT process, and the nuclear first use option of NATO's flexible response strategy (MC14/3) have come under attack, both from official and unofficial circles, in the United States and Europe likewise. In spite of the general agreement, that the time may have come to search for alternatives, to move from MAD to MAS (mutual assured security), as President Reagan indicated in a New York Times interview or for a Common Security posture, as called for by the Palme Commission, nevertheless major disagreements and contradictions exist as to how European security could be enhanced with a defensive posture beyond deterrence. Two groups of alternatives are being distinguished in this paper: official efforts in the United States and in Europe, to use the anti-nuclear sentiment, to legitimate changes in the operative doctrine of the US and of NATO forces and to obtain funds both for a comprehensive buildup and modernization of conventional forces in Europe and for a Strategic (SDI) and probably soon also for a European Defence Initiative (EDI) or an extended air defence, and unofficial proposals by American, European and West German Experts for a non-provocative, inoffensive defence or for a gradual defensivity consisting of static and mobile components

  11. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  12. Prediction of Aerosol Optical Depth in West Asia: Machine Learning Methods versus Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omid Nabavi, Seyed; Haimberger, Leopold; Abbasi, Reyhaneh; Samimi, Cyrus

    2017-04-01

    Dust-prone areas of West Asia are releasing increasingly large amounts of dust particles during warm months. Because of the lack of ground-based observations in the region, this phenomenon is mainly monitored through remotely sensed aerosol products. The recent development of mesoscale Numerical Models (NMs) has offered an unprecedented opportunity to predict dust emission, and, subsequently Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), at finer spatial and temporal resolutions. Nevertheless, the significant uncertainties in input data and simulations of dust activation and transport limit the performance of numerical models in dust prediction. The presented study aims to evaluate if machine-learning algorithms (MLAs), which require much less computational expense, can yield the same or even better performance than NMs. Deep blue (DB) AOD, which is observed by satellites but also predicted by MLAs and NMs, is used for validation. We concentrate our evaluations on the over dry Iraq plains, known as the main origin of recently intensified dust storms in West Asia. Here we examine the performance of four MLAs including Linear regression Model (LM), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) are included as NMs. The MACC aerosol re-analysis of European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) is also included, although it has assimilated satellite-based AOD data. Using the Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) method, nine environmental features including soil moisture and temperature, NDVI, dust source function, albedo, dust uplift potential, vertical velocity, precipitation and 9-month SPEI drought index are selected for dust (AOD) modeling by MLAs. During the feature selection process, we noticed that NDVI and SPEI are of the highest importance in MLAs predictions. The data set was divided

  13. Serologic survey of humans for Flavivirus West Nile in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kříž, B.; Halouzka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 131-133 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Moravia * serosurvey Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.szu.cz/svi/cejph/show_en.php?kat=archiv/2011-3-03

  14. Serologic survey of birds for West Nile Flavivirus in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Honza, Marcel; Janková, J.; Chytil, J.; Marec, František; Sitko, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2008), s. 659-666 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : virus West Nile * virus Usutu * Flaviviridae * mosquito -borne viruses * birds Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2008

  15. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartemink, N. A.; Davis, S. A.; Reiter, P.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Heesterbeek, J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 575-584 ISSN 1530-3667 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : West Nile virus * basic reproduction number * direct transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2007

  16. Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile Virus in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Wegner, E.; Halouzka, Jiří; Tryjanowski, P.; Jerzak, L.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Kruszewicz, A. G.; Jaworski, Z.; Włodarczyk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2008), s. 247-254 ISSN 0882-8245 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : antibodies – West Nile virus – Usutu virus – Flavivirus * Poland * birds * horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2008

  17. Intra-continental earthquake swarms in West-Bohemia and Vogtland: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Horálek, Josef; Hrubcová, Pavla; Vavryčuk, Václav; Bräuer, K.; Kämpf, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 611, January (2014), s. 1-27 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491; GA ČR GA13-08971S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 230669 - AIM Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earth quke swarm * fluid * West Bohemia * Vogtland * earth quake triggering Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  18. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  19. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  20. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…